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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
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Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.225
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 44  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-7162 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3349
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Single-Parent Families and Public Policy in High-Income Countries:
           Introduction to the Volume

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      Authors: Janet C. Gornick, Laurie C. Maldonado, Amanda Sheely
      Pages: 8 - 18
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 8-18, July 2022.

      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221133250
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Ethno-Racial Variation in Single Motherhood Prevalences and Penalties for
           Child Poverty in the United States, 1995–2018

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      Authors: Regina S. Baker
      Pages: 20 - 36
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 20-36, July 2022.
      Empirical studies link high racial inequality in U.S. child poverty to the higher prevalence of single motherhood among certain racial groups. But a growing literature is demonstrating how the impact of single parenthood and family structure on children varies by racial group, including evidence that Black children experience smaller single motherhood “penalties” for some outcomes, like education. I use Luxembourg Income Study data for the United States from 1995 to 2018 to further investigations of ethno-racial variation in single motherhood penalties for child poverty. I provide a descriptive portrait of the levels and trends of children living in single-mother households and of the poverty penalties associated with children living in such households. I also show that, on average, Black children experience smaller penalties from single motherhood and Latino children experience larger penalties, both compared to White children. I conclude with discussion of potential reasons for this variation and future directions for research.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221120759
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cross-National Variation in the Relationship between Welfare Generosity
           and Single Mother Employment

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      Authors: Thomas Biegert, David Brady, Lena Hipp
      Pages: 37 - 54
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 37-54, July 2022.
      Reform of the U.S. welfare system in 1996 spurred claims that cuts to welfare programs effectively incentivized single mothers to find employment. It is difficult to assess the veracity of those claims, however, absent evidence of how the relationship between welfare benefits and single mother employment generalizes across countries. This study combines data from the European Union Labour Force Survey and the U.S. Current Population Survey (1992-2015) into one of the largest samples of single mothers ever, testing the relationships between welfare generosity and single mothers’ employment and work hours. We find no consistent evidence of a negative relationship between welfare generosity and single mother employment outcomes. Rather, we find tremendous cross-national heterogeneity, which does not clearly correspond to well-known institutional variations. Our findings demonstrate the limitations of single country studies and the pervasive, salient interactions between institutional contexts and social policies.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221120760
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Income Support Policies for Single Parents in Europe and the United
           States: What Works Best'

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      Authors: Elise Aerts, Ive Marx, Zachary Parolin
      Pages: 55 - 76
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 55-76, July 2022.
      Poverty rates among single parents vary considerably across countries, in part reflecting differences in the generosity and design of minimum income protections. We ask what the optimal ways are to target income support to single parents, if the prime objective of policy is to shelter those households from poverty. We map minimum income provisions for working and nonworking single-parent households across Europe and the United States, showing that three things matter for adequate minimum income protection. First, minimum wage levels matter, obviously for working single parents, but also for jobless ones since they effectively set the ‘glass ceiling’ for out-of-work benefits. Second, the overall generosity of the child benefit package is crucial to shelter both working and jobless single parents from poverty. Third, countries that employ a strategy of “targeting within universalism” (that is directing extra support to vulnerable groups such as single parents within the context of a universal benefit program) tend to do best.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221120448
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Nonresident Fathers and the Economic Precarity of Their Children

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      Authors: Lenna Nepomnyaschy, Margaret Thomas, Alex Haralampoudis, Huiying Jin
      Pages: 78 - 96
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 78-96, July 2022.
      This study examines the relationship between nonresident fathers and their children’s economic precarity. We use a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of children in large U.S. cities and consider a comprehensive set of measures of the involvement of nonresident fathers in their lives. We evaluate both voluntary and involuntary (court-ordered child support) involvement of fathers, and we look at material hardship and income-to-poverty ratio as measures of children’s economic precarity. We find that only high levels of formal child support have a protective effect on children’s economic well-being, while fathers’ voluntary involvement (experienced by 70 percent of children) has a more consistent protective effect. Overall, policies to reduce children’s economic precarity need to focus on improving nonresident fathers’ ability to be involved with and contribute to their children, as well as on direct assistance to custodial mother families.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221119348
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Child Support Policy across High-Income Countries: Similar Problems,
           Different Approaches

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      Authors: Mia Hakovirta, Laura Cuesta, Mari Haapanen, Daniel R. Meyer
      Pages: 97 - 111
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 97-111, July 2022.
      We provide an overview of child support policy in high-income countries, highlighting differences in institutional arrangements, the amount of child support due, and the amount of child support received. We show that the United States expects high levels of child support from nonresident parents when compared to other countries, that noncompliance is a problem across countries, and that most European countries deal with nonpayment of child support by providing guarantees of public support for children and resident parents. The guarantee schemes vary in terms of eligibility and generosity. Throughout, we find that child support policy approaches differ across countries. A key policy implication from this review is that the United States may be expecting too much child support from nonresident parents and that it could consider guaranteeing a modest amount of public support to single-parent households.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221119959
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Single Parents Competing in a Dual-Earner Society: Social Policy to Level
           the Playing Field

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      Authors: Rense Nieuwenhuis
      Pages: 114 - 128
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 114-128, July 2022.
      I examine the relative poverty risk among single-parent households in countries that have a large share of households with dual earners. Data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) Database are used to analyze eighteen OECD countries in the period 1984 to 2010. I find that single parents face higher relative income poverty risks in countries with a large share of dual-earner households and that this higher risk of poverty is related to higher standards of living in those countries: higher standards of living have raised poverty thresholds, and single-parent incomes are less likely to reach those higher poverty thresholds. I also find that this overall pattern varied across institutional contexts: a rise of dual-earner households puts single parents at a disadvantage only in countries that have relatively low public expenditures on childcare and relatively low income transfer policies.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221122686
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Making Parental Leave Policies Work for Single Mothers: Lessons from
           Europe

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      Authors: Alzbeta Bartova, Adeline Otto, Wim Van Lancker
      Pages: 129 - 148
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 129-148, July 2022.
      It is well documented that national parental leave policies encourage parents’ employment. Research on parental leave, though, has generally failed to draw lessons on how leave policy affects the employment and economic well-being of single parents. We examine the extent to which parental leave policies support the employment of single mothers with children under six years old across twenty-seven European countries, showing that single mothers are more likely to work and to work longer hours if they are eligible for parental leave. For single mothers who were not working before childbirth, eligibility for generous leave benefits and longer parental leave are associated with better employment outcomes after childbirth. We argue that while parental leave sustains employment for working single mothers, it might also facilitate entry into employment for nonworking mothers.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221134445
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Immigration Policies and the Risks of Single Parenthood for Migrant Women

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      Authors: Isabel Shutes
      Pages: 149 - 162
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 149-162, July 2022.
      In high-income countries, both single parents and migrants face elevated risks of living in poverty, but research has paid little attention to the intersection of single parent and migrant status. I examine the ways in which immigration policies make migrants dependent either on the labor market or on their families as a spouse or partner and how these dependencies present risks to migrant women who are single parents. I draw on qualitative data on migrant women’s experiences in the first five years after migration to the UK, which include their transitions to single parenthood, to explore how their legal status affects the risks that they experience. Those risks concern exclusion from access to social protection and permanent legal residence, where access is contingent on the ability to maintain a relationship to the market as a worker or to the family through marriage or a stable partnership.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221124409
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Single Mothers’ Income in Twelve Rich Countries: Differences in
           Disadvantage across the Distribution

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      Authors: Susan Harkness
      Pages: 164 - 187
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 164-187, July 2022.
      I examine how single motherhood affects income in different quantiles of the distribution in twelve rich countries. Using harmonized data from the Luxembourg Income Study, I show how the distribution of income for households headed by single mothers differs from households with children that are headed by couples. I show that there is a striking variation by country in the influence of single motherhood on income at different points of the distribution. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, single motherhood has a greater effect on income at the top of the distribution than at the bottom. In others, such as the United States, effects are largest at the bottom of the distribution. I discuss the role of employment and social policies in driving differences between countries in the income penalties associated with single motherhood across the distribution.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221120758
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Wealth (Disadvantage) of Single-Parent Households

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      Authors: Salvatore Morelli, Brian Nolan, Juan C. Palomino, Philippe Van Kerm
      Pages: 188 - 204
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 188-204, July 2022.
      Wealth is a buffer against economic shocks and the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage. We investigate the wealth of single-parent households in six high-income countries that span a variety of institutional contexts and welfare regimes. Using household survey data, we show that single-parent households in all these countries are disadvantaged in the wealth they hold, compared to dual-parent households—more so in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States; and less so in Italy and, especially, Spain. We tease out major differences in types of wealth holdings in single- and dual-parent households. We find that the single-parent wealth deficit is not explained by differences in age or number of children but that it is influenced by education, income, homeownership, and receipt of intergenerational transfers. We discuss the policy implications of our findings, both in terms of how single parents are treated in social protection and taxation systems and, more broadly, in the supports they require if they are to overcome barriers to accumulating wealth.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221123448
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Economic Precarity among Single Parents in the United States during the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Zachary Parolin, Emma K. Lee
      Pages: 206 - 223
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 206-223, July 2022.
      Single-parent families have historically faced greater economic precarity relative to other family types in the United States. We investigate how and whether those disparities widened after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data on exposure to school and childcare center closures, unemployment, poverty, food hardship, and frequent worrying among single-parent families versus two-parent families throughout 2020 and 2021, we find that the challenges that single parents faced prior to the pandemic generally magnified after the arrival of COVID-19. In April 2020, one in four single parents was unemployed, and unemployment rates recovered more slowly for single parents throughout 2021, perhaps in part due to their unequal exposure to school and childcare closures. The expansion of income transfers largely buffered against potential increases in poverty and hardship, but levels of worrying among single parents continued to worsen throughout 2021.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221122682
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Single Parents in High-Income Countries: What the United States Can Learn
           from Others

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      Authors: Isabel V. Sawhill
      Pages: 226 - 235
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 226-235, July 2022.
      In the last 50 years, single parenthood has become more prevalent in the United States. As compared to other high-income countries, the United States does little to support single-parent families and they fare poorly as a result. This volume takes a comparative approach to extend our knowledge of the experiences of single parent families and the best approaches to support their well-being. By looking at the circumstances of single-parent families across many countries, this volume sheds light on important questions pertaining to child poverty and income inequality, the role of public assistance in supporting single-parent families, and the impact of this assistance on employment and marriage. In this article, I summarize the authors’ contributions in addressing these questions and present my own perspective on related issues, including the impact of single-parent families and cohabitation on children. I end with highlighting what researchers can learn from this volume and how U.S. policymakers can apply these lessons.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221123446
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effective Policies for Single-Parent Families and Prospects for Policy
           Reforms in the United States: Concluding Reflections

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      Authors: Janet C. Gornick, Laurie C. Maldonado, Amanda Sheely
      Pages: 236 - 251
      Abstract: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 702, Issue 1, Page 236-251, July 2022.
      This conclusion engages two questions catalyzed by the articles in this volume. First, which policies are effective in reducing economic hardship among single-parent families overall and minimizing disparities across subgroups' Second, what are the prospects for related reforms in the United States' We draw four lessons from the articles in this volume and from prior research about effective policy design: (1) work-family reconciliation policies are crucial; (2) strengthening and stabilizing employment is necessary, but not sufficient; (3) it is important to support the accumulation of wealth in addition to shoring up income; and (4) policies can be designed to include and protect those single parents and their children who are especially at risk. Turning to the feasibility of policy change in the United States, we conclude that some factors—especially policy elements that encourage self-reliance, shifting public opinion, the COVID-19 crisis, and federalism itself—may enhance opportunities for policy development in support of single parents.
      Citation: The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:28:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027162221133682
      Issue No: Vol. 702, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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