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Journal of Public Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.719
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 127  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1741-3842 - ISSN (Online) 1741-3850
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • The Pandemic Portal

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      Authors: Webster P; Neal K.
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: A revolutionary moment in the world’s history is a time for revolutions, not for patching.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdac019
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Erratum to: Issues in Public Health in India - Keynote address by Keshav
           Desiraju, Former Secretary of Health and Family Welfare to the Government
           of India and Is there an opioid epidemic in India'

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      Authors: Desiraju K.
      Abstract: In the originally published version of these manuscripts, the manuscript categories were erroneously included in the titles. These errors have been corrected.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab391
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Erratum to: Exploring the views of planners and public health
           practitioners on integrating health evidence into spatial planning in
           England: a mixed-methods study

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      Authors: Ige-Elegbede J; Pilkington P, Bird E, et al.
      Abstract: Public Health England10.13039/501100002141RHSS0166
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab379
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Erratum to: Initial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public health
           training: participatory action research to understand experiences in the
           East Midlands

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      Authors: Maile E; Horsley S, Dunn T, et al.
      Abstract: In the originally published version of this manuscript, the group author contributors were omitted in error.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab380
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Corrigendum to: Personal networks and mortality in later life: racial and
           ethnic differences

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      Authors: Roth A.
      Abstract: When this paper first published there were some errors in capitalization. The phrases `black respondents' and `white respondents' should have appeared as `Black respondents' and `White respondents'. This has now been corrected online.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab358
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Changing patterns of sickness absence among healthcare workers in England
           during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Edge R; van der Plaat D, Parsons V, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPatterns of sickness absence shed useful light on disease occurrence and illness-related behaviours in working populations.MethodsWe analysed prospectively collected, pseudonymized data on 959 356 employees who were continuously employed by National Health Service trusts in England from 1 January 2019 to 31 July 2020, comparing the frequency of new sickness absence in 2020 with that at corresponding times in 2019.ResultsAfter exclusion of episodes directly related to COVID-19, the overall incidence of sickness absence during the initial 10 weeks of the pandemic (March–May 2020) was more than 20% lower than in corresponding weeks of 2019. Trends for specific categories of illness varied substantially, with a fall by 24% for cancer, but an increase for mental illness. A doubling of new absences for pregnancy-related disorders during May–July of 2020 was limited to women with earlier COVID-19 sickness absence.ConclusionsVarious factors will have contributed to the large and divergent changes that were observed. The findings reinforce concerns regarding delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancers and support a need to plan for a large backlog of treatment for many other diseases. Further research should explore the rise in absence for pregnancy-related disorders among women with earlier COVID-19 sickness absence.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Sep 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab341
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of presentations of
           penetrating injuries to a UK major trauma centre

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      Authors: Hickland M; Massouh P, Sutthakorn R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundKnife-related violence is of growing concern in the UK. This study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the frequency of penetrating injuries at a UK major trauma centre.MethodsThis was a retrospective study comparing the number of patients attending the emergency department of King’s College Hospital (KCH) with a penetrating injury (gunshot or stab wound) during the ‘pandemic year’ (1 March 2020–28 February 2021) compared with the equivalent time period in the previous year. Penetrating injuries as a result of self-harm were excluded. The primary outcome was to assess whether there were any changes to the frequency of presentations during three periods of national lockdowns.ResultsLockdown 1 showed a 48.45% reduction in presentations in the ‘pandemic year’ compared to the previous year, lockdown 2 showed a 31.25% reduction; however, lockdown 3 showed an 8.89% increase in the number of presentations.ConclusionOur findings suggest that despite the initial reduction in the number of presentations of penetrating injury during lockdown 1, this returned to normal levels by lockdown 3. Further research is required to understand the effects of government-imposed restrictions on interpersonal violence and identify appropriate methods of outreach prevention during a pandemic.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab333
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Post-lockdown infection rates of COVID-19 following the reopening of
           public businesses

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      Authors: Bruckhaus A; Martinez A, Garner R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic warranted a myriad of government-ordered business closures across the USA in efforts to mitigate the spread of the virus. This study aims to discover the implications of government-enforced health policies of reopening public businesses amidst the pandemic and its effect on county-level infection rates.MethodsEighty-three US counties (n = 83) that reported at least 20 000 cases as of 4 November 2020 were selected for this study. The dates when businesses (restaurants, bars, retail, gyms, salons/barbers and public schools) partially and fully reopened, as well as infection rates on the 1st and 14th days following each businesses’ reopening, were recorded. Regression analysis was conducted to deduce potential associations between the 14-day change in infection rate and mask usage frequency, median household income, population density and social distancing.ResultsOn average, infection rates rose significantly as businesses reopened. The average 14-day change in infection rate was higher for fully reopened businesses (infection rate = +0.100) compared to partially reopened businesses (infection rate = +0.0454). The P-value of the two distributions was 0.001692, indicating statistical significance (P < 0.01).ConclusionThis research provides insight into the transmission of COVID-19 and promotes evidence-driven policymaking for disease prevention and community health.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab325
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Corrigendum to: Variation in financial protection and its association with
           health expenditure indicators: an analysis of low- and middle-income
           countries

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      Authors: Anjorin S; Ayorinde A, Abba M, et al.
      Abstract: In the originally published version of this manuscript, there was an error in the title. The title should read: ``Variation in financial protection and its association with health expenditure indicators: an analysis of low- and middle-income countries'', instead of: ``Variation in financial protection and it association with health expenditure indicators: an analysis of low- and middle-income countries''. This error has been corrected online and in print.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab310
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Are schools drivers of COVID-19 infections—an analysis of outbreaks
           in Colorado, USA in 2020

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      Authors: Lakha F; King A, Swinkels K, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe impact of school closures/reopening on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the wider community remains contested.MethodsOutbreak data from Colorado, USA (2020), alongside data on implemented public health measures were analyzed.ResultsThere were three waves (n = 3169 outbreaks; 61 650 individuals). The first was led by healthcare settings, the second leisure/entertainment and the third workplaces followed by other settings where the trajectory was equally distributed amongst essential workplaces, non-essential workplaces, schools and non-essential healthcare.Non-acute healthcare, essential and non-essential workplace experienced more outbreaks compared to education, entertainment, large-group-living and social gatherings.Schools experienced 11% of identified outbreaks, yet involved just 4% of total cases. Conversely, adult-education outbreaks (2%) had disproportionately more cases (9%).ConclusionOur findings suggest schools were not the key driver of the latest wave in infections. School re-opening coinciding with returning to work may have accounted for the parallel rise in outbreaks in those settings suggesting contact-points outside school being more likely to seed in-school outbreaks than contact points within school as the wave of outbreaks in all other settings occurred either prior to or simultaneously with the schools wave.School re-opening is a priority but requires mitigation measures to do so safely including staggering opening of different settings whilst maintaining low levels of community transmission.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab213
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The impact of pre-existing conditions and perceived health status on
           mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Buneviciene I; Bunevicius R, Bagdonas S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundPatients with pre-existing conditions and poor health status are vulnerable for adverse health sequalae during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the association of pre-existing medical conditions and self-perceived health status with the risk of mental health complications during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsIn October—December, 2020, 1036 respondents completed online survey that included assessment of pre-existing conditions, self-perceived health status, depressive (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 score ≥ 10), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 score ≥ 10) and post-traumatic stress (Impact of Events Scale Revised) symptoms, alcohol use (AUDIT), and COVID-19 fear (COVID-19 Fears Questionnaires for Chronic Medical Conditions).ResultsStudy participants were predominantly women (83%), younger than 61 years of age (94%). Thirty-six percent of respondents had a pre-existing condition and 5% considered their health status as bad or very bad. Pre-existing conditions and poor perceived health status were associated with increased risk for moderate to severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, fear of COVID-19 and post-traumatic stress symptoms, independently from respondents’ age, gender, living area, smoking status, exercise, alcohol consumption and diet.ConclusionsPre-existing medical conditions and poor perceived health status are associated with increased risk of poor mental health status during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab248
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • New method of screening for COVID-19 disease using sniffer dogs and scents
           from axillary sweat samples

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      Authors: Sarkis R; Lichaa A, Mjaess G, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundEarly screening for COVID-19 is needed to limit the spread of the virus. The aim of this study is to test if the sniffer dogs can be successfully trained to identify subjects with COVID-19 for ‘proof of concept’ and ‘non-inferiority’ against PCR. We are calling this method, Dognosis (DN).MethodsFour hundred and fifty-nine subjects were included, 256 (Group ‘P’) were known cases of COVID-19 (PCR positive, some with and some without symptoms) and 203 (Group ‘C’) were PCR negative and asymptomatic (control). Samples were obtained from the axillary sweat of each subject in a masked fashion. Two dogs trained to detect specific Volatile Organic Compounds for COVID-19 detection were used to test each sample.Results[DN] turned out positive (+) in all the cases that were PCR positive (100% sensitivity). On the other hand, [DN] turned positive (+) in an average of 12.5 cases (6.2%) that were initially PCR negative (apparent specificity of 93.8%). When the PCR was repeated, true specificity was 97.2%. These parameters varied in subgroups from 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity in symptomatic patients to 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity in asymptomatic patients.ConclusionDN method shows high sensitivity and specificity in screening COVID-19 patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab215
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Background and concurrent factors predicting non-adherence to public
           health preventive measures during the chronic phase of the COVID-19
           pandemic

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      Authors: Pollak Y; Shoham R, Dayan H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundTo determine factors that predict non-adherence to preventive measures for COVID-19 during the chronic phase of the pandemic.MethodsA cross-sectional, general population survey was conducted in Israel. Sociodemographic, health-related, behavioral and COVID-19-related characteristics were collected.ResultsAmong 2055 participants, non-adherence was associated with male gender, young age, bachelorhood, being employed, lower decrease in income, low physical activity, psychological distress, ADHD symptoms, past risk-taking and anti-social behavior, low pro-sociality, perceived social norms favoring non-adherence, low perceived risk of COVID-19, low perceived efficacy of the preventive measures, and high perceived costs of adherence to the preventive measures.ConclusionThere appears to be a need for setting out and communicating preventive measures to specifically targeted at-risk populations.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab214
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Public health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the emergency healthcare
           system

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      Authors: Stirparo G; Oradini-Alacreu A, Migliori M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe Lombardy region has been the Italian region most affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020. The emergency healthcare system was under deep stress throughout the past year due to the admission of COVID-19 patients to the emergency department (ED) and had to be thoroughly reorganized.MethodsWe performed a retrospective descriptive analysis of patients admitted into the ED recorded in the Lombardy online regional portal called EUOL (Emergenza e Urgenza OnLine). We compared the data registered in the EUOL with the patients admitted to the EDs from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019 and from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020.ResultsThe number of admissions to the ED decreased by 32.5% in 2020 compared with 2019, reaching the lowest number in March and April. However, the percentage of patients hospitalized after ED significantly increased in 2020 compared with 2019 (P < 0.0001), reflecting the management of patients with a more severe clinical condition. More patients arrived at the ED by ambulance in 2020 (21.7% in 2020 versus 15.1% in 2019; P < 0.0001), particularly during March and April.ConclusionsThis analysis showed the importance of monitoring the pandemic’s evolution in order to treat more critically ill patients, despite a lower number of patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab212
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Health research in the Syrian conflict: opportunities for equitable and
           multidisciplinary collaboration

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      Authors: Ekzayez A; Olabi A, Douedari Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThere is considerable global momentum from Syrian researchers, policy makers and diaspora to address health, security and development challenges posed by almost a decade of armed conflict and complex geopolitics that has resulted in different areas of political control. However, research funders have been so far reluctant to invest in large-scale research programmes in severely conflict-affected areas such as northern Syria. This paper presents examples of collaborations and programmes that could change this through equitable partnerships between academic and operational humanitarian organizations involving local Syrian researchers—a tremendous way forward to capitalize and accelerate this global momentum.Several academic and humanitarian organizations have initiated collaborations to build new networks and partnerships for better research and policy engagement in Syria. The networks conducted two consecutive annual conferences in 2019 and 2020. Key messages from these conference include: (1) equitable partnerships between organizations and individual researchers must form the basis of conducting better research; (2) ensuring the inclusion of local Syrian researchers is crucial in the development of any viable partnership; (3) capacity strengthening in health research is urgently needed in Syria’s current phase of active conflict to inform, develop and implement strengthened and sustainable health systems in the post-conflict phase.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab160
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Correlates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Austria: trust and the
           government

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      Authors: Schernhammer E; Weitzer J, Laubichler M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundWith the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic surging and new mutations evolving, trust in vaccines is essential.MethodsWe explored correlates of vaccine hesitancy, considering political believes and psychosocial concepts, conducting a non-probability quota-sampled online survey with 1007 Austrians.ResultsWe identified several important correlates of vaccine hesitancy, ranging from demographics to complex factors such as voting behavior or trust in the government. Among those with hesitancy towards a COVID-19 vaccine, having voted for opposition parties (opp) or not voted (novote) were (95% Confidence Intervall (CI)opp, 1.44–2.95) to 2.25-times (95%CInovote, 1.53–3.30) that of having voted for governing parties. Only 46.2% trusted the Austrian government to provide safe vaccines, and 80.7% requested independent scientific evaluations regarding vaccine safety to increase willingness to vaccine.ConclusionsContrary to expected, psychosocial dimensions were only weakly correlated with vaccine hesitancy. However, the strong correlation between distrust in the vaccine and distrust in authorities suggests a common cause of disengagement from public discourse.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab122
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Years of life lost associated with COVID-19 deaths in the USA during the
           first year of the pandemic

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      Authors: Quast T; Andel R, Gregory S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundYears of Life Lost (YLLs) measure the shortfall in life expectancy due to a medical condition and have been used in multiple contexts. Previously it was estimated that there were 1.2 million YLLs associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths in the USA through 11 July 2020. The aim of this study is to update YLL estimates for the first full year of the pandemic.MethodsWe employed data regarding COVID-19 deaths in the USA through 31 January 2021 by jurisdiction, gender and age group. We used actuarial life expectancy tables by gender and age to estimate YLLs.ResultsWe estimated roughly 3.9 million YLLs due to COVID-19 deaths, which correspond to roughly 9.2 YLLs per death. We observed a large range across states in YLLs per 10 000 capita, with New York City at 298 and Vermont at 12. Nationally, the YLLs per 10 000 capita were greater for males than females (136.3 versus 102.3), but there was significant variation in the differences across states.ConclusionsOur estimates provide further insight into the mortality effects of COVID-19. The observed differences across states and genders demonstrate the need for disaggregated analyses of the pandemic’s effects.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab123
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Faster than warp speed: early attention to COVD-19 by anti-vaccine groups
           on Facebook

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      Authors: Kalichman S; Eaton L, Earnshaw V, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe unprecedented rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines has faced SARS-CoV- (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy, which is partially fueled by the misinformation and conspiracy theories propagated by anti-vaccine groups on social media. Research is needed to better understand the early COVID-19 anti-vaccine activities on social media.MethodsThis study chronicles the social media posts concerning COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines by leading anti-vaccine groups (Dr Tenpenny on Vaccines, the National Vaccine Information Center [NVIC] the Vaccination Information Network [VINE]) and Vaccine Machine in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic (February–May 2020).ResultsAnalysis of 2060 Facebook posts showed that anti-vaccine groups were discussing COVID-19 in the first week of February 2020 and were specifically discussing COVID-19 vaccines by mid-February 2020. COVID-19 posts by NVIC were more widely disseminated and showed greater influence than non-COVID-19 posts. Early COVID-19 posts concerned mistrust of vaccine safety and conspiracy theories.ConclusionMajor anti-vaccine groups were sowing seeds of doubt on Facebook weeks before the US government launched its vaccine development program ‘Operation Warp Speed’. Early anti-vaccine misinformation campaigns outpaced public health messaging and hampered the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab093
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Suicidal behaviours among deaf adolescents in Ghana: a cross-sectional
           study

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      Authors: Quarshie E; Fobi D, Acheampong E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundA growing global concern is that suicide research has paid little attention to young people with disabilities, particularly, in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). We aimed to estimate the 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt and describe some associations among deaf adolescents in Ghana.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional anonymous self-report survey involving a nationally representative random sample of 450 school-going deaf adolescents. Data analysis included bivariate and multivariable approaches.ResultsThe overall 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation was 19·3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15·8–23·3) and suicidal attempt was 15·6% (95% CI = 12·3–19·2). Although alcohol use and parental divorce were strongly associated with increased odds of both suicidal ideation and attempt, high subjective mental well-being was associated with reduced odds of both suicidal ideation and attempt. Living with no parents and being a final year student were associated with suicidal ideation, while male gender was associated with suicidal attempt.ConclusionsThe prevalence of suicidal behaviours among school-going deaf adolescents in this study compares with estimates among in-school non-deaf adolescents in Ghana and other LAMICs in Africa, and also highlights the need for prevention efforts against the onset of suicidal ideation and possible transition to attempt and suicide among deaf adolescents.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab076
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Corrigendum to: Epidemiology of COVID-19 and public health restrictions
           during the first wave of the pandemic in Ireland in 2020

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      Authors: Conway R; Kelly D, Mullane P, et al.
      Abstract: In the originally published version of this manuscript, Figure 1 featured a misalignment of the data labels on the curve of weekly mean no. of contacts per case, and omitted the tabulated public health restrictions.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Mar 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab097
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Predictors of hypertension detection in English general practices: a cross
           sectional study

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      Authors: Levene L; Coles B, Gillies C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundWorldwide, high systolic blood pressure is the leading risk factor for deaths and disability-adjusted life-years but has been historically under-detected. This study aimed to quantify differences between estimated and practice-detected prevalences of hypertension across English general practices, and to determine how variations in detected prevalence could be explained by population-level and service-level factors.MethodsDescriptive statistics, pair wise correlations between the independent variables and a multivariable regression analysis were undertaken. In the regression model, the outcome was detected hypertension prevalence, adjusted for estimated prevalence, person-related and disease-related determinants of illness and characteristics of general practices.ResultsDetected prevalence was substantially lower than estimated prevalence (mean difference 16.23%; standard deviation 2.88%). Higher detected prevalence was associated with increased deprivation, increased non-white ethnicity and urban location. Lower detected prevalence was associated with larger list sizes, more general practitioners and being located in the South outside London. The final multivariable model’s adjusted R2 value was 0.75.ConclusionsSubstantial under-detection of hypertension is widespread across England. Independent of estimated prevalence, factors associated with greater morbidity and population density predicted higher detected prevalence. Identifying patients with undetected hypertension and coordinating care for these patients will require further resources and logistical support in community settings.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdaa224
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Childhood socioeconomic status and adulthood mental health: results from
           the survey on employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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      Authors: Mehri A; Baigi V, Rahimi D, et al.
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundSocioeconomic status, especially during childhood, is known as one of the key factors affecting health. This study’s objective was to investigate the association between childhood socioeconomic and mental health status in adulthood.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted on 2062 employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Depression, stress and anxiety were measured using the validated DASS-42 questionnaire. A self-rated question was used to assess childhood socioeconomic status. Other variables including age, sex, marital status, and also wealth index, were measured. Linear regression models were used to analyze the data.Results24.6% of men and 33.8% of women had degrees of depression (mild, moderate, severe or very severe). 32.9% of men and 29.4% of women had mild, moderate, severe or very severe anxiety. 36.3% of men and 45.2% of women also exhibited mild, moderate, severe or very severe stress. Results showed after adjusting for the current socioeconomic status, childhood socioeconomic status has a relationship with the mental health of individuals.ConclusionPeople with a suboptimal childhood socioeconomic status seem to be a high-risk group for depression, stress and anxiety in adulthood. Strategies need to put into practice to improve the mental health of these people.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab004
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Determinants of stage at diagnosis of HPV-related cancer including area
           deprivation and clinical factors

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      Authors: Chakravarthy R; Stallings S, Velez Edwards D, et al.
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundCollecting social determinants of health in electronic health records is time-consuming. Meanwhile, an Area Deprivation Index (ADI) aggregates sociodemographic information from census data. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether ADI is associated with stage of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer at diagnosis.MethodsWe tested for the association between the stage of HPV-related cancer presentation and ADI as well as the association between stage and the value of each census-based measure using ordered logistic regression, adjusting for age, race and sex.ResultsAmong 3247 cases of HPV-related cancers presenting to an urban academic medical center, the average age at diagnosis was 57. The average stage at diagnosis was Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Stage 3. In the study population, 43% of patients were female and 87% were white. In this study population, there was no association between stage of HPV-related cancer presentation and either aggregate or individual census variables.ConclusionsThese results may reflect insufficient sample size, a lack of socio-demographic diversity in our population, or suggest that simplifying social determinants of health into a single geocoded index is not a reliable surrogate for assessing a patient’s risk for HPV-related cancer.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdaa246
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Disproportionate multimorbidity among veterans in middle age

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      Authors: Bloeser K; Lipkowitz-Eaton J.
      Pages: 28 - 35
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundLittle is known about the prevalence of multimorbidity among middle-aged veterans. Multimorbidity holds implications for planning for a population with high health care utilization, poor quality of life and marked need for interdisciplinary care.MethodsThe current study used the US 2017 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System to measure multimorbidity in three ways: (1) reporting two or more health conditions, (2) reporting two or more conditions controlling for demographic characteristics (e.g. income) and health risk behaviors (e.g. smoking) and (3) a weighted index using health-related quality of life.ResultsAfter age 25, veterans’ risk for multimorbidity increased across all age groups. The increased odds of reporting multimorbidity was highest when comparing veterans aged 35–44 to non-veterans of the same ages. Veterans aged 35–44 are 50% (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16, 1.94) to 80% (AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.46, 2.23) more likely to report multimorbidity when compared with same aged non-veterans.ConclusionsYounger veterans may benefit from comprehensive interdisciplinary services to aid in the treatment of multiple medical conditions. Failure to account for the impact of chronic conditions on quality of life may lead to an underestimate of the health care needs of veterans across the lifespan.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab149
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Cross-sectional associations between domain-specific sitting time and
           other lifestyle health behaviours: the Stormont study

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      Authors: Kettle V; Hamer M, Munir F, et al.
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThere is a dearth of literature on how different domains of sitting time relate to other health behaviours. Therefore, this study aimed to explore these associations in a sample of office workers.Methods7170 Northern Irish Civil Servants completed an online survey which included information on workday and non-workday sitting time in five domains (travel, work, TV, computer-use, leisure-time), physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. An unhealthy behaviour score was calculated by summing the number of health behaviours which did not meet the current guidelines. Multinomial regressions examined associations between unhealthy behaviour score and each domain of sitting time.Results≥7 hours sitting at work and ≥2 hours TV viewing on a workday both more than doubled the odds of partaking in ≥3 unhealthy behaviours [Odds ratio, OR = 2.03, 95% CI, (1.59–2.61); OR = 2.19 (1.71–2.80)] and ≥3 hours of TV viewing on a non-workday nearly tripled the odds [OR = 2.96 (2.32–3.77)].ConclusionsHigh sitting time at work and TV viewing on a workday and non-workday are associated with increased odds of partaking in multiple unhealthy behaviours. Interventions need to focus on these domains and public health policy should consider sitting time as an important health behaviour.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab298
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Complex differences in infection rates between ethnic groups in Scotland:
           a retrospective, national census-linked cohort study of 1.65 million cases
           

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      Authors: Gruer L; Cézard G, Wallace L, et al.
      Pages: 60 - 69
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundEthnicity can influence susceptibility to infection, as COVID-19 has shown. Few countries have systematically investigated ethnic variations in infection.MethodsWe linked the Scotland 2001 Census, including ethnic group, to national databases of hospitalizations/deaths and serological diagnoses of bloodborne viruses for 2001–2013. We calculated age-adjusted rate ratios (RRs) in 12 ethnic groups for all infections combined, 15 infection categories, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses.ResultsWe analysed over 1.65 million infection-related hospitalisations/deaths. Compared with White Scottish, RRs for all infections combined were 0.8 or lower for Other White British, Other White and Chinese males and females, and 1.2–1.4 for Pakistani and African males and females. Adjustment for socioeconomic status or birthplace had little effect. RRs for specific infection categories followed similar patterns with striking exceptions. For HIV, RRs were 136 in African females and 14 in males; for HBV, 125 in Chinese females and 59 in males, 55 in African females and 24 in males; and for HCV, 2.3–3.1 in Pakistanis and Africans.ConclusionsEthnic differences were found in overall rates and many infection categories, suggesting multiple causative pathways. We recommend census linkage as a powerful method for studying the disproportionate impact of COVID-19.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdaa267
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Prevalence and predictors of vaccine hesitancy in an urbanized
           agglomeration of New Delhi, India

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      Authors: Cherian V; Saini N, Sharma A, et al.
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe immunization program has been an important part of Indian public health policy for three decades; yet only 62% of children are being fully immunized. Vaccine hesitancy is a major contributor to the immunization gap that needs to be addressed.MethodsA cross-sectional descriptive study of prevalence and predictors of vaccine hesitancy was conducted in 350 households having at least one child in the age group of 13–24 months. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square test and logistic regression.ResultsThe prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was 28.9%. Fear of needles, concern about pain during vaccination, lack of family support, and apprehension regarding side effects were ascertained as reasons for vaccine hesitancy. The type of family, time taken to reach the health facility and antenatal care received by the mother were significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy.ConclusionThe prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was found to be high. In 2019, the World Health Organization earmarked vaccine hesitancy as one of the major roadblocks to better global health. A better understanding of the subject can help public health agencies enhance vaccination coverage, not just in children but also as a tool to protect entire populations in this age of re-emerging epidemics.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab007
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Association of undernutrition with dengue, malaria and acute diarrhea
           among children in a Thai–Myanmar border

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      Authors: Kurahashi Y; Hattasingh W, Chatchen S, et al.
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundUndernutrition has been shown to be associated with various infectious diseases. However, the recent improvement in nutritional status and management for infectious diseases worldwide necessitates the re-evaluation of this association.MethodsA retrospective study was conducted in children aged <14 years old with dengue, malaria or acute diarrhea who visited or were admitted to Tha Song Yang hospital, near the Thai–Myanmar border.ResultsMost of the patients had mild disease and most of the undernourishment was mild. The prevalence of underweight in dengue, malaria and acute diarrhea was 24.0%, 34.7% and 38.7%, respectively, and the prevalence of low height for age was 12.0%, 36.0% and 36.0%, respectively. Malaria and acute diarrhea were associated with underweight but not low height for age. Dengue was neither associated with underweight nor low height for age.ConclusionAlthough there has been an improvement in nutritional status and health care facilities, underweight has been still prevalent in rural areas and associated with malaria and acute diarrhea.ImplicationThe surveillance for nutritional status should be continuously performed particularly in children with some diseases, e.g. malaria and acute diarrhea, and additional food supplementation should be provided.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab146
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The impact of economic crisis on mortality due to mental health illnesses

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      Authors: Zilidis C; Angelopoulos N.
      Pages: 92 - 99
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe financial crisis affected several aspects of health. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of the crisis on mortality of mental illnesses in Greece and the socioeconomic determinants of mortality trends.MethodsMortality data of 2000–16 were analyzed and sex-and-age-standardized death rates (SDRs) were calculated. The Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) before and after the time point of slope change was computed. The crisis impact on SDRs was explored with interrupted time series analyses and standardized rate ratios (SRRs). The correlation of mortality with socioeconomic and healthcare-related variables was investigated with correlation and regression analyses.ResultsA significant change in SDR trend was observed after 2012. The AAPC reversed from −2.9% to 94.5%, while the SRR was calculated at 6.1 (5.5–6.7). Income reduction, unemployment rise and health budget cuts were found to be significantly correlated with mortality rise.ConclusionsFinancial crisis had a significant impact on mortality due to mental illnesses, especially in females and elderly. The findings indicate that mortality increase is more driven by socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors that affect access to appropriate healthcare than by morbidity trends. The findings have implications in planning interventions to provide appropriate healthcare to patients living with mental illness.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab129
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Trend of the mortality of major liver diseases and its impact on life
           expectancy in China from 2006 to 2017

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      Authors: Zhu J; Wang P, Ye H, et al.
      Pages: 100 - 110
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundLiver diseases are the serious cause of death in China. We aim to describe the trends and disparities of major liver disease mortality rates and the loss of life expectancy (LLE) in China.MethodsAnnual percentage change (APC) and average APC (AAPC) were calculated using the Joinpoint regression model. LLE was calculated using cause eliminated life table.ResultsFrom 2006 to 2017, the overall age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of liver cirrhosis lightly declined (AAPC: −2.97%), whereas the ASMR of viral hepatitis and liver cancer remained stable. Viral hepatitis (AAPC: −4.36%) and liver cirrhosis (AAPC: −4.35%) ASMRs both declined for females. The highest ASMRs of viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were in the west region, while that of liver cancer was in the middle region. The ASMRs of liver cirrhosis in the middle region and liver cancer in the east region significantly decreased. The means of LLE on viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer were 0.05, 0.1 and 0.46 years, respectively.ConclusionsThe burden of liver diseases is still severe and there are disparities between genders and different regions in China. Accurate early diagnostic approaches for high-risk populations should be established to eliminate the burden of liver diseases.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jan 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdaa261
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • The impact of household energy poverty on the mental health of parents of
           young children

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      Authors: Mohan G.
      Pages: 121 - 128
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBackgroundEnergy poverty, typified by cold homes and/or an inability to afford energy bills, presents risks to the mental health of occupants. Parents of young children may be especially susceptible to a mental health toll from energy poverty since they have a significant care obligation and spend much of their day at home.MethodsData from the Growing Up in Ireland study inform this longitudinal analysis.ResultsA 1.64 greater odds of maternal depression were estimated for households containing young children characterized by energy poverty [P = 0.000; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–2.05]. For energy poor households with older children (9 years and above), the odds of maternal depression were also higher [odds ratio (OR) 1.74, P = 0.001; 95% CI: 1.27–2.39]. Fathers of young children had greater odds of depression in energy poor households (OR 1.59, P = 0.002; 95% CI: 1.19–2.12), though the deleterious effect on mental health was not statistically significant for fathers of older children.ConclusionsEnergy poverty increases the likelihood of depression in parents. These findings merit policy attention since a mental health burden is in itself important, and more widely, parental well-being can influence child development and outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdaa260
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Factors predicting staging and treatment initiation for patients with
           chronic hepatitis C infection: insurance a key predictor

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      Authors: Lin J; Mauntel-Medici C, Maheswaran A, et al.
      Pages: 148 - 157
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundChronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects over 2.4 million Americans and accounts for 18 000 deaths per year. Treatment initiation in this population continues to be low even after introduction of highly effective and shorter duration direct-acting antivirals. This study assesses factors that influence key milestones in the HCV care continuum.MethodsRetrospective time-to-event analyses were performed to assess factors influencing liver fibrosis staging and treatment initiation among individuals confirmed with chronic HCV infection at University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System between 1 August 2015 and 24 October 2016 and followed through 28 January 2018. Cox regression models were utilized for multivariable analyses.ResultsIndividuals tested at the liver clinic (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–3.46) and at the federally qualified health center (HR = 3.51; 95% CI: 2.19–5.64) had higher instantaneous probability of being staged compared with individuals tested at the emergency department (ED) or inpatient setting. And probability of treatment initiation increased with advancing liver fibrosis especially for Medicaid beneficiaries (HR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–1.99).ConclusionsThe study demonstrates a need for improving access for patients with early stages of the disease in order to reduce HCV-related morbidity and mortality, especially those tested at nontraditional care locations such as the ED or the inpatient setting.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdaa276
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Are we meeting the needs of vulnerable children' Distribution of
           speech-language pathology services on the Gold Coast, Australia

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      Authors: Conway M; Krahe M, Weir K, et al.
      Pages: 192 - 198
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundCompared to national averages, the Gold Coast, Australia, has a proportionately higher number of children entering their first year of primary school with ‘at risk’ or ‘vulnerable’ language skills. This paper investigates the distribution of paediatric speech-language pathology (SLP) services on the Gold Coast, relative to children’s language and cognitive skills, and socioeconomic status (SES).MethodsSLP service locations were identified through national association data and a manual search and mapped against SES and Australian Early Development Census data, for language and cognitive skills.ResultsData for 7595 children was included, with 943 (12.4%) at risk and 780 (12.6%) vulnerable for language and cognitive skills. A total of 75 SLPs were identified (85.3% private, 14.6% public), which is 1 SLP to every 23 children who might have current or impending speech, language and communication needs. Fewer services were available in areas where vulnerable children were located and most were private providers, leading to further potential barriers to service access.ConclusionsThe number of SLP services located on the Gold Coast is inadequate to meet the needs of children with language and cognitive skill vulnerabilities. Consideration of how services might be distributed is explored and warrants further consideration.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdaa275
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • Impact of an unannounced standardized veteran program on access to
           community-based services for veterans experiencing homelessness

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      Authors: Weiner S; Schwartz A, Binns-Calvey A, et al.
      Pages: 207 - 213
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThe United States Department of Veterans Affairs established a program in which actors incognito portray veterans experiencing homelessness with pre-determined needs to identify barriers to access and services at community-based organizations.MethodsFrom 2017 to 2019, actors who varied in gender, skin color and age portrayed one of three scripts at all VA Community-Based Resource and Referral Centers (CRRCs) serving veterans experiencing homelessness in 30 cities and completed an evaluative survey. They carried authentic VA identification and were registered in a VA patient database for each identity. CRRCs were provided with reports annually and asked to implement corrective plans. Data from the survey were analysed for change over time.ResultsAccess to food, counselling, PTSD treatment, and hypertension/prediabetes care services increased significantly from 68–77% in year 2 to 83–97% in year 3 (each P < 0.05 adjusted for script present). A significant disparity in access for African American actors resolved following more uniform adherence to pre-existing policies.ConclusionsThe ‘unannounced standardized veteran’ (USV) can identify previously unrecognized barriers to needed services and care. Audit and feedback programs based on direct covert observation with systematic data collection and rapid feedback may be an effective strategy for improving services to highly vulnerable populations.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdab062
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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