A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.999
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 170  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-1672 - ISSN (Online) 1552-7433
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Does Religious Priming Induce Greater Prejudice' A Meta-Analytic
           Review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Annetta Snell, Miron Zuckerman, Bonnie Le
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current meta-analysis addressed whether theistic religious beliefs are causally related to greater prejudice by analyzing 44 studies (Ntotal = 11,330) that used experimental designs—priming religion and then measuring negativity toward outgroups (e.g., LGBT and Muslim). The overall priming effect was significant but small (r = .06), indicating that priming religion increases prejudice. The implications of these results for the relation between religion and prejudice and for future work on religious priming are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T09:10:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221135956
       
  • A Meta-Analytic Review of the Validity of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sophie L. Kjærvik, Muniba Saleem, Gertrudes Velasquez, Craig A. Anderson, Brad J. Bushman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The Tangram Help/Hurt Task (THHT) allows participants to help another participant win a prize (by assigning them easy tangrams), to hurt another participant by preventing them from winning the prize (by assigning them difficult tangrams), or to do neither (by assigning them medium tangrams) in offline or online studies. Consistent with calls for continued evidence supporting psychological measurement, we conducted a meta-analytic review of the THHT that included 52 independent studies involving 11,060 participants. THHT scores were associated with helping and hurting outcomes in theoretically predicted ways. Results showed that THHT scores were not only associated with short-term (experimental manipulations, state measures) and long-term (trait measures) helping and hurting outcomes, but also with helping and harming intentions. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the THHT relative to other laboratory measures of prosocial behavior and aggression, discuss unanswered questions about the task, and offer suggestions for the best use of the task.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-11-21T07:04:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221127759
       
  • Psychometric Evaluation of Single-Item Relationship Satisfaction, Love,
           Conflict, and Commitment Measures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sylvia Niehuis, Karsen Davis, Alan Reifman, Kenzi Callaway, Ali Luempert, C. Rebecca Oldham, Jayla Head, Emma Willis-Grossmann
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Issues in applied survey research, including minimizing respondent burden and ensuring measures’ brevity for smartphone administration, have intensified efforts to create short measures. We conducted two studies on the psychometric properties of single-item satisfaction, love, conflict, and commitment measures. Study 1 was longitudinal, surveying college-age dating couples at three monthly waves (n =121, 84, and 68 couples at the respective waves). Partners completed single- and multi-item measures of the four constructs, along with other variables, to examine test–retest reliability and convergent, concurrent, and predictive validity. Single-item measures of satisfaction, love, and commitment exhibited impressive psychometric qualities, but our single-item conflict measure performed somewhat less strongly. Study 2, a cross-sectional online survey (n = 280), showed strong convergent validity of the single-item measures, including that of conflict.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T02:15:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221133693
       
  • Connected or Cutoff' A 4-Year Longitudinal Study of the Links Between
           Adolescents’ Compulsive Internet Use and Social Support

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: James N. Donald, Joseph Ciarrochi, Jiesi Guo
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      As the online world plays an increasing role in young peoples’ lives, research on compulsive internet use (CIU) is receiving growing attention. Given the social richness of the online world, there is a need to better understand how CIU influences adolescents’ social support and vice versa. Drawing on ecological systems theory, we examined the longitudinal links between adolescents’ CIU and perceived social support from three sources (parents, teachers, and friends) across 4 critical years of adolescence (Grades 8–11). Using random intercept cross-lagged modeling, we found that CIU consistently preceded reduced social support from teachers, whereas social support from parents preceded increases in CIU over time. We discuss the implications of our findings for parents and schools seeking to support young people experiencing CIU.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T02:13:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221127802
       
  • A Lower-Class Advantage in Face Memory

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pia Dietze, Sally Olderbak, Andrea Hildebrandt, Laura Kaltwasser, Eric D. Knowles
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People remember what they deem important. In line with research suggesting that lower-class (vs. higher class) individuals spontaneously appraise other people as more relevant, we show that social class is associated with the habitual use of face memory. We find that lower-class (vs. higher class) participants exhibit better incidental memory for faces (i.e., spontaneous memory for faces they had not been instructed to memorize; Studies 1 and 2). No social-class differences emerge for faces participants are instructed to learn (Study 2), suggesting that this pattern reflects class-based relevance appraisals rather than memory ability. Study 3 extends our findings to eyewitness identification. Lower-class (vs. higher-class) participants’ eyewitness accuracy is less impacted by the explicit relevance of a target (clearly relevant thief vs. incidental bystander). Integrative data analysis shows a robust negative association between social class and spontaneous face memory. Preregistration (Studies 1 and 3) and cross-cultural replication (Study 2) further strengthen the results.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T12:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221125599
       
  • Is Your Accent Right for the Job' A Meta-Analysis on Accent Bias in
           Hiring Decisions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jessica L. Spence, Matthew J. Hornsey, Eloise M. Stephenson, Kana Imuta
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Standard-accented job candidates are perceived as more hireable than non-standard-accented candidates. Two broad perspectives have emerged as to what drives this effect: (a) that it is a pragmatic response to the perception that non-standard accents can impede job-relevant communication (processing fluency explanation) and/or (b) that non-standard accents signal “otherness” and candidates are devalued as a result (prejudice explanation). This meta-analytic integration of 139 effect sizes (N = 4,576) examined these two perspectives. Standard-accented candidates were considered more hireable than non-standard-accented candidates (d = 0.47)—a bias that was stronger for high communication jobs. Other findings, however, are difficult to explain from a processing fluency explanation: candidates’ relative comprehensibility was not a significant moderator of hiring bias. Moreover, the degree of accent bias was associated with perceptions of the candidates’ social status, and accent bias was particularly pronounced among female candidates and for candidates who spoke in foreign (as compared with regional) accents.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-11-03T12:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221130595
       
  • The Two Routes of Collective Psychological Ownership: Rights and
           Responsibilities Explain Intentions to Exclude Outsiders and Engage in
           Stewardship Behavior

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tom Nijs, Borja Martinovic, Maykel Verkuyten
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People can have a sense of collective ownership of a particular territory, such as “our” country, “our” neighborhood, and “our” park. Collective psychological ownership is argued to go together with rights and responsibilities that have different behavioral implications. We found that collective psychological ownership leads to perceived determination right, and indirectly to the exclusion of outsiders from “our” place. Simultaneously, collective psychological ownership leads to perceived group responsibility, and indirectly to engagement in stewardship behavior. These results were found among Dutch adults, cross-sectionally in relation to their country (Study 1; N = 617) and a neighborhood (Study 2; N = 784), and experimentally in relation to an imaginary local park (Study 3; N = 384, Study 4; N = 502, both pre-registered). Our research shows that the feeling that a place is “ours” can, via perceived rights and responsibilities, result in both exclusionary and prosocial behavioral tendencies.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T10:31:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221129757
       
  • More Than Meets the Eyes: Bringing Attention to the Eyes Increases First
           Impressions of Warmth and Competence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Morgan D. Stosic, Shelby Helwig, Mollie A. Ruben
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research examined how face masks alter first impressions of warmth and competence for different racial groups. Participants were randomly assigned to view photographs of White, Black, and Asian targets with or without masks. Across four separate studies (total N = 1,012), masked targets were rated significantly higher in warmth and competence compared with unmasked targets, regardless of their race. However, Asian targets benefited the least from being seen masked compared with Black or White targets. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate how the positive effect of masks is likely due to these clothing garments re-directing attention toward the eyes of the wearer. Participants viewing faces cropped to the eyes (Study 3), or instructed to gaze into the eyes of faces (Study 4), rated these targets similarly to masked targets, and higher than unmasked targets. Neither political affiliation, belief in mask effectiveness, nor explicit racial prejudice moderated any hypothesized effects.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T09:15:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221128114
       
  • I’m Still Spending: Financial Contingency of Self-Worth Predicts
           Financial Motivational Conflict and Compulsive Buying

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lora Park, Deborah E. Ward, Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Kentaro Fujita, Nicole Koefler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People with financially contingent self-worth (FCSW) base their self-esteem on money and feel pressured to achieve financial success. However, the present research suggests such individuals may be vulnerable to compulsive buying and experiencing distress and impairment in their lives from engaging in this maladaptive behavior (Study 1a–1b). Study 2 identified a key mechanism: People with FCSW experience more motivational conflict between wanting to spend (vs. not spend) their money, which predicts greater compulsive buying intentions and anticipated distress from making excessive purchases. A 5-week diary study revealed that FCSW—on average and at a weekly level—predicted greater perceived financial motivational conflict and more compulsive buying, distress, and impairment in life (Study 3). People with FCSW experience more financial motivational conflict, independent of beliefs about spending implying wealth or feeling pressured to spend to display one’s wealth to others (Study 4). Implications and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T12:58:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221119356
       
  • Two-Sided Messages Promote Openness for a Variety of Deeply Entrenched
           Attitudes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mengran Xu, Richard E. Petty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Prior research showed that people holding attitudes on relatively moral topics became more open to two- rather than one-sided messages as the moral basis of their attitudes increased. Across three studies (N = 963), we extend this finding to relatively non-moral topics by demonstrating that two-sided messages can encourage people with strong attitudes indexed by various non-moral attitude strength measures to be more open to contrary positions. Study 1 demonstrated this for four indicators of attitude strength (e.g., certainty). As the strength of one’s attitude increased, two-sided messages increased in relative effectiveness over one-sided communication. This was mediated by perceived appreciation for the speaker acknowledging one’s view. Study 2 replicated this finding in a preregistered experiment. Study 3 conceptually replicated and extended it to people holding attitudes based on their political identity. Finally, evidence was obtained supporting perceived appreciation (rather than source evaluation) as the key driver of this interactive effect.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-10-10T12:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221128113
       
  • Three Fish at One Hook' Future-Oriented, Reconciliatory, and Defensive
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fiona Kazarovytska, Roland Imhoff
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Historical perpetrator groups seek to shield themselves from image threat by advocating for closing the discussion of their crimes. However, from a broader theoretical perspective, such demand for historical closure (HC) may also reflect willingness to reconcile with the victim group or to focus on the future rather than the past. In nine studies across four different contexts (Germany, United States, Italy, and Australia; N = 3405), we analyzed whether these three facets of HC (defensive, reconciliatory, and future-oriented) indeed substantially differ. Contrary to expectations, nomological network analyses suggested that all three facets reflect the same defensive desire (Studies 1a–2c) and are perceived as overall similar from a third-party perspective (Study 3). Finally, all three HC facets showed a positive trend toward costly avoidance of confrontation with the ingroup’s perpetrator past (Studies 4a–c). We discuss implications for (and against) a more nuanced understanding of the demand for HC.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-10-10T12:24:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221124674
       
  • A Phenomenological Divide: Reference Group Consequences for Existential
           Isolation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Peter J. Helm, Tyler Jimenez, Skyler Carter, Jamie Arndt
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      An apparent phenomenological divide between majority and minoritized groups exists in contemporary America in terms of feelings of social connection. Drawing on recent findings relating to existential isolation (i.e., the sense that one is alone in one’s subjective experience), three studies compare these feelings toward one’s in-group and out-group. Study 1 assesses whether Black and White participants vary in their self-reported existential isolation when referencing their own or another racial group. Results reveal Black Americans feel as though other Black Americans share their perceptions more than do White Americans. In contrast, White Americans report similarly shared perceptions by both racial groups. Study 2 (preregistered) assessed these effects with a concealable identity: sexual orientation. Study 3 further replicates these effects and finds effects among Black Americans to significantly differ from a neutral control condition. Implications and future directions for epistemic (in)validation are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T12:11:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221127799
       
  • The Equality Paradox: Gender Equality Intensifies Male Advantages in
           Adolescent Subjective Well-Being

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jiesi Guo, Geetanjali Basarkod, Francisco Perales, Philip D. Parker, Herbert W. Marsh, James Donald, Theresa Dicke, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Joseph Ciarrochi, Xiang Hu, Chris Lonsdale, Taren Sanders, Borja del Pozo Cruz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals’ subjective well-being (SWB) is an important marker of development and social progress. As psychological health issues often begin during adolescence, understanding the factors that enhance SWB among adolescents is critical to devising preventive interventions. However, little is known about how institutional contexts contribute to adolescent SWB. Using Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 and 2018 data from 78 countries (N = 941,475), we find that gender gaps in adolescents’ SWB (life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) are larger in more gender-equal countries. Results paradoxically indicated that gender equality enhances boys’ but not girls’ SWB, suggesting that greater gender equality may facilitate social comparisons across genders. This may lead to an increased awareness of discrimination against females and consequently lower girls’ SWB, diluting the overall benefits of gender equality. These findings underscore the need for researchers and policy-makers to better understand macro-level factors, beyond objective gender equality, that support girls’ SWB.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-10-07T12:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221125619
       
  • Growing Together Through Our Cultural Differences: Self-Expansion in
           Intercultural Romantic Relationships

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alexandria L. West, Hanieh Naeimi, Alyssa A. Di Bartolomeo, Maya Yampolsky, Amy Muise
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Intercultural romantic relationships are increasingly common and although the obstacles such couples face are well documented, the factors that facilitate their success are less studied. Although cultural differences may present challenges, they also offer opportunities for self-expansion—personal growth via new perspectives, knowledge, and identities. In three studies using cross-sectional, dyadic, longitudinal, and experimental methods (NTotal = 896), self-expansion was associated with relationship quality and identity outcomes (i.e., identity integration, cultural self-awareness). Self-expanding through a partner’s culture (i.e., cultural self-expansion) was uniquely related to identity outcomes, beyond self-expanding more generally (relational self-expansion). Furthermore, actively sharing cultures and discussing their differences were linked to greater cultural and relational self-expansion, which in turn differentially predicted partners’ relationship quality and cultural identities. These studies provide a first look at the role of self-expansion in intercultural relationships, demonstrating that the way couples negotiate their cultures is linked to both relational and personal outcomes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-10-06T10:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221121508
       
  • Mechanisms Linking Attachment Orientation to Sleep Quality in Married
           Couples

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yuxi Xie, Brian N. Chin, Brooke C. Feeney
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      There is emerging evidence for links between relationship factors and sleep quality. Existing research linking attachment orientation to sleep quality has yielded inconsistent effects, has focused on younger samples, and has not considered underlying mechanisms of action. This research addressed these gaps in two studies that investigated the links between attachment orientation and sleep quality in both younger/middle-aged (Study 1) and older (Study 2) adult couples using Actor–Partner Interdependence Models. We also tested mediating effects of relationship-specific security and negative affect. In both studies, participants completed surveys assessing their attachment orientation, sleep quality, and the proposed mediators. Both studies revealed that relationship-specific security and negative affect mediated the negative association between insecure attachment and one’s own sleep quality. This research enhances our understanding of how attachment orientation affects sleep quality, provides a foundation for future research on relationship influences on sleep, and suggests avenues for improving sleep quality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T09:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221123859
       
  • Collectivism Impairs Team Performance When Relational Goals Conflict With
           Group Goals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xin Qin, Kai Chi Yam, Wenping Ye, Junsheng Zhang, Xueji Liang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Krishna Savani
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research challenges the idea that teams from more collectivistic cultures tend to perform better. We propose that in contexts in which there are tradeoffs between group goals (i.e., what is best for the group) and relational goals (i.e., what is best for one’s relationships with specific group members), people in less collectivistic cultures primarily focus on group goals but those in more collectivistic cultures focus on both group and relational goals, which can lead to suboptimal decisions. An archival analysis of 100 years of data across three major competitive team sports found that teams from more collectivistic nations consistently underperformed, even after controlling for a number of nation and team characteristics. Three follow-up studies with 108 Chinese soccer players, 109 Singapore students, and 119 Chinese and the U.S. adults provided evidence for the underlying mechanism (i.e., prioritizing relational goals over group goals). Overall, this research suggests a more balanced view of collectivism, highlighting an important context in which collectivism can impair team performance.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T12:34:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221123776
       
  • Correlated Change Between Personality Traits and Perceived Social Support
           in Old Age

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gabrielle N. Pfund, Mathias Allemand
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated correlated change between the Big Five personality traits and perceived social support in old age. Two data waves with an 8-year span from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development (ILSE) were utilized. The longitudinal sample for this study consisted of 491 older adults (aged 64–68 years at T1). Four different aspects of perceived availability of social support were assessed (emotional support, practical support, social integration, and social strain). The Big Five personality traits were assessed with the Neuroticism–Extraversion–Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Results show significant latent concurrent correlations and correlated changes between personality traits and social support. Notably, correlated change with social support types differed depending on the Big Five traits being evaluated, with changes in extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness being the traits most associated with changes in social support types, and openness being least associated. Results are discussed through a life span development lens in light of past research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T12:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221120493
       
  • Feeling Appreciated Predicts Prosocial Motivation in Avoidantly Attached
           Individuals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kristina M. Schrage, Bonnie M. Le, Jennifer E. Stellar, Emily A. Impett
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Prosocial motivation is an important ingredient for satisfying relationships. However, individuals high in attachment avoidance—those who fear closeness and prefer independence—often display reduced prosocial motivation for their romantic partner. In two daily experience studies (Ntotal = 324), we examined whether feeling appreciated by a romantic partner would buffer this negative link. When avoidantly attached individuals felt highly appreciated by their partner, they displayed greater prosocial motivation; specifically, they were more willing to sacrifice, and did so with the intention to benefit their partner (Studies 1 and 2). These effects did not emerge for other, less prosocial motives for sacrifice, such as to benefit oneself or avoid negative outcomes. Furthermore, one reason why avoidantly attached individuals were more prosocial when they felt appreciated is because they felt more committed to the relationship (Study 2). These findings reveal the importance of feeling appreciated, especially among individuals who typically neglect a partner’s needs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T11:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221122515
       
  • Flynn Collins & Zlatev 2022 Corrigendum

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T04:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221117340
       
  • Lifting Me Up or Tearing You Down' The Role of Prestige and Dominance
           in Benign Versus Malicious Envy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Connor R. Hasty, Sarah E. Ainsworth, Jose L. Martinez, Jon K. Maner
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Dominance and prestige are two strategies people use to regulate their social rank within group hierarchies. Despite a growing literature on dominance- and prestige-oriented leaders, little is known about how those strategies operate among people lower in social rank. Four studies tested the hypothesis that, among subordinates, dominance and prestige are associated with high levels of malicious and benign envy, respectively. Individual differences in prestige were positively and independently associated with benign envy, and negatively associated with malicious envy. Individual differences in dominance were positively and independently associated with both malicious and benign envy. Two experiments demonstrated that activating a prestige-oriented mindset (relative to a dominance-oriented mindset) caused people to display higher levels of benign envy. No experimental effects on malicious envy were observed. Theories of prestige and dominance provide a useful framework for understanding ways in which subordinate group members strive for high social rank.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T10:45:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221113670
       
  • The Multiple-Matching Perspective on Value Versus Identity: Investigating
           How Political Ideology and Party Identity Contribute to Citizens’
           Support for Political Candidates

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hui Bai
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Past studies on how political value (i.e., ideology) and identity (i.e., party identity) predict support for candidates often fail to consider both the perspectives of citizens and candidates, introducing omitted variable problems. To address them, this paper introduces the multiple matching perspective, which considers how citizens’ ideology and political identity are matched (i.e., moderated) by a candidate’s ideology and party affiliation. Four studies using this approach reveal: 1. The effect of ideology match is large, robust, and consistent. 2. candidates’ ideology plays more role than candidates’ party identity except during the final stage of a presidential race. 3. Citizens’ party identity can guide them to support a candidate based on the candidate’s ideology (Republicans will support conservatives), but it is less so for the reverse of it (conservatives do not always support Republicans). Therefore, this approach helps theory-building in political psychology by uncovering novel effects of ideology and partisanship.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T08:46:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221121381
       
  • Examining Beliefs About the Benefits of Self-Affirmation for Mitigating
           Self-Threat

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Stephanie L. Reeves, Tina Nguyen, Abigail A. Scholer, Kentaro Fujita, Steven J. Spencer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Self-affirmation—reflecting on a source of global self-integrity outside of the threatened domain—can mitigate self-threat in education, health, relationships, and more. Whether people recognize these benefits is unknown. Inspired by the metamotivational approach, we examined people’s beliefs about the benefits of self-affirmation and whether individual differences in these beliefs predict how people cope with self-threat. The current research revealed that people recognize that self-affirmation is selectively helpful for self-threat situations compared with other negative situations. However, people on average did not distinguish between self-affirmation and alternative strategies for coping with self-threat. Importantly, individual differences in these beliefs predicted coping decisions: Those who recognized the benefits of self-affirmation were more likely to choose to self-affirm rather than engage in an alternative strategy following an experience of self-threat. We discuss implications for self-affirmation theory and developing interventions to promote adaptive responses to self-threat.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-06T07:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221120612
       
  • Self-Awareness and Stereotypes: Accurate Prediction of Implicit Gender
           Stereotyping

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zahra Rahmani Azad, Alexandra Goedderz, Adam Hahn
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research showing that people can predict the patterns of their implicit evaluations toward social groups has raised questions concerning how widely these findings extend to other domains, such as semantic implicit stereotyping. In a preregistered laboratory study, participants were asked to predict their scores on five implicit gender stereotyping Implicit Associations Tests (IATs). Within-subjects correlations between IAT score predictions and IAT scores showed high levels of accuracy. Although part of the IAT score patterns could be predicted from shared knowledge, own predictions significantly outperformed predictions of random others and normative patterns, suggesting self-awareness beyond reliance on shared knowledge. In line with dual-process models emphasizing that different information is captured by implicit as opposed to explicit measures, predictions explained correlations between implicit and traditional explicit stereotyping measures, and led to acknowledgment of bias. Discussion focuses on understanding conscious awareness of semantic automatic processes and conceptualizations of the cognitions underlying implicit measures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T11:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221120703
       
  • Psychological Distance to Science as a Predictor of Science Skepticism
           Across Domains

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bojana Većkalov, Natalia Zarzeczna, Jonathon McPhetres, Frenk van Harreveld, Bastiaan T. Rutjens
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents and tests psychological distance to science (PSYDISC) as a domain-general predictor of science skepticism. Drawing on the concept of psychological distance, PSYDISC reflects the extent to which individuals perceive science as a tangible undertaking conducted by people similar to oneself (social), with effects in the here (spatial) and now (temporal), and as useful and applicable in the real world (hypothetical distance). In six studies (two preregistered; total N = 1,630) and two countries, we developed and established the factor structure and validity of a scale measuring PSYDISC. Crucially, higher PSYDISC predicted skepticism beyond established predictors, across science domains. A final study showed that PSYDISC shapes real-world behavior (COVID-19 vaccination uptake). This work thus provides a novel tool to predict science skepticism, as well as a construct that can help to further develop a unifying framework to understand science skepticism across domains.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T11:49:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221118184
       
  • Insecure Attachment Orientation in Adults and Children and Negative
           Attribution Bias: A Meta-Analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Danyang Li, Katherine B. Carnelley, Angela C. Rowe
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This is the first meta-analysis to synthesize the literature on insecure attachment and negative attribution bias (NAB) from both developmental and social/personality attachment traditions. This meta-analysis is important because extant studies report inconsistent associations, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the nature of these associations. Based on 41 samples (N = 8,727) from 32 articles, we specify and compare the effect sizes of these associations across studies. Results confirmed positive associations between NAB and anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions and an insecure composite, with a medium effect size. Correlations were moderated by age group, type of attachment measurement, and cultural background. Our findings advance knowledge and build on attachment and attribution theories, reconcile mixed findings, and inform the development of NAB interventions. Important gaps in the literature are revealed that will inspire future research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T11:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221117690
       
  • Definitions of Solitude in Everyday Life

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Netta Weinstein, Heather Hansen, Thuy-vy Nguyen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What does it mean to be in solitude' Researchers building this nascent field are learning much about the potential affordances of solitude, but lack an agreed-upon definition or set of definitions. Arriving at that meaning is crucial to forming a solid foundation for studies that use both naturalistic and laboratory designs to explore outcomes of solitude. This study identified themes from semi-structured interviews with adults aged 19 to 80 from diverse backgrounds. We concluded that solitude is a state in which the dominant relationship is with the self. If not physically alone, people in solitude are mentally distanced from others and away from active technology-mediated interactions. Complete solitude involves both physical separation and inner focus, but solitude is best defined through a taxonomy that recognizes physical separation and internal focus as independent, sufficient characteristics. An internal focus benefits from (but is not defined by) balancing solitude with social time, quiet, and choice.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T11:42:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221115941
       
  • Social-Judgment Comparisons in Daily Life

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sabrina Thai, Penelope Lockwood
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Comparison processes are critical to social judgments, yet little is known about how individuals compare people other than themselves in daily life (social-judgment comparisons). The present research employed a 7-day experience-sampling design (Nparticipants = 93; Nsurveys = 3,960) with end-of-week and 6-month follow-ups, to examine how individuals make social-judgment comparisons in daily life as well as the cumulative impact of these comparisons over time. Participants compared close (vs. distant) contacts more frequently and made more downward than upward comparisons. Furthermore, downward, relative to upward, comparisons predicted more positive perceptions of the contact, greater closeness to the contact, and greater relationship satisfaction. More frequent downward comparisons involving a particular contact also predicted greater closeness 1 week and 6 months later. When participants made upward comparisons, they were motivated to protect close, but not distant, contacts by downplaying domain importance, and engaging in this protective strategy predicted greater closeness to the contact 1 week later.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:33:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221115558
       
  • Rumors in Retweet: Ideological Asymmetry in the Failure to Correct
           Misinformation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Matthew R. DeVerna, Andrew M. Guess, Adam J. Berinsky, Joshua A. Tucker, John T. Jost
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We used supervised machine-learning techniques to examine ideological asymmetries in online rumor transmission. Although liberals were more likely than conservatives to communicate in general about the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings (Study 1, N = 26,422) and 2020 death of the sex trafficker Jeffrey Epstein (Study 2, N = 141,670), conservatives were more likely to share rumors. Rumor-spreading decreased among liberals following official correction, but it increased among conservatives. Marathon rumors were spread twice as often by conservatives pre-correction, and nearly 10 times more often post-correction. Epstein rumors were spread twice as often by conservatives pre-correction, and nearly, eight times more often post-correction. With respect to ideologically congenial rumors, conservatives circulated the rumor that the Clinton family was involved in Epstein’s death 18.6 times more often than liberals circulated the rumor that the Trump family was involved. More than 96% of all fake news domains were shared by conservative Twitter users.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T11:41:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221114222
       
  • “I Think This News Is Accurate”: Endorsing Accuracy Decreases the
           Sharing of Fake News and Increases the Sharing of Real News

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Valerio Capraro, Tatiana Celadin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Accuracy prompts, nudges that make accuracy salient, typically decrease the sharing of fake news, while having little effect on real news. Here, we introduce a new accuracy prompt that is more effective than previous prompts, because it does not only reduce fake news sharing, but it also increases real news sharing. We report four preregistered studies showing that an “endorsing accuracy” prompt (“I think this news is accurate”), placed into the sharing button, decreases fake news sharing, increases real news sharing, and keeps overall engagement constant. We also explore the mechanism through which the intervention works. The key results are specific to endorsing accuracy, rather than accuracy salience, and endorsing accuracy does not simply make participants apply a “source heuristic.” Finally, we use Pennycook et al.’s limited-attention model to argue that endorsing accuracy may work by making people more carefully consider their sharing decisions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T06:00:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221117691
       
  • Authentic for Thee But Not for Me: Perceived Authenticity in Self-Control
           Conflicts

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Katie E. Garrison, Grace N. Rivera, Rebecca J. Schlegel, Joshua A. Hicks, Brandon J. Schmeichel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Is self-control authentic' Across several hypothetical scenarios, participants perceived impulsive actions as more authentic for others (Study 1a) but self-control as more authentic for themselves (Study 1b). Study 2 partially replicated this asymmetry. Study 3 accounted for behavior positivity because self-control was typically the more positive action in the previous studies. Study 4 minimized the influence of positivity by framing the same behaviors as either impulsive or controlled; impulsive actions were deemed more authentic than self-control, but only for other people. An internal meta-analysis controlling for behavior positivity revealed that (a) more positive behaviors are more authentic, and (b) impulsive actions are more authentic than self-controlled actions, especially for others. This actor–observer asymmetry suggests that, even in the face of a strong tendency to perceive positive actions as authentic, there exists a competing tendency to view others’ impulsive actions as more authentic than self-control.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-08-19T07:00:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221118187
       
  • High-Quality Contact With Fellow Majority Group Students Is Associated
           With Better Academic Performance of Minority Group Students

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rotem Kahalon, Nurit Shnabel, Keren Sharvit, Samer Halabi, Stephen C. Wright
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the association between intergroup contact and academic performance at university among minority students in a context with a segregated pre-university school system. Study 1 tested whether participation in a group dynamics course, which involves intimate interpersonal contact between Israeli Arab (n = 125) and Jewish students, was associated with better grade point average (GPA). As expected, Arab students who participated in the course had a higher GPA than those who did not, even when controlling for pre-university achievements. The corresponding difference among Jews was substantially smaller. Study 2 (N = 90), a longitudinal study, revealed that the quality of contact with Jewish students at university was associated with Arab students’ subsequent higher GPA, even when controlling for pre-university contact, proxies of academic achievements, and perceptions of intergroup relations. The quality of contact with Jewish students was also associated with Arab students’ sense of academic belonging. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T10:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221115943
       
  • Closeness Discrepancies in Couple Relationships: A Dyadic Response Surface
           Analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sebastian Pusch, Franz J. Neyer, Birk Hagemeyer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals can differ in the degree of closeness they desire in their romantic relationships: Some people may perceive their current level of closeness as just right, whereas others may feel not close enough or too close to their partners (referred to as negative and positive closeness discrepancy, respectively). This study (N = 1,177 individuals from 748 couples) examined the implications of closeness discrepancies for subjective relationship quality (SRQ) using dyadic response surface analysis. The analyses found evidence for linear, but not broad, closeness discrepancy effects: SRQ was lower for individuals reporting more negative closeness discrepancies and, independent of this actor effect, for individuals with partners who reported more negative closeness discrepancies. These results suggest that low levels of closeness paired with a strong desire for closeness can impair both partners’ relational well-being.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T11:35:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221113981
       
  • Dealing With Increasing Negativity Toward Refugees: A Latent Growth Curve
           Study of Positive and Negative Intergroup Contact and Approach-Avoidance
           Tendencies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sabahat C. Bagci, Gülseli Baysu, Mustafa Tercan, Abbas Turnuklu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Despite increasing contact opportunities, prejudice toward refugees persists, especially in mass immigration contexts. We investigated changes in and associations between Turkish early adolescents’ (N = 687, Mage = 11.11 years) positive and negative contact with Syrian refugees and their outgroup approach-avoidance tendencies over 15 months (three waves). Univariate growth curve models demonstrated a rise in outgroup negativity indicated by increasing negative contact and avoidance tendencies, and decreasing approach tendencies, while positive contact only slightly increased over time (nonsignificantly). Combined latent growth curve models showed that increasing positive contact buffered against increasing outgroup negativity in behavioral tendencies by predicting a less steep decline in approach and a less steep increase in avoidance. Increasing negative contact was positively associated with increasing outgroup negativity so that it predicted a more steep increase in avoidance. Findings underline the importance of early contact interventions that target the fast deterioration of positive intergroup interactions in increasingly hostile intergroup contexts.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T11:14:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221110325
       
  • Low Self-Concept Clarity Inhibits Self-Control: The Mediating Effect of
           Global Self-Continuity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tonglin Jiang, Ting Wang, Kai-Tak Poon, Wangchu Gaer, Xue Wang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Whether and how self-concept clarity (SCC) affects self-control has not been sufficiently explored in empirical research. We proposed that low SCC inhibits self-control through a lower sense of global self-continuity. The results of five studies provided converging support for our mediation model (N = 898). Compared with participants with high SCC, participants with low SCC scored lower on self-control scales (Studies 1 and 2), spent less time practicing to improve their performance on a tedious task (Study 3), and were less likely to stay focused on an ongoing task (Study 4) or to adhere to the exercise plan to stay healthy (Study 5). Global self-continuity mediated the effects of low SCC on self-control (Studies 1–5) even after emotional affect (Study 5) and self-esteem (Studies 4 and 5) were controlled for. These findings highlight the importance of fostering SCC for coping with self-control failures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T11:12:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221109664
       
  • How Rice Fights Pandemics: Nature–Crop–Human Interactions
           Shaped COVID-19 Outcomes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Thomas Talhelm, Cheol-Sung Lee, Alexander S. English, Shuang Wang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Wealthy nations led health preparedness rankings in 2019, yet many poor nations controlled COVID-19 better. We argue that a history of rice farming explains why some societies did better. We outline how traditional rice farming led to tight social norms and low-mobility social networks. These social structures helped coordinate societies against COVID-19. Study 1 compares rice- and wheat-farming prefectures within China. Comparing within China allows for controlled comparisons of regions with the same national government, language family, and other potential confounds. Study 2 tests whether the findings generalize to cultures globally. The data show rice-farming nations have tighter social norms and less-mobile relationships, which predict better COVID outcomes. Rice-farming nations suffered just 3% of the COVID deaths of nonrice nations. These findings suggest that long-run cultural differences influence how rice societies—with over 50% of the world’s population—controlled COVID-19. The culture was critical, yet the preparedness rankings mostly ignored it.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T11:09:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221107209
       
  • Do Agency and Communion Explain the Relationship Between Perceiver and
           Target Effects in Interpersonal Perception' A Meta-Analysis on
           Generalized Reciprocity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Titus Schauf, Michael Dufner, Steffen Nestler, Richard Rau
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This meta-analysis examines generalized reciprocity, that is, the relationship between how people perceive others and how they are perceived by others. It tests the hypothesis that generalized reciprocity varies as a function of the content domain under investigation. Generalized reciprocity for attributes with primarily communal content (e.g., friendliness) was hypothesized to be more positive than generalized reciprocity for attributes with primarily agentic content (e.g., assertiveness). Sixty-four primary studies reporting correlations between perceiver and target effects with a total number of 17,561 participants were included in the analysis. Results of a multilevel meta-analytical random effects model showed that reciprocity correlations were slightly negative, but around zero, for primarily agentic attributes (r = −.05) and became more positive with increasing communal content (up to r = .18 for primarily communal attributes). Generalized reciprocity thus varied depending on the extent to which the regarded attribute is agentic versus communal.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T12:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221107205
       
  • When Objective Ambivalence Predicts Subjective Ambivalence: An
           Affect–Cognition Matching Perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wei Jie Reiner Ng, Ya Hui Michelle See, Laura E. Wallace
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding when people are likely to feel ambivalent is important, as ambivalence is associated with key attitude outcomes, such as attitude-behavior consistency. Interestingly, the presence of conflicting positive and negative reactions (objective ambivalence) is weakly related to feeling conflicted (subjective ambivalence). We tested a novel situation that can influence the correspondence between objective and subjective ambivalence: whether a message and a recipient’s topic match in affective versus cognitive orientation. When a person encounters a message with an affective or cognitive match to the topic, conflicting reactions may be more accessible, increasing feelings of ambivalence. Across five studies, greater objective–subjective ambivalence correspondence occurred with an affective–cognitive match between message and topic orientation. Studies 4 and 5 also demonstrated that this primarily occurred when the message was counterattitudinal. This work contributes to the literature explaining the gap between measures of objective and subjective ambivalence as well as how messages can influence attitude strength properties.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T12:13:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221102015
       
  • The Effect of Counterfactual Potency on Behavioral Intentions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Woo J. Kim, Amy Summerville
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research examines how counterfactual potency (CP), the multiplicative effect of the likelihoods of the “if” and “then” clauses of counterfactuals, determines the effects of counterfactuals on behavioral intentions. In Study 1, we found that participants who read highly (vs. minimally) mutable vignettes perceived the counterfactuals as more likely and endorsed relevant intentions more. However, CP did not mediate the effect of mutability on intentions. In Studies 2 and 3, we found that CP directly affected intentions and also mediated the effects of mutability on intentions when mutability was specifically manipulated via controllability (Study 2) or norm violation (Study 3). Finally, Study 4 used archival reaction time data to show that more concrete counterfactuals were perceived as more likely and subsequently facilitated intentions. Taken together, the current research provides evidence that more likely counterfactuals facilitate behavioral intentions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T05:11:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221105958
       
  • Speak Up! Mistaken Beliefs About How Much to Talk in Conversations

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Quinn Hirschi, Timothy D. Wilson, Daniel T. Gilbert
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We hypothesized that people would exhibit a reticence bias, the incorrect belief that they will be more likable if they speak less than half the time in a conversation with a stranger, as well as halo ignorance, the belief that their speaking time should depend on their goal (e.g., to be liked vs. to be found interesting), when in fact, perceivers form global impressions of each other. In Studies 1 and 2, participants forecasted they should speak less than half the time when trying to be liked, but significantly more when trying to be interesting. In Study 3, we tested the accuracy of these forecasts by randomly assigning participants to speak for 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, or 70% of the time in a dyadic conversation. Contrary to people’s forecasts, they were more likable the more they spoke, and their partners formed global rather than differentiated impressions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T05:09:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221104927
       
  • The Measurement of Racial Colorblindness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bernard E. Whitley, Andrew Luttrell, Tollie Schultz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although there is consensus that the intergroup ideology of multiculturalism is negatively related to prejudice and that assimilation is positively related to prejudice, research regarding the relationship of racial colorblindness to prejudice has produced mixed results. We investigated whether these mixed results might stem from colorblindness being a multifaceted construct despite typically being treated as unidimensional. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of items from existing measures revealed three factors—equality orientation, color evasion, and rejection of racial categorization—from which we created the Multidimensional Assessment of Racial Colorblindness (MARC). Four studies provided evidence for the reliability and construct validity of the MARC and found that its subscales were often differentially related to other variables, including prejudice. We also compared the MARC to another measure of colorblindness, the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS). We discuss the implications of racial colorblindness as a multifaceted construct.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T05:07:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221103414
       
  • Racialized Perceptions of Vegetarianism: Stereotypical Associations That
           Undermine Inclusion in Eating Behaviors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel L. Rosenfeld, Tiffany N. Brannon, A. Janet Tomiyama
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Shifting societal eating patterns toward a vegetarian diet offers promise for improving public health and environmental sustainability. Yet concerns exist about racial disparities in inclusion, as some sentiments suggest that vegetarianism is stereotypically associated with Whiteness. Through four studies (total N = 3,234), we investigated associations U.S. adults hold between race and vegetarianism, along with implications for behavior change and belongingness among Black individuals. Participants, across racial backgrounds, strongly associated vegetarianism with Whiteness, both explicitly and implicitly. A race prime led Black participants to report lower interest in becoming a vegetarian, whereas a prime of race-vegetarianism associations decreased Black participants’ feelings of belongingness in the vegetarian community. Exposure to racially inclusive messaging about vegetarianism, meanwhile, increased belongingness among Black participants. These findings provide the first quantitative insights into racial stereotypes about vegetarianism and pose future directions for theory, research, and practice at the intersections of race and eating behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T12:27:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221099392
       
  • Reading Literary Fiction Is Associated With a More Complex Worldview

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nicholas Buttrick, Erin C. Westgate, Shigehiro Oishi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What are the effects of reading fiction' We propose that literary fiction alters views of the world through its presentation of difference—different minds, different contexts, and different situations—grounding a belief that the social world is complex. Across four studies, two nationally representative and one preregistered (total n = 5,176), we find that the reading of literary fiction in early life is associated with a more complex worldview in Americans: increased attributional complexity, increased psychological richness, decreased belief that contemporary inequalities are legitimate, and decreased belief that people are essentially only one way. By contrast, early-life reading of narrative fiction that presents more standardized plots and characters, such as romance novels, predict holding a less complex worldview.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T09:00:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221106059
       
  • A Longitudinal Test of the Conservative-Liberal Well-Being Gap

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Salvador Vargas Salfate, Sammyh S. Khan, James H. Liu, Homero Gil de Zúñiga
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we test if conservatism predicts psychological well-being longitudinally. We based the study on previous findings showing that conservatives score higher on different measures of well-being, such as life satisfaction and happiness. Most explanations in the literature have assumed that conservatism antecedes well-being without considering the alternative—that well-being may predict conservatism. In Study 1, using multilevel cross-lagged panel models with a two-wave longitudinal sample consisting of data from 19 countries (N = 8,740), we found that conservatism did not predict well-being over time. We found similar results in Study 2 (N = 2,554), using random-intercept cross-lagged panel models with a four-wave longitudinal sample from Chile. We discuss the main implications of these results for the literature examining the association between conservatism and well-being.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T08:58:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221096587
       
  • What Makes Touch Comfortable' An Examination of Touch Giving and
           Receiving in Two Cultures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Annett Schirmer, Clare Cham, Zihao Zhao, Ilona Croy
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined how touch role and culture shape affective touch experiences. Germans (N = 130) and Chinese (N = 130) were surveyed once as toucher and once as touchee. For different touch actions, they (a) provided free-text descriptions of what prompts touch, (b) indicated with whom touch feels comfortable, and (c) highlighted areas of touch comfort on a body outline. Overall, touch was prompted by affectionate feelings, was more comfortable with more closely bonded individuals, and when directed at the upper arms, shoulders, and upper back. Touch role mattered for the experiences prompting touch in that touchees felt less positive than touchers. Culture differentiated touch comfort topographies. Compared with Chinese, Germans felt more comfortable with more intimate touch to the torso and upper back and less comfortable with more public touch to the hands. Notably, however, examining touch role and culture revealed more overlap than divergence, ensuring mutual comfort as individuals physically connect.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T05:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221105966
       
  • Deontology and Utilitarianism in Real Life: A Set of Moral Dilemmas Based
           on Historic Events

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anita Körner, Roland Deutsch
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Moral dilemmas are frequently used to examine psychological processes that drive decisions between adhering to deontological norms and optimizing the outcome. However, commonly used dilemmas are generally unrealistic and confound moral principle and (in)action so that results obtained with these dilemmas might not generalize to other situations. In the present research, we introduce new dilemmas that are based on real-life events. In two studies (a European student sample and a North American MTurk sample, total N = 789), we show that the new factual dilemmas were perceived to be more realistic and less absurd than commonly used dilemmas. In addition, factual dilemmas induced higher participant engagement. From this, we draw the preliminary conclusion that factual dilemmas are more suitable for investigating moral cognition. Moreover, factual dilemmas can be used to examine the generalizability of previous results concerning action (vs. inaction) and concerning a wider range of deontological norms.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T04:46:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221103058
       
  • Strategic Mindsets and Support for Social Change: Impact Mindset Explains
           Support for Black Lives Matter Across Racial Groups

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Preeti Vani, Shilaan Alzahawi, Jennifer E. Dannals, Nir Halevy
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How does the self-relevance of a social movement shape individuals’ engagement with it' We examined the decision-making processes that underlie support for Black Lives Matter (BLM) among Black, Hispanic, Asian, and White Americans. We find significant between-group differences in levels of support for BLM, both in terms of past behavior (Study 1) and in terms of future intentions to support the movement (Study 2). These differences notwithstanding, thinking about how one’s decisions impact others - which we label impact mindset - explains support for BLM across racial groups, cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally (over 8 months later). Our findings underscore the equivalence of the impact mindset construct across racial groups and its predictive power in the context of BLM. We conclude that, although the struggle for racial justice has different meanings for different racial groups, the same mindset underlies both in-group advocacy and allyship in the context of BLM.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T04:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221099710
       
  • Individual Differences in Implicit Bias Can Be Measured Reliably by
           Administering the Same Implicit Association Test Multiple Times

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Thomas P. Carpenter, Alexandra Goedderz, Calvin K. Lai
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The use of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of individual differences is stymied by insufficient test–retest reliability for assessing trait-level constructs. We assess the degree to which the IAT measures individual differences and test a method to improve its validity as a “trait” measure: aggregating across IATs. Across three studies, participants (total n = 960) completed multiple IATs in the same session or across multiple sessions. Using latent-variable models, we found that half of the variance in IAT scores reflects individual differences. Aggregating across multiple IATs approximately doubled the variance explained with explicit measures compared with a single IAT D-score. These findings show that IAT scores contain considerable noise and that a single IAT is inadequate to estimate trait bias. However, aggregation across multiple administrations can correct this and better estimate individual differences in implicit attitudes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T04:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221099372
       
  • Spontaneous Trait Inferences From Behavior: A Systematic Meta-Analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Antonia Bott, Larissa Brockmann, Ivo Denneberg, Espen Henken, Niclas Kuper, Felix Kruse, Juliane Degner
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that people spontaneously infer traits from behavioral information, thus forming impressions of actors’ personalities. Such spontaneous trait inferences (STI) have been examined in a wide range of studies in the last four decades. Here, we provide the first systematic meta-analysis of this vast literature. We included data from k = 86 publications, with overall N = 13,630 participants. The average STI effect was moderate to large (dz = 0.59) and showed substantial heterogeneity. The type of experimental paradigm significantly moderated the STI effect size, with larger effects in long-term memory–based paradigms compared with working memory–based paradigms. Generally, STI effects were robust to various methodological variations and also to potential concerns of publication bias. Contrary to expectations, cultural background (independent vs. interdependent) did not emerge as a significant moderator of STI effects. We discuss these findings with respect to their theoretical relevance and derive implications for future research and theorizing.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T03:51:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221100336
       
  • A Bias Toward Kindness Goals in Performance Feedback to Women (vs. Men)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lily Jampol, Aneeta Rattan, Elizabeth Baily Wolf
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      While research has documented positivity biases in workplace feedback to women versus men, this phenomenon is not fully understood. We take a motivational perspective, theorizing that the gender stereotype of warmth shapes feedback givers’ goals, amplifying the importance placed on kindness when giving critical feedback to a woman versus a man. We found support for this hypothesis in a survey of professionals giving real developmental feedback (Study 1, N = 4,842 raters evaluating N = 423 individuals) and five experiments with MBA students, lab participants, and managers (Studies 2–5, N = 1,589). Across studies, people prioritized the goal of kindness more when they gave, or anticipated giving, critical feedback to a woman versus a man. Studies 1, 3, and 5 suggest that this kindness bias relates to gendered positivity biases, and Studies 4a and 4b tested potential mechanisms and supported an indirect effect through warmth. We discuss implications for the study of motivation and workplace gender bias.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T03:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221088402
       
  • Emotion Appraisals and Coping with Secrets

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zaijia Liu, Elise K. Kalokerinos, Michael L. Slepian
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Secrecy is both common and consequential. Recent work suggests that personal experiences with secrets (i.e., mind-wandering to them outside of concealment contexts), rather than concealment (within conversations), can explain the harms of secrecy. Recent work has also demonstrated that secrecy is associated with emotions that center on self-evaluation—shame and guilt. These emotions may help explain the harms of secrecy and provide a point of intervention to improve coping with secrecy. Four studies with 800 participants keeping over 10,500 secrets found that shame surrounding a secret is associated with lower perceived coping efficacy and reduced well-being. Moreover, shifting appraisals away from shame improved perceptions of efficacy in coping with secrets, which was linked with higher well-being. These studies suggest that emotions surrounding secrets can harm well-being and highlight avenues for intervention.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T03:48:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221085377
       
  • Connection Heals Wounds: Feeling Listened to Reduces Speakers’
           Loneliness Following a Social Rejection Disclosure

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Guy Itzchakov, Netta Weinstein, Dvori Saluk, Moty Amar
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Memories of rejection contribute to feeling lonely. However, high-quality listening that conveys well-meaning attention and understanding when speakers discuss social rejection may help them to reconnect. Speakers may experience less loneliness because they feel close and connected (relatedness) to the listener and because listening supports self-congruent expression (autonomy). Five experiments (total N = 1,643) manipulated listening during visualized (Studies 1, 4, 5) and actual (Studies 2, 3) conversations. We used different methods (video vignettes; in-person; computer-mediated; recall; written scenarios) to compare high-quality with regular (all studies) and poor (Study 1) listening. Findings across studies showed that high-quality listening reduced speakers’ state loneliness after they shared past experiences of social rejection. Parallel mediation analyses indicated that both feeling related to the listener and autonomy satisfaction (particularly its self-congruence component; Study 5) mediated the effect of listening on loneliness. These results provide novel insights into the hitherto unexplored effect of listening on state loneliness.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T09:48:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221100369
       
  • Connecting Attitude Position and Function: The Role of Self-Esteem

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Thomas I. Vaughan-Johnston, Devin I. Fowlie, Jill A. Jacobson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Attitude position and function often are discussed as though they are distinct aspects of attitudes, but scholars have become increasingly interested in how they may interface. We extend existing work showing that people view their positive attitudes as more self-defining than their negative attitudes (i.e., the positivity effect). All datasets support that the positivity effect emerged most strongly among high self-esteem individuals and was attenuated, eliminated, or even reversed among low self-esteem individuals. Furthermore, Study 4 uses a broad array of individual difference measures to triangulate that the higher self-enhancement motivation associated with high self-esteem, rather than merely the positive self-worth of high self-esteem people, is responsible for moderating the positivity effect. In sum, the present work establishes boundary conditions for an important phenomenon in the attitudes literature, develops understanding of the far-ranging implications of trait self-esteem, and illuminates the psychological motivations that connect attitude position and function.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T09:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221100866
       
  • Perceiving People With Physical Disabilities as Overcoming Adversity Warps
           Mind Perception

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mattea Sim, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across six studies, we tested how people with physical disabilities were ascribed mental faculties. People with physical disabilities were seen as more capable of mental agency (e.g., thinking), but not more capable of experience (e.g., pain), compared to nondisabled people (Study 1). People with physical disabilities were also seen as more capable of supernatural mental agency (e.g., seeing the future, reading minds; Study 2). Believing that people with physical disabilities were more mentally agentic than nondisabled people was unrelated to Beliefs in a Just World (Study 3) but was related to beliefs about hardship (Study 4). Narratives of overcoming adversity, common in portrayals of the disabled community, increased the perceived mental sophistication of people with physical disabilities (Study 5). Finally, hardship narratives also affected helping behavior toward people with physical disabilities (Study 6). Thus, hardship stories surrounding individuals with disabilities may contribute to beliefs that they have particularly sophisticated minds.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T10:33:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221099378
       
  • The Progressive Values Scale: Assessing the Ideological Schism on the Left

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Travis Proulx, Vlad Costin, Elena Magazin, Natalia Zarzeczna, Geoffrey Haddock
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Progressivism has increasingly challenged traditional liberalism as the dominant influence within left-wing ideology. Across four studies, we developed a measure—the Progressive Values Scale (PVS)—that characterizes distinctly progressive values within the left-wing. In Study 1, left-wing participants evaluated divisive issues, with four scale factors emerging. In Study 2, we confirmed this factor structure and included a battery of personality and values measures to explore individual differences among those who maintain a progressive worldview. In Study 3, we achieved final confirmation of the factor structure and validated the ability of the PVS to assess a distinctly progressive perspective, insofar as progressives generated prototypical faces for Liberals and Conservatives that were markedly distinct from those generated by traditional liberals. In Study 4, we distinguished the PVS from measures of left-wing authoritarianism and demonstrated that it is a better predictor of progressive political preferences and social judgments.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T06:38:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221097529
       
  • Effects of Mass Shootings on Mental Illness Stigma in the United States

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Miranda L. Beltzer, Robert G. Moulder, Casey Baker, Kara Comer, Bethany A. Teachman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although the vast majority of people with mental illness (PWMI) are not violent, Americans tend to think they are more dangerous than the general population. Because negative media portrayals may contribute to stigma, we used time-series analyses to examine changes in the public’s perceived dangerousness of PWMI around six mass shootings whose perpetrators were reported to have a mental illness. From 2011 to 2019, 38,094 U.S. participants completed an online study assessing implicit and explicit perceived dangerousness of PWMI. There were large, upward spikes in perceived dangerousness the week of the Sandy Hook mass shooting that were relatively short-lived. However, there was not a consistent pattern of effects for other events analyzed, and any other spikes observed were smaller. Effects tended to be larger for explicit versus implicit perceived dangerousness. Sandy Hook seemed to temporarily worsen perceived dangerousness of PWMI, but this pattern was not observed for other mass shootings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T07:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221097180
       
  • Dismissing Attachment and Global and Daily Indicators of Subjective
           Well-Being: An Experience Sampling Approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Keely A. Dugan, Faaiza Khan, R. Chris Fraley
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research examined whether a dismissing attachment style (i.e., being high in attachment avoidance and low in attachment anxiety) is a risk factor for low subjective well-being (SWB). Specifically, we examined the associations between dismissing attachment and two indicators of SWB: global life satisfaction and daily affect. Self-reports of attachment and overall life satisfaction were collected from 257 adults at an initial lab session. Afterward, experience sampling methodology was used to gather repeated measures of positive and negative affect, as well as social context, from the sample for 8 days. Our findings indicate that, on average, dismissing people reported fairly modest levels of overall life satisfaction. Moreover, they experienced relatively low levels of both negative affect and positive affect across the 8-day study period. Overall, our results suggest that dismissing people have a “muted” or dull emotional life.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T12:10:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221089781
       
  • Cultural Differences in Rumination and Psychological Correlates: The Role
           of Attribution

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jeong Ha (Steph) Choi, Yuri Miyamoto
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Cross-cultural research suggests that rumination may have weaker maladaptive effects in Eastern than in Western cultural contexts. This study examines a mechanism underlying cultural differences in mental health correlates of rumination from sociocultural cognitive perspective. We propose that cultures differ in how people attribute rumination, which can lead to cultural differences in the link between rumination and mental health correlates. We developed the Attribution of Rumination scale, tested cultural differences (Study 1), and examined its relationship with theoretically related constructs (Study 2). In Study 3, self-doubt attribution moderated the association between rumination and mental health, partly explaining cultural differences in the rumination–mental health link. Study 4 replicated self-doubt attribution moderating the link between rumination and mental health among Asians. Furthermore, greater exposure to American culture was associated with self-doubt attribution. This work provides a novel approach to understanding cultural differences in the association between rumination and negative psychological correlates.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T12:06:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221089061
       
  • Intolerance of Transgressive Protest Actions: The Differential Roles of
           Deontological and Utilitarian Morality

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maykel Verkuyten, Levi Adelman, Kumar Yogeeswaran
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current research examines intolerance of protest actions by focusing on two major questions: (a) How intolerant are people of transgressive protest actions of their least-liked versus most-liked groups' and (b) how do individual differences in deontological and utilitarian moral predisposition relate to intolerance of transgressive protest actions by these two groups' In two survey-embedded experiments using nationally representative samples from two West European countries (Germany, Netherlands), we found that people were overwhelmingly intolerant of morally transgressive protest actions by both their most-liked and least-liked groups, although slightly less so for the former. In addition, deontological moral predisposition was related to increased intolerance of protest actions regardless of whether it was committed by a most-liked or least-liked group. Individual difference in utilitarian moral predisposition was related to increased acceptance of protest actions regardless of group, but especially when the actions were perceived as serving the greater good.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T11:53:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221099709
       
  • Don’t Go Chasing Narcissists: A Relational-Based and Multiverse
           Perspective on Leader Narcissism and Follower Engagement Using a Machine
           Learning Approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dritjon Gruda, Dimitra Karanatsiou, Paul Hanges, Jennifer Golbeck, Athena Vakali
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although research interest in leader narcissism has been on the rise over the past few years, prior literature has predominantly discussed leader narcissism from a leader-centric perspective. In this article, we provide a relational-based perspective of leader narcissism by examining the interaction between follower personality traits and leader narcissism on follower engagement in an online context. We combine a machine learning (ML) approach and multiverse analysis to predict the personality traits of a large sample of leaders and engaged followers across 18 created multiverses and analyze hypothesized interactions using multilevel regressions, also accounting for leader gender moderation effects. We find that the interaction between leader narcissism and follower agreeableness and follower neuroticism positively predicts follower engagement, whereas the interaction between leader narcissism and follower openness negatively predicts follower engagement. In addition, we find that leader gender plays an important moderating role. Limitations and implications are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T01:59:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221094976
       
  • Collaborative Cheating in Hierarchical Teams: Effects of Incentive
           Structure and Leader Behavior on Subordinate Behavior and Perceptions of
           Leaders

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Simon Tobias Karg, Minjae Kim, Panagiotis Mitkidis, Liane Young
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What facilitates collaborative cheating in hierarchical teams, and what are its outcomes for those engaged' In two preregistered studies (N = 724), we investigated how subordinates are influenced by leaders signaling a willingness to engage in collaborative cheating, and how subordinates perceive such leaders. Participants performed a task in which they could either report their performance honestly, or cheat for financial gain. Each participant was assigned a leader who could choose to check the report’s veracity. In Study 1, leaders who checked less often were perceived as more moral, trustworthy, competent, and psychologically closer than leaders who checked more often. This trustworthiness bonus translated to investments in a subsequent trust game. Study 2 revealed that these relationship benefits specifically arise for collaborative cheating, compared to competitive cheating (at the leader’s expense). We conclude that collaborative cheating in subordinate–leader dyads strengthens in-group bonds, bringing people closer together and cultivating trust.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T01:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221090859
       
  • Religious Afterlife Beliefs Decrease Behavioral Avoidance of Symbols of
           Mortality

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xiaoyue Fan, Tianyu Gao, Siyang Luo, Michele J. Gelfand, Shihui Han
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      An astonishing cultural phenomenon is where, far away from or close to a city center, people in different societies localize cemeteries that function as both sites of memory of lost ones and symbols of mortality. Yet a psychological account of such differences in behavioral responses to symbols of mortality is lacking. Across five studies (N = 1,590), we tested a psychological model that religious afterlife beliefs decrease behavioral avoidance of symbols of mortality (BASM) by developing and validating a word-position task for quantifying BASM. We showed evidence that religious believers, including Christians, Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists, exhibited decreased BASM relative to nonbelievers. We also provide evidence for a causal relationship between religious afterlife beliefs and reduced BASM. Our findings provide new insight into the functional role of religious afterlife beliefs in modulating human avoidance behavior in response to symbols of mortality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T05:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221096281
       
  • Differentiating Between Belief-Indicative and Status-Indicative Groups
           Improves Predictions of Intergroup Attitudes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lusine Grigoryan, Bethan H. Jones, J. Christopher Cohrs, Klaus Boehnke, Matthew J. Easterbrook
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Ingroup bias is often treated as the default outcome of intergroup comparisons. We argue that the mechanisms of impression formation depend on what information people infer from groups. We differentiate between belief-indicative groups that are more informative of beliefs and affect attitudes through ingroup bias and status-indicative groups that are more informative of status and affect attitudes through a preference for higher status. In a cross-cultural factorial experiment (Ntotal = 1,281), we demonstrate that when information about targets’ multiple group memberships is available, belief-indicative groups affect attitudes via ingroup bias, whereas status-indicative groups—via preference for higher status. These effects were moderated by social-structural context. In two follow-up studies (Ntotal = 451), we develop and validate a measure of belief- and status-indicativeness (BISI) of groups. BISI showed expected correlations with related constructs of entitativity and essentialism. Belief-indicativeness of groups was a better predictor of ingroup bias than entitativity and essentialism.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T06:14:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221092852
       
  • Protected by the Emotions of the Group: Perceived Emotional Fit and
           Disadvantaged Group Members’ Activist Burnout

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daan Vandermeulen, Siwar Hasan Aslih, Eric Shuman, Eran Halperin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Psychological processes that hamper activism, such as activist burnout, threaten social change. We suggest that perceived emotional fit (i.e., perceiving to experience similar emotions as other disadvantaged group members) may buffer activist burnout by mitigating the deleterious effects of stressors that are associated with partaking in collective action. We investigated the relation between perceived emotional fit and activist burnout using three-wave longitudinal survey data of Palestinians in the context of the Palestinian–Israeli conflict. We hypothesized that both higher general tendencies to fit emotionally with the ingroup (general perceived emotional fit) and increases over time in perceived emotional fit (change perceived emotional fit) would relate negatively to activist burnout. Supporting our hypotheses, both aspects of emotional fit were associated with lower activist burnout, even when controlling for classical predictors of collective action. This research highlights perceived emotional fit as an additional dimension to the role of emotions for sustainable collective action.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T08:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221092853
       
  • Gratitude Is Morally Sensitive

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hongbo Yu, Yubo Zhou, Anne-Marie Nussberger
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Helping acts, however well intended and beneficial, sometimes involve immoral means or immoral helpers. Here, we explore whether help recipients consider moral evaluations in their appraisals of gratitude, a possibility that has been neglected by existing accounts of gratitude. Participants felt less grateful and more uneasy when offered immoral help (Study 1, N = 150), and when offered morally neutral help by an immoral helper (Study 2, N = 172). In response to immoral help or helpers, participants were less likely to accept the help and less willing to strengthen their relationship with the helper even when they accepted it. Study 3 (N = 276) showed that recipients who felt grateful when offered immoral help were perceived as less likable, less moral, and less suitable as close relationship partners than those who felt uneasy by observers. Our results demonstrate that gratitude is morally sensitive and suggest this might be socially adaptive.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T02:40:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221092273
       
  • Negotiator Consistency, Counterpart Consistency, and Reciprocity in
           Behavior Across Partners: A Round-Robin Study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Jared R. Curhan, Noah Eisenkraft
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research takes a new perspective on the long-standing mystery of personality in negotiation, which has seen decades of null and inconsistent findings. Grounded in interactionist theories defining personality as consistency in behaviors when placed multiple times in the same situation, the investigation examines consistency in individuals’ behavioral profiles across negotiation partners. Such consistency supports efforts to identify enduring dispositions that can predict objective and subjective outcomes. A comprehensive set of behaviors related to negotiation was coded in a round-robin study using groups of four negotiators who each took turns working with each other person. Analysis using Kenny’s Social Relations Model revealed evidence for extensive actor effects (indicating consistency in negotiators’ behavior), as well as moderate partner effects (indicating consistency in counterparts’ behavior) and dyadic reciprocity (indicating similarity in the behavior of negotiators and counterparts). We conclude with optimism for investigating the effects of personality in negotiation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T04:36:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086197
       
  • The Unintentional Nonconformist: Habits Promote Resistance to Social
           influence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Asaf Mazar, Guy Itzchakov, Alicea Lieberman, Wendy Wood
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research tests a novel source of resistance to social influence—the automatic repetition of habit. In three experiments, participants with strong habits failed to align their behavior with others. Specifically, participants with strong habits to drink water in a dining hall or snack while working did not mimic others’ drinking or eating, whereas those with weak habits conformed. Similarly, participants with strong habits did not shift expectations that they would act in line with descriptive norms, whereas those with weak habits reported more normative behavioral expectations. This habit resistance was not due to a failure to perceive influence: Both strong and weak habit participants’ recalled others’ behavior accurately, and it was readily accessible. Furthermore, strong habit participants shifted their normative beliefs but not behavior in line with descriptive norms. Thus, habits create behavioral resistance despite people’s recognition and acceptance of social influence.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T09:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086177
       
  • People See Political Opponents as More Stupid Than Evil

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rachel Hartman, Neil Hester, Kurt Gray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Affective polarization is a rising threat to political discourse and democracy. Public figures have expressed that “conservatives think liberals are stupid, and liberals think conservatives are evil.” However, four studies (N = 1,660)—including a representative sample—reveal evidence that both sides view political opponents as more unintelligent than immoral. Perceiving the other side as “more stupid than evil” occurs both in general judgments (Studies 1, 3, and 4) and regarding specific issues (Study 2). Study 4 also examines “meta-perceptions” of how Democrats and Republicans disparage one another, revealing that people correctly perceive that both Democrats and Republicans see each other as more unintelligent than immoral, although they exaggerate the extent of this negativity. These studies clarify the way everyday partisans view each other, an important step in designing effective interventions to reduce political animosity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:41:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221089451
       
  • To Lead, or to Follow' How Self-Uncertainty and the Dark Triad of
           Personality Influence Leadership Motivation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Laura Guillén, Philippe Jacquart, Michael A. Hogg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Under uncertainty, leaders who possess dark triad personality traits seem able to attain leadership positions. We draw on uncertainty-identity theory and dark triad research to explore the effect of self-uncertainty on leadership motivation. Uncertainty-identity theory predicts that people can reduce self-uncertainty by identifying with groups and following their leaders, which suggests that self-uncertainty reduces people’s own leadership motivation. However, individuals high in dark triad traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) have such a powerful drive for dominance over others that their leadership motivation may be unaffected by self-uncertainty. To test these predictions, we conducted four studies (Ns = 2,641, 421, 513, and 400). We found that self-uncertainty reduced leadership motivation for individuals low in the dark triad. In contrast, those high in the dark triad had an elevated leadership motivation that remained unaltered when they were self-uncertain. These effects were mediated by participants’ negative affect. We discuss the implications of these findings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:38:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086771
       
  • The Effects of Partner Extraversion and Agreeableness on Trust

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Olga Stavrova, Anthony M. Evans, Ilja van Beest
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research has documented the social benefits (i.e., higher popularity and liking) of extraversion and agreeableness. Do these positive reputational consequences extend to social dilemma situations that require trust' We found that people do not trust extraverts more than introverts. Instead, people’s trust decisions are guided by their partner’s level of agreeableness. In a trust game (Studies 1 and 2), individuals were more likely to trust a partner who was described as agreeable (vs. disagreeable); and, in a laboratory study of work groups, participants trusted more (vs. less) agreeable group members (Study 3). Individuals anticipated others’ preferences for agreeable partners and tried to come across as more agreeable, but not more extraverted, in social dilemmas (Study 4). These findings suggest that the social benefits of agreeableness (but not extraversion) extend to social interactions involving trust and highlight the importance of target personality traits in shaping trust decisions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086768
       
  • Support for Social Change Among Members of Advantaged Groups: The Role of
           a Dual Identity Representation and Accepting Intergroup Contact

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lisa Katharina Frisch, Simone Sebben, Luisa Liekefett, Nurit Shnabel, Emilio Paolo Visintin, Johannes Ullrich, Tabea Hässler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This preregistered research analyzed survey data from ethnic and religious advantaged groups in 12 countries (N = 2,304) to examine the interplay between two determinants of support for social change toward intergroup equality. Drawing on the needs-based model and the common-ingroup identity model, we hypothesized that the experience of accepting intergroup contact and the endorsement of a dual identity representation of intergroup relations would be associated with greater support for equality. Furthermore, integrating the logic of both models, we tested the novel hypothesis that the positive effect of accepting contact on support for equality would be stronger under a high (vs. low) dual identity representation. While the predicted main effects received empirical support, we found no evidence for the expected interaction. These findings suggest that interventions to foster support for social change among advantaged group members can promote accepting contact and a dual identity representation independently of each other.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086380
       
  • The Maintenance of the U.S. Racial Hierarchy Through Judgments of
           Multiracial People Based on Proximity to Whiteness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maria M. Garay, Jennifer M. Perry, Jessica D. Remedios
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has argued that a growing multiracial population will blur boundaries between racial groups, reducing racism and improving interracial relations. However, this is unlikely to happen if multiracial groups are judged according to their proximity to Whiteness. We examined how having White ancestry shapes status perceptions of multiracial groups. Studies 1 and 2 showed that multiracial groups with White ancestry (e.g., Black/White) are considered higher status than dual minority multiracial (e.g., Black/Latinx) and monoracial minority (e.g., Black) groups. Study 3 revealed that multiracial groups with White ancestry are perceived as more competent and warmer than monoracial minority and dual minority multiracial groups, leading to higher status perceptions for multiracial groups with White ancestry. Thus, multiracial people, like other racial minorities, may be judged according to White, Eurocentric standards. The results imply that, without anti-racist intervention, the treatment of multiracial people will reinforce, rather than challenge, the existing racial hierarchy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T10:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086175
       
  • Perceived and Ideal Inequality in University Endowments in the United
           States

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Martin V. Day, Michael I. Norton
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Whether and which university to attend are among the most financially consequential choices most people make. Universities with relatively larger endowments can offer better education experiences, which can drive inequality in students’ subsequent outcomes. We first explore three interrelated questions: the current educational inequality across U.S. universities, people’s perceptions of this inequality, and their desired inequality. Educational inequality is large: the top 20% of universities have 80% of the total university endowment wealth while the bottom 20% have around 1%. Studies 1 to 3 demonstrated that people underestimate university endowment inequality and desire more equality. These perceptions and ideals were mostly unaffected by contextual factors (e.g., salience of endowment consequences, distribution range) and were not well explained by participants’ demographics. Finally, Study 4 revealed that learning about current endowment inequality decreased tolerance of the distribution of university wealth. We discuss the implications of awareness of educational inequality for behaviors and educational policies.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T12:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221083766
       
  • Routines and Meaning in Life: Does Activity Content or Context Matter'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fahima Mohideen, Samantha J. Heintzelman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People feel that their lives are more meaningful while engaging in behaviors more closely aligned with their routines. Does the behavioral content of these routines and the contextual factors surrounding their enactment matter for this relationship' In two experience sampling studies (N = 93, 1,512 episodes; N = 97, 1,629 episodes), we test whether the relationship between routines and meaning in life (MIL) depends on the content of the activities. We found that the degree to which one’s current activity is a routine positively related to momentary MIL beyond other meaningful features (e.g., relationships, goals, prosociality) of that activity. We conducted Study 2 in the context of mass routine disruptions of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found even stronger relationships between routine enactment and concurrent MIL in this context which held controlling for factors, including perceived chaos, mood, and anxiety. These findings suggest that routines uniquely relate to MIL, beyond the meaningfulness of their content and across contexts.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T04:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221085797
       
  • Everyday Perceiver-Context Influences on Impression Formation: No Evidence
           of Consistent Effects

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sally Y. Xie, Sabrina Thai, Eric Hehman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Facial impressions (e.g., trustworthy, intelligent) vary considerably across different perceivers and targets. However, nearly all existing research comes from participants evaluating faces on a computer screen in a lab or office environment. We explored whether social perceptions could additionally be influenced by perceivers’ experiential factors that vary in daily life: mood, environment, physiological state, and psychological situations. To that end, we tracked daily changes in participants’ experienced contexts during impression formation using experience sampling. We found limited evidence that perceivers’ contexts are an important factor in impressions. Perceiver context alone does not systematically influence trait impressions in a consistent manner—suggesting that perceiver and target idiosyncrasies are the most powerful drivers of social impressions. Overall, results suggest that perceivers’ experienced contexts may play only a small role in impressions formed from faces.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T01:02:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221085088
       
  • Affectionate Touch Promotes Shared Positive Activities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Brett K. Jakubiak, Julian D. Fuentes, Brooke C. Feeney
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Shared positive activities, such as engaging conversations and interactive play, enhance relationships and buffer the consequences of negative interactions. The current research tested whether affectionate touch (a prime target for intervention) encourages people to prioritize other shared positive activities and to view shared activities more positively. In a pre-registered dyadic diary study of married couples (Study 1), greater affectionate touch on one day predicted increases in shared positive activities concurrently and prospectively. In a pre-registered dyadic experiment (Study 2), a brief affectionate touch intervention increased self-reported (but not observer-rated) shared positive activities immediately and increased shared positive activities over the following week for people who do not typically engage in such activities. Participants assigned to touch (particularly those low in attachment anxiety) also perceived their partners more positively during shared activities. These results suggest that touch may facilitate positive relationship experiences broadly and supports a theoretical model of affectionate touch.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T07:02:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221083764
       
  • Personality Traits Predict Social Network Size in Older Adults

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jasmine Rollings, Jérôme Micheletta, Darren Van Laar, Bridget M. Waller
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Humans live in unusually large groups, where relationships are thought to be maintained through complex socio-communicative abilities. The size and quality of social networks are associated with health and well-being outcomes throughout life. However, how some individuals manage to form larger social networks is not well understood. If socio-communicative traits evolved to form and maintain relationships, personality traits should be associated with variation in network size. Here, using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we investigate the impact of extraversion, agreeableness, and verbal communication on network size (N = 5,202) and network size change over time (N = 1,511) in later life for kin and friend networks. Higher levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with greater social network sizes but did not predict network size change over 14 years. The findings are discussed considering the evolutionary hypothesis that communicative and affiliative traits may have evolved to support the maintenance of social networks.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T09:05:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221078664
       
  • Categorizing a Face and Facing a Category: The Constructive Impacts of
           Ambiguity and Uncertainty in Racial Categorization

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Aharon Levy, Christine Nguyen, Michael L. Slepian, Sarah Gaither, Kristin Pauker, John F. Dovidio
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The past generation has seen a dramatic rise in multiracial populations and a consequent increase in exposure to individuals who challenge monolithic racial categories. We examine and compare two potential outcomes of the multiracial population growth that may impact people’s racial categorization experience: (a) exposure to racially ambiguous faces that visually challenge the existing categories, and (b) a category that conceptually challenges existing categories (including “biracial” as an option in addition to the monolithic “Black” and “White” categories). Across four studies (N = 1,810), we found that multiple exposures to faces that are racially ambiguous directly lower essentialist views of race. Moreover, we found that when people consider a category that blurs the line between racial categories (i.e., “biracial”), they become less certain in their racial categorization, which is associated with less race essentialism, as well. Importantly, we found that these two effects happen independently from one another and represent two distinct cognitive processes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T10:41:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221084537
       
  • Does Connectedness Need Satisfaction Diminish or Promote Social Goal
           Striving'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jianning Dang, Li Liu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People pursue social goals primarily to satisfy their innate need for affiliation; however, there is no consensus regarding how the successful fulfillment of affiliation need—social connectedness—influences striving for social goals. To address this issue, we proposed a dual-pathway model postulating both a negative effect of social connectedness on social goal striving via decreased emotional distress and a positive effect via increased social self-efficacy. Six studies (total N = 1,849), using cross-sectional, experimental, and daily diary methods, provided support for this model at both the between- and within-person levels. Furthermore, by distinguishing between approach and avoidance social goal strivings, and between deficit-reduction and growth connectedness need orientations, we found that the relative strength with which each path operates differed. The dual-pathway model generates theoretical and practical implications for need satisfaction and goal striving.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T07:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221084539
       
  • Restless in an Unequal World: Economic Inequality Fuels the Desire for
           Wealth and Status

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zhechen Wang, Jolanda Jetten, Niklas K. Steffens
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Building on theories explaining social outcomes of economic inequality, our research examined the psychological impact of inequality on the desire for wealth and status. Our studies provide both experimental (Studies 1 and 3, Ns = 321 and 596) and correlational (Study 2; N = 141,477 from 73 countries and regions) evidence that higher inequality heightens people’s desire for wealth and status. Notably, this effect of inequality on desire is independent of the influence of societal wealth. Moreover, our results reveal social class differences in why inequality fuels motivations: Lower-class individuals are more likely to respond to higher inequality with a heightened desire reflecting self-improvement concerns, whereas upper-class individuals are more likely to respond with a heightened desire reflecting social comparison concerns. These findings suggest that higher inequality creates an environment of restlessness in which both the poor and the rich feel obliged to seek wealth and status, albeit for different reasons.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T06:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221083747
       
  • How Relationships Foster Growth: Compassionate Goals Predict
           Growth-Seeking Through Perceived Available Support Independent of
           Relationship Security

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tao Jiang, Amy Canevello, Jennifer Crocker
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Growth-seeking refers to a general tendency to pursue growth when facing challenges. The current studies examined whether and how benevolent intentions to support others and not harm them (i.e., compassionate goals in relationships) predict growth-seeking and whether this association is independent of relationship security, which may also predict growth-seeking. Two cross-sectional studies (Studies 1a and 1b, N = 1,032) and two longitudinal studies (Study 2: 3-wave weekly survey, N = 404; Study 3: 12-wave weekly survey, N = 230) showed that compassionate goals correlate with growth-seeking and predict increased growth-seeking over time through perceived available support. The results hold after controlling for participants’ (Studies 1–3) and their partners’ (Study 3) relationship security, which suggests that compassionate goals may foster growth-seeking through perceived available support independent of relationship security. In addition, Study 3 suggests an intrapersonal process (i.e., projected perceptions) underlying the link between compassionate goals and perceived available support.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T06:46:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221080949
       
  • Making Diversity Work for Everybody' The Double-Edged Sword of
           All-Inclusive Diversity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T03:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211073161
       
  • Are You Listening to Me' The Negative Link Between Extraversion and
           Perceived Listening

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Francis J. Flynn, Hanne Collins, Julian Zlatev
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Extraverts are often characterized as highly social individuals who are highly invested in their interpersonal interactions. We propose that extraverts’ interaction partners hold a different view—that extraverts are highly social, but not highly invested. Across six studies (five preregistered; N = 2,456), we find that interaction partners consistently judge more extraverted individuals to be worse listeners than less extraverted individuals. Furthermore, interaction partners assume that extraversion is positively associated with a greater ability to modify one’s self-presentation. This behavioral malleability (i.e., the “acting” component of self-monitoring) may account for the unfavorable lay belief that extraverts are not listening.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T12:55:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211072815
       
  • Restoring Honor by Slapping or Disowning the Daughter

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ashwini Ashokkumar, William B. Swann
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The psychological processes underlying honor violence against kin are poorly understood. We assumed that honor violence against daughters who violate a gendered norm is designed to uphold family honor and nurture positive links to the community. Four studies with Indian men supported this formulation. As expected, endorsement of honor violence (i.e., slapping or disowning the daughter) increased insofar as perceived community awareness of the violation increased. Moreover, endorsement of honor violence was especially common among those whose identities were closely aligned (“fused”) with their community. Finally, a desire to restore threatened family honor, rather than a motivation to prevent future dishonor, motivates honor violence against daughters; conversely, a desire to prevent future dishonor motivates constructive activities such as advising. Ironically, a benign, culturally universal desire to maintain positive ties to the community can encourage community members to endorse violence toward transgressive kin.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T09:55:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221079106
       
  • Fallibility Salience Increases Intellectual Humility: Implications for
           People’s Willingness to Investigate Political Misinformation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jonah Koetke, Karina Schumann, Tenelle Porter, Ilse Smilo-Morgan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The spread of online political misinformation has ramifications for political polarization, trust in political systems, and the functioning of democracy. In this article, we advance findings on investigative behaviors—actions aimed at determining the veracity of information encountered online—in response to political misinformation. Across three preregistered studies (N = 889), we find that investigative behaviors increase accuracy discernment of political misinformation (Study 1), that intellectual humility reliably predicts investigative behaviors in this context (Study 2), and test a novel fallibility salience manipulation to increase intellectual humility (Study 3). We discuss the implications of these findings for reducing the impacts of political misinformation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T08:56:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221080979
       
  • Partner Accuracy in Humor Perception and Associations With Relationship
           Satisfaction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mariah F. Purol, William J. Chopik
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Do people accurately perceive their partner’s humor style' The current study extends work on partner perception by examining accuracy and bias in people’s perception of their partners’ humor styles—a subjective, evaluative, and important factor in relationship satisfaction. We recruited 337 heterosexual couples (N = 674 individuals, Mage = 65.71 years, SD = 12.107) who completed self-reports and partner-reports of humor styles. Truth and Bias modeling revealed that, although bias varied across humor styles, participants consistently demonstrated accuracy in their judgments of their partner’s humor styles. Bias forces were moderated by relationship satisfaction such that assumed similarity biases were stronger among those in particularly satisfying relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T09:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221080950
       
  • Boring People: Stereotype Characteristics, Interpersonal Attributions, and
           Social Reactions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wijnand A. P. van Tilburg, Eric R. Igou, Mehr Panjwani
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Unfortunately, some people are perceived as boring. Despite the potential relevance that these perceptions might have in everyday life, the underlying psychological processes and consequences of perceiving a person as “boring” have been largely unexplored. We examined the stereotypical features of boring others by having people generate (Study 1) and then rate (Study 2) these. We focused on occupations (e.g., data analytics, taxation, and accounting), hobbies (e.g., sleeping, religion, and watching TV), and personal characteristics (e.g., lacking humor and opinions, being negative) that people ascribed to stereotypically boring others. Experiments then showed that those who were ascribed boring characteristics were seen as lacking interpersonal warmth and competence (Study 3), were socially avoided (Study 4), and enduring their company required compensation (Study 5). These results suggest that being stereotyped as a bore may come with substantially negative interpersonal consequences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T10:02:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221079104
       
  • Defensive Confidence and Certainty in Unchanged Attitudes: The Role of
           Affect–Cognition Matching

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wei Jie Reiner Ng, Chi Bu, Ya Hui Michelle See
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Despite much prior research on matching appeals to the affective–cognitive orientation of attitudes, little attention has focused on the consequences of affect–cognition (mis)matching when individuals resist persuasion. We propose that unlike a matched attack, an attack that is mismatched to the affective–cognitive orientation of attitudes would result in low defensive confidence individuals holding onto their unchanged attitudes with less certainty than high defensive confidence individuals. As hypothesized, low defensive confidence participants were less certain after an affective than a cognitive attack for a cognitive issue (Study 1), and the opposite was true for an affective issue (Study 2). Both patterns occurred again when the affective–cognitive orientation of attitudes was manipulated (Study 3) or measured as an individual difference (Study 4). Moreover, perceived knowledge mediated the effects on attitude certainty (Study 4). We end by discussing implications for our understanding of affect–cognition matching and attitude certainty.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T08:56:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074102
       
  • Population Migration Damages the Natural Environment: A Multilevel
           Investigation of the Relationship Between Residential Mobility and
           Pro-Environmental Behaviors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shijiang Zuo, Pan Cai, Niwen Huang, Fang Wang, Pujue Wang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Residential mobility is increasing worldwide, and it objectively boosts economic strength. However, frequent moves create a specific habitat in which environmental degradation is aggravated. This research explored the relationship between residential mobility and pro-environmental behavior (PEB) from the perspective of environmental adaptation. We conducted five studies to test the hypothesis that high residential mobility decreased private-sphere PEBs at both personal and regional levels. The results showed that high personal residential mobility (Study 1) and high regional residential mobility (Study 2) were negatively correlated with self-reported private-sphere PEBs. Study 3 suggested that individuals primed with a high (vs. low) residential mobility mindset showed less actual private-sphere PEBs. Studies 4 and 5 further demonstrated that the preference for collective benefits played a mediating role in this relationship. These findings extend the adverse impacts of residential mobility to natural environments and highlight the role of social habitat changes in understanding environmental degradation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T06:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221079451
       
  • Anxiety, Cognitive Availability, and the Talisman Effect of Insurance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Robert M. Schindler, Mathew S. Isaac, Eric Dolansky, Grant C. Adams
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across four experiments (N = 1,923), this research provides converging evidence of a talisman effect of insurance—consumers who have an insurance policy feel that the covered mishap is less likely to occur. Although such an effect has previously been proposed, empirical evidence for it is limited, in part because the talisman effect has often been conflated with a related but distinct magical-thinking phenomenon, the tempting-fate effect. By disentangling these two effects, we are better able to isolate the talisman effect and show that it is a robust phenomenon in its own right. We also provide support for a mechanism underlying the talisman effect: Insurance reduces anxiety and repetitious thoughts related to the mishap; with fewer thoughts about the mishap, its cognitive availability is lower and so it seems less likely to occur.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T09:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077791
       
  • Life History Strategies, Prestige, and Dominance: An Evolutionary
           Developmental View of Social Hierarchy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jon K. Maner, Connor R. Hasty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although evidence documents the use of prestige and dominance for navigating group hierarchies, little is known about factors that explain people’s orientation toward prestige versus dominance. The current research applied a life history perspective to assess the role life history strategies play in prestige and dominance. Four studies document associations between adopting a slow life history strategy and having an orientation toward prestige. We also saw some (less consistent) evidence that people’s orientation toward prestige is rooted in exposure to predictable childhood environments, a known antecedent of slow life history strategies. Although we observed some evidence that exposure to unpredictable childhood environments was associated with dominance, there was little direct evidence that this relationship was explained by a fast life history strategy. Findings suggest that an orientation toward prestige is likely to be observed in people with a slow life history, who adopt a long-term time horizon for planning and decision-making.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T07:53:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221078667
       
  • How Attitudes Impact the Continued Influence Effect of Misinformation: The
           Mediating Role of Discomfort

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mark W. Susmann, Duane T. Wegener
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Past research suggests that people continue believing retracted misinformation more when it is consistent versus inconsistent with their attitudes. However, the psychological mechanism responsible for this phenomenon remains unclear. We predicted that retractions of attitude-consistent misinformation produce greater feelings of discomfort than retractions of attitude-inconsistent misinformation and that this discomfort predicts continued belief in and use of the misinformation. We report combined analyses across 10 studies testing these predictions. Seven studies (total N = 1,323) used a mediational framework and found that the more consistent misinformation was with participants’ attitudes, the more discomfort was elicited by a retraction of the misinformation. Greater discomfort then predicted greater continued belief in the misinformation, which, in turn, predicted greater use of the misinformation when participants made relevant inferences. Three additional studies (total N = 574) utilized misattribution paradigms to demonstrate that the relation between discomfort and belief in misinformation is causal in nature.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T07:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077519
       
  • Cultural Differences in the Perception of Daily Stress Between European
           Canadian and Japanese Undergraduate Students

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hajin Lee, Takahiko Masuda, Keiko Ishii, Yuto Yasuda, Yohsuke Ohtsubo
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current research examines cross-cultural differences in people’s daily stress experiences and the role of social orientations in explaining their experiences. Using a situation sampling method, Study 1 collected European Canadian and Japanese undergraduates’ examples of stressful interpersonal and non-interpersonal situations they experienced, measuring participants’ perception of the intensity and frequency of each type of situation. Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of culture on participants’ reports of stress symptoms under the situations. Study 3 assessed the mediating effects of independence and interdependence between culture and perceived stress. These studies indicated that the situational context moderates the effect of culture on perceptions of stress, showing a different amount of stress from interpersonal situations between Japanese and European Canadian undergraduates. Mediational analyses revealed that independent orientation partially explains the relationship between culture and stress from interpersonal situations. The implications of these results for culture and daily stress are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T05:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070360
       
  • What Drives Daily Perseverance and Passion' Grit, Conscientiousness,
           and Goal Pursuit Experiences

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wen Jiang, Xin Tang, Jingyan Ye, Jiang Jiang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies were conducted to further the understanding of daily experiences of perseverance and passion and the influences of personality traits (e.g., grit and conscientiousness) and contextual factors. Study 1 applied the experience sampling method (n = 116; observations = 5,187) and found that perseverance of effort (PE) predicted passion when controlling for conscientiousness. Study 2 used the day reconstruction method (n = 468; observations = 1,872) and found that both PE and consistency of interest (CI) had effects, although CI was a stronger predictor than PE. In both studies, PE was moderated only by instrumentality of the activity, whereas CI was moderated only by perceived difficulty. We also found mediating effects of instrumentality, (lower) perceived difficulty, and (fewer) intrusive thoughts on the pathways between traits and perseverance and passion. These results deepen our knowledge on why and how perseverance-related traits impact daily experiences of perseverance and passion.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T09:37:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221076970
       
  • The Holy Father (and Mother)' Multiple Tests of the Hypothesis That
           Parenthood and Parental Care Motivation Lead to Greater Religiosity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nicholas Kerry, Marjorie L. Prokosch, Damian R. Murray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Parenting is a universal element of human life. However, the motivational and attitudinal implications of parenthood remain poorly understood. Given that many major religions prescribe parent-benefiting norms restricting sexual promiscuity and socially disruptive behavior, we hypothesized that both parenthood and parental care motivation would predict higher levels of religiosity. Studies 1 to 3 (N>2,100 U.S. MTurkers; two preregistered) revealed that parental status and motivation were robustly associated with religiosity in Americans, and that age-related increases in religiosity were mediated by parenthood. Study 4a (376 students) found a moderated experimental effect, such that emotionally engaged participants showed increases in religiosity in response to a childcare manipulation. Study 4b then replicated this effect in recoded data from Studies 1 and 2. Study 5 used data from the World Values Survey (N = 89,565) and found further evidence for a relationship between parenthood and religiosity. These findings support functional accounts of the relationship between parenthood and mainstream religiosity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T09:36:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221076919
       
  • Walk This Way: Ingroup Norms Determine Voting Intentions for Those Who
           Lack Sociopolitical Control

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anna Potoczek, Marcin Bukowski, Soledad de Lemus, Gloria Jiménez-Moya, Álvaro Rodríguez-López, Katarzyna Jasko
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Even though taking part in elections is one of the most direct tools to influence the sociopolitical system, many people choose not to vote. Research shows that this problem is especially prevalent among those citizens who do not believe they have control over social and political issues, but the question remains as to what could encourage their voting behavior. We predicted that individuals who experience low levels of control can be more susceptible to ingroup norms regarding participation in political elections than those with a high sense of sociopolitical control (SPC). Across six studies, we found consistent support for this hypothesis. Specifically, people who experience decreased SPC were more likely to vote when descriptive norms (measured or manipulated) were conducive to voting. The results have important theoretical and applied implications, illuminating the boundary conditions under which people deprived of control can still be motivated to participate in a political sphere.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T05:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070070
       
  • In the Face of Opportunities: Facial Structures of Scientists Shape
           Expectations of STEM Environments

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mansi P. Joshi, E. Paige Lloyd, Amanda B. Diekman, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Impressions of role leaders provide information about anticipated opportunities in a role, and these perceptions can influence attitudes about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pathways. Specifically, the facial structures of role leaders influenced perceived affordances of working with that person, such as the availability of communal and agentic opportunities (e.g., mentorship; achievement). STEM faculty with trustworthy (relative to dominant) faces were seen as valuing communal goals (Studies 1–3), and in turn, perceived as affording both communal and agentic opportunities in their research groups (Studies 2–3b). These heightened goal opportunities aligned with perceptions that trustworthy-faced advisors would enact more group-supportive behaviors (Study 2). Consequently, students anticipated fairer treatment and reported greater interest in labs directed by trustworthy- than dominant-faced leaders (Studies 3a–4a), even when images were accompanied by explicit information about leaders’ collaborative behavior (Study 4b). The faces of leaders can thus function as the “face” of that role and the surrounding culture.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T09:06:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077801
       
  • A Closer Look on the Relation Between Nostalgia and Risk-Taking

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lau Lilleholt, Ingo Zettler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Building on the work of Zou et al. we (re-)investigated the relation between nostalgia and financial risk-taking across three preregistered, well-powered studies (overall N = 2,804). In Studies 1 and 2, we first tested whether nostalgia fosters or hampers dysfunctional or functional financial risk-taking. Finding no evidence to suggest that nostalgia fosters or hampers neither functional nor dysfunctional financial risk-taking, we tested in Study 3 if the link between nostalgia and financial risk-taking reported by Zou et al. could be replicated and extended to other domains of risk-taking. By and large, the relation between nostalgia and financial risk-taking could not be replicated nor extended to any other domains of risk-taking. Combined, the results nourish doubt on the robustness of the link between nostalgia and risk-taking observed by Zou et al.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T09:03:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074113
       
  • When and Why People Prefer Higher Educated Politicians: Ingroup Bias,
           Deference, and Resistance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jochem van Noord, Toon Kuppens, Bram Spruyt, Russell Spears
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      When choosing between political candidates of different educational levels, do voters show ingroup bias or base their vote choice on candidates’ perceived competence' We aim to investigate how (fictional) political candidates of different educational levels are evaluated and voted for, how this is affected by voters’ educational level, and the role of perceived (Study 1) and manipulated competence (Study 2). Higher educated participants preferred higher to less educated candidates over and above their level of competence, particularly when they identified strongly with their educational level. This reflects ingroup bias among the higher educated. Less educated participants preferred higher educated candidates in Study 1, but did not prefer higher educated candidates when competence was manipulated independently from education in Study 2. The less educated, unlike the higher educated, therefore, seem to show deference to the assumed competence of the higher educated, because it disappears when more reliable competence information is available.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T01:44:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077794
       
  • A Small Price to Pay: National Narcissism Predicts Readiness to Sacrifice
           In-Group Members to Defend the In-Group’s Image

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bjarki Gronfeldt, Aleksandra Cislak, Anni Sternisko, Irem Eker, Aleksandra Cichocka
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Collective narcissism is a belief in one’s in-group greatness that is underappreciated by others. Across three studies conducted in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we found that collective narcissism, measured with respect to the national group, was related to support of policies that protect the national image at the expense of in-group members’ health. In Study 1, British national narcissism was related to opposing cooperation with the European Union (EU) on medical equipment. In Study 2, American national narcissism predicted opposition to COVID-19 testing to downplay the number of cases. In Study 3, American national narcissism was related to support for releasing an untested COVID-19 vaccine, to beat other countries to the punch. These relationships were mediated by concern about the country’s reputation. Our studies shed light on collective narcissism as a group-based ego-enhancement strategy in which a strong image of the group is prioritized over members’ well-being.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T01:39:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074790
       
  • Cultural Inertia: Framework of Change and Intergroup Relations

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Angel Armenta, Miriam J. Alvarez, Rafael Aguilera, Robert Hitlan, Christopher Federico, Michael A. Zárate
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Cultural change is theorized to generate intergroup hostility. Three experiments apply the Cultural Inertia Model to test the effects of change on intergroup relations. Two predictions of cultural inertia were tested: (a) cultures at rest tend to stay at rest and (b) individual difference variables function as psychological anchors. In static societies, perceived change leads to greater threat (Experiment 1), endorsement of anti-immigration legislation (Experiment 1), and collective angst (Experiments 1 and 2). Perceptions of change in static societies lead to more fear-related emotional reactions (Experiment 3). Framing cultural change as continuous rather than abrupt may be a solution for reducing negative reactions caused by cultural change (Experiments 2 and 3). Individual difference factors function as anchors that cement individuals in a state of uniformity (Experiments 2). The findings demonstrate that social interactions rely on perceptions toward change and individual difference factors that anchor one’s willingness to accept change.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T09:33:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221076209
       
  • Constructing Explicit Prejudice: Evidence From Large Sample Datasets

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kent M. Lee, Kristen A. Lindquist, B. Keith Payne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How does implicit bias contribute to explicit prejudice' Prior experiments show that concept knowledge about fear versus sympathy determines whether negative affect (captured as implicit bias) predicts antisocial outcomes (Lee et al.). Concept knowledge (i.e., beliefs) about groups may similarly moderate the link between implicitly measured negative affect (implicit negative affect) and explicit prejudice. We tested this hypothesis using data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) 2008 Time Series Study (Study 1) and Project Implicit (Study 2). In both studies, participants high in implicit negative affect reported more explicit prejudice if they possessed negative beliefs about Black Americans. Yet, participants high in implicit negative affect reported less explicit prejudice if they possessed fewer negative beliefs about Black Americans. The results are consistent with psychological constructionist and dynamic models of evaluation and offer a more ecologically valid extension of our past laboratory work.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T09:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221075926
       
  • Gender Backlash and the Moderating Role of Shared Racial Group Membership

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Vivian L. Xiao, Brian S. Lowery, Amelia Stillwell
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that White women often experience more gender backlash than women of color in response to expressions of agency. We consider whether this differential in backlash is driven by the match or mismatch of the race of both perceivers and targets. Much of the existing work in this space examines the perspective of White perceivers, which might underestimate racial minority women’s susceptibility to backlash if backlash occurs primarily in same-race interactions. We examine how the racial group memberships of targets and perceivers jointly affect backlash against gender-norm violating women. In analyses of Dr. Christine Blasey-Ford’s accusations of sexual assault against Brett Kavanaugh and Anita Hill’s accusations against Clarence Thomas during their respective U.S. Supreme Court confirmation hearings, an archival analysis of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and two experiments, we find that perceivers of different races tend to express more backlash toward racial in-group than out-group women.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T09:19:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074543
       
  • Misplaced Intuitions in Interventions to Reduce Attractiveness-Based
           Discrimination

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jordan R. Axt, Juanyu Yang, Harshadaa Deshpande
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals and organizations are increasing efforts to address discrimination. Nonexperts may lack awareness of, or are resistant to, scientifically informed strategies for reducing discrimination, instead relying on intuition. Five studies investigated the accuracy of nonexperts’ intuitions about reducing discrimination concerning physical attractiveness. In Studies 1a to 1c (N = 902), participants predicted the effectiveness of six interventions to reduce attractiveness-based favoritism on a judgment task. Studies 2a and 2b (N = 6,292) investigated the effectiveness of these interventions. Although two interventions reduced discrimination, intuitions were poorly aligned with actual results; fewer than 1% of participants identified the combination of interventions that did, versus did not, impact judgment, and responses were more likely to be below than above chance when predicting each intervention’s effectiveness. Although follow-up work should investigate the accuracy of intuition in other forms of discrimination, these results further stress the need for greater development and adoption of evidence-based strategies for combating discrimination.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T10:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074748
       
  • Sociotropic and Personal Threats and Authoritarian Reactions During
           COVID-19

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gizem Arikan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The authoritarianism literature is divided over whether perceived threats to normative social order (sociotropic threats) or threats to the individual’s well-being (personal threats) activate authoritarian predispositions. In addition, while some approaches claim that perceived threats primarily trigger those high in authoritarianism, others claim that those who are low in authoritarianism are more sensitive to threats. Given the centrality of authoritarianism and threat on support for extraordinary policies in the context of COVID-19, this article sought to test to what extent different types of threats moderated the effect of authoritarianism on support for tough law and order policies and harsh punishments to contain the spread of coronavirus. Data from two preregistered survey experiments indicates that those high in authoritarianism were more willing to support tough law and order policies when primed with sociotropic threats while those low in authoritarianism became more willing to support such policies when primed with personal threats.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070923
       
  • Meaning in Life and Coping With Everyday Stressors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sarah Ward, Jake Womick, Liudmila Titova, Laura King
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Meaning in life (MIL) has been proposed to improve coping and resilience. Yet MIL’s association with coping has primarily been investigated in the context of extreme stressors and trauma, often using varied measures of MIL. Is MIL associated with varied coping strategies, coping self-efficacy, and distress in relation to commonly experienced, everyday challenges' Using diverse methodological designs, five studies (total N = 1,646) investigated the association between MIL and coping strategies/appraisals pertaining to varied challenging, stressful events. Across recalled (Studies 1 and 2), anticipated (Study 3), and experienced stressors (Studies 3–5), MIL was consistently associated with positive reinterpretation, proactive planning, coping self-efficacy, and stress. MIL was inconsistently related to threat/emotion-coping.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211068910
       
  • “Proof Under Reasonable Doubt”: Ambiguity of the Norm Violation as
           Boundary Condition of Third-Party Punishment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Toribio-Flórez, Julia Saße, Anna Baumert
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In six studies, we consistently observed costly third-party punishment (3PP) to decrease under ambiguity of the norm violation. Our research suggests that, under ambiguity, some people experience concerns about punishing unfairly. Those with higher (vs. lower) other-oriented justice sensitivity (Observer JS) reduced 3PP more pronouncedly (in Studies 1–3 and 4b, but not replicated in Studies 4–5). Moreover, those who decided to resolve the ambiguity (hence, removing the risk of punishing unfairly) exceeded the 3PP observed under no ambiguity (Study 4). However, we did not consistently observe these concerns about punishing unfairly to affect 3PP (Studies 4–5). We further considered whether people could use ambiguity as justification for remaining passive—thus, avoiding the costs of 3PP. We did not find conclusive evidence supporting this notion. Taken together, ambiguity entails a situational boundary of 3PP that sheds light on the prevalence of this behavior and, potentially, on its preceding decision-making.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T08:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211067675
       
  • The Empowering Function of the Belief in a Just World for the Self:
           Trait-Level and Experimental Tests of Its Association With Positive and
           Negative Affect

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jonathan Bartholomaeus, Nicholas Burns, Peter Strelan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Belief in a just world for the self (BJW-self) is a resource that promotes adaptive functioning. We theorize that BJW-self has such an effect because it is empowering. This article reports on four studies (N = 967) testing whether BJW-self encourages more positive and less negative affect indirectly through empowerment. There was support for this hypothesis at a trait level across all studies, and specifically in Study 1. Experimental evidence, however, was more complex. Study 2 demonstrated the causal effect of the mediator, empowerment, on affect. Study 3 demonstrated that affirming BJW-self enhanced empowerment with an associated increase in positive affect and reduced negative affect. Study 4 showed that enhancing empowerment did not significantly influence the effect of affirmed BJW-self on affect, but blocking empowerment did, although this finding is qualified by no significant effect on empowerment. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings, and the challenges of experimentally manipulating BJW-self.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:36:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211072823
       
  • The Making of a Radical: The Role of Peer Harassment in Youth Political
           Radicalism

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marta Miklikowska, Katarzyna Jasko, Ales Kudrnac
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although political radicalism is one of the major societal threats, we have limited understanding of how it is formed. While there are reasons to expect that harassment experienced in adolescence increase the propensity for radicalism, this relationship has not yet been investigated. This five-wave study of Swedish adolescents (N = 892) examined the role of peer harassment in radical political behavior. The results revealed that within-person fluctuations in harassment were positively related to fluctuations in radicalism. Individual-level (but not class-level) harassment also predicted differences between adolescents: youth who experienced more harassment had higher levels of and a more pronounced decrease in radicalism. In addition, adolescents who had more supportive teachers or parents were less affected by harassment than youth with less-supportive adults. The findings suggest that personal experiences of harassment increase the risk of radicalism but supportive relationships can mitigate their negative consequences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070420
       
  • Temporary Self-Deprivation Can Impair Cognitive Control: Evidence From the
           Ramadan Fast

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mostafa Salari Rad, Morteza Ansarinia, Eldar Shafir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      During Ramadan, people of Muslim faith fast by not eating or drinking between sunrise and sunset. This is likely to have physiological and psychological consequences for fasters, and societal and economic impacts on the wider population. We investigate whether, during this voluntary and temporally limited fast, reminders of food can impair the fasters’ reaction time and accuracy on a non-food-related test of cognitive control. Using a repeated measures design in a sample of Ramadan fasters (N = 190), we find that when food is made salient, fasters are slower and less accurate during Ramadan compared with after Ramadan. Control participants perform similarly across time. Furthermore, during Ramadan performances vary by how recently people had their last meal. Potential mechanisms are suggested, grounded in research on resource scarcity, commitment, and thought suppression, as well as the psychology of rituals and self-regulation, and implications for people who fast for religious or health reasons are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070385
       
  • What Motives Do People Most Want to Know About When Meeting Another
           Person' An Investigation Into Prioritization of Information About
           Seven Fundamental Motives

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Matthew I. Billet, Hugh C. McCall, Mark Schaller
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What information about a person’s personality do people want to know' Prior research has focused on behavioral traits, but personality is also characterized in terms of motives. Four studies (N = 1,502) assessed participants’ interest in information about seven fundamental social motives (self-protection, disease avoidance, affiliation, status, mate seeking, mate retention, kin care) across 12 experimental conditions that presented details about the person or situation. In the absence of details about specific situations, participants most highly prioritized learning about kin care and mate retention motives. There was some variability across conditions, but the kin care motive was consistently highly prioritized. Additional results from Studies 1 to 4 and Study 5 (N = 174) showed the most highly prioritized motives were perceived to be stable across time and to be especially diagnostic of a person’s trustworthiness, warmth, competence, and dependability. Findings are discussed in relation to research on fundamental social motives and pragmatic perspectives on person perception.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T07:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211069468
       
  • Do People Know How Their Romantic Partner Views Their Emotions'
           Evidence for Emotion Meta-Accuray and Links with Momentary Romantic
           Relationship Quality

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hasagani Tissera, Jennifer L. Heyman, Lauren J. Human
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Do people know how their romantic partner (i.e., the perceiver) views the self’s (i.e., the metaperceiver’s) emotions, displaying emotion meta-accuracy' Is it relevant to relationship quality' Using a sample of romantic couples (Ncouples = 189), we found evidence for two types of emotion meta-accuracy across three different interactions: (a) normative emotion meta-accuracy, knowing perceivers’ impressions of metaperceivers’ emotions that are in line with how the average person may feel, and (b) distinctive emotion meta-accuracy, knowing perceivers’ unique impression of metaperceivers’ emotions. Furthermore, across interactions, normative emotion meta-accuracy was positively related to momentary relationship quality for metaperceivers and perceivers and this link was especially strong in the conflict interaction. Distinctive emotion meta-accuracy was negatively related to momentary relationship quality across interactions for perceivers and in the conflict interaction for metaperceivers. Overall, it may be adaptive for metaperceivers to accurately infer perceivers’ normative impressions and to remain blissfully unaware of their unique impressions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T09:58:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211068225
       
  • Guns Are Not Faster to Enter Awareness After Seeing a Black Face: Absence
           of Race-Priming in a Gun/Tool Task During Continuous Flash Suppression

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Timo Stein, Tommaso Ciorli, Marte Otten
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In the Weapon Identification Task (WIT), Black faces prime the identification of guns compared with tools. We measured race-induced changes in visual awareness of guns and tools using continuous flash suppression (CFS). Eighty-four participants, primed with Black or Asian faces, indicated the location of a gun or tool target that was temporarily rendered invisible through CFS, which provides a sensitive measure of effects on early visual processing. The same participants also completed a standard (non-CFS) WIT. We replicated the standard race-priming effect in the WIT. In the CFS task, Black and Asian primes did not affect the time guns and tools needed to enter awareness. Thus, race priming does not alter early visual processing but does change the identification of guns and tools. This confirms that race-priming originates from later post-perceptual memory- or response-related processing.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T09:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211067068
       
  • Choice Set Size Shapes Self-Expression

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nathan N. Cheek, Barry Schwartz, Eldar Shafir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across six studies (total N = 3,549), we find that participants who were randomly assigned to choose from larger assortments thought their choices were more self-expressive, an effect that emerged regardless of whether larger sets actually enabled participants to better satisfy their preferences. Studies examining the moderating role of choice domain and cultural context show that the effect of choice set size on perceived self-expression may be particular to contexts in which choices have some initial potential to express choosers’ identities. We then test novel predictions from this theoretical perspective, finding that self-expression mediates the effect of choice set size on choice satisfaction, the likelihood of publicly sharing choices, and the perceived importance of choices. Together, these studies show that choice set size shapes perceived self-expression and illustrate how this meaning-based theoretical lens provides both novel explanations for existing effects and novel predictions for future research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T12:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211064112
       
  • The Apple Doesn’t “Feel” Far From the Tree: Mother–Child
           Socialization of Intergroup Empathy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shira Ran, Michal Reifen Tagar, Maya Tamir, Eran Halperin
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Like adults, children experience less empathy toward some groups compared with others. In this investigation, we propose that mothers differ in how much empathy they want their children to feel toward specific outgroups, depending on their political ideology. We suggest that how mothers want their children to feel (i.e., the motivation for their child’s empathy), in turn, is correlated with children’s actual experience of empathy toward the outgroup. Across four studies in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (NTotal = 734), the degree of empathy mothers wanted their children to experience in the intergroup context varied as a function of their political ideology. Mothers’ motivation for their child’s empathy toward the outgroup (but not in general) was further associated with how they chose to communicate messages to their children in a real-life context and how children actually felt toward the outgroup. We discuss implications for the socialization of intergroup empathy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T04:59:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211047373
       
  • The Terror Management Function of Descendent Continuity: Evidence That
           Descendent Continuity Acts as a Distal and Proximal Defense

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jiawei Qi
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous researches showed that offspring can function as a distal defense, we presented seven studies to further explore the role of offspring in terror management for Chinese people based on their unique fertility culture. Both Studies 1a and 1b found that mortality salience increased desire for children. Study 2 showed that offspring salience reduced the effect of mortality salience on social transgressions judgments. Study 3 revealed that disruption of procreation strivings increased death-thought accessibility. Study 4 demonstrated that conscious responses to worldview threats overwhelmed the unconscious compensation effect of worldview threats on desire for children. Study 5a and Study 5b found that offspring salience decreased death anxiety for parents and nonparents. Taken together, these findings expand terror management theory, emphasizing descendent continuity not only as a related yet separate distal defense from the cultural worldviews, self-esteem, and close relationship but also as a proximal defense, especially for Chinese.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T06:52:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221081270
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.238.118.80
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-