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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
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Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.225
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 44  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-7162 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3349
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Threats to Science: Politicization, Misinformation, and Inequalities

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      Authors: James N. Druckman
      Pages: 8 - 24
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 8-24, March 2022.
      Science is often considered the best available route to knowledge and, thus, essential for societal progress. Yet contemporary science faces several challenges. These challenges include politicization, misinformation, and inequalities. I outline each of these threats, detailing the ways in which they can undermine the optimal production and application of science. I provide an overview of various research agendas on each, as covered in this volume. Without minimizing the seriousness posed by each threat, I also suggest that existing work provides reason for hope that the scientific enterprise can address these challenges and continue to improve societal well-being.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221095431
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • When Science Becomes Embroiled in Conflict: Recognizing the Public’s
           Need for Debate while Combating Conspiracies and Misinformation

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      Authors: Stephan Lewandowsky, Konstantinos Armaos, Hendrik Bruns, Philipp Schmid, Dawn Liu Holford, Ulrike Hahn, Ahmed Al-Rawi, Sunita Sah, John Cook
      Pages: 26 - 40
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 26-40, March 2022.
      We explore the common attributes of political conflicts in which scientific findings have a central role, using the COVID-19 pandemic as a case study, but also drawing on long-standing conflicts over climate change and vaccinations. We analyze situations in which the systematic spread of disinformation or conspiracy theories undermines public trust in the work of scientists and prevents policy from being informed by the best available evidence. We also examine instances in which public opposition to scientifically grounded policy arises from legitimate value judgments and lived experience. We argue for the public benefit of quick identification of politically motivated science denial, and inoculation of the public against its ill effects.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221084663
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Americans’ Attitudes toward the Affordable Care Act: What Role Do
           Beliefs Play'

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      Authors: Gabriel Miao Li, Josh Pasek, Jon A. Krosnick, Tobias H. Stark, Jennifer Agiesta, Gaurav Sood, Trevor Tompson, Wendy Gross
      Pages: 41 - 54
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 41-54, March 2022.
      How do people form their attitudes toward complex policy issues' Although there has long been an assumption that people consider the various components of those issues and come to an overall assessment, a growing body of recent work has instead suggested that people may reach summary judgments as a function of heuristic cues and goal-oriented rationalizations. This study examines how well a component-based model fits Americans’ evaluations of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, an important and highly contentious piece of legislation that contained several constituent parts. Despite strong partisan disagreement about the law, we find that Democrats and Republicans both appear to evaluate the law as a function of their beliefs and what the law would do as well as their confidence in those beliefs. This finding implies that correcting misperceptions and increasing awareness of the components of legislation have the potential to change attitudes.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221098020
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Partisan Pandemic: How COVID-19 Was Primed for Polarization

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      Authors: Austin Hegland, Annie Li Zhang, Brianna Zichettella, Josh Pasek
      Pages: 55 - 72
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 55-72, March 2022.
      Americans who affiliate with both major political parties rapidly formed diverging attitudes about the COVID-19 pandemic. Matters of scientific concern have elicited partisan reactions in the past, but partisan divergence of opinion on those issues occurred over decades rather than months. We review evidence on factors that led to polarization of previous scientific issues in an effort to explain why reactions diverged so quickly this time around. We then use publicly available survey data to reveal that partisan reactions to the pandemic were closely associated with trust in public health institutions, that the association between partisanship and trust increased over time, and that the conflation of trust and partisanship appears to largely explain polarized reactions to COVID-19. We also investigate the hypothesis that conservative media use might explain polarization but find that the hypothesis is not supported by our data.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221083686
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Changing Americans’ Attitudes about Immigration: Using Moral Framing to
           Bolster Factual Arguments

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      Authors: Jan G. Voelkel, Mashail Malik, Chrystal Redekopp, Robb Willer
      Pages: 73 - 85
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 73-85, March 2022.
      Our tendency to interpret facts in ways that are consistent with our prior beliefs impedes evidence-based attempts to persuade partisans to change their views on pressing societal issues such as immigration. Accordingly, most prior work finds that favorable information about the impact of immigration has little or no influence on policy preferences. Here, we propose that appealing to individuals’ moral values can bolster the persuasive power of informational interventions. Across three experiments (total N = 4,616), we find that an argument based on the value of in-group loyalty, which emphasized that immigrants are critical to America’s economic strength, combined with information about the economic impact of legal immigration, significantly increased Americans’ support for legal immigration. We also find a significant effect of the moral component of this message alone, even without factual information. These results show that moral arguments can strengthen the persuasiveness of informational appeals.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221083877
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Moral Convictions and Threats to Science

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      Authors: Robin Bayes
      Pages: 86 - 96
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 86-96, March 2022.
      When science is marshaled to support one side or another in policy debates, people can react to that information differently depending on whether it supports their own position. They tend to find fault in unfavorable information and accept favorable information less critically. This may especially be the case when individuals’ positions are held with moral conviction—that is, when their position is not only their preferred position, but when it is the position that they feel to be morally correct. I examine three areas in which allowing moral convictions to influence reactions to scientific information may actually threaten the social benefits of science: promoting science misperceptions, eroding the credibility of scientists as sources of information, and eroding evaluations of science as a process. I argue that dealing with the influence of moral conviction over scientific interpretation will require acknowledgement that the social benefits of science are not self-evident and that they depend on public buy-in.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221083514
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Defining and Measuring Scientific Misinformation

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      Authors: Brian G. Southwell, J. Scott Babwah Brennen, Ryan Paquin, Vanessa Boudewyns, Jing Zeng
      Pages: 98 - 111
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 98-111, March 2022.
      We define scientific misinformation as publicly available information that is misleading or deceptive relative to the best available scientific evidence and that runs contrary to statements by actors or institutions who adhere to scientific principles. Scientific misinformation violates the supposition that claims should be based on scientific evidence and relevant expertise. As such, misinformation is observable and measurable, but research on scientific misinformation to date has often missed opportunities to clearly articulate units of analysis, to consult with experts, and to look beyond convenient sources of misinformation such as social media content. We outline the ways in which scientific misinformation can be thought of as a disorder of public science, identify its specific types and the ways in which it can be measured, and argue that researchers and public actors should do more to connect measurements of misinformation with measurements of effect.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221084709
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The “Infodemic” Infodemic: Toward a More Nuanced Understanding of
           Truth-Claims and the Need for (Not) Combatting Misinformation

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      Authors: Nicole M. Krause, Isabelle Freiling, Dietram A. Scheufele
      Pages: 112 - 123
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 112-123, March 2022.
      Scholarship on (mis)information does not easily translate into recommendations for policy-makers and policy influencers who wish to judge the accuracy of science-related truth claims. This is partly due to much of this literature being based on lab experiments with captive audiences that tell us little about the durability or scalability of any potential intervention in the real world. More importantly, the “accuracy” of scientific truth claims is much more difficult to define than many scholars in this space acknowledge. Uncertainties associated with the nature of science, sociopolitical climates, and media systems introduce compounding error in assessments of claim accuracy. We, therefore, need a more nuanced understanding of misinformation and disinformation than those often present in discussions of the “infodemic.” Here, we propose a new framework for evaluating science-related truth claims and apply it to real-world examples. We conclude by discussing implications for research and action on (mis)information, given that distinguishing between true and false claims is not as easy as it is sometimes purported to be.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221086263
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reducing Health Misinformation in Science: A Call to Arms

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      Authors: Briony Swire-Thompson, David Lazer
      Pages: 124 - 135
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 124-135, March 2022.
      The public often turns to science for accurate health information, which, in an ideal world, would be error free. However, limitations of scientific institutions and scientific processes can sometimes amplify misinformation and disinformation. The current review examines four mechanisms through which this occurs: (1) predatory journals that accept publications for monetary gain but do not engage in rigorous peer review; (2) pseudoscientists who provide scientific-sounding information but whose advice is inaccurate, unfalsifiable, or inconsistent with the scientific method; (3) occasions when legitimate scientists spread misinformation or disinformation; and (4) miscommunication of science by the media and other communicators. We characterize this article as a “call to arms,” given the urgent need for the scientific information ecosystem to improve. Improvements are necessary to maintain the public’s trust in science, foster robust discourse, and encourage a well-educated citizenry.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221087686
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Psychological Inoculation against Misinformation: Current Evidence and
           Future Directions

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      Authors: Cecilie S. Traberg, Jon Roozenbeek, Sander van der Linden
      Pages: 136 - 151
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 136-151, March 2022.
      Much like a viral contagion, misinformation can spread rapidly from one individual to another. Inoculation theory offers a logical basis for developing a psychological “vaccine” against misinformation. We discuss the origins of inoculation theory, starting with its roots in the 1960s as a “vaccine for brainwash,” and detail the major theoretical and practical innovations that inoculation research has witnessed over the years. Specifically, we review a series of randomized lab and field studies that show that it is possible to preemptively “immunize” people against misinformation by preexposing them to severely weakened doses of the techniques that underlie its production along with ways on how to spot and refute them. We review evidence from interventions that we developed with governments and social media companies to help citizens around the world recognize and resist unwanted attempts to influence and mislead. We conclude with a discussion of important open questions about the effectiveness of inoculation interventions.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221087936
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Nudging Social Media toward Accuracy

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      Authors: Gordon Pennycook, David G. Rand
      Pages: 152 - 164
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 152-164, March 2022.
      A meaningful portion of online misinformation sharing is likely attributable to Internet users failing to consider accuracy when deciding what to share. As a result, simply redirecting attention to the concept of accuracy can increase sharing discernment. Here we discuss the importance of accuracy and describe a limited-attention utility model that is based on a theory about inattention to accuracy on social media. We review research that shows how a simple nudge or prompt that shifts attention to accuracy increases the quality of news that people share (typically by decreasing the sharing of false content), and then discuss outstanding questions relating to accuracy nudges, including the need for more work relating to persistence and habituation as well as the dearth of cross-cultural research on these topics. We also make several recommendations for policy-makers and social media companies for how to implement accuracy nudges.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221092342
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Waking from Paralysis: Revitalizing Conceptions of Climate Knowledge and
           Justice for More Effective Climate Action

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      Authors: Kimberly R. Marion Suiseeya, Margaret G. O’connell, Edith Leoso, Marvin Shingwe Biness Neme Defoe, Alexandra Anderson, Megan Bang, Pete Beckman, Anne-Marie Boyer, Jennifer Dunn, Jonathan Gilbert, Josiah Hester, Daniel E. Horton, Dylan Bizhikiins Jennings, Philomena Kebec, Nancy C. Loeb, Patricia Loew, William M. Miller, Katie Moffitt, Aaron I. Packman, Michael Waasegiizhig Price, Beth Redbird, Jennie Rogers, Rajesh Sankaran, James Schwoch, Pamala Silas, Weston Twardowski, Nyree Zerega
      Pages: 166 - 182
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 166-182, March 2022.
      Despite decades of climate science research, existing climate actions have had limited impacts on mitigating climate change. Efforts to reduce emissions, for example, have yet to spur sufficient action to reduce the most severe effects of climate change. We draw from our experiences as Ojibwe knowledge holders and community members, scientists, and scholars to demonstrate how the lack of recognition of traditional knowledges (TK) within climate science constrains effective climate action and exacerbates climate injustice. Often unrecognized in science and policy arenas, TK generates insights into how justice-driven climate action, rooted in relational interdependencies between humans and older-than-human relatives, can provide new avenues for effectively addressing climate change. We conclude by arguing for a shift toward meaningful and respectful inclusion of plural knowledge systems in climate governance.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221095495
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Is Citizen Science a Remedy for Inequality'

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      Authors: Bruce V. Lewenstein
      Pages: 183 - 194
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 183-194, March 2022.
      Is public engagement with science an effective response to threats against science' One form of public engagement—citizen science—might be especially useful for addressing issues of inequality that threaten public support for science. Citizen science is both public participation in the scientific process and public participation in the governance of science. In principle, citizen science empowers marginalized communities to participate in the scientific process, using the authority of science to challenge government, industry, or other institutions that exploit imbalances of social power. In practice, however, citizen science can also be used to redirect attention away from actions that address inequalities and to reinforce modes of knowledge production that exclude alternative ways of knowing relevant to those without social power. Thus, rhetoric about citizen science as a solution to threats against science needs to be tempered with attention to specific contexts and opportunities.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221092697
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Inequality and Misperceptions of Group Concerns Threaten the Integrity and
           Societal Impact of Science

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      Authors: Jonathon P. Schuldt, Adam R. Pearson, Neil A. Lewis, Ashley Jardina, Peter K. Enns
      Pages: 195 - 207
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 195-207, March 2022.
      Racial and ethnic minority and lower-income groups are disproportionately affected by environmental hazards and suffer worse health outcomes than other groups in the United States. Relative to whites and higher-income groups, racial-ethnic minority and lower-income Americans also frequently express greater concern about high-profile global environmental threats like climate change, but they are widely misperceived as being less concerned about these issues than white and higher-income Americans. We use new survey research to explore public perceptions of COVID-19—another global threat marked by substantial racial, ethnic, and class disparities—finding a distinct pattern of misperceptions regarding groups’ concerns. We then discuss how these misperceptions represent a unique form of social misinformation that may pose a threat to science and undermine the cooperation and trust needed to address collective problems.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221086883
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Measuring What Matters: Data Absenteeism, Science Communication, and the
           Perpetuation of Inequities

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      Authors: K. Viswanath, Rachel Faulkenberry McCloud, Edmund W. J. Lee, Mesfin A. Bekalu
      Pages: 208 - 219
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 208-219, March 2022.
      The ways in which we collect health and social data, particularly data on vulnerable and underprivileged populations, is enormously influential over the quality and content of science and health communication. Data absenteeism—the absence or limits of data on groups experiencing social vulnerability—is endemic; and as a result, inferences drawn from studies with absentee data are questionable. Reasons for data absenteeism include tendencies toward conventional recruitment of the subjects in research, the ways in which communities are engaged or not engaged in the research process, and a lack of understanding and appreciation of the lived reality of the socially vulnerable. The “hardly reached” are often labelled “hard to reach,” keeping this critical population out of view. One approach to mitigate data absenteeism is to engage key stakeholders of the community and its residents in the entire research process from design to dissemination, which influences how research questions are asked and answered and how research gets used. We argue for a more inclusive science of science communication to promote diversity and equity.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221093268
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Studying Science Inequities: How to Use Surveys to Study Diverse
           Populations

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      Authors: Robin Bayes, James N. Druckman, Alauna C. Safarpour
      Pages: 220 - 233
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 700, Issue 1, Page 220-233, March 2022.
      Scholars have long documented unequal access to the benefits of science among different groups in the United States. Particular populations, such as low-income, non–white people, and Indigenous people, fare worse when it comes to health care, infectious diseases, climate change, and access to technology. These types of inequities can be partially addressed with targeted interventions aimed at facilitating access to scientific information. Doing so requires knowledge about what different groups think when it comes to relevant scientific topics. Yet data collection efforts for the study of most science-based issues do not include enough respondents from these populations. We discuss this gap and offer an overview of pertinent sampling and administrative considerations in studying underserved populations. A sustained effort to study diverse populations, including through community partnerships, can help to address extant inequities.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T08:41:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221093970
      Issue No: Vol. 700, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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