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Personality and Social Psychology Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.495
Citation Impact (citeScore): 11
Number of Followers: 51  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1088-8683 - ISSN (Online) 1532-7957
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • The Ongoing Development of Strength-Based Approaches to People Who Hold
           Systemically Marginalized Identities

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      Authors: David M. Silverman, R. Josiah Rosario, Ivan A. Hernandez, Mesmin Destin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Academic AbstractPersonality and social psychology have historically viewed individuals’ systemically marginalized identities (e.g., as people of color, as coming from a lower-income background) as barriers to their success. Such a deficit-based perspective limits psychological science by overlooking the broader experiences, value, perspectives, and strengths that individuals who face systemic marginalization often bring to their societies. The current article aims to support future research in incorporating a strength-based lens through tracing psychology’s journey away from an emphasis on deficits among people who contend with systemic marginalization and toward three distinct strength-based approaches: the universal strengths, difference-as-strength, and identity-specific strengths approaches. Through distinguishing between each approach, we advance scholarship that aims to understand systemically marginalized identities with corresponding implications for addressing inequality. Strength-based approaches guide the field to recognize the imposed limitations of deficit-based ideologies and advance opportunities to engage in research that effectively understands and values systemically marginalized people.Public AbstractInequalities, including those between people from higher- and lower-income backgrounds, are present across society. From schools to workplaces, hospitals to courtrooms, people who come from backgrounds that are marginalized by society often face more negative outcomes than people from more privileged backgrounds. While such inequalities are often blamed on a lack of hard work or other issues within marginalized people themselves, scientific research increasingly demonstrates that this is not the case. Rather, studies consistently find that people’s identities as coming from groups that face marginalization in society often serve as a valuable source of unique strengths, not deficiencies, that can help them succeed. Our article reviews these studies to examine how future research in psychology may gain a broader understanding of people who contend with marginalization. In doing so, we outline opportunities for psychological research to effectively support efforts to address persistent inequalities.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T08:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221145243
       
  • Social Psychology of and for World-Making

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      Authors: Séamus A. Power, Tania Zittoun, Sanne Akkerman, Brady Wagoner, Martina Cabra, Flora Cornish, Hana Hawlina, Brett Heasman, Kesi Mahendran, Charis Psaltis, Antti Rajala, Angela Veale, Alex Gillespie
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Academic AbstractSocial psychology’s disconnect from the vital and urgent questions of people’s lived experiences reveals limitations in the current paradigm. We draw on a related perspective in social psychology1—the sociocultural approach—and argue how this perspective can be elaborated to consider not only social psychology as a historical science but also social psychology of and for world-making. This conceptualization can make sense of key theoretical and methodological challenges faced by contemporary social psychology. As such, we describe the ontology, epistemology, ethics, and methods of social psychology of and for world-making. We illustrate our framework with concrete examples from social psychology. We argue that reconceptualizing social psychology in terms of world-making can make it more humble yet also more relevant, reconnecting it with the pressing issues of our time.Public AbstractWe propose that social psychology should focus on “world-making” in two senses. First, people are future-oriented and often are guided more by what could be than what is. Second, social psychology can contribute to this future orientation by supporting people’s world-making and also critically reflecting on the role of social psychological research in world-making. We unpack the philosophical assumptions, methodological procedures, and ethical considerations that underpin a social psychology of and for world-making. Social psychological research, whether it is intended or not, contributes to the societies and cultures in which we live, and thus it cannot be a passive bystander of world-making. By embracing social psychology of and for world-making and facing up to the contemporary societal challenges upon which our collective future depends will make social psychology more humble but also more relevant.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T09:25:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221145756
       
  • When Is Masculinity “Fragile”' An Expectancy-Discrepancy-Threat
           Model of Masculine Identity

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      Authors: Adam Stanaland, Sarah Gaither, Anna Gassman-Pines
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Academic AbstractManhood is a precarious social status. Under perceived gender identity threat, men are disproportionately likely to enact certain stereotype-consistent responses such as aggression to maintain their gender status. Yet less is known regarding individual variation in men’s threat responsiveness—that is, the psychological conditions under which one’s masculine identity is more or less “fragile.” We propose a novel model of masculine identity whereby masculine norm expectancy generates discrepancy within the self to the extent that rigid norms are internalized as obligational (actual-ought discrepancy) versus aspirational (actual-ideal discrepancy), which predict extrinsic versus intrinsic motivations to reduce these discrepancies, respectively. Under threat, then, extrinsic motivations predict externalized responses (e.g., aggression), and intrinsic motivations elicit internalized responses (e.g., anxiety, shame, self-harm). We also consider the conditions under which masculinity may be less fragile—for example, in contexts with less rigid expectations and among men who reject expectations—as pathways to mitigate adverse masculinity threat-related outcomes.Public AbstractIn many cultures, men prove their manhood by engaging in behaviors that harm themselves and others (e.g., violence, sexism, homophobia), particularly people from marginalized groups. Yet less is known about why some men are more likely than others to enact these masculinity-proving behaviors. The goal of our model is to specify certain conditions under which masculinities become “fragile” and elicit these responses when under threat. We start by describing the rigid expectations men experience—for example, that they are strong and tough. We propose that these expectations cause men to experience different forms of discrepancy within themselves that produce corresponding motivations to reduce these discrepancies. Under threat, motivations driven by others’ expectations elicit outward attempts to restore masculine status (e.g., aggression), whereas motivations driven by self-ideals cause internalized responses (e.g., shame, self-harm). We conclude by discussing how to reduce these discrepancies, such as mitigating the rigidity of and encouraging men’s resistance to masculinity expectations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T07:01:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221141176
       
  • Social Verification Theory: A New Way to Conceptualize Validation,
           Dissonance, and Belonging

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      Authors: James G. Hillman, Devin I. Fowlie, Tara K. MacDonald
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Academic AbstractIn the present review, we propose a theory that seeks to recontextualize various existing theories as functions of people’s perceptions of their consistency with those around them. This theory posits that people seek social consistency for both epistemic and relational needs and that social inconsistency is both negative and aversive, similar to the experience of cognitive dissonance. We further posit that the aversive nature of perceiving social inconsistency leads people to engage in various behaviors to mitigate or avoid these inconsistencies. When these behaviors fail, however, people experience chronic social inconsistency, which, much like chronic rejection, is associated with physical and mental health and well-being outcomes. Finally, we describe how mitigation and avoidance of social inconsistency underlie many seemingly unrelated theories, and we provide directions for how future research may expand on this theory.Public AbstractIn the present review, we propose that people find inconsistency with those around them to be an unpleasant experience, as it threatens people’s core need to belong. Because the threat of reduced belongingness evokes negative feelings, people are motivated to avoid inconsistency with others and to mitigate the negative feelings that are produced when it inevitably does arise. We outline several types of behaviors that can be implemented to avoid or mitigate these inconsistencies (e.g., validation, affirmation, distancing, etc.). When these behaviors cannot be implemented successfully, people experience chronic invalidation, which is associated with reduced physical and mental health and well-being outcomes. We discuss how invalidation may disproportionately affect individuals with minoritized identities. Furthermore, we discuss how belongingness could play a key role in radicalization into extremist groups.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-12-03T09:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221138384
       
  • The Problem of Purity in Moral Psychology

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      Authors: Kurt Gray, Nicholas DiMaggio, Chelsea Schein, Frank Kachanoff
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Academic AbstractThe idea of “purity” transformed moral psychology. Here, we provide the first systematic review of this concept. Although often discussed as one construct, we reveal ~9 understandings of purity, ranging from respecting God to not eating gross things. This striking heterogeneity arises because purity—unlike other moral constructs—is not understood by what it is but what it isn’t: obvious interpersonal harm. This poses many problems for moral psychology and explains why purity lacks convergent and divergent validity and why purity is confounded with politics, religion, weirdness, and perceived harm. Because purity is not a coherent construct, it cannot be a distinct basis of moral judgment or specially tied to disgust. Rather than a specific moral domain, purity is best understood as a loose set of themes in moral rhetoric. These themes are scaffolded on cultural understandings of harm—the broad, pluralistic harm outlined by the Theory of Dyadic Morality.Public AbstractPeople are fascinated by morality—how do people make moral judgments and why do liberals and conservatives seem to frequently disagree' “Purity” is one moral concept often discussed when talking about morality—it has been suggested to capture moral differences across politics and to demonstrate the evolutionary roots of morality, especially the role of disgust in moral judgment. However, despite the many books and articles that mention purity, there is no systematic analysis of purity. Here, we review all existing academic articles focused on purity in morality. We find that purity is an especially messy concept that lacks scientific validity. Because it is so poorly defined and inconsistently measured, it should not be invoked to explain our moral minds or political differences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T12:19:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221124741
       
  • Feminist Social Vision: Seeing Through the Lens of Marginalized Perceivers

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      Authors: Flora Oswald, Reginald B. Adams
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Social vision research, which examines, in part, how humans visually perceive social stimuli, is well-positioned to improve understandings of social inequality. However, social vision research has rarely prioritized the perspectives of marginalized group members. We offer a theoretical argument for diversifying understandings of social perceptual processes by centering marginalized perspectives. We examine (a) how social vision researchers frame their research questions and who these framings prioritize and (b) how perceptual processes (person perception; people perception; perception of social objects) are linked to group membership and thus comprehensively understanding these processes necessitates attention to marginalized perceivers. We discuss how social vision research translates into theoretical advances and to action for reducing negative intergroup consequences (e.g., prejudice). The purpose of this article is to delineate how prioritizing marginalized perspectives in social vision research could develop novel questions, bridge theoretical gaps, and elevate social vision’s translational impact to improve outcomes for marginalized groups.Public AbstractSocial vision research is a subfield of psychology and vision science which examines how people visually perceive social stimuli and what the downstream consequences of these perceptions are. Social vision work includes, for example, examination of how White people visually perceive racial minorities and how these perceptions lead to social categorizations of racial minorities as outgroups, and therefore contribute to behaviors such as stereotyping and prejudice. Social vision research has rarely prioritized the perspectives of marginalized group members. It therefore cannot fully explain the contributions of perception to intergroup relations, which are necessarily bidirectional. We offer a theoretical argument for diversifying understandings of social perceptual processes by centering marginalized perspectives to understand how people with marginalized identities see their social worlds. We believe that prioritizing these marginalized perspectives has the potential to contribute to the development of a psychological science with heightened capacity to improve the well-being of people with marginalized identities.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T01:02:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221126582
       
  • How Imagination and Memory Shape the Moral Mind

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      Authors: Brendan Bo O’Connor, Zoë Fowler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Interdisciplinary research has proposed a multifaceted view of human cognition and morality, establishing that inputs from multiple cognitive and affective processes guide moral decisions. However, extant work on moral cognition has largely overlooked the contributions of episodic representation. The ability to remember or imagine a specific moment in time plays a broadly influential role in cognition and behavior. Yet, existing research has only begun exploring the influence of episodic representation on moral cognition. Here, we evaluate the theoretical connections between episodic representation and moral cognition, review emerging empirical work revealing how episodic representation affects moral decision-making, and conclude by highlighting gaps in the literature and open questions. We argue that a comprehensive model of moral cognition will require including the episodic memory system, further delineating its direct influence on moral thought, and better understanding its interactions with other mental processes to fundamentally shape our sense of right and wrong.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T11:57:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221114215
       
  • Do Salient Social Norms Moderate Mortality Salience Effects' A
           (Challenging) Meta-Analysis of Terror Management Studies

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      Authors: Simon Schindler, Joe Hilgard, Immo Fritsche, Brian Burke, Stefan Pfattheicher
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Terror management theory postulates that mortality salience (MS) increases the motivation to defend one’s cultural worldviews. How that motivation is expressed may depend on the social norm that is momentarily salient. Meta-analyses were conducted on studies that manipulated MS and social norm salience. Results based on 64 effect sizes for the hypothesized interaction between MS and norm salience revealed a small-to-medium effect of g = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 0.41]. Bias-adjustment techniques suggested the presence of publication bias and/or the exploitation of researcher degrees of freedom and arrived at smaller effect size estimates for the hypothesized interaction, in several cases reducing the effect to nonsignificance (range gcorrected = −0.36 to 0.15). To increase confidence in the idea that MS and norm salience interact to influence behavior, preregistered, high-powered experiments using validated norm salience manipulations are necessary. Concomitantly, more specific theorizing is needed to identify reliable boundary conditions of the effect.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T09:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221107267
       
  • The Stressful Personality: A Meta-Analytical Review of the Relation
           Between Personality and Stress

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      Authors: Jing Luo, Bo Zhang, Mengyang Cao, Brent W. Roberts
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      The current study presented the first meta-analytic review on the associations between the Big Five personality traits and stress measured under different conceptualizations (stressor exposure, psychological and physiological stress responses) using a total of 1,575 effect sizes drawn from 298 samples. Overall, neuroticism was found to be positively related to stress, whereas extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness were negatively linked to stress. When stress assessed under different conceptualizations was tested, only neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were related to stressor exposure. All of the Big Five personality traits were significantly associated with psychological stress perception, whereas the five personality traits showed weak to null associations with physiological stress response. Further moderation analyses suggested that the associations between personality traits and stress under different conceptualizations were also contingent upon different characteristics of stress, sample, study design, and measures. The results supported the important role of personality traits in individual differences in stress.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T10:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221104002
       
  • The Fusion-Secure Base Hypothesis

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      Authors: Jack W. Klein, Brock Bastian
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Identity fusion is traditionally conceptualized as innately parochial, with fused actors motivated to commit acts of violence on out-groups. However, fusion’s aggressive outcomes are largely conditional on threat perception, with its effect on benign intergroup relationships underexplored. The present article outlines the fusion-secure base hypothesis, which argues that fusion may engender cooperative relationships with out-groups in the absence of out-group threat. Fusion is characterized by four principles, each of which allows a fused group to function as a secure base in which in-group members feel safe, agentic, and supported. This elicits a secure base schema, which increases the likelihood of fused actors interacting with out-groups and forming cooperative, reciprocal relationships. Out-group threat remains an important moderator, with its presence “flipping the switch” in fused actors and promoting a willingness to violently protect the group even at significant personal cost. Suggestions for future research are explored, including pathways to intergroup fusion.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T09:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221100883
       
  • Value Fulfillment from a Cybernetic Perspective: A New Psychological
           Theory of Well-Being

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      Authors: Colin G. DeYoung, Valerie Tiberius
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Value Fulfillment Theory (VFT) is a philosophical theory of well-being. Cybernetic Big Five Theory (CB5T) is a psychological theory of personality. Both start with a conception of the person as a goal-seeking (or value-pursuing) organism, and both take goals and the psychological integration of goals to be key to well-being. By joining VFT and CB5T, we produce a cybernetic value fulfillment theory in which we argue that well-being is best conceived as the fulfillment of psychologically integrated values. Well-being is the effective pursuit of a set of nonconflicting values that are emotionally, motivationally, and cognitively suitable to the person. The primary difference in our theory from other psychological theories of well-being is that it does not provide a list of intrinsic goods, instead emphasizing that each person may have their own list of intrinsic goods. We discuss the implications of our theory for measuring, researching, and improving well-being.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T07:06:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221083777
       
  • Social Movements as Parsimonious Explanations for Implicit and Explicit
           Attitude Change

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      Authors: Jeremy E. Sawyer, Anup Gampa
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, interest in aggregate and population-level implicit and explicit attitudes has opened inquiry into how attitudes relate to sociopolitical phenomenon. This creates an opportunity to examine social movements as dynamic forces with the potential to generate widespread, lasting attitude change. Although collective action remains underexplored as a means of reducing bias, we advance historical and theoretical justifications for doing so. We review recent studies of aggregate attitudes through the lens of social movement theory, proposing movements as a parsimonious explanation for observed patterns. We outline a model for conceptualizing causal pathways between social movements and implicit and explicit attitudes among participants, supporters, bystanders, and opponents. We identify six categories of mechanisms through which movements may transform attitudes: changing society; media representations; intergroup contact and affiliation; empathy, perspective-taking, and reduced intergroup anxiety; social recategorization; and social identification and self-efficacy processes. Generative questions, testable hypotheses, and promising methods for future work are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T01:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221095697
       
  • Manipulating Belief in Free Will and Its Downstream Consequences: A
           Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Oliver Genschow, Emiel Cracco, Jana Schneider, John Protzko, David Wisniewski, Marcel Brass, Jonathan W. Schooler
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Ever since some scientists and popular media put forward the idea that free will is an illusion, the question has risen what would happen if people stopped believing in free will. Psychological research has investigated this question by testing the consequences of experimentally weakening people’s free will beliefs. The results of these investigations have been mixed, with successful experiments and unsuccessful replications. This raises two fundamental questions: Can free will beliefs be manipulated, and do such manipulations have downstream consequences' In a meta-analysis including 145 experiments (95 unpublished), we show that exposing individuals to anti–free will manipulations decreases belief in free will and increases belief in determinism. However, we could not find evidence for downstream consequences. Our findings have important theoretical implications for research on free will beliefs and contribute to the discussion of whether reducing people’s belief in free will has societal consequences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T05:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221087527
       
  • Sixty Years After Orne’s American Psychologist Article: A Conceptual
           Framework for Subjective Experiences Elicited by Demand Characteristics

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      Authors: Olivier Corneille, Peter Lush
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Study participants form beliefs based on cues present in a testing situation (demand characteristics). These beliefs can alter study outcomes (demand effects). Neglecting demand effects can threaten the internal and external validity of studies (including their replication). While demand characteristics garnered much attention following Orne’s introduction of this notion, consideration of their effects has become sparse in experimental reports. Moreover, the concept remains confusing. Here, we introduce a conceptual framework for subjective experiences elicited by demand characteristics. The model distinguishes between participants’ awareness of the hypothesis, their motivation to comply with it, and the strategy they use to meet situational requirements. We stress that demand characteristics can give rise to genuine experiences. To illustrate, we apply the model to Evaluative Conditioning and the Rubber Hand Illusion. In the General Discussion, we discuss risks and opportunities associated with demand characteristics, and we explain that they remain highly relevant to current research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T10:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221104368
       
  • Specificity in the Study of Mixed Emotions: A Theoretical Framework

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      Authors: Vincent Y.S. Oh, Eddie M.W. Tong
      First page: 283
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Research on mixed emotions is yet to consider emotion-specificity, the idea that same-valenced emotions have distinctive characteristics and functions. We review two decades of research on mixed emotions, focusing on evidence for the occurrence of mixed emotions and the effects of mixed emotions on downstream outcomes. We then propose a novel theoretical framework of mixed-emotion-specificity with three foundational tenets: (a) Mixed emotions are distinguishable from single-valenced emotions and other mixed emotions based on their emotion-appraisal relationships; (b) Mixed emotions can further be characterized by four patterns that describe relationships between simultaneous appraisals or appraisals that are unique to mixed emotions; and (c) Carryover effects occur only on outcomes that are associated with the appraisal characteristics of mixed emotion. We outline how mixed-emotion-specific effects can be predicted based on the appraisal tendency framework. Temporal dynamics, the application of mixed-emotion-specificity to individual difference research, methodological issues, and future directions are also discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T10:45:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221083398
       
  • Multiculturalism and Colorblindness as Threats to the Self: A Framework
           for Understanding Dominant and Non-Dominant Group Members’ Responses to
           Interethnic Ideologies

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      Authors: Kimberly Rios
      First page: 315
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      Both multiculturalism (which involves recognizing and appreciating differences) and racial/ethnic colorblindness (which can involve emphasizing similarities or individual characteristics) are intended to promote intergroup harmony. Nevertheless, these ideologies can backfire when salient. Although this work has sometimes been interpreted to suggest that dominant group members may perceive salient multiculturalism, and non-dominant group members may perceive salient colorblindness, as threatening, it is unclear what about these interethnic ideologies poses a threat and why. The present article draws upon theories of the self-concept to introduce a framework of Multiculturalism and Colorblindness as Threats to the Self. Specifically, it is proposed that multiculturalism (colorblindness) is potentially threatening to dominant (non-dominant) group members’ collective, relational, and personal selves. Dispositional and contextual variables that may moderate perceptions of threat among members of dominant and non-dominant groups, alternative interethnic ideologies to multiculturalism and colorblindness, and potential future research directions are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T07:07:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221093130
       
  • The Wisdom Researchers and the Elephant: An Integrative Model of Wise
           Behavior

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      Authors: Judith Glück, Nic M. Weststrate
      First page: 342
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article proposes an integrative model of wise behavior in real life. While current research findings depend considerably on how wisdom is conceptualized and measured, there are strong conceptual commonalities across psychological wisdom models. The proposed model integrates the components of several existing models into a dynamic framework explaining wise behavior. The article first specifies which real-life situations require wisdom and discusses characteristics of wise behavior. The core proposition of the model is that in challenging real-life situations, noncognitive wisdom components (an exploratory orientation, concern for others, and emotion regulation) moderate the effect of cognitive components (knowledge, metacognitive capacities, and self-reflection) on wise behavior. The model can explain the situation specificity of wisdom and the commonalities and differences between personal and general wisdom. Empirically, it accounts for the considerable variation in correlations among wisdom measures and between wisdom measures and other variables. The model has implications for the design of wisdom-fostering interventions and new wisdom measures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Review
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T01:03:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10888683221094650
       
 
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