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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
Showing 201 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Tempo Social     Open Access  
The Milbank Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Third World Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for omsorgsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskriftet Norges Barnevern     Full-text available via subscription  
Trabajo Social Global - Global Social Work     Open Access  
unsere jugend     Full-text available via subscription  
Violence and Victims     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Voces desde el Trabajo Social     Open Access  
Volunteer Management Report     Full-text available via subscription  
Youth Studies Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

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Social Philosophy and Policy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.253
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 25  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0265-0525 - ISSN (Online) 1471-6437
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [353 journals]
  • JUSTIFYING TAXATION

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      Authors: Rizzo; Mario J., Epstein, Richard A., Schmidtz, David
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Taxation is more than one thing. Taxes can be levied in various ways on various things, with varying effects on a culture and an economy, and raising different challenges of justification.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000080
       
  • SOY volume 39 issue 1 Cover and Front matter

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      Pages: 1 - 3
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S026505252300016X
       
  • SOY volume 39 issue 1 Cover and Back matter

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      Pages: 1 - 3
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000171
       
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT

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      Pages: 5 - 5
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000146
       
  • REALIZATION AND RECOGNITION UNDER THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

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      Authors: Epstein; Richard A.
      Pages: 11 - 32
      Abstract: Over its entire life, the Internal Revenue Code (like other tax systems) has never tried to tax economic income as such, because of the administrative and liquidity problems that arise from taxing any combination of values consumed and from appreciation (or depreciation) of capital stocks. Instead, the common practice limits tax occasions to a realization of income from sale or other disposition of property. Even then, if the proceeds of the transaction are not cash or marketable securities, as with many corporation reorganizations, taxation is deferred until these assets are converted in cash or marketable securities.Any effort to eliminate these twin filters by taxing income—and income regardless of realization—will overburden government agencies and private taxpayers, while reducing economic activity. A wealth tax scores even worse by these welfare measures, creating massive problems of evasion and enforcement that will reduce capital formation across the board in the effort to transfer wealth from the ultra-rich to everyone else. A simple tax structure with affordable rates is the only path to economic prosperity.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000079
       
  • WHY INCOME TAXATION' A MORAL AND HISTORICAL INQUIRY

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      Authors: Paul; Jeffrey
      Pages: 33 - 47
      Abstract: The following essay analyzes the arguments made by the principal academic proponent of income taxation, Columbia University economist E. R. A Seligman, after it was found to be unconstitutional in 1894. Seligman thought that the prevalent theory of just taxation, that it should be based on a natural right to one’s person and property, was wrong. The principal American philosophical proponent of this natural rights-based approach to taxation was the late Brown University philosopher and economist, Francis Wayland. The essay analyzes the flaws in Seligman’s contention that there are no natural rights and, therefore, no natural property rights, so that taxation could not be justified by the benefits received for the protection of such rights. Instead, he claimed taxation should rest upon a person’s financial capacity. Since that capacity would be most accurately measured by net worth, we would have expected Seligman to endorse a proportionately assessed net worth tax (which was commonly used by the states in the nineteenth century). Alternatively, he argued for an income tax progressively assessed. This essay argues that since income is only a portion of financial capacity, his argument fails.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000110
       
  • GET A JOB AND PAY YOUR TAXES! WHAT UTOPOPHILES MUST SAY TO THE WESTERN
           POOR

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      Authors: Brennan; Jason
      Pages: 48 - 67
      Abstract: G. A. Cohen and David Estlund have recently defended utopophilia against utopophobia. They argue we should not dumb down the requirements of ethics or justice to accommodate people’s motivational failings. The fact that certain people predictably will not do the right thing does not imply they are unable to do so, or that they are not obligated to do so. Utopophiles often defend left-wing ideas; for instance, Cohen argues that people’s unwillingness to do what socialism requires does not imply that socialism is bad, but instead that people are bad. This essay shows that utopophiles must also endorse certain “conservative” conclusions, such as that most poor adults in the developed West are obligated to act more prudently, get jobs, become net taxpayers, avoid having children they cannot afford, and act to avoid needing welfare or assistance.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S026505252300002X
       
  • NEOLIBERAL SOCIAL JUSTICE AND TAXATION

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      Authors: Cowen; Nick
      Pages: 68 - 89
      Abstract: Liberal egalitarians argue that the state is justified in taxing members of a political community to achieve distributive justice and ensure political equality and regime stability. This involves an uneasy compromise between equality and efficiency, a compromise that many argue has recently been undermined by the growth of unchecked wealth and income inequality. This essay argues that there is also a trade-off between selecting fair processes for taxation and aiming for particular distributive outcomes. The way people accumulate wealth, and the way states tax often matters more than distributive outcomes. Policymakers must allow for the fair assessment of tax liabilities, avoid excessive enforcement costs and prevent political actors from using tax systems to achieve their partial ends. Recognizing these considerations justifies a systematic scheme of taxation while constraining the mechanisms for collecting revenue. I justify this position using comparative analysis, which I contrast with the conceptual intuitionistic approach associated with egalitarianism.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000055
       
  • DEATH AND TAXES: A LIBERTARIAN REAPPRAISAL

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      Authors: Fleischer; Miranda Perry
      Pages: 90 - 117
      Abstract: Imagine two friends. Anna inherits nothing and works for every penny she has, while Mary inherits millions. How should a world that respects individual autonomy and private property rights treat Anna’s earnings and Mary’s inheritance' Should it tax them the same, or tax one more heavily than the other' If the latter, which one' The conventional wisdom holds that although some “right” libertarian theories justify taxing income, none justify taxing inheritances. Such taxes are “expropriations” and “an especially cruel injury” that “run[] roughshod over [a] deceased’s interest in the ends his property will serve.” This essay explores the standard libertarian objections to taxing gifts and bequests and argues that libertarians overstate their case when distinguishing the taxation of gratuitous transfers from other types of taxation. At minimum, the benefit theory of taxation embraced by many minimal statists and classical liberals mandates that the receipt of gifts and bequests should be taxed to the recipient. Moreover, the goals of curbing inherited political power and preventing wealthy families from insulating their members from market competition provide two additional explanations for why taxing inheritances to recipients is compatible with classical liberal values.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000092
       
  • TAXATION AND THE MORAL AUTHORITY OF CONVENTIONS

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      Authors: Wendt; Fabian
      Pages: 118 - 138
      Abstract: Lockeans regard taxation as a—perhaps sometimes permissible—infringement of moral property entitlements. This essay discusses whether, or in what form, this charge is defensible. In doing so, it will explore the truth and the limits of the conventionalist reply of Murphy and Nagel to Lockean challenges to taxation. It argues that there is a moral rationale for property conventions that is independent of the question whether and how one can acquire natural, pre-conventional property rights in the state of nature, that this rationale sets a moral standard for how good property conventions are and whether they are justifiable at all, and that once property conventions are in place, people’s moral property entitlements are at least partly determined by these conventions, sometimes even by unjustifiable ones that ought to be reformed. Because taxation can be a part of property conventions, taxation as such is not an infringement of moral property entitlements. But the essay will also argue that some taxation—excessive taxation—does infringe on moral property entitlements. This is because the moral rationale for property conventions sets some standards for what owners should be entitled to, and so excessive taxation will infringe upon moral entitlements that are partly not convention-based.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000134
       
  • THE EQUITY-COMPLEXITY TRADE-OFF IN TAX POLICY: LESSONS FROM THE GOODS AND
           SERVICES TAX IN INDIA

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      Authors: Rajagopalan; Shruti
      Pages: 139 - 187
      Abstract: Developing countries often rely on consumption taxes, because these are broad, easy to administer, and harder to evade. However, the taxation system becomes inherently regressive. To counter this problem of the regressive nature of consumption taxes, there is a temptation among policymakers to address equity concerns through a multiplicity of rates, making the consumption tax system complex. Here, complexity is considered the by-product, or companion, to pursuing goals of equity. Complex tax systems, however, pose a different problem relating to equity. Assuming a minimum fixed cost of compliance imposed by a complex tax system, smaller firms and individuals face a much higher cost of compliance relative to larger firms and richer individuals. Oligarchic sectors dominated by a few large firms also find it easier to organize and lobby to get favorable rates compared to competitive sectors with small firms. Though complexity is considered a by-product of several equity-enhancing measures, the Indian experience with its Goods and Services Tax reform serves demonstrates the opposite, that there is a trade-off between equity and complexity.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000122
       
  • PREDISTRIBUTION AGAINST RENT-SEEKING: THE BENEFIT PRINCIPLE‚ÄôS
           ALTERNATIVE TO REDISTRIBUTIVE TAXATION

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      Authors: Delmotte; Charles
      Pages: 188 - 207
      Abstract: The distributive justice literature has recently formulated several tax proposals, with limitarians or property-owning democrats proposing new or higher taxes on wealth or capital income intended to decrease the growing wealth gap. This essay joins this debate on inequality and redistributive taxation through the lens of the “benefit principle for public policy.” This principle says that specific rules and institutions are acceptable to the extent that they create benefits for all individuals in society, or at least don’t make anyone worse off. This benefit principle opposes wealth accumulation to the extent that wealth was generated through rent-seeking—that is, income unrelated to economic productivity, which is not embedded in mutually beneficial exchanges. I maintain, however, that ruling out rent-seeking requires not ex post taxation, but primarily a more “predistributive corrective policy,” that is, reconfiguration of market institutions to prevent wealth accumulation through rent-seeking in the first place. The alternative response is, thus, not to tackle inequality as such but to reform the market to promote the occurrence of mutually beneficial exchange.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000067
       
  • WHO SHOULD TAX MULTINATIONALS'

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      Authors: Christians; Allison
      Pages: 208 - 225
      Abstract: Who should tax multinationals' National political figures sometimes signal their assumptions by making superior or even exclusive claims about who may tax “their” multinational companies, and it is common to hear such companies or their incomes referred to as “belonging” to one nation or another. The rhetoric reflects conventional wisdom about sovereign nations and their assumed entitlements, and is often invoked to curb or even sanction the seemingly excessive tax jurisdictions of some nations. But this conventional wisdom often ignores the fundamental dependence of multinationals on ongoing, extensive, and multifaceted regulatory cooperation involving most of the nations of the world. The goal of this essay is to demonstrate that given this dependence, there are no clear legal or normative boundaries to virtually any asserted tax jurisdiction. The claim provides a solution for neither double taxation nor the problems associated with excessive tax competition, but the essay concludes that recognizing the dependence of governments and “their” multinationals on multilateral cooperation should lead to an increase in focus on how nations go about negotiating the terms of their cooperation on tax.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000043
       
  • INTERPRETING AMBIGUOUS TAX STATUTES

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      Authors: Jellum; Linda D.
      Pages: 226 - 251
      Abstract: In this essay, I explore the question of who should determine what an ambiguous tax statute means, the courts or the Department of Treasury. The answer to that question is based on two administrative law doctrines: Chevron and Brand X. Here, I explain why Chevron and Brand X violate the Administrative Procedure Act and are unworkable. Then, using a provision in the tax code, I propose that we return to a standard that is both consistent with the APA and easier to implement: Skidmore.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000109
       
  • A LIMITED DEFENSE OF EFFICIENCY AGAINST CHARGES OF INCOHERENCY AND BIAS

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      Authors: Choi; Jonathan H.
      Pages: 252 - 267
      Abstract: Scholars have long debated the appropriate balance between efficiency and redistribution. But recently, a wave of critics has argued not only that efficiency is less important, but that efficiency analysis itself is fundamentally flawed. Some say that efficiency is incoherent because there is no neutral baseline from which to judge inefficiency. Others say that efficiency is biased toward those best able to pay (generally, the rich). This essay contends that efficiency is not meaningfully incoherent or biased. The most widely discussed forms of efficiency do not require any particular baseline, and even those that do require a baseline can still serve as useful approximations of more theoretically sound but computationally demanding measures. Moreover, arguments of bias do not account for the source of funds in public projects, produce unintuitive results, and draw an arbitrary cutoff between bias and non-bias that elides important distributional details. Ultimately, the tradeoff between efficiency and redistribution remains the most useful frame for policy debate.
      PubDate: 2023-08-14
      DOI: 10.1017/S0265052523000031
       
 
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