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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
Showing 1 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 277)
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
Violence and Victims     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
British Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Safer Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Health & Social Care In the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Quality in Ageing and Older Adults     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Critical Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Mental Health and Social Inclusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Global Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of European Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Qualitative Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
European Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Social Policy & Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Research on Social Work Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Occupational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Social Work Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Social Work Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Science and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Community, Work & Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Human Service Organizations Management, Leadership and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Housing Policy Debate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Family Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
The Milbank Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Qualitative Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Work & Social Sciences Review     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Research on Language and Social Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Integrated Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Self and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical and Radical Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Social Work Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Practice: Social Work in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Public Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Critical Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Policy Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Social Work Education: The International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Grief Matters : The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Work Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Contemporary Rural Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Social Work Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Learning in Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Community Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Social Service Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Families in Society : The Journal of Contemporary Social Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Forensic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Partner Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Service social     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Social Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Care Services Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Social Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Nordic Social Work Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Work With Groups     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Global Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nouvelles pratiques sociales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Care Management Journals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ACOSS Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counsellor (The)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Comparative Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Review of Social Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Public Policy and Aging Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Third Sector Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
National Emergency Response     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Youth Studies Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sociedade e Estado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Parity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Social Action : The Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology     Free   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Social Work and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geopolitical, Social Security and Freedom Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Rights and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mundos do Trabalho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Specialists in Group Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Groupwork     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Islamic Counseling : Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling Islam     Open Access  
Tidsskriftet Norges Barnevern     Full-text available via subscription  
Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for omsorgsforskning     Open Access  
Nordisk välfärdsforskning | Nordic Welfare Research     Open Access  
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika     Open Access  
Revista Serviço Social em Perspectiva     Open Access  
ConCienciaSocial     Open Access  
Bakti Budaya     Open Access  
Voces desde el Trabajo Social     Open Access  
HOLISTICA ? Journal of Business and Public Administration     Open Access  
Janus Sosiaalipolitiikan ja sosiaalityön tutkimuksen aikakauslehti     Open Access  
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Leidfaden : Fachmagazin für Krisen, Leid, Trauer     Hybrid Journal  
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
Prospectiva : Revista de Trabajo Social e Intervención Social     Open Access  
International Journal of Care and Caring     Hybrid Journal  
Volunteer Management Report     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Work / Maatskaplike Werk     Open Access  
Argumentum     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Guidance and Counseling     Open Access  
Trabajo Social Global - Global Social Work     Open Access  
Journal of Danubian Studies and Research     Open Access  
Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia     Full-text available via subscription  
unsere jugend     Full-text available via subscription  
Pedagogia i Treball Social : Revista de Cičncies Socials Aplicades     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Trabajo Social     Open Access  
Developmental Child Welfare     Hybrid Journal  
Nusantara of Research: Jurnal Hasil-hasil Penelitian Universitas Nusantara PGRI Kediri     Open Access  
Revista Internacional De Seguridad Social     Hybrid Journal  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access  
Soziale Passagen     Hybrid Journal  
Tempo Social     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.999
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 140  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-1672 - ISSN (Online) 1552-7433
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Protected by the Emotions of the Group: Perceived Emotional Fit and
           Disadvantaged Group Members’ Activist Burnout

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daan Vandermeulen, Siwar Hasan Aslih, Eric Shuman, Eran Halperin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Psychological processes that hamper activism, such as activist burnout, threaten social change. We suggest that perceived emotional fit (i.e., perceiving to experience similar emotions as other disadvantaged group members) may buffer activist burnout by mitigating the deleterious effects of stressors that are associated with partaking in collective action. We investigated the relation between perceived emotional fit and activist burnout using three-wave longitudinal survey data of Palestinians in the context of the Palestinian–Israeli conflict. We hypothesized that both higher general tendencies to fit emotionally with the ingroup (general perceived emotional fit) and increases over time in perceived emotional fit (change perceived emotional fit) would relate negatively to activist burnout. Supporting our hypotheses, both aspects of emotional fit were associated with lower activist burnout, even when controlling for classical predictors of collective action. This research highlights perceived emotional fit as an additional dimension to the role of emotions for sustainable collective action.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T08:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221092853
       
  • Gratitude Is Morally Sensitive

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hongbo Yu, Yubo Zhou, Anne-Marie Nussberger
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Helping acts, however well intended and beneficial, sometimes involve immoral means or immoral helpers. Here, we explore whether help recipients consider moral evaluations in their appraisals of gratitude, a possibility that has been neglected by existing accounts of gratitude. Participants felt less grateful and more uneasy when offered immoral help (Study 1, N = 150), and when offered morally neutral help by an immoral helper (Study 2, N = 172). In response to immoral help or helpers, participants were less likely to accept the help and less willing to strengthen their relationship with the helper even when they accepted it. Study 3 (N = 276) showed that recipients who felt grateful when offered immoral help were perceived as less likable, less moral, and less suitable as close relationship partners than those who felt uneasy by observers. Our results demonstrate that gratitude is morally sensitive and suggest this might be socially adaptive.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T02:40:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221092273
       
  • Negotiator Consistency, Counterpart Consistency, and Reciprocity in
           Behavior Across Partners: A Round-Robin Study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Jared R. Curhan, Noah Eisenkraft
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research takes a new perspective on the long-standing mystery of personality in negotiation, which has seen decades of null and inconsistent findings. Grounded in interactionist theories defining personality as consistency in behaviors when placed multiple times in the same situation, the investigation examines consistency in individuals’ behavioral profiles across negotiation partners. Such consistency supports efforts to identify enduring dispositions that can predict objective and subjective outcomes. A comprehensive set of behaviors related to negotiation was coded in a round-robin study using groups of four negotiators who each took turns working with each other person. Analysis using Kenny’s Social Relations Model revealed evidence for extensive actor effects (indicating consistency in negotiators’ behavior), as well as moderate partner effects (indicating consistency in counterparts’ behavior) and dyadic reciprocity (indicating similarity in the behavior of negotiators and counterparts). We conclude with optimism for investigating the effects of personality in negotiation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T04:36:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086197
       
  • The Unintentional Nonconformist: Habits Promote Resistance to Social
           influence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Asaf Mazar, Guy Itzchakov, Alicea Lieberman, Wendy Wood
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research tests a novel source of resistance to social influence—the automatic repetition of habit. In three experiments, participants with strong habits failed to align their behavior with others. Specifically, participants with strong habits to drink water in a dining hall or snack while working did not mimic others’ drinking or eating, whereas those with weak habits conformed. Similarly, participants with strong habits did not shift expectations that they would act in line with descriptive norms, whereas those with weak habits reported more normative behavioral expectations. This habit resistance was not due to a failure to perceive influence: Both strong and weak habit participants’ recalled others’ behavior accurately, and it was readily accessible. Furthermore, strong habit participants shifted their normative beliefs but not behavior in line with descriptive norms. Thus, habits create behavioral resistance despite people’s recognition and acceptance of social influence.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T09:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086177
       
  • People See Political Opponents as More Stupid Than Evil

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      Authors: Rachel Hartman, Neil Hester, Kurt Gray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Affective polarization is a rising threat to political discourse and democracy. Public figures have expressed that “conservatives think liberals are stupid, and liberals think conservatives are evil.” However, four studies (N = 1,660)—including a representative sample—reveal evidence that both sides view political opponents as more unintelligent than immoral. Perceiving the other side as “more stupid than evil” occurs both in general judgments (Studies 1, 3, and 4) and regarding specific issues (Study 2). Study 4 also examines “meta-perceptions” of how Democrats and Republicans disparage one another, revealing that people correctly perceive that both Democrats and Republicans see each other as more unintelligent than immoral, although they exaggerate the extent of this negativity. These studies clarify the way everyday partisans view each other, an important step in designing effective interventions to reduce political animosity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:41:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221089451
       
  • To Lead, or to Follow' How Self-Uncertainty and the Dark Triad of
           Personality Influence Leadership Motivation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Laura Guillén, Philippe Jacquart, Michael A. Hogg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Under uncertainty, leaders who possess dark triad personality traits seem able to attain leadership positions. We draw on uncertainty-identity theory and dark triad research to explore the effect of self-uncertainty on leadership motivation. Uncertainty-identity theory predicts that people can reduce self-uncertainty by identifying with groups and following their leaders, which suggests that self-uncertainty reduces people’s own leadership motivation. However, individuals high in dark triad traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) have such a powerful drive for dominance over others that their leadership motivation may be unaffected by self-uncertainty. To test these predictions, we conducted four studies (Ns = 2,641, 421, 513, and 400). We found that self-uncertainty reduced leadership motivation for individuals low in the dark triad. In contrast, those high in the dark triad had an elevated leadership motivation that remained unaltered when they were self-uncertain. These effects were mediated by participants’ negative affect. We discuss the implications of these findings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:38:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086771
       
  • The Effects of Partner Extraversion and Agreeableness on Trust

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      Authors: Olga Stavrova, Anthony M. Evans, Ilja van Beest
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research has documented the social benefits (i.e., higher popularity and liking) of extraversion and agreeableness. Do these positive reputational consequences extend to social dilemma situations that require trust' We found that people do not trust extraverts more than introverts. Instead, people’s trust decisions are guided by their partner’s level of agreeableness. In a trust game (Studies 1 and 2), individuals were more likely to trust a partner who was described as agreeable (vs. disagreeable); and, in a laboratory study of work groups, participants trusted more (vs. less) agreeable group members (Study 3). Individuals anticipated others’ preferences for agreeable partners and tried to come across as more agreeable, but not more extraverted, in social dilemmas (Study 4). These findings suggest that the social benefits of agreeableness (but not extraversion) extend to social interactions involving trust and highlight the importance of target personality traits in shaping trust decisions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086768
       
  • Support for Social Change Among Members of Advantaged Groups: The Role of
           a Dual Identity Representation and Accepting Intergroup Contact

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lisa Katharina Frisch, Simone Sebben, Luisa Liekefett, Nurit Shnabel, Emilio Paolo Visintin, Johannes Ullrich, Tabea Hässler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This preregistered research analyzed survey data from ethnic and religious advantaged groups in 12 countries (N = 2,304) to examine the interplay between two determinants of support for social change toward intergroup equality. Drawing on the needs-based model and the common-ingroup identity model, we hypothesized that the experience of accepting intergroup contact and the endorsement of a dual identity representation of intergroup relations would be associated with greater support for equality. Furthermore, integrating the logic of both models, we tested the novel hypothesis that the positive effect of accepting contact on support for equality would be stronger under a high (vs. low) dual identity representation. While the predicted main effects received empirical support, we found no evidence for the expected interaction. These findings suggest that interventions to foster support for social change among advantaged group members can promote accepting contact and a dual identity representation independently of each other.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086380
       
  • The Maintenance of the U.S. Racial Hierarchy Through Judgments of
           Multiracial People Based on Proximity to Whiteness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maria M. Garay, Jennifer M. Perry, Jessica D. Remedios
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has argued that a growing multiracial population will blur boundaries between racial groups, reducing racism and improving interracial relations. However, this is unlikely to happen if multiracial groups are judged according to their proximity to Whiteness. We examined how having White ancestry shapes status perceptions of multiracial groups. Studies 1 and 2 showed that multiracial groups with White ancestry (e.g., Black/White) are considered higher status than dual minority multiracial (e.g., Black/Latinx) and monoracial minority (e.g., Black) groups. Study 3 revealed that multiracial groups with White ancestry are perceived as more competent and warmer than monoracial minority and dual minority multiracial groups, leading to higher status perceptions for multiracial groups with White ancestry. Thus, multiracial people, like other racial minorities, may be judged according to White, Eurocentric standards. The results imply that, without anti-racist intervention, the treatment of multiracial people will reinforce, rather than challenge, the existing racial hierarchy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T10:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221086175
       
  • Perceived and Ideal Inequality in University Endowments in the United
           States

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      Authors: Martin V. Day, Michael I. Norton
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Whether and which university to attend are among the most financially consequential choices most people make. Universities with relatively larger endowments can offer better education experiences, which can drive inequality in students’ subsequent outcomes. We first explore three interrelated questions: the current educational inequality across U.S. universities, people’s perceptions of this inequality, and their desired inequality. Educational inequality is large: the top 20% of universities have 80% of the total university endowment wealth while the bottom 20% have around 1%. Studies 1 to 3 demonstrated that people underestimate university endowment inequality and desire more equality. These perceptions and ideals were mostly unaffected by contextual factors (e.g., salience of endowment consequences, distribution range) and were not well explained by participants’ demographics. Finally, Study 4 revealed that learning about current endowment inequality decreased tolerance of the distribution of university wealth. We discuss the implications of awareness of educational inequality for behaviors and educational policies.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T12:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221083766
       
  • Routines and Meaning in Life: Does Activity Content or Context Matter'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fahima Mohideen, Samantha J. Heintzelman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People feel that their lives are more meaningful while engaging in behaviors more closely aligned with their routines. Does the behavioral content of these routines and the contextual factors surrounding their enactment matter for this relationship' In two experience sampling studies (N = 93, 1,512 episodes; N = 97, 1,629 episodes), we test whether the relationship between routines and meaning in life (MIL) depends on the content of the activities. We found that the degree to which one’s current activity is a routine positively related to momentary MIL beyond other meaningful features (e.g., relationships, goals, prosociality) of that activity. We conducted Study 2 in the context of mass routine disruptions of the COVID-19 pandemic. We found even stronger relationships between routine enactment and concurrent MIL in this context which held controlling for factors, including perceived chaos, mood, and anxiety. These findings suggest that routines uniquely relate to MIL, beyond the meaningfulness of their content and across contexts.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T04:09:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221085797
       
  • Everyday Perceiver-Context Influences on Impression Formation: No Evidence
           of Consistent Effects

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      Authors: Sally Y. Xie, Sabrina Thai, Eric Hehman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Facial impressions (e.g., trustworthy, intelligent) vary considerably across different perceivers and targets. However, nearly all existing research comes from participants evaluating faces on a computer screen in a lab or office environment. We explored whether social perceptions could additionally be influenced by perceivers’ experiential factors that vary in daily life: mood, environment, physiological state, and psychological situations. To that end, we tracked daily changes in participants’ experienced contexts during impression formation using experience sampling. We found limited evidence that perceivers’ contexts are an important factor in impressions. Perceiver context alone does not systematically influence trait impressions in a consistent manner—suggesting that perceiver and target idiosyncrasies are the most powerful drivers of social impressions. Overall, results suggest that perceivers’ experienced contexts may play only a small role in impressions formed from faces.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T01:02:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221085088
       
  • The Apple Doesn’t “Feel” Far From the Tree: Mother–Child
           Socialization of Intergroup Empathy

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      Authors: Shira Ran, Michal Reifen Tagar, Maya Tamir, Eran Halperin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Like adults, children experience less empathy toward some groups compared with others. In this investigation, we propose that mothers differ in how much empathy they want their children to feel toward specific outgroups, depending on their political ideology. We suggest that how mothers want their children to feel (i.e., the motivation for their child’s empathy), in turn, is correlated with children’s actual experience of empathy toward the outgroup. Across four studies in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (NTotal = 734), the degree of empathy mothers wanted their children to experience in the intergroup context varied as a function of their political ideology. Mothers’ motivation for their child’s empathy toward the outgroup (but not in general) was further associated with how they chose to communicate messages to their children in a real-life context and how children actually felt toward the outgroup. We discuss implications for the socialization of intergroup empathy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T04:59:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211047373
       
  • Affectionate Touch Promotes Shared Positive Activities

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      Authors: Brett K. Jakubiak, Julian D. Fuentes, Brooke C. Feeney
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Shared positive activities, such as engaging conversations and interactive play, enhance relationships and buffer the consequences of negative interactions. The current research tested whether affectionate touch (a prime target for intervention) encourages people to prioritize other shared positive activities and to view shared activities more positively. In a pre-registered dyadic diary study of married couples (Study 1), greater affectionate touch on one day predicted increases in shared positive activities concurrently and prospectively. In a pre-registered dyadic experiment (Study 2), a brief affectionate touch intervention increased self-reported (but not observer-rated) shared positive activities immediately and increased shared positive activities over the following week for people who do not typically engage in such activities. Participants assigned to touch (particularly those low in attachment anxiety) also perceived their partners more positively during shared activities. These results suggest that touch may facilitate positive relationship experiences broadly and supports a theoretical model of affectionate touch.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T07:02:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221083764
       
  • Personality Traits Predict Social Network Size in Older Adults

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      Authors: Jasmine Rollings, Jérôme Micheletta, Darren Van Laar, Bridget M. Waller
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Humans live in unusually large groups, where relationships are thought to be maintained through complex socio-communicative abilities. The size and quality of social networks are associated with health and well-being outcomes throughout life. However, how some individuals manage to form larger social networks is not well understood. If socio-communicative traits evolved to form and maintain relationships, personality traits should be associated with variation in network size. Here, using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we investigate the impact of extraversion, agreeableness, and verbal communication on network size (N = 5,202) and network size change over time (N = 1,511) in later life for kin and friend networks. Higher levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with greater social network sizes but did not predict network size change over 14 years. The findings are discussed considering the evolutionary hypothesis that communicative and affiliative traits may have evolved to support the maintenance of social networks.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T09:05:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221078664
       
  • Categorizing a Face and Facing a Category: The Constructive Impacts of
           Ambiguity and Uncertainty in Racial Categorization

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      Authors: Aharon Levy, Christine Nguyen, Michael L. Slepian, Sarah Gaither, Kristin Pauker, John F. Dovidio
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The past generation has seen a dramatic rise in multiracial populations and a consequent increase in exposure to individuals who challenge monolithic racial categories. We examine and compare two potential outcomes of the multiracial population growth that may impact people’s racial categorization experience: (a) exposure to racially ambiguous faces that visually challenge the existing categories, and (b) a category that conceptually challenges existing categories (including “biracial” as an option in addition to the monolithic “Black” and “White” categories). Across four studies (N = 1,810), we found that multiple exposures to faces that are racially ambiguous directly lower essentialist views of race. Moreover, we found that when people consider a category that blurs the line between racial categories (i.e., “biracial”), they become less certain in their racial categorization, which is associated with less race essentialism, as well. Importantly, we found that these two effects happen independently from one another and represent two distinct cognitive processes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T10:41:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221084537
       
  • Does Connectedness Need Satisfaction Diminish or Promote Social Goal
           Striving'

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      Authors: Jianning Dang, Li Liu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People pursue social goals primarily to satisfy their innate need for affiliation; however, there is no consensus regarding how the successful fulfillment of affiliation need—social connectedness—influences striving for social goals. To address this issue, we proposed a dual-pathway model postulating both a negative effect of social connectedness on social goal striving via decreased emotional distress and a positive effect via increased social self-efficacy. Six studies (total N = 1,849), using cross-sectional, experimental, and daily diary methods, provided support for this model at both the between- and within-person levels. Furthermore, by distinguishing between approach and avoidance social goal strivings, and between deficit-reduction and growth connectedness need orientations, we found that the relative strength with which each path operates differed. The dual-pathway model generates theoretical and practical implications for need satisfaction and goal striving.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T07:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221084539
       
  • Restless in an Unequal World: Economic Inequality Fuels the Desire for
           Wealth and Status

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      Authors: Zhechen Wang, Jolanda Jetten, Niklas K. Steffens
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Building on theories explaining social outcomes of economic inequality, our research examined the psychological impact of inequality on the desire for wealth and status. Our studies provide both experimental (Studies 1 and 3, Ns = 321 and 596) and correlational (Study 2; N = 141,477 from 73 countries and regions) evidence that higher inequality heightens people’s desire for wealth and status. Notably, this effect of inequality on desire is independent of the influence of societal wealth. Moreover, our results reveal social class differences in why inequality fuels motivations: Lower-class individuals are more likely to respond to higher inequality with a heightened desire reflecting self-improvement concerns, whereas upper-class individuals are more likely to respond with a heightened desire reflecting social comparison concerns. These findings suggest that higher inequality creates an environment of restlessness in which both the poor and the rich feel obliged to seek wealth and status, albeit for different reasons.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T06:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221083747
       
  • How Relationships Foster Growth: Compassionate Goals Predict
           Growth-Seeking Through Perceived Available Support Independent of
           Relationship Security

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      Authors: Tao Jiang, Amy Canevello, Jennifer Crocker
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Growth-seeking refers to a general tendency to pursue growth when facing challenges. The current studies examined whether and how benevolent intentions to support others and not harm them (i.e., compassionate goals in relationships) predict growth-seeking and whether this association is independent of relationship security, which may also predict growth-seeking. Two cross-sectional studies (Studies 1a and 1b, N = 1,032) and two longitudinal studies (Study 2: 3-wave weekly survey, N = 404; Study 3: 12-wave weekly survey, N = 230) showed that compassionate goals correlate with growth-seeking and predict increased growth-seeking over time through perceived available support. The results hold after controlling for participants’ (Studies 1–3) and their partners’ (Study 3) relationship security, which suggests that compassionate goals may foster growth-seeking through perceived available support independent of relationship security. In addition, Study 3 suggests an intrapersonal process (i.e., projected perceptions) underlying the link between compassionate goals and perceived available support.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T06:46:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221080949
       
  • Making Diversity Work for Everybody' The Double-Edged Sword of
           All-Inclusive Diversity

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      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T03:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211073161
       
  • Are You Listening to Me' The Negative Link Between Extraversion and
           Perceived Listening

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      Authors: Francis J. Flynn, Hanne Collins, Julian Zlatev
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Extraverts are often characterized as highly social individuals who are highly invested in their interpersonal interactions. We propose that extraverts’ interaction partners hold a different view—that extraverts are highly social, but not highly invested. Across six studies (five preregistered; N = 2,456), we find that interaction partners consistently judge more extraverted individuals to be worse listeners than less extraverted individuals. Furthermore, interaction partners assume that extraversion is positively associated with a greater ability to modify one’s self-presentation. This behavioral malleability (i.e., the “acting” component of self-monitoring) may account for the unfavorable lay belief that extraverts are not listening.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T12:55:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211072815
       
  • Restoring Honor by Slapping or Disowning the Daughter

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      Authors: Ashwini Ashokkumar, William B. Swann
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The psychological processes underlying honor violence against kin are poorly understood. We assumed that honor violence against daughters who violate a gendered norm is designed to uphold family honor and nurture positive links to the community. Four studies with Indian men supported this formulation. As expected, endorsement of honor violence (i.e., slapping or disowning the daughter) increased insofar as perceived community awareness of the violation increased. Moreover, endorsement of honor violence was especially common among those whose identities were closely aligned (“fused”) with their community. Finally, a desire to restore threatened family honor, rather than a motivation to prevent future dishonor, motivates honor violence against daughters; conversely, a desire to prevent future dishonor motivates constructive activities such as advising. Ironically, a benign, culturally universal desire to maintain positive ties to the community can encourage community members to endorse violence toward transgressive kin.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T09:55:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221079106
       
  • Fallibility Salience Increases Intellectual Humility: Implications for
           People’s Willingness to Investigate Political Misinformation

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      Authors: Jonah Koetke, Karina Schumann, Tenelle Porter, Ilse Smilo-Morgan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The spread of online political misinformation has ramifications for political polarization, trust in political systems, and the functioning of democracy. In this article, we advance findings on investigative behaviors—actions aimed at determining the veracity of information encountered online—in response to political misinformation. Across three preregistered studies (N = 889), we find that investigative behaviors increase accuracy discernment of political misinformation (Study 1), that intellectual humility reliably predicts investigative behaviors in this context (Study 2), and test a novel fallibility salience manipulation to increase intellectual humility (Study 3). We discuss the implications of these findings for reducing the impacts of political misinformation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T08:56:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221080979
       
  • Partner Accuracy in Humor Perception and Associations With Relationship
           Satisfaction

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      Authors: Mariah F. Purol, William J. Chopik
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Do people accurately perceive their partner’s humor style' The current study extends work on partner perception by examining accuracy and bias in people’s perception of their partners’ humor styles—a subjective, evaluative, and important factor in relationship satisfaction. We recruited 337 heterosexual couples (N = 674 individuals, Mage = 65.71 years, SD = 12.107) who completed self-reports and partner-reports of humor styles. Truth and Bias modeling revealed that, although bias varied across humor styles, participants consistently demonstrated accuracy in their judgments of their partner’s humor styles. Bias forces were moderated by relationship satisfaction such that assumed similarity biases were stronger among those in particularly satisfying relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T09:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221080950
       
  • Boring People: Stereotype Characteristics, Interpersonal Attributions, and
           Social Reactions

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      Authors: Wijnand A. P. van Tilburg, Eric R. Igou, Mehr Panjwani
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Unfortunately, some people are perceived as boring. Despite the potential relevance that these perceptions might have in everyday life, the underlying psychological processes and consequences of perceiving a person as “boring” have been largely unexplored. We examined the stereotypical features of boring others by having people generate (Study 1) and then rate (Study 2) these. We focused on occupations (e.g., data analytics, taxation, and accounting), hobbies (e.g., sleeping, religion, and watching TV), and personal characteristics (e.g., lacking humor and opinions, being negative) that people ascribed to stereotypically boring others. Experiments then showed that those who were ascribed boring characteristics were seen as lacking interpersonal warmth and competence (Study 3), were socially avoided (Study 4), and enduring their company required compensation (Study 5). These results suggest that being stereotyped as a bore may come with substantially negative interpersonal consequences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T10:02:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221079104
       
  • The Terror Management Function of Descendent Continuity: Evidence That
           Descendent Continuity Acts as a Distal and Proximal Defense

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      Authors: Jiawei Qi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous researches showed that offspring can function as a distal defense, we presented seven studies to further explore the role of offspring in terror management for Chinese people based on their unique fertility culture. Both Studies 1a and 1b found that mortality salience increased desire for children. Study 2 showed that offspring salience reduced the effect of mortality salience on social transgressions judgments. Study 3 revealed that disruption of procreation strivings increased death-thought accessibility. Study 4 demonstrated that conscious responses to worldview threats overwhelmed the unconscious compensation effect of worldview threats on desire for children. Study 5a and Study 5b found that offspring salience decreased death anxiety for parents and nonparents. Taken together, these findings expand terror management theory, emphasizing descendent continuity not only as a related yet separate distal defense from the cultural worldviews, self-esteem, and close relationship but also as a proximal defense, especially for Chinese.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T06:52:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221081270
       
  • Defensive Confidence and Certainty in Unchanged Attitudes: The Role of
           Affect–Cognition Matching

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      Authors: Wei Jie Reiner Ng, Chi Bu, Ya Hui Michelle See
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Despite much prior research on matching appeals to the affective–cognitive orientation of attitudes, little attention has focused on the consequences of affect–cognition (mis)matching when individuals resist persuasion. We propose that unlike a matched attack, an attack that is mismatched to the affective–cognitive orientation of attitudes would result in low defensive confidence individuals holding onto their unchanged attitudes with less certainty than high defensive confidence individuals. As hypothesized, low defensive confidence participants were less certain after an affective than a cognitive attack for a cognitive issue (Study 1), and the opposite was true for an affective issue (Study 2). Both patterns occurred again when the affective–cognitive orientation of attitudes was manipulated (Study 3) or measured as an individual difference (Study 4). Moreover, perceived knowledge mediated the effects on attitude certainty (Study 4). We end by discussing implications for our understanding of affect–cognition matching and attitude certainty.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T08:56:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074102
       
  • Population Migration Damages the Natural Environment: A Multilevel
           Investigation of the Relationship Between Residential Mobility and
           Pro-Environmental Behaviors

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      Authors: Shijiang Zuo, Pan Cai, Niwen Huang, Fang Wang, Pujue Wang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Residential mobility is increasing worldwide, and it objectively boosts economic strength. However, frequent moves create a specific habitat in which environmental degradation is aggravated. This research explored the relationship between residential mobility and pro-environmental behavior (PEB) from the perspective of environmental adaptation. We conducted five studies to test the hypothesis that high residential mobility decreased private-sphere PEBs at both personal and regional levels. The results showed that high personal residential mobility (Study 1) and high regional residential mobility (Study 2) were negatively correlated with self-reported private-sphere PEBs. Study 3 suggested that individuals primed with a high (vs. low) residential mobility mindset showed less actual private-sphere PEBs. Studies 4 and 5 further demonstrated that the preference for collective benefits played a mediating role in this relationship. These findings extend the adverse impacts of residential mobility to natural environments and highlight the role of social habitat changes in understanding environmental degradation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T06:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221079451
       
  • Anxiety, Cognitive Availability, and the Talisman Effect of Insurance

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      Authors: Robert M. Schindler, Mathew S. Isaac, Eric Dolansky, Grant C. Adams
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across four experiments (N = 1,923), this research provides converging evidence of a talisman effect of insurance—consumers who have an insurance policy feel that the covered mishap is less likely to occur. Although such an effect has previously been proposed, empirical evidence for it is limited, in part because the talisman effect has often been conflated with a related but distinct magical-thinking phenomenon, the tempting-fate effect. By disentangling these two effects, we are better able to isolate the talisman effect and show that it is a robust phenomenon in its own right. We also provide support for a mechanism underlying the talisman effect: Insurance reduces anxiety and repetitious thoughts related to the mishap; with fewer thoughts about the mishap, its cognitive availability is lower and so it seems less likely to occur.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T09:37:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077791
       
  • Life History Strategies, Prestige, and Dominance: An Evolutionary
           Developmental View of Social Hierarchy

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      Authors: Jon K. Maner, Connor R. Hasty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although evidence documents the use of prestige and dominance for navigating group hierarchies, little is known about factors that explain people’s orientation toward prestige versus dominance. The current research applied a life history perspective to assess the role life history strategies play in prestige and dominance. Four studies document associations between adopting a slow life history strategy and having an orientation toward prestige. We also saw some (less consistent) evidence that people’s orientation toward prestige is rooted in exposure to predictable childhood environments, a known antecedent of slow life history strategies. Although we observed some evidence that exposure to unpredictable childhood environments was associated with dominance, there was little direct evidence that this relationship was explained by a fast life history strategy. Findings suggest that an orientation toward prestige is likely to be observed in people with a slow life history, who adopt a long-term time horizon for planning and decision-making.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T07:53:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221078667
       
  • How Attitudes Impact the Continued Influence Effect of Misinformation: The
           Mediating Role of Discomfort

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      Authors: Mark W. Susmann, Duane T. Wegener
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Past research suggests that people continue believing retracted misinformation more when it is consistent versus inconsistent with their attitudes. However, the psychological mechanism responsible for this phenomenon remains unclear. We predicted that retractions of attitude-consistent misinformation produce greater feelings of discomfort than retractions of attitude-inconsistent misinformation and that this discomfort predicts continued belief in and use of the misinformation. We report combined analyses across 10 studies testing these predictions. Seven studies (total N = 1,323) used a mediational framework and found that the more consistent misinformation was with participants’ attitudes, the more discomfort was elicited by a retraction of the misinformation. Greater discomfort then predicted greater continued belief in the misinformation, which, in turn, predicted greater use of the misinformation when participants made relevant inferences. Three additional studies (total N = 574) utilized misattribution paradigms to demonstrate that the relation between discomfort and belief in misinformation is causal in nature.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T07:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077519
       
  • Cultural Differences in the Perception of Daily Stress Between European
           Canadian and Japanese Undergraduate Students

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      Authors: Hajin Lee, Takahiko Masuda, Keiko Ishii, Yuto Yasuda, Yohsuke Ohtsubo
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current research examines cross-cultural differences in people’s daily stress experiences and the role of social orientations in explaining their experiences. Using a situation sampling method, Study 1 collected European Canadian and Japanese undergraduates’ examples of stressful interpersonal and non-interpersonal situations they experienced, measuring participants’ perception of the intensity and frequency of each type of situation. Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of culture on participants’ reports of stress symptoms under the situations. Study 3 assessed the mediating effects of independence and interdependence between culture and perceived stress. These studies indicated that the situational context moderates the effect of culture on perceptions of stress, showing a different amount of stress from interpersonal situations between Japanese and European Canadian undergraduates. Mediational analyses revealed that independent orientation partially explains the relationship between culture and stress from interpersonal situations. The implications of these results for culture and daily stress are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T05:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070360
       
  • What Drives Daily Perseverance and Passion' Grit, Conscientiousness,
           and Goal Pursuit Experiences

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      Authors: Wen Jiang, Xin Tang, Jingyan Ye, Jiang Jiang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies were conducted to further the understanding of daily experiences of perseverance and passion and the influences of personality traits (e.g., grit and conscientiousness) and contextual factors. Study 1 applied the experience sampling method (n = 116; observations = 5,187) and found that perseverance of effort (PE) predicted passion when controlling for conscientiousness. Study 2 used the day reconstruction method (n = 468; observations = 1,872) and found that both PE and consistency of interest (CI) had effects, although CI was a stronger predictor than PE. In both studies, PE was moderated only by instrumentality of the activity, whereas CI was moderated only by perceived difficulty. We also found mediating effects of instrumentality, (lower) perceived difficulty, and (fewer) intrusive thoughts on the pathways between traits and perseverance and passion. These results deepen our knowledge on why and how perseverance-related traits impact daily experiences of perseverance and passion.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T09:37:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221076970
       
  • The Holy Father (and Mother)' Multiple Tests of the Hypothesis That
           Parenthood and Parental Care Motivation Lead to Greater Religiosity

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      Authors: Nicholas Kerry, Marjorie L. Prokosch, Damian R. Murray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Parenting is a universal element of human life. However, the motivational and attitudinal implications of parenthood remain poorly understood. Given that many major religions prescribe parent-benefiting norms restricting sexual promiscuity and socially disruptive behavior, we hypothesized that both parenthood and parental care motivation would predict higher levels of religiosity. Studies 1 to 3 (N>2,100 U.S. MTurkers; two preregistered) revealed that parental status and motivation were robustly associated with religiosity in Americans, and that age-related increases in religiosity were mediated by parenthood. Study 4a (376 students) found a moderated experimental effect, such that emotionally engaged participants showed increases in religiosity in response to a childcare manipulation. Study 4b then replicated this effect in recoded data from Studies 1 and 2. Study 5 used data from the World Values Survey (N = 89,565) and found further evidence for a relationship between parenthood and religiosity. These findings support functional accounts of the relationship between parenthood and mainstream religiosity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T09:36:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221076919
       
  • Walk This Way: Ingroup Norms Determine Voting Intentions for Those Who
           Lack Sociopolitical Control

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      Authors: Anna Potoczek, Marcin Bukowski, Soledad de Lemus, Gloria Jiménez-Moya, Álvaro Rodríguez-López, Katarzyna Jasko
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Even though taking part in elections is one of the most direct tools to influence the sociopolitical system, many people choose not to vote. Research shows that this problem is especially prevalent among those citizens who do not believe they have control over social and political issues, but the question remains as to what could encourage their voting behavior. We predicted that individuals who experience low levels of control can be more susceptible to ingroup norms regarding participation in political elections than those with a high sense of sociopolitical control (SPC). Across six studies, we found consistent support for this hypothesis. Specifically, people who experience decreased SPC were more likely to vote when descriptive norms (measured or manipulated) were conducive to voting. The results have important theoretical and applied implications, illuminating the boundary conditions under which people deprived of control can still be motivated to participate in a political sphere.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T05:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070070
       
  • In the Face of Opportunities: Facial Structures of Scientists Shape
           Expectations of STEM Environments

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      Authors: Mansi P. Joshi, E. Paige Lloyd, Amanda B. Diekman, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Impressions of role leaders provide information about anticipated opportunities in a role, and these perceptions can influence attitudes about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pathways. Specifically, the facial structures of role leaders influenced perceived affordances of working with that person, such as the availability of communal and agentic opportunities (e.g., mentorship; achievement). STEM faculty with trustworthy (relative to dominant) faces were seen as valuing communal goals (Studies 1–3), and in turn, perceived as affording both communal and agentic opportunities in their research groups (Studies 2–3b). These heightened goal opportunities aligned with perceptions that trustworthy-faced advisors would enact more group-supportive behaviors (Study 2). Consequently, students anticipated fairer treatment and reported greater interest in labs directed by trustworthy- than dominant-faced leaders (Studies 3a–4a), even when images were accompanied by explicit information about leaders’ collaborative behavior (Study 4b). The faces of leaders can thus function as the “face” of that role and the surrounding culture.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T09:06:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077801
       
  • A Closer Look on the Relation Between Nostalgia and Risk-Taking

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      Authors: Lau Lilleholt, Ingo Zettler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Building on the work of Zou et al. we (re-)investigated the relation between nostalgia and financial risk-taking across three preregistered, well-powered studies (overall N = 2,804). In Studies 1 and 2, we first tested whether nostalgia fosters or hampers dysfunctional or functional financial risk-taking. Finding no evidence to suggest that nostalgia fosters or hampers neither functional nor dysfunctional financial risk-taking, we tested in Study 3 if the link between nostalgia and financial risk-taking reported by Zou et al. could be replicated and extended to other domains of risk-taking. By and large, the relation between nostalgia and financial risk-taking could not be replicated nor extended to any other domains of risk-taking. Combined, the results nourish doubt on the robustness of the link between nostalgia and risk-taking observed by Zou et al.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T09:03:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074113
       
  • When and Why People Prefer Higher Educated Politicians: Ingroup Bias,
           Deference, and Resistance

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      Authors: Jochem van Noord, Toon Kuppens, Bram Spruyt, Russell Spears
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      When choosing between political candidates of different educational levels, do voters show ingroup bias or base their vote choice on candidates’ perceived competence' We aim to investigate how (fictional) political candidates of different educational levels are evaluated and voted for, how this is affected by voters’ educational level, and the role of perceived (Study 1) and manipulated competence (Study 2). Higher educated participants preferred higher to less educated candidates over and above their level of competence, particularly when they identified strongly with their educational level. This reflects ingroup bias among the higher educated. Less educated participants preferred higher educated candidates in Study 1, but did not prefer higher educated candidates when competence was manipulated independently from education in Study 2. The less educated, unlike the higher educated, therefore, seem to show deference to the assumed competence of the higher educated, because it disappears when more reliable competence information is available.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T01:44:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221077794
       
  • A Small Price to Pay: National Narcissism Predicts Readiness to Sacrifice
           In-Group Members to Defend the In-Group’s Image

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      Authors: Bjarki Gronfeldt, Aleksandra Cislak, Anni Sternisko, Irem Eker, Aleksandra Cichocka
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Collective narcissism is a belief in one’s in-group greatness that is underappreciated by others. Across three studies conducted in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we found that collective narcissism, measured with respect to the national group, was related to support of policies that protect the national image at the expense of in-group members’ health. In Study 1, British national narcissism was related to opposing cooperation with the European Union (EU) on medical equipment. In Study 2, American national narcissism predicted opposition to COVID-19 testing to downplay the number of cases. In Study 3, American national narcissism was related to support for releasing an untested COVID-19 vaccine, to beat other countries to the punch. These relationships were mediated by concern about the country’s reputation. Our studies shed light on collective narcissism as a group-based ego-enhancement strategy in which a strong image of the group is prioritized over members’ well-being.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T01:39:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074790
       
  • Cultural Inertia: Framework of Change and Intergroup Relations

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      Authors: Angel Armenta, Miriam J. Alvarez, Rafael Aguilera, Robert Hitlan, Christopher Federico, Michael A. Zárate
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Cultural change is theorized to generate intergroup hostility. Three experiments apply the Cultural Inertia Model to test the effects of change on intergroup relations. Two predictions of cultural inertia were tested: (a) cultures at rest tend to stay at rest and (b) individual difference variables function as psychological anchors. In static societies, perceived change leads to greater threat (Experiment 1), endorsement of anti-immigration legislation (Experiment 1), and collective angst (Experiments 1 and 2). Perceptions of change in static societies lead to more fear-related emotional reactions (Experiment 3). Framing cultural change as continuous rather than abrupt may be a solution for reducing negative reactions caused by cultural change (Experiments 2 and 3). Individual difference factors function as anchors that cement individuals in a state of uniformity (Experiments 2). The findings demonstrate that social interactions rely on perceptions toward change and individual difference factors that anchor one’s willingness to accept change.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T09:33:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221076209
       
  • Constructing Explicit Prejudice: Evidence From Large Sample Datasets

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      Authors: Kent M. Lee, Kristen A. Lindquist, B. Keith Payne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How does implicit bias contribute to explicit prejudice' Prior experiments show that concept knowledge about fear versus sympathy determines whether negative affect (captured as implicit bias) predicts antisocial outcomes (Lee et al.). Concept knowledge (i.e., beliefs) about groups may similarly moderate the link between implicitly measured negative affect (implicit negative affect) and explicit prejudice. We tested this hypothesis using data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) 2008 Time Series Study (Study 1) and Project Implicit (Study 2). In both studies, participants high in implicit negative affect reported more explicit prejudice if they possessed negative beliefs about Black Americans. Yet, participants high in implicit negative affect reported less explicit prejudice if they possessed fewer negative beliefs about Black Americans. The results are consistent with psychological constructionist and dynamic models of evaluation and offer a more ecologically valid extension of our past laboratory work.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T09:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221075926
       
  • Gender Backlash and the Moderating Role of Shared Racial Group Membership

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      Authors: Vivian L. Xiao, Brian S. Lowery, Amelia Stillwell
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that White women often experience more gender backlash than women of color in response to expressions of agency. We consider whether this differential in backlash is driven by the match or mismatch of the race of both perceivers and targets. Much of the existing work in this space examines the perspective of White perceivers, which might underestimate racial minority women’s susceptibility to backlash if backlash occurs primarily in same-race interactions. We examine how the racial group memberships of targets and perceivers jointly affect backlash against gender-norm violating women. In analyses of Dr. Christine Blasey-Ford’s accusations of sexual assault against Brett Kavanaugh and Anita Hill’s accusations against Clarence Thomas during their respective U.S. Supreme Court confirmation hearings, an archival analysis of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and two experiments, we find that perceivers of different races tend to express more backlash toward racial in-group than out-group women.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T09:19:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074543
       
  • Misplaced Intuitions in Interventions to Reduce Attractiveness-Based
           Discrimination

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      Authors: Jordan R. Axt, Juanyu Yang, Harshadaa Deshpande
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals and organizations are increasing efforts to address discrimination. Nonexperts may lack awareness of, or are resistant to, scientifically informed strategies for reducing discrimination, instead relying on intuition. Five studies investigated the accuracy of nonexperts’ intuitions about reducing discrimination concerning physical attractiveness. In Studies 1a to 1c (N = 902), participants predicted the effectiveness of six interventions to reduce attractiveness-based favoritism on a judgment task. Studies 2a and 2b (N = 6,292) investigated the effectiveness of these interventions. Although two interventions reduced discrimination, intuitions were poorly aligned with actual results; fewer than 1% of participants identified the combination of interventions that did, versus did not, impact judgment, and responses were more likely to be below than above chance when predicting each intervention’s effectiveness. Although follow-up work should investigate the accuracy of intuition in other forms of discrimination, these results further stress the need for greater development and adoption of evidence-based strategies for combating discrimination.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T10:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221074748
       
  • Sociotropic and Personal Threats and Authoritarian Reactions During
           COVID-19

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      Authors: Gizem Arikan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The authoritarianism literature is divided over whether perceived threats to normative social order (sociotropic threats) or threats to the individual’s well-being (personal threats) activate authoritarian predispositions. In addition, while some approaches claim that perceived threats primarily trigger those high in authoritarianism, others claim that those who are low in authoritarianism are more sensitive to threats. Given the centrality of authoritarianism and threat on support for extraordinary policies in the context of COVID-19, this article sought to test to what extent different types of threats moderated the effect of authoritarianism on support for tough law and order policies and harsh punishments to contain the spread of coronavirus. Data from two preregistered survey experiments indicates that those high in authoritarianism were more willing to support tough law and order policies when primed with sociotropic threats while those low in authoritarianism became more willing to support such policies when primed with personal threats.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070923
       
  • Meaning in Life and Coping With Everyday Stressors

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      Authors: Sarah Ward, Jake Womick, Liudmila Titova, Laura King
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Meaning in life (MIL) has been proposed to improve coping and resilience. Yet MIL’s association with coping has primarily been investigated in the context of extreme stressors and trauma, often using varied measures of MIL. Is MIL associated with varied coping strategies, coping self-efficacy, and distress in relation to commonly experienced, everyday challenges' Using diverse methodological designs, five studies (total N = 1,646) investigated the association between MIL and coping strategies/appraisals pertaining to varied challenging, stressful events. Across recalled (Studies 1 and 2), anticipated (Study 3), and experienced stressors (Studies 3–5), MIL was consistently associated with positive reinterpretation, proactive planning, coping self-efficacy, and stress. MIL was inconsistently related to threat/emotion-coping.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211068910
       
  • “Proof Under Reasonable Doubt”: Ambiguity of the Norm Violation as
           Boundary Condition of Third-Party Punishment

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      Authors: Daniel Toribio-Flórez, Julia Saße, Anna Baumert
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In six studies, we consistently observed costly third-party punishment (3PP) to decrease under ambiguity of the norm violation. Our research suggests that, under ambiguity, some people experience concerns about punishing unfairly. Those with higher (vs. lower) other-oriented justice sensitivity (Observer JS) reduced 3PP more pronouncedly (in Studies 1–3 and 4b, but not replicated in Studies 4–5). Moreover, those who decided to resolve the ambiguity (hence, removing the risk of punishing unfairly) exceeded the 3PP observed under no ambiguity (Study 4). However, we did not consistently observe these concerns about punishing unfairly to affect 3PP (Studies 4–5). We further considered whether people could use ambiguity as justification for remaining passive—thus, avoiding the costs of 3PP. We did not find conclusive evidence supporting this notion. Taken together, ambiguity entails a situational boundary of 3PP that sheds light on the prevalence of this behavior and, potentially, on its preceding decision-making.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T08:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211067675
       
  • The Empowering Function of the Belief in a Just World for the Self:
           Trait-Level and Experimental Tests of Its Association With Positive and
           Negative Affect

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      Authors: Jonathan Bartholomaeus, Nicholas Burns, Peter Strelan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Belief in a just world for the self (BJW-self) is a resource that promotes adaptive functioning. We theorize that BJW-self has such an effect because it is empowering. This article reports on four studies (N = 967) testing whether BJW-self encourages more positive and less negative affect indirectly through empowerment. There was support for this hypothesis at a trait level across all studies, and specifically in Study 1. Experimental evidence, however, was more complex. Study 2 demonstrated the causal effect of the mediator, empowerment, on affect. Study 3 demonstrated that affirming BJW-self enhanced empowerment with an associated increase in positive affect and reduced negative affect. Study 4 showed that enhancing empowerment did not significantly influence the effect of affirmed BJW-self on affect, but blocking empowerment did, although this finding is qualified by no significant effect on empowerment. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings, and the challenges of experimentally manipulating BJW-self.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:36:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211072823
       
  • The Making of a Radical: The Role of Peer Harassment in Youth Political
           Radicalism

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      Authors: Marta Miklikowska, Katarzyna Jasko, Ales Kudrnac
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although political radicalism is one of the major societal threats, we have limited understanding of how it is formed. While there are reasons to expect that harassment experienced in adolescence increase the propensity for radicalism, this relationship has not yet been investigated. This five-wave study of Swedish adolescents (N = 892) examined the role of peer harassment in radical political behavior. The results revealed that within-person fluctuations in harassment were positively related to fluctuations in radicalism. Individual-level (but not class-level) harassment also predicted differences between adolescents: youth who experienced more harassment had higher levels of and a more pronounced decrease in radicalism. In addition, adolescents who had more supportive teachers or parents were less affected by harassment than youth with less-supportive adults. The findings suggest that personal experiences of harassment increase the risk of radicalism but supportive relationships can mitigate their negative consequences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070420
       
  • Temporary Self-Deprivation Can Impair Cognitive Control: Evidence From the
           Ramadan Fast

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      Authors: Mostafa Salari Rad, Morteza Ansarinia, Eldar Shafir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      During Ramadan, people of Muslim faith fast by not eating or drinking between sunrise and sunset. This is likely to have physiological and psychological consequences for fasters, and societal and economic impacts on the wider population. We investigate whether, during this voluntary and temporally limited fast, reminders of food can impair the fasters’ reaction time and accuracy on a non-food-related test of cognitive control. Using a repeated measures design in a sample of Ramadan fasters (N = 190), we find that when food is made salient, fasters are slower and less accurate during Ramadan compared with after Ramadan. Control participants perform similarly across time. Furthermore, during Ramadan performances vary by how recently people had their last meal. Potential mechanisms are suggested, grounded in research on resource scarcity, commitment, and thought suppression, as well as the psychology of rituals and self-regulation, and implications for people who fast for religious or health reasons are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211070385
       
  • What Motives Do People Most Want to Know About When Meeting Another
           Person' An Investigation Into Prioritization of Information About
           Seven Fundamental Motives

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      Authors: Matthew I. Billet, Hugh C. McCall, Mark Schaller
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What information about a person’s personality do people want to know' Prior research has focused on behavioral traits, but personality is also characterized in terms of motives. Four studies (N = 1,502) assessed participants’ interest in information about seven fundamental social motives (self-protection, disease avoidance, affiliation, status, mate seeking, mate retention, kin care) across 12 experimental conditions that presented details about the person or situation. In the absence of details about specific situations, participants most highly prioritized learning about kin care and mate retention motives. There was some variability across conditions, but the kin care motive was consistently highly prioritized. Additional results from Studies 1 to 4 and Study 5 (N = 174) showed the most highly prioritized motives were perceived to be stable across time and to be especially diagnostic of a person’s trustworthiness, warmth, competence, and dependability. Findings are discussed in relation to research on fundamental social motives and pragmatic perspectives on person perception.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T07:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211069468
       
  • Do People Know How Their Romantic Partner Views Their Emotions'
           Evidence for Emotion Meta-Accuray and Links with Momentary Romantic
           Relationship Quality

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      Authors: Hasagani Tissera, Jennifer L. Heyman, Lauren J. Human
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Do people know how their romantic partner (i.e., the perceiver) views the self’s (i.e., the metaperceiver’s) emotions, displaying emotion meta-accuracy' Is it relevant to relationship quality' Using a sample of romantic couples (Ncouples = 189), we found evidence for two types of emotion meta-accuracy across three different interactions: (a) normative emotion meta-accuracy, knowing perceivers’ impressions of metaperceivers’ emotions that are in line with how the average person may feel, and (b) distinctive emotion meta-accuracy, knowing perceivers’ unique impression of metaperceivers’ emotions. Furthermore, across interactions, normative emotion meta-accuracy was positively related to momentary relationship quality for metaperceivers and perceivers and this link was especially strong in the conflict interaction. Distinctive emotion meta-accuracy was negatively related to momentary relationship quality across interactions for perceivers and in the conflict interaction for metaperceivers. Overall, it may be adaptive for metaperceivers to accurately infer perceivers’ normative impressions and to remain blissfully unaware of their unique impressions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T09:58:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211068225
       
  • Guns Are Not Faster to Enter Awareness After Seeing a Black Face: Absence
           of Race-Priming in a Gun/Tool Task During Continuous Flash Suppression

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      Authors: Timo Stein, Tommaso Ciorli, Marte Otten
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In the Weapon Identification Task (WIT), Black faces prime the identification of guns compared with tools. We measured race-induced changes in visual awareness of guns and tools using continuous flash suppression (CFS). Eighty-four participants, primed with Black or Asian faces, indicated the location of a gun or tool target that was temporarily rendered invisible through CFS, which provides a sensitive measure of effects on early visual processing. The same participants also completed a standard (non-CFS) WIT. We replicated the standard race-priming effect in the WIT. In the CFS task, Black and Asian primes did not affect the time guns and tools needed to enter awareness. Thus, race priming does not alter early visual processing but does change the identification of guns and tools. This confirms that race-priming originates from later post-perceptual memory- or response-related processing.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T09:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211067068
       
  • Choice Set Size Shapes Self-Expression

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      Authors: Nathan N. Cheek, Barry Schwartz, Eldar Shafir
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across six studies (total N = 3,549), we find that participants who were randomly assigned to choose from larger assortments thought their choices were more self-expressive, an effect that emerged regardless of whether larger sets actually enabled participants to better satisfy their preferences. Studies examining the moderating role of choice domain and cultural context show that the effect of choice set size on perceived self-expression may be particular to contexts in which choices have some initial potential to express choosers’ identities. We then test novel predictions from this theoretical perspective, finding that self-expression mediates the effect of choice set size on choice satisfaction, the likelihood of publicly sharing choices, and the perceived importance of choices. Together, these studies show that choice set size shapes perceived self-expression and illustrate how this meaning-based theoretical lens provides both novel explanations for existing effects and novel predictions for future research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T12:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211064112
       
  • Not Just About Faces in Context: Face–Context Relation Moderates the
           Impact of Contextual Threat on Facial Trustworthiness

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      Authors: Simone Mattavelli, Matteo Masi, Marco Brambilla
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Recent work showed that the attribution of facial trustworthiness can be influenced by the surrounding context in which a face is embedded: contexts that convey threat make faces less trustworthy. In four studies (N = 388, three preregistered) we tested whether face–context integration is influenced by how faces and contexts are encoded relationally. In Experiments 1a to 1c, face–context integration was stronger when threatening stimuli were attributable to the human action. Faces were judged less trustworthy when shown in threatening contexts that were ascribable (vs. non-ascribable) to the human action. In Experiment 2, we manipulated face–context relations using instructions. When instructions presented facial stimuli as belonging to the “perpetrators” of the threatening contexts, no difference with the control (no-instructions) condition was found in face–context integration. Instead, the effect was reduced when faces were presented as “victims.” We discussed the importance of considering relational reasoning when studying face–context integration.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-30T12:08:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211065933
       
  • Disgusting Democrats and Repulsive Republicans: Members of Political
           Outgroups Are Considered Physically Gross

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      Authors: Justin F. Landy, Joshua Rottman, Carlota Batres, Kristin L. Leimgruber
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The status of disgust as a sociomoral emotion is debated. We conducted a stringent test of whether social stimuli (specifically, political outgroup members) can elicit physical disgust, as distinct from moral or metaphorical disgust. We employed stimuli (male faces) matched on baseline disgustingness, provided other ways for participants to express negativity toward outgroup members, and used concrete self-report measures of disgust, as well as a nonverbal measure (participants’ facial expressions). Across three preregistered studies (total N = 915), we found that political outgroup members are judged to be “disgusting,” although this effect is generally weaker for concrete self-report measures and absent for the nonverbal measure. This suggests that social stimuli are capable of eliciting genuine physical disgust, although it is not always outwardly expressed, and the strength of this result depends on the measures employed. We discuss implications of these results for research on sociomoral emotions and American politics.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:53:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211065923
       
  • Is Difficulty Mostly About Impossibility': What Difficulty Implies May
           Be Culturally Variant

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      Authors: S. Casey O’Donnell, Veronica X. Yan, Chongzeng Bi, Daphna Oyserman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Difficulty can signal low odds (impossibility) and high value (importance). We build on culture-as-situated cognition theory’s description of culture-based fluency and disfluency to predict that the culturally fluent meaning of difficulty is culture-bound. For Americans, the culturally fluent understanding of ability is success-with-ease-not-effort, hence difficulty implies low odds of ability. This may disadvantage American institutions and practices—learning requires gaining competence and proficiency through effortful engagement. Indeed, Americans (Studies 1, 3–8; N = 4,141; Study 2, the corpus of English language) associate difficulty with impossibility more than importance. This tendency is not universal. Indian and Chinese cultures imply that difficulty can equally signal low odds and value. Indeed, people from India and China (Studies 9–11, N = 762) are as likely to understand difficulty as being about both. Effects are culture-based; how much people endorse difficulty-as-importance and difficulty-as-impossibility in their own lives did not affect results.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:50:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211065595
       
  • Damaged Masculinity: How Honor Endorsement Can Influence Prostate Cancer
           Screening Decision-Making and Prostate Cancer Mortality Rates

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      Authors: Stephen Foster, Mauricio Carvallo, Matthew Wenske, Jongwon Lee
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Prior research has established factors that contribute to the likelihood that men seek out prostate cancer screenings. The current study addresses how endorsing the ideology found in cultures of honor may serve as a barrier to prostate cancer screenings. Two studies were conducted which analyzed the impact of stigma on men’s decisions to seek out prostate cancer screenings (Study 1) as well as how prostate cancer deaths may be higher in the culture of honor regions due to men’s reticence to seek out screenings (Study 2). Results suggest that older, honor-endorsing men are less likely to have ever sought out a prostate cancer screening due to screening stigma and that an honor-oriented region (southern and western United States) displays higher rates of prostate cancer death than a non-honor-oriented region (northern United States). These findings suggest that honor may be a cultural framework to consider when practitioners address patients’ screening-related concerns.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:48:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211065293
       
  • The Social Consequences of Frequent Versus Infrequent Apologizing

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      Authors: Karina Schumann, Emily G. Ritchie, Amanda Forest
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The effectiveness of interpersonal apologies is well established, but most existing research has examined the benefits of isolated apologies. How do apologies function when considered in the context of a transgressor’s apology baseline—the frequency with which they tend to apologize for their behavior' We examined whether people consider others’ apology baselines when evaluating both their character and specific apologies from them. In Study 1, participants judged a character with a high (vs. low) apology baseline as higher in communion and lower in agency. In Study 2, participants judged romantic partners with high (vs. low) apology baselines as higher in communion, but only lower in agency when they perceived these frequent apologies as low-quality. In both studies, having a high apology baseline was also indirectly associated with more favorable reactions to a specific apology via higher communion judgments, revealing the role of apology baselines in shaping conflict resolution processes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:46:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211065286
       
  • Science for Others or the Self' Presumed Motives for Science Shape
           Public Trust in Science

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      Authors: Tessa M. Benson-Greenwald, Alejandro Trujillo, Andrew D. White, Amanda B. Diekman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Science can improve life around the world, but public trust in science is at risk. Understanding the presumed motives of scientists and science can inform the social psychological underpinnings of public trust in science. Across five independent datasets, perceiving the motives of science and scientists as prosocial promoted public trust in science. In Studies 1 and 2, perceptions that science was more prosocially oriented were associated with greater trust in science. Studies 3 and 4a & 4b employed experimental methods to establish that perceiving other-oriented motives, versus self-oriented motives, enhanced public trust in science. Respondents recommend greater funding allocations for science subdomains described as prosocially oriented versus power-oriented. Emphasizing the prosocial aspects of science can build stronger foundations of public trust in science.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:43:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211064456
       
  • Physical Attractiveness Biases Judgments Pertaining to the Moral Domain of
           Purity

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      Authors: Christoph Klebl, Joshua J. Rhee, Katharine H. Greenaway, Yin Luo, Brock Bastian
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research on the Beauty-is-Good stereotype shows that unattractive people are perceived to have worse moral character than attractive individuals. Yet research has not explored what kinds of moral character judgments are particularly biased by attractiveness. In this work, we tested whether attractiveness particularly biases moral character judgments pertaining to the moral domain of purity, beyond a more general halo effect. Across four preregistered studies (N = 1,778), we found that unattractive (vs. attractive) individuals were judged to be more likely to engage in purity violations compared with harm violations and that this was not due to differences in perceived moral wrongness, weirdness, or sociality between purity and harm violations. The findings shed light on how physical attractiveness influences moral character attributions, suggesting that physical attractiveness particularly biases character judgments pertaining to the moral domain of purity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:36:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211064452
       
  • Unintentional Inception: When a Premium Is Offered to Unintentional
           Creations

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      Authors: Alexander G. Fulmer, Taly Reich
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Creations can be fundamentally intended or unintended from their outset. Past work has focused on intentional creations, finding that people place a premium on effort. We examine the role of unintentionality in the inception of creations in six studies using a variety of stimuli (N = 1,965), finding that people offer a premium to unintentional creations versus otherwise identical intentional creations. We demonstrate that the unintentionality involved in the inception of a creation results in greater downward counterfactual thought about how the unintentional creation may have never been created at all, and this in turn heightens perceptions that the creation was a product of fate, causing people to place a premium on such creations. We provide evidence for this causal pathway using a combination of mediation and moderation approaches. Further, we illuminate that this premium is not offered when a negative outcome is ascribed to an unintentional creation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:33:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211063750
       
  • Perceived Similarity of the Self to Animals, Creativity, and Anxiety—: A
           Terror Management Analysis

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      Authors: Uri Lifshin, Jeff Greenberg, Stylianos Syropoulos, Bernhard Leidner, Peter J. Helm, Daniel Sullivan, Dylan Horner, Mario Mikulincer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      According to terror management theory, humans avoid death anxiety by embedding themselves within cultural worldviews that allow them to perceive themselves as more than mortal animals. However, individuals also differ in their trait-like tendency to dissociate from other animals. In six studies, we tested whether individuals who perceive themselves as more similar to animals (high-perceived similarity of the self to animals [PSSA]) invest more in creativity for terror management than low-PSSA individuals, but are also more vulnerable to experiencing anxiety and existential concerns. Supporting our hypotheses, PSSA was associated with investment in creativity and arts, especially after death primes (Studies 3 and 4). High-PSSA individuals had heightened trait anxiety and death-thought accessibility (Studies 5 and 6), and showed increased state anxiety following a negative feedback about their creativity (Study 6). Findings highlight the role of PSSA as a personality variable predicting human motivation and emotion.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:32:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211063260
       
  • Turning Tables: Offenders Feel Like “Victims” When Victims
           Withhold Forgiveness

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      Authors: Michael Thai, Michael Wenzel, Tyler G. Okimoto
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      When offenders apologize to victims for a wrongdoing, they often expect forgiveness in return. Sometimes, however, victims may withhold forgiveness. Across four experimental studies, we find that offenders feel like “victims” when victims respond to their apologies with non-forgiveness. This can be explained by the fact that they interpret non-forgiveness as both a norm violation and a threat to their sense of power. Together, these mechanisms can account for the relationship between non-forgiveness and negative conciliatory sentiments in offenders. These effects of non-forgiveness emerge irrespective of whether the transgression is recalled (Study 1) or imagined (Studies 2-4). They are specific to non-forgiveness rather than a lack of explicit forgiveness (Study 3), and are not qualified by subtle prods for participants to take the victim’s perspective (Study 4). These findings demonstrate a destructive response pattern in offenders that warrants further attention.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:29:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211062401
       
  • Educators’ Beliefs About Students’ Socioeconomic Backgrounds as a
           Pathway for Supporting Motivation

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      Authors: David M. Silverman, Ivan A. Hernandez, Mesmin Destin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Students’ understandings of their socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds have important implications for their motivation, achievement, and the emergence of SES-based educational disparities. Educators’ beliefs about students’ backgrounds likely play a meaningful role in shaping these understandings and, thus, may represent an important opportunity to support students from lower-SES backgrounds. We first experimentally demonstrate that educators can be encouraged to adopt background-specific strengths beliefs—which view students’ lower-SES backgrounds as potential sources of unique and beneficial strengths (NStudy 1 = 125). Subsequently, we find that exposure to educators who communicate background-specific strengths beliefs positively influences the motivation and academic persistence of students, particularly those from lower-SES backgrounds (NStudy 2 = 256; NStudy 3 = 276). Furthermore, lower-SES students’ own beliefs about their backgrounds mediated these effects. Altogether, our work contributes to social-psychological theory and practice regarding how key societal contexts can promote equity through identity-based processes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211061945
       
  • Interested and Instrumental: An Examination of Instrumentality Regulation
           With Potential Romantic Partners

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      Authors: Kylie R. Chandler, Kori L. Krueger, Amanda L. Forest, Edward Orehek
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Instrumentality—the extent to which one facilitates another person’s goal progress—has been described as the Rosetta Stone of attraction, and promotes closeness in ongoing relationships. Yet prior work has not examined whether people might regulate their instrumentality in contexts in which they desire (vs. do not desire) attraction or closeness with others. Four studies, employing imagined online scenario and in-lab experimental paradigms, examined whether people strive to be more instrumental to potential romantic partners (targets) under conditions that lead them to be more (vs. less) romantically interested in those targets. Single participants were more romantically interested in romantically available versus unavailable targets, which in turn, was associated with greater willingness to be instrumental. Results for romantically involved participants were less consistent. Implications and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:25:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211061942
       
  • Can Conspiracy Beliefs Be Beneficial' Longitudinal Linkages Between
           

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      Authors: Luisa Liekefett, Oliver Christ, Julia C. Becker
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that conspiracy beliefs are adopted because they promise to reduce anxiety, uncertainty, and threat. However, little research has investigated whether conspiracy beliefs actually fulfill these promises. We conducted two longitudinal studies (NStudy 1 = 405, NStudy 2 = 1,012) to examine how conspiracy beliefs result from, and in turn influence, anxiety, uncertainty aversion, and existential threat. Random intercept cross-lagged panel analyses indicate that people who were, on average, more anxious, uncertainty averse, and existentially threatened held stronger conspiracy beliefs. Increases in conspiracy beliefs were either unrelated to changes in anxiety, uncertainty aversion, and existential threat (Study 2), or even predicted increases in these variables (Study 1). In both studies, increases in conspiracy beliefs predicted subsequent increases in conspiracy beliefs, suggesting a self-reinforcing circle. We conclude that conspiracy beliefs likely do not have beneficial consequences, but may even reinforce the negative experience of anxiety, uncertainty aversion, and existential threat.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:21:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211060965
       
  • More Than a Momentary Blip in the Universe' Investigating the Link
           Between Religiousness and Perceived Meaning in Life

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      Authors: Michael Prinzing, Patty Van Cappellen, Barbara L. Fredrickson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      One longitudinal and four cross-sectional studies (total N = 3,141) tested two candidate explanations for the association between religiousness and perceived meaning in life. Religiousness may foster a sense of significance, importance, or mattering—either to others (social mattering) or in the grand scheme of the universe (cosmic mattering)—which, in turn, support perceived meaning. We found that perceived social mattering mediated, but could not fully explain, the link between religiousness and perceived meaning. In contrast, perceived cosmic mattering did fully explain the association. Overall, results suggest that perceived social and cosmic mattering are each part of the explanation. Yet, perceived cosmic mattering appears to be the stronger mechanism. We discuss how religious faith may be especially suited to support such perceptions, making it a partially unique source of felt meaning.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:19:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211060136
       
  • My Fight or Yours: Stereotypes of Activists From Advantaged and
           Disadvantaged Groups

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      Authors: Brooke Burrows, Hema Preya Selvanathan, Brian Lickel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In social movements, activists may belong to either the disadvantaged or the advantaged group (e.g., Black racial justice activists or White racial justice activists). Across three experimental survey studies, we examined the content of these stereotypes by asking participants to freely generate a list of characteristics to describe each target group—a classic paradigm in stereotype research. Specifically, we examined the stereotypes applied to Black and White activists within racial justice movements (Study 1, n = 154), female and male activists within feminist movements (Study 2, n =134), and LBGT and straight activists within Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender movements (Study 3, n =156). We found that the “activist” category was consistently differentiated into subcategories based on group status: Disadvantaged group activists were stereotyped as strong and aggressive, whereas advantaged group activists were stereotyped as altruistic and superficial. These findings underscore the importance of considering status differences to understand the social perception of activists.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T11:16:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211060124
       
  • How Personality Relates to Attitudes Toward Diversity and Workplace
           Diversity Initiatives

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      Authors: Sana F. Lall-Trail, Nicholas P. Salter, Xiaowen Xu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research examined how the Big Five traits Openness to Experience and Agreeableness predicted general attitudes toward diversity (Study 1) and receptivity to concrete diversity initiatives in the workplace (Study 2). Study 1 found that Openness to Experience positively predicted universal diverse orientation, but not pro-diversity belief or sensitivity to diversity. Agreeableness positively predicted universal diverse orientation and pro-diversity belief. In Study 2, Openness to Experience positively predicted universal diverse orientation, but not support for workplace diversity initiatives. Agreeableness positively predicted universal diverse orientation and support for both existing and potential workplace diversity initiatives. We also showed that universal diverse orientation mediated the links between personality and support for workplace diversity initiatives. We discuss how these findings can shed more light on the types of individuals who are more likely to endorse diversity and inclusion, which can subsequently inform more effective implementation and communication of diversity initiatives.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-21T09:45:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211057755
       
  • New Technology Evokes Old Memories: Frequent Smartphone Use Increases
           Feeling of Nostalgia

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      Authors: Niwen Huang, Shijiang Zuo, Fang Wang, Yawen Li, Pan Cai, Shun Wang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In the era of technology, smartphone use occupies an important position in our lives. The present research focused on the psychological consequence of frequent smartphone use and possible way to remedy it. We proposed that frequent smartphone use could damage people’s sense of control and in turn trigger nostalgia. Moreover, nostalgia could directly compensate for the low sense of control induced by frequent smartphone use. Five studies (N = 918) were conducted. Study 1 found through a field study that frequent smartphone use increases nostalgia. Studies 2 and 3 found through 14-day tracking and a laboratory experiment that frequent smartphone use decreased people’s sense of control and then triggered nostalgia. Furthermore, nostalgia could enhance the low sense of control, and it worked by increasing self-esteem (Studies 4 and 5). The findings show the negative impact of frequent smartphone use, and nostalgia is an effective way to remedy it without preventing people from using smartphones.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-15T05:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211061935
       
  • Interpersonal Consequences of Deceptive Expressions of Sadness

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      Authors: Christopher A. Gunderson, Alysha Baker, Alona D. Pence, Leanne ten Brinke
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Emotional expressions evoke predictable responses from observers; displays of sadness are commonly met with sympathy and help from others. Accordingly, people may be motivated to feign emotions to elicit a desired response. In the absence of suspicion, we predicted that emotional and behavioral responses to genuine (vs. deceptive) expressers would be guided by empirically valid cues of sadness authenticity. Consistent with this hypothesis, untrained observers (total N = 1,300) reported less sympathy and offered less help to deceptive (vs. genuine) expressers of sadness. This effect was replicated using both posed, low-stakes, laboratory-created stimuli, and spontaneous, real, high-stakes emotional appeals to the public. Furthermore, lens models suggest that sympathy reactions were guided by difficult-to-fake facial actions associated with sadness. Results suggest that naive observers use empirically valid cues to deception to coordinate social interactions, providing novel evidence that people are sensitive to subtle cues to deception.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-15T05:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211059700
       
  • Reactive Risk-Taking: Anxiety Regulation Via Approach Motivation Increases
           Risk-Taking Behavior

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      Authors: Josh Leota, Kyle Nash, Ian McGregor
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Experimental research and real-world events demonstrate a puzzling phenomenon—anxiety, which primarily inspires caution, sometimes precedes bouts of risk-taking. We conducted three studies to test whether this phenomenon is due to the regulation of anxiety via reactive approach motivation (RAM), which leaves people less sensitive to negative outcomes and thus more likely to take risks. In Study 1 (N = 231), an achievement anxiety threat caused increased risk-taking on the Behavioral Analogue Risk Task (BART) among trait approach-motivated participants. Using electroencephalogram in Study 2 (N = 97), an economic anxiety threat increased behavioral inhibition system-specific theta activity, a neural correlate of anxiety, which was associated with an increase in risk-taking on the BART among trait approach-motivated participants. In a preregistered Study 3 (N = 432), we replicated the findings of Study 1. These results offer preliminary support for the reactive risk-taking hypothesis.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-15T05:52:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211059689
       
  • The Ups and Downs of Being Us: Cross-Relationship Comparisons in Daily
           Life

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      Authors: Sabrina Thai, Penelope Lockwood, Elizabeth Page-Gould
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Cross-relationship comparisons are an integral part of relationship processes, yet little is known about the impact of these comparisons in daily life. The present research employed a dyadic experience-sampling methodology (N = 78 couples) with end-of-day surveys, end-of-week follow-up, and a 6-month follow-up to examine how individuals make cross-relationship comparisons in daily life, the cumulative impact of these comparisons over time, and the dyadic consequences of such comparisons. Participants made more downward than upward comparisons; however, upward comparisons had a more lasting impact, resulting in decreased satisfaction and optimism, and less positive self-perceptions and partner perceptions, at the end of each day and the week. Individuals who made more upward comparisons were also less satisfied 6 months later. Individuals were also affected by their partner’s comparisons: On days when partners made more upward comparisons, they felt less satisfied and optimistic about their relationship and less positive about themselves and their partner.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-15T05:51:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211056774
       
  • National Narcissism predicts the Belief in and the Dissemination of
           Conspiracy Theories During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence From 56
           Countries

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      Authors: Anni Sternisko, Aleksandra Cichocka, Aleksandra Cislak, Jay J. Van Bavel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Conspiracy theories related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have propagated around the globe, leading the World Health Organization to declare the spread of misinformation an “Infodemic.” We tested the hypothesis that national narcissism—a belief in the greatness of one’s nation that requires external recognition—is associated with the spread of conspiracy theories during the COVID-19 pandemic. In two large-scale national surveys (NTotal = 950) conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom, and secondary analysis of data from 56 countries (N = 50,757), we found a robust, positive relationship between national narcissism and proneness to believe and disseminate conspiracy theories related to COVID-19. Furthermore, belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories was related to less engagement in health behaviors and less support for public-health policies to combat COVID-19. Our findings illustrate the importance of social identity factors in the spread of conspiracy theories and provide insights into the psychological processes underlying the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-12-07T09:21:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211054947
       
  • Do Grittier People Have Greater Subjective Well-Being' A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Xiang-Ling Hou, Nicolas Becker, Tian-Qiang Hu, Marco Koch, Ju-Zhe Xi, René Mõttus
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present study conducted a meta-analysis to examine the relation between grit and subjective well-being (SWB). The association between grit (i.e., overall grit, perseverance of effort, and consistency of interest) and SWB (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, happiness, depression, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and school satisfaction) were synthesized across 83 studies and 66,518 participants. The results based on a random-effects model showed a substantial correlation between overall grit and SWB (ρ = .46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [.43, .48]), followed by perseverance of effort (ρ = .38, 95% CI = [.33, .43]) and consistency of interest (ρ = .23, 95% CI = [.17, .28]). The moderator analysis indicated that the correlations between overall grit/consistency of effort and SWB become weaker as age increased, and these links were stronger in affective well-being than in cognitive well-being. Moreover, grit explained unique variance in SWB even after controlling for conscientiousness. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-11-22T09:37:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211053453
       
  • The Role of Witnesses in Humiliation: Why Does the Presence of an Audience
           Facilitate Humiliation Among Victims of Devaluation'

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      Authors: Saulo Fernández, Tamar Saguy, Elena Gaviria, Rut Agudo, Eran Halperin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the role that witnesses play in triggering humiliation. We hypothesized that witnesses trigger humiliation because they intensify the two core appraisals underlying humiliation: unfairness and internalization of a devaluation of the self. However, we further propose that witnesses are not a defining characteristic of humiliating situations. Results of a preliminary study using an event-recall method confirmed that witnesses were as characteristic of humiliating episodes as of those that elicited shame or anger. In Experiments 1 and 2, we manipulated the presence (vs. absence) of witnesses when a professor devalued participants and the hostile tone of this devaluation. As hypothesized, in both experiments, witnesses indirectly increased humiliation via the appraisal of unfairness. Results of Experiment 2 revealed that the presence of witnesses also interacted with hostility, enhancing humiliation. As expected, this moderating effect occurred via the other key appraisal of humiliation (i.e., internalization).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-11-22T09:13:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211053078
       
  • Bodies and Minds: Heavier Weight Targets Are De-Mentalized as Lacking in
           Mental Agency

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      Authors: Mattea Sim, Steven M. Almaraz, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Five experiments investigate the hypothesis that heavier weight individuals are denied mental agency (i.e., higher order cognitive and intentional capacities), but not experience (e.g., emotional and sensory capacities), relative to average weight individuals. Across studies, we find that as targets increase in weight, they are denied mental agency; however, target weight has no reliable influence on ascriptions of experience (Studies 1a–2b). Furthermore, the de-mentalization of heavier weight targets was associated with both disgust and beliefs about targets’ physical agency (Study 3). Finally, de-mentalization affected role assignments. Heavier weight targets were rated as helpful for roles requiring experiential but not mentally agentic faculties (Study 4). Heavier weight targets were also less likely than chance to be categorized into a career when it was described as requiring mental agency (versus experience; Study 5). These findings suggest novel insights into past work on weight stigma, wherein discrimination often occurs in domains requiring mental agency.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-11-10T02:49:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211039981
       
  • Were Americans’ Political Attitudes Linked to Objective Threats From
           COVID-19' An Examination of Data From Project Implicit During Initial
           Months of the Pandemic

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      Authors: Chadly Stern, Jordan Axt
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has created objectively threatening situations in everyday life (e.g., unemployment, risk of infection), and researchers have begun to ask whether threats from the pandemic are linked to people’s political attitudes. However, scholars currently lack a systematic answer to this question. Here, we examined whether objective COVID-19 threats (cases, deaths, and government restrictions) occurring over the initial months of the pandemic (February–June 2020) were associated with seven different assessments of political attitudes among Project Implicit users in the United States (N = 34,581). We did not consistently observe meaningful associations between COVID-19 threats and political attitudes. The lack of consistent meaningful associations emerged regardless of the level of analysis (country, state, and county) or participant’s self-identified ideology. Collectively, these findings failed to find evidence that political attitudes were tied to COVID-19 threats in a meaningful way during the initial months of the pandemic.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T11:04:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211052121
       
  • Helpful or Harmful' The Role of Personality Traits in Student
           Experiences of the COVID-19 Crisis and School Closure

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      Authors: Kaat Iterbeke, Kristof De Witte
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Little is known about the individual differences in student experiences and expectations of the COVID-19 crisis and the resulting school closures. Yet, as the crisis may have uniquely impacted students, knowledge about their personalities is highly relevant. In a sample of 347 Flemish students, this study explored the association between personality traits and differences in responses to the crisis. The Big Five personality traits of students were assessed in January 2020, prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. Students were reassessed in June 2020 with a set of items related to well-being, remote learning, and family and social life. The results suggested that more conscientious students (showing a better perception of remote learning) and more open students (considering the period as an opportunity to learn new skills) adjusted well to the changes induced by the crisis. On the contrary, students high in neuroticism (showing higher stress levels) were harmed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T11:03:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211050515
       
  • Cheating at the Top: Trait Dominance Explains Dishonesty More Consistently
           Than Social Power

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      Authors: Kyoo-Hwa Kim, Ana Guinote
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Power has long been associated with dishonesty. Here, we examined the contributions of personal and structural factors associated with power. Across five studies (N = 1,366), we tested the hypothesis that being dominant, more than having power and felt prestige, predicts dishonesty in incentivized tasks, moral disengagement, and breaking of Covid-19 containment rules. Dominance and dishonesty were positively associated (Study 1). Furthermore, dominance contributed to the positive relationship between occupational power and dishonesty in natural settings (Studies 2 and 5). Different types of power had inconsistent effects on dishonesty (Studies 3 and 4). Prestige was unrelated to dishonesty. Dominant individuals were overrepresented at the top, suggesting that the association between power and dishonesty may derive from self-selection processes, rather than power itself.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-16T07:23:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211051481
       
  • In the Mindset of Opportunity: Proactive Mindset, Perceived Opportunities,
           and Role Attitudes

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      Authors: Tessa M. Benson-Greenwald, Amanda B. Diekman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Perceiving roles as fulfilling goals offers motivational benefits to students, and yet the features of individuals or contexts that align with seeing such role opportunities have not been studied systematically. The current research investigated how these goal affordances are related to proactive mindset or a person’s belief that they can shape their contexts. Three studies examined how variation in proactivity aligns with perceiving more communal and agentic goal opportunities in roles. Study 1 found that highly proactive college students (vs. less proactive students) tended to perceive their future careers as fulfilling communal and agentic goals, which predicted positive career attitudes. Study 2 replicated this association, while ruling out behavioral flexibility as accounting for the proactivity–positivity relationship. Study 3 experimentally tested whether growth-oriented contexts foster proactivity. Proactive mindset aligns with more expansive views of roles as fulfilling fundamental motives. These views, in turn, carry positive implications for one’s future career attitudes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-16T07:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211051488
       
  • The Drunk Utilitarian Revisited: Does Alcohol Really Increase
           Utilitarianism in Moral Judgment'

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      Authors: Mariola Paruzel-Czachura, Katarzyna Pypno, Jim A. C. Everett, Michał Białek, Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The “drunk utilitarian” phenomenon suggests that people are more likely to accept harm for the greater good when they are under the influence of alcohol. This phenomenon conflicts with the ideas that (a) acceptance of pro-sacrificial harm requires inhibitory control of automatic emotional responses to the idea of causing harm and (b) alcohol impairs inhibitory control. This preregistered experiment aimed to provide deeper insights into the effects of alcohol on moral judgments by using a formal modeling approach to disentangle three factors in moral dilemma judgments and by distinguishing between instrumental harm and impartial beneficence as two distinct dimensions of utilitarian psychology. Despite the use of a substantially larger sample and higher doses of alcohol compared with the ones in prior studies, alcohol had no significant effect on moral judgments. The results pose a challenge to the idea that alcohol increases utilitarianism in moral judgments.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-16T07:22:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211052120
       
  • Happiness Singled Out: Bidirectional Associations Between Singlehood and
           Life Satisfaction

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      Authors: Jeewon Oh, William J. Chopik, Richard E. Lucas
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Despite constituting a large portion of society, single people—and their satisfaction with singlehood and life—are rarely examined in their own right. How happy are single people and does their happiness change over time' In 3,439 people followed over 10 years, we found that people reported being more satisfied than not, but both singlehood satisfaction and life satisfaction declined over time. Older adults, men, and highly educated people, and people with worse health reported lower singlehood satisfaction. Constrained random-intercept cross-lagged panel models suggested that singlehood and life satisfaction had lagged bidirectional influences with each other. Results are discussed in the context of the origins of singlehood satisfaction and life satisfaction.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T02:38:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211049049
       
  • Making Diversity Work for Everybody' The Double-Edged Sword of
           All-Inclusive Diversity

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      Authors: Payton A. Small, Brenda Major, Cheryl Kaiser
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three experiments investigated how framing diversity as all-inclusive affects recognition of racial injustice. Among Whites, viewing a company mission statement that specifically included Whites/European Americans when defining diversity or made no mention of diversity led to increased recognition of unfair treatment of racial minorities relative to viewing a standard multicultural diversity statement (Experiment 1). Decreased concern about losing out on resources to racial minorities mediated these effects. Among racial minorities, viewing a company statement that included Whites/European Americans or made no mention of diversity similarly increased recognition of unfair treatment of racial minorities, an effect mediated by minorities’ reduced feelings of inclusion (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 replicated these effects using a more subtle manipulation of the all-inclusive diversity statement. These studies suggest defining diversity as inclusive of Whites/European Americans increases Whites’ sensitivity to racial injustice against minorities but simultaneously increases racial minority Americans’ concerns about exclusion and unfair treatment.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T03:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211047016
       
  • It’s About Time! Identifying and Explaining Unique Trajectories of
           Solidarity-Based Collective Action to Support People in Developing
           Countries

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      Authors: Emma F. Thomas, Craig McGarty, Winnifred R Louis, Michael Wenzel, Simon Bury, Lydia Woodyatt
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Social change occurs over years and decades, yet we know little about how people sustain, increase or diminish their actions over time, and why they do so. This article examines diverging trajectories of solidarity-based collective action to support people in developing nations more than 5 years. We suggest that sustained, diminished, and/or increased action over time will be predicted by identification as a supporter, group efficacy beliefs, and discrete emotions about disadvantage. Latent Growth Mixture Models (N = 483) revealed two trajectories with unique signatures: an activist supporter trajectory with a higher intercept and weakly declining action; and a benevolent supporter trajectory with a lower intercept but weakly increasing action. The activist trajectory was predicted by social identification, outrage, and hope, whereas the benevolent supporter trajectory was predicted by sympathy. The results highlight the role of combinations of emotions and the need for person-centered longitudinal methods in collective action research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T03:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211047083
       
  • Attitude Moralization Within Polarized Contexts: An Emotional
           Value-Protective Response to Dyadic Harm Cues

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      Authors: Chantal D’Amore, Martijn van Zomeren, Namkje Koudenburg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Polarization about societal issues involves attitudinal conflict, but we know little about how such conflict transforms into moral conflict. Integrating insights on polarization and psychological value protection, we propose a model that predicts when and how attitude moralization (i.e., when attitudes become grounded in core values) may be triggered and develops within polarized contexts. We tested this model in three experiments (total N = 823) in the context of the polarized Zwarte Piet (blackface) debate in the Netherlands. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (a) situational cues to dyadic harm in this context (i.e., an outgroup that is perceived as intentionally inflicting harm onto innocent victims) trigger individuals to moralize their relevant attitude, because of (b) emotional value-protective responses. Findings supported both hypotheses across different regional contexts, suggesting that attitude moralization can emerge within polarized contexts when people are exposed to actions by attitudinal opponents perceived as causing dyadic harm.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T03:24:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211047375
       
  • Accuracy in Facial Trustworthiness Impressions: Kernel of Truth or Modern
           Physiognomy' A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Y. Z. Foo, C. A. M. Sutherland, N. S. Burton, S. Nakagawa, G. Rhodes
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Being able to identify trustworthy strangers is a critical social skill. However, whether such impressions are accurate is debatable. Critically, the field currently lacks a quantitative summary of the evidence. To address this gap, we conducted two meta-analyses. We tested whether there is a correlation between perceived and actual trustworthiness across faces, and whether perceivers show above-chance accuracy at assessing trustworthiness. Both meta-analyses revealed significant, modest accuracy (face level, r = .14; perceiver level, r = .27). Perceiver-level effects depended on domain, with aggressiveness and sexual unfaithfulness having stronger effects than agreeableness, criminality, financial reciprocity, and honesty. We also applied research weaving to map the literature, revealing potential biases, including a preponderance of Western studies, a lack of “cross-talk” between research groups, and clarity issues. Overall, this modest accuracy is unlikely to be of practical utility. Moreover, we strongly urge the field to improve reporting standards and generalizability of the results.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T03:24:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211048110
       
  • Sacrificing Animals in the Name of Scientific Authority: The Relationship
           Between Pro-Scientific Mindset and the Lethal Use of Animals in Biomedical
           Experimentation

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      Authors: Laurent Bègue, Kevin Vezirian
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research investigated how scientific authority increases the lethal use of animals in biomedical experimentation. In two behavioral studies (N = 151 and 150), participants were required to incrementally administer 12 doses of a toxic chemical to a 53-cm fish (in reality, a biomimetic robot) for research on animal learning. Consistent with the Engaged Followership Theory on obedience, participants placed in a pro-scientific mindset more severely harmed the laboratory animal. In a cross-sectional study (N = 351), participants in medical fields endorsed a more pro-scientific attitude than those in paramedical fields, which mediated their support for animal experimentation. Drawing on a representative European sample (N = 31,238), we also confirmed the specificity of this link by controlling for potential demographic and ideological confounds. In a final study (N = 1,598), instrumental harm was shown as mediating the link between a pro-scientific attitude and support for animal experimentation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T06:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211039413
       
  • Appearance Reveals Music Preferences

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      Authors: Laura Tian, Ravin Alaei, Nicholas O. Rule
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Disclosing idiosyncratic preferences can help to broker new social interactions. For instance, strangers exchange music preferences to signal their identities, values, and preferences. Recognizing that people’s physical appearances guide their decisions about social engagement, we examined whether cues to people’s music preferences in their physical appearance and expressive poses help to guide social interaction. We found that perceivers could detect targets’ music preferences from photos of their bodies, heads, faces, eyes, and mouths (but not hair) and that the targets’ apparent traits (e.g., submissiveness, neatness) undergirded these judgments. Perceivers also desired to meet individuals who appeared to match their music preferences versus those who did not. Music preferences therefore seem to manifest in appearance, regulating interest in others and suggesting that one’s identity redundantly emerges across different types of cues. People may thus infer others’ music preferences to identify candidates for social bonding.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T12:01:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211048291
       
  • Two Ways to Stay at the Top: Prestige and Dominance Are Both Viable
           Strategies for Gaining and Maintaining Social Rank Over Time

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      Authors: Kaylene J. McClanahan, Jon K. Maner, Joey T. Cheng
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The dual-strategies theory of social rank proposes that both dominance and prestige are effective strategies for gaining social rank (i.e., the capacity for influence) in groups. However, the only existing longitudinal investigation of these strategies suggests that, among undergraduate students, only prestige allows people to maintain social rank over time. The current study provides a longitudinal test of dominance and prestige in a context where dominance is more normative: MBA project groups. Among 548 MBA students in 104 groups, peer-rated dominance and prestige predicted gains in social rank over the course of 4 weeks, indicating that both strategies may help people not only gain social rank but also maintain it over time. Furthermore, prestige—but not dominance—led to social rank because of willingly given deference from group members. This confirms a central but thus-far-untested principle of dual-strategies theory: While prestige is based on freely conferred deference, dominance is not.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-23T01:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211042319
       
  • Do Smarter People Have More Conservative Economic Attitudes' Assessing
           the Relationship Between Cognitive Ability and Economic Ideology

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      Authors: Alexander Jedinger, Axel M. Burger
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence on the association of cognitive ability with economic attitudes is mixed. We conducted a meta-analysis (k = 20, N = 46,426) to examine the relationship between objective measures of cognitive ability and economic ideology and analyzed survey data (N = 3,375) to test theoretical explanations for the association. The meta-analysis provided evidence for a small positive association with a weighted mean effect size of r = .07 (95% CI = [0.02, 0.12]), suggesting that higher cognitive ability is associated with conservative views on economic issues, but effect sizes were extremely heterogeneous. Tests using representative survey data provided support for both a positive association of cognitive ability with economic conservatism that is mediated through income as well as for a negative association that is mediated through a higher need for certainty. Hence, multiple causal mechanisms with countervailing effects might explain the low overall association of cognitive ability with economic political attitudes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-22T11:29:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211046808
       
  • Diversity’s Impact on the Quality of Deliberations

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      Authors: Amanda Nicholson Bergold, Margaret Bull Kovera
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research builds on previous models of jury diversity’s benefits by exploring how diversity impacts the deliberation process. In Study 1, community members (N = 433) participated in a jury decision-making study manipulating the strength of evidence (ambiguous vs. weak) and the diversity of the jury. When the evidence in the case was ambiguous, both white and black jurors made high-quality contributions to discussion in diverse juries than in nondiverse juries. In Study 2, undergraduate students (N = 369) were randomly assigned to wealth and power conditions and then deliberated in diverse and nondiverse groups. Diverse juries were less likely to convict the defendant, and jurors on diverse juries made high-quality contributions to discussion. Although previous work has documented effects of diversity on high-status jurors’ contributions to deliberations, this work suggests that diversity may relate to more complex evidence evaluation for members of low-status groups as well.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T12:06:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211040960
       
  • Cultural Syndromes in a Changing World: A Longitudinal Investigation of
           Brazilian Jeitinho Social Problem-Solving Strategies

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      Authors: Ronald Fischer, Johannes Alfons Karl, Ronaldo Pilati
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We report a longitudinal study of Jeitinho brasileiro (salient cultural characteristic of Brazil) during a period of significant political instability. Previous historical and anthropological sources have pointed to the importance of political instability for cultural changes in behaviors such as jeitinho. We are the first to examine possible individual-level dynamics over time, reporting a 3-year longitudinal study (N = 205) of two dimensions that differentiate keeping a socially pleasant social climate (simpatia) from trickery and breaking social norms. Using longitudinal network analysis, we found (a) reinforcing links between behavioral nodes within each of these two jeitinho clusters over time, (b) few between-cluster links, (c) within-person and between-person components were distinct, and (d) only the between-person structure resembled the overall factor structure. Overall, our data show that cultural behaviors are systematically changing during a political crisis, offering first insights how cultural systems may change via shifts in individual behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T12:05:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211043385
       
  • You Play a Sport, Right' A Persistent and Pernicious Intersectional
           Bias in Categorization of Students vs. Student-Athletes

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      Authors: Gerald D. Higginbotham, Jessica Shropshire, Kerri L. Johnson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Black male students on college campuses report being frequently misperceived as student-athletes. Across three studies, we tested the role of perceivers’ racial and gendered biases in categorization of Black and White students and student-athletes and the subsequent evaluative consequences. Participants viewed faces of actual Black and White male and female undergraduates who were either non-athlete students or student-athletes and made binary judgments about whether the undergraduate was a student or an athlete. We found an overall bias to judge Black male undergraduates to be student-athletes, driven by Black male students being more likely to be misperceived as student-athletes than White male students. Furthermore, male targets perceived to be student-athletes were rated lower on academic ability (Studies 2 and 3). In contrast, we found an overall bias to judge female undergraduates as students. Implications for how perceiver bias plays a dual role in negatively affecting academic climates for underrepresented groups are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T12:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211044067
       
  • Attitudinal Effects of Stimulus Co-occurrence and Stimulus Relations:
           Paradoxical Effects of Cognitive Load

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      Authors: Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that evaluations of an object can be jointly influenced by (a) the mere co-occurrence of the object with a pleasant or unpleasant stimulus (e.g., mere co-occurrence of object A and negative event B) and (b) the object’s specific relation to the co-occurring stimulus (e.g., object A starts vs. stops negative event B). Three experiments investigated the impact of cognitive load during learning on the effects of stimulus co-occurrence and stimulus relations. Counter to the shared prediction of competing theories suggesting that effects of stimulus relations should be reduced by cognitive load during learning, effects of stimulus relations were greater (rather than smaller) under high-load compared with low-load conditions. Effects of stimulus co-occurrence were not significantly affected by cognitive load. The results are discussed in terms of theories suggesting that cognitive load can influence behavioral outcomes via strategic shifts in resource allocation in response to task-specific affordances.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T07:15:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211044322
       
  • Action and Inaction in Moral Judgments and Decisions: Meta-Analysis of
           Omission Bias Omission-Commission Asymmetries

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      Authors: Siu Kit Yeung, Tijen Yay, Gilad Feldman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Omission bias is people’s tendency to evaluate harm done through omission as less morally wrong and less blameworthy than commission when there is harm. However, findings are inconsistent. We conducted a preregistered meta-analysis, with 21 samples (13 articles, 49 effects) on omission-commission asymmetries in judgments and decisions. We found an overall effect of g = 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.14, 0.77], with stronger effects for morality and blame than for decisions. Publication bias tests produced mixed results with some indication for publication bias, though effects persisted even after most publication bias adjustments. The small sample of studies included limited our ability to draw definite conclusions regarding moderators, with inconclusive findings when applying different models. After compensating for low power, we found indication for moderation by role responsibility, perspective (self vs. others), outcome type, and study design. We hope this meta-analysis will inspire research on this phenomenon and applications to real-life, especially given the raging pandemic. Materials, data, and code are available on https://osf.io/9fcqm/.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T07:12:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211042315
       
  • Social Media Use Predicts Greater Liking in In-Person Initial Interactions

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      Authors: Jennifer L. Heyman, Lauren Gazzard Kerr, Lauren J. Human
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Does how people generally engage with their online social networks relate to offline initial social interactions' Using a large-scale study of first impressions (N = 806, Ndyad = 4,565), we examined how different indicators of social media use relate to the positivity of dyadic in-person first impressions, from the perspective of the participants and their interaction partners. Many forms of social media use (e.g., Instagram, Snapchat, passive) were associated with liking and being liked by others more, although some forms of use (e.g., Facebook, active) were not associated with liking others or being liked by others. Furthermore, most associations held controlling for extraversion and narcissism. Thus, while some social media use may be generally beneficial for offline social interactions, some may be unrelated, highlighting the idea that how, rather than how much, people use social media can play a role in their offline social interactions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T07:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211040964
       
  • Rational Dictators in the Dictator Game Are Seen as Cold and Agentic but
           Not Intelligent

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      Authors: Janna Katrin Ruessmann, Christian Unkelbach
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In Dictator Games, dictators decide how much of a given endowment to send to receivers with no further interactions. We explored the social inferences people draw about dictators from the dictators’ money amount sent and vice versa in 11 experiments (N = 1,425): Participants rated “unfair” dictators, who sent little or no money, as more agentic, but less communal than “fair” dictators, who sent half of the endowment. Conversely, participants expected more agentic and conservative but less communal dictators to send less money than less agentic, more liberal, or more communal dictators. Participants also rated unfair dictators as less intelligent but expected less intelligent dictators to send more money. When participants played the Dictator Game with real money, only self-reported communion predicted the money amount sent. Thus, participants’ inferences might not reflect reality, but rational social actors should not only fear to appear unfair but also unintelligent.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-30T05:45:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211040686
       
  • Lockdown Lives: A Longitudinal Study of Inter-Relationships Among Feelings
           of Loneliness, Social Contacts, and Solidarity During the COVID-19
           Lockdown in Early 2020

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      Authors: Jolien A. van Breen, Maja Kutlaca, Yasin Koç, Bertus F. Jeronimus, Anne Margit Reitsema, Veljko Jovanović, Maximilian Agostini, Jocelyn J. Bélanger, Ben Gützkow, Jannis Kreienkamp, Georgios Abakoumkin, Jamilah Hanum Abdul Khaiyom, Vjollca Ahmedi, Handan Akkas, Carlos A. Almenara, Mohsin Atta, Sabahat Cigdem Bagci, Sima Basel, Edona Berisha Kida, Allan B. I. Bernardo, Nicholas R. Buttrick, Phatthanakit Chobthamkit, Hoon-Seok Choi, Mioara Cristea, Sára Csaba, Kaja Damnjanovic, Ivan Danyliuk, Arobindu Dash, Daniela Di Santo, Karen M. Douglas, Violeta Enea, Daiane Gracieli Faller, Gavan Fitzsimons, Alexandra Gheorghiu, Ángel Gómez, Ali Hamaidia, Qing Han, Mai Helmy, Joevarian Hudiyana, Ding-Yu Jiang, Željka Kamenov, Anna Kende, Shian-Ling Keng, Tra Thi Thanh Kieu, Kamila Kovyazina, Inna Kozytska, Joshua Krause, Arie W. Kruglanski, Anton Kurapov, Nóra Anna Lantos, Edward P. Lemay, Cokorda Bagus Jaya Lesmana, Winnifred R. Louis, Adrian Lueders, Najma Iqbal Malik, Anton Martinez, Kira McCabe, Jasmina Mehulić, Mirra Noor Milla, Idris Mohammed, Erica Molinario, Manuel Moyano, Hayat Muhammad, Silvana Mula, Hamdi Muluk, Solomiia Myroniuk, Reza Najafi, Claudia F. Nisa, Boglárka Nyúl, Paul A. O’Keefe, Jose Javier Olivas Osuna, Evgeny N. Osin, Joonha Park, Gennaro Pica, Antonio Pierro, Jonas Rees, Elena Resta, Marika Rullo, Michelle K. Ryan, Adil Samekin, Pekka Santtila, Edyta Sasin, Birga Mareen Schumpe, Heyla A. Selim, Michael Vicente Stanton, Samiah Sultana, Robbie M. Sutton, Eleftheria Tseliou, Akira Utsugi, Caspar J. van Lissa, Kees van Veen, Michelle R. vanDellen, Alexandra Vázquez, Robin Wollast, Victoria Wai-Lan Yeung, Somayeh Zand, Iris Lav Žeželj, Bang Zheng, Andreas Zick, Claudia Zúñiga, N. Pontus Leander
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examine how social contacts and feelings of solidarity shape experiences of loneliness during the COVID-19 lockdown in early 2020. From the PsyCorona database, we obtained longitudinal data from 23 countries, collected between March and May 2020. The results demonstrated that although online contacts help to reduce feelings of loneliness, people who feel more lonely are less likely to use that strategy. Solidarity played only a small role in shaping feelings of loneliness during lockdown. Thus, it seems we must look beyond the current focus on online contact and solidarity to help people address feelings of loneliness during lockdown. Finally, online contacts did not function as a substitute for face-to-face contacts outside the home—in fact, more frequent online contact in earlier weeks predicted more frequent face-to-face contacts in later weeks. As such, this work provides relevant insights into how individuals manage the impact of restrictions on their social lives.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T05:36:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211036602
       
  • The Neural Basis Linking Achievement Motivation With Procrastination: Left
           Precuneus Connectivity With Right Anterior Cingulate Cortex

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      Authors: Yuhua Li, Libin Zhang, Rong Zhang, Ting Xu, Tingyong Feng
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Procrastination adversely affects individual’s learning, working, health, and well-being, which troubles many people around the world. Previous studies have indicated that people with higher achievement motivation tend to have less procrastination. However, how achievement motivation is linked with procrastination at the neural level is still poorly understood. Here, we adopted the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods to study this issue. The VBM analysis revealed that higher achievement motivation was correlated with larger gray matter volumes in left precuneus (lPre). Furthermore, the RSFC results showed that the functional connectivity between lPre and right anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) was positively associated with achievement motivation and negatively correlated with procrastination. More importantly, a mediation analysis demonstrated that achievement motivation fully mediated the relation between lPre–rACC connectivity and procrastination. These findings suggested that lPre–rACC coupling might be the neural correlate underlying the association between achievement motivation and procrastination.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-19T05:38:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211040677
       
  • Mixing Misery and Gin: The Effect of Alcohol Administration on Ostracism
           Response

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      Authors: Catharine E. Fairbairn, Kasey G. Creswell, Andrew H. Hales, Kipling D. Williams, Kaleigh V. Wilkins
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Williams’s need-threat model proposes that ostracism responses are reflexive and, because of their evolutionary significance, difficult to diminish. Alcohol is widely consumed in social contexts and for reasons of coping with social stress, and major theories of alcohol propose that intoxication disrupts cognitive appraisal of environmental threats, leading to stress relief. Surprisingly, though, no well-powered experimental research has examined the impact of alcohol intoxication on distress from social ostracism. In three studies across two independent laboratories (N = 438), participants were randomly assigned to receive either an alcoholic or nonalcoholic (i.e., no-alcohol control or placebo) beverage and were exposed to an ostracism (or social inclusion) manipulation. Results, which emerged as remarkably consistent across all studies, indicated strong and consistent effects of ostracism on mood and needs satisfaction among both intoxicated and sober participants. Findings have important implications for ostracism theory and speak to boundary conditions for alcohol’s ability to relieve stress.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T07:10:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211038450
       
  • Remembering Social Events: A Construal Level Approach

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      Authors: Natalie A. Wyer, Timothy J. Hollins, Sabine Pahl
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Social events are rich in information, yet research into how people remember such events has typically been limited to considering one aspect (e.g., faces, behaviors) at a time. Based on an internal meta-analysis of a program work encompassing 15 laboratory, field, and on-line experiments involving 1,230 participants, we found that construal level influences both the ability to recognize people involved in the event (d = 0.30) and the way the social aspects of the event are described (average d = 0.48). In contrast, memory for background objects/scenes that were present during the event was unaffected by construal level. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for both event memory (and situations where different aspects of the same event are remembered) and for construal level (and the question of how and when construal is likely to affect memory).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T07:08:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211038188
       
  • Preparing Silver Linings for a Cloudy Day: The Consequences of Preemptive
           Benefit Finding

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      Authors: Kyla Rankin, Kate Sweeny
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Waiting for important news is stressful. In four studies, we assess the utility of preemptive benefit finding, a coping strategy in which people seek silver linings in bad news before receiving news, for emotional well-being across several waiting periods (waiting for bar exam results, the outcome of political elections, and results of a fictitious health risk assessment). Our findings support the effectiveness of preemptive benefit finding while waiting, such that identifying benefits in bad news while waiting predicts more positive emotions during the wait (Studies 3 and 4) and buffers people against the emotional consequences of bad news by boosting post-news positive emotions (Studies 2–4). Importantly, engaging in preemptive benefit finding does not backfire if a person ultimately receives good news (Studies 1, 3, and 4). We discuss results from a mini meta-analysis and consider implications of our findings for interventions to improve well-being while waiting and after news arrives.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T07:05:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211037863
       
  • Psychology and the Threat of Contagion: Feeling Vulnerable to a Disease
           Moderates the Link Between Xenophobic Thoughts and Support for
           Ingroup-Protective Actions

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      Authors: Heejung S. Kim, Kimin Eom, Roxie Chuang, David K. Sherman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The widespread threat of contagious disease disrupts not only everyday life but also psychological experience. Building on findings regarding xenophobic responses to contagious diseases, this research investigates how perceived vulnerability to a disease moderates the psychological link between people’s xenophobic thoughts and support for ingroup-protective actions. Three datasets collected during the time of Ebola (N = 867) and COVID-19 (Ns = 992 and 926) measured perceived disease risk, group-serving biases (i.e., xenophobic thoughts), and support for restrictive travel policies (i.e., ingroup-protective actions). Using correlational and quasi-experimental analyses, results indicated that for people who perceive greater disease risk, the association between group-serving bias and restrictive policy support is weakened. This weakened association occurred because people who felt more vulnerable to these diseases increased support for ingroup-protective actions more strongly than xenophobic thoughts. This research underscores the importance of understanding the impact of threats on psychological processes beyond the impact on psychological outcomes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-17T05:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211037138
       
  • Stereotypes About Political Attitudes and Coalitions Among U.S. Racial
           Groups: Implications for Strategic Political Decision-Making

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      Authors: Maureen A. Craig, Linda X. Zou, Hui Bai, Michelle M. Lee
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What are people’s expectations of interracial political coalitions' This research reveals expectations of flexible interracial coalitions stemming from how policies and racial groups are viewed in terms of perceived status and foreignness. For policies seen as changing societal status (e.g., welfare), people expected Black–Hispanic political coalitions and viewed Asian Americans as more likely to align with Whites than with other minorities. For policies seen as impacting American identity (e.g., immigration), people expected Asian–Hispanic coalitions and that Black Americans would align with Whites more than other minorities. Manipulating a novel group’s alleged status and cultural assimilation influenced coalitional expectations, providing evidence of causality. These expectations appear to better reflect stereotypes than groups’ actual average policy attitudes and voting behavior. Yet these beliefs may have implications for a diversifying electorate as White Americans strategically amplified the political voice of a racial group expected to agree with their personal preferences on stereotyped policies.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T05:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211037134
       
  • Cultural Differences in Susceptibility to the End of History Illusion

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      Authors: Brian W. Haas, Kazufumi Omura
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The End of History Illusion (EoHI) is the tendency to report that a greater amount of change occurred in the past than is predicted to occur in the future. We investigated if cultural differences exist in the magnitude of the EoHI for self-reported life satisfaction and personality traits. We found an effect of culture such that the difference between reported past and predicted future change was greater for U.S. Americans than Japanese, and that individual differences in two aspects of the self (self-esteem and self-concept clarity) mediated the link between culture and the magnitude of the EoHI. We also found a robust cultural difference in perceptions of past change; U.S. Americans tended to think about the past more negatively than their Japanese counterparts. These findings yield new insight onto the link between cultural context and the way people remember the past and imagine the future.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T05:51:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211036873
       
  • System Justification or Social Dominance' A Multilevel Test of the
           Ideological Motivators of Perceived Discrimination

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      Authors: Joaquín Bahamondes, Chris G. Sibley, Danny Osborne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although system-justifying beliefs often mitigate perceptions of discrimination, status-based asymmetries in the ideological motivators of perceived discrimination are unknown. Because the content and societal implications of discrimination claims are status-dependant, social dominance orientation (SDO) should motivate perceptions of (reverse) discrimination among members of high-status groups, whereas system justification should motivate the minimization of perceived discrimination among the disadvantaged. We tested these hypotheses using multilevel regressions among a nationwide random sample of New Zealand Europeans (n = 29,169) and ethnic minorities (n = 5,118). As hypothesized, group-based dominance correlated positively with perceived (reverse) discrimination among ethnic-majority group members, whereas system justification correlated negatively with perceived discrimination among the disadvantaged. Furthermore, the proportion of minorities within the region strengthened the victimizing effects of SDO-Dominance, but not SDO-Egalitarianism, among the advantaged. Together, these results reveal status-based asymmetries in the motives underlying perceptions of discrimination and identify a key contextual moderator of this association.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T10:05:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211036020
       
  • The Language of Inequality: Evidence Economic Inequality Increases Wealth
           Category Salience

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      Authors: Kim Peters, Jolanda Jetten, Porntida Tanjitpiyanond, Zhechen Wang, Frank Mols, Maykel Verkuyten
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      There is evidence that in more economically unequal societies, social relations are more strained. We argue that this may reflect the tendency for wealth to become a more fitting lens for seeing the world, so that in economically more unequal circumstances, people more readily divide the world into “the haves” and “have nots.” Our argument is supported by archival and experimental evidence. Two archival analyses reveal that at times of greater inequality, books in the United Kingdom and the United States and news media in English-speaking countries were more likely to mention the rich and poor. Three experiments, two preregistered, provided evidence for the causal role of economic inequality in people’s use of wealth categories when describing life in a fictional society; effects were weaker when examining real economic contexts. Thus, one way in which inequality changes the world may be by changing how we see it.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T09:50:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211036627
       
  • My Fair Lady' Inferring Organizational Trust From the Mere Presence of
           Women in Leadership Roles

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      Authors: Mansi P. Joshi, Amanda B. Diekman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The history of male dominance in organizational hierarchy can leave a residue of mistrust in which women in particular do not expect fair treatment. The mere presence of a female leader relative to a male leader led perceivers to anticipate fairer treatment in that organization (Study 1) and greater projected salary and status (Study 2). This mere presence effect occurred uniquely through communal and not agentic affordances; these patterns emerged especially or only for women. Female leaders cued organizational trust in both male- and female-dominated industries (Study 3) and when they occupied different levels of the organizational hierarchy (Study 4). When information about organizational communal affordances is directly communicated, both female and male leaders signal trust (Study 5). The processes and practices of male-dominated organizational culture can leave a residue of mistrust, but viewing women in leadership is one beacon illuminating paths forward and upward.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T09:43:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211035957
       
  • Temporal Stability of Moral Dilemma Judgments: A Longitudinal Analysis
           Using the CNI Model

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      Authors: Dillon M. Luke, Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although moral dilemma judgments are influenced by a variety of situational factors, there is evidence for considerable disagreement between individuals. Using the CNI model to disentangle (a) sensitivity to consequences, (b) sensitivity to moral norms, and (c) general preference for inaction versus action in responses to moral dilemmas, the current research examined the temporal stability of individual differences along the three dimensions. Across two time points 1 month apart, sensitivity to consequences (r = .81) and sensitivity to norms (r = .84) showed high levels of stability that were comparable to the Big Five personality traits; general preference for inaction versus action showed lower stability (r = .41). Exploratory analyses revealed reliable associations between the three dimensions of moral dilemma judgments and three of the Big Five (extraversion, agreeableness, openness). Together, these findings provide evidence for stable individual differences in moral dilemma judgments that are related to basic personality traits.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-02T05:04:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211035024
       
  • Blindness, But Not HMHA Anosmia, Predicts Loneliness: A Psychophysical
           Study

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      Authors: Agnieszka Sorokowska, Anna Janczak, Camille Ferdenzi, Nicolas Baldovini, Anna Oleszkiewicz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Olfactory deficits can play a detrimental role in everyday social functioning. Perception of 3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid (HMHA)—a body odor component—could also be linked to this research area. However, no study so far has addressed the problem of HMHA perception in the context of the previously reported relationship between olfactory abilities and social difficulties. Here, we tested whether HMHA-specific anosmia predicted loneliness understood both as a cognitive evaluation of social participation and as one’s social isolation, and we additionally analyzed the effects and correlates of HMHA perception in relation to sightedness. The study comprised 196 people, of whom 99 were blind. We found that subjects with blindness declared particularly high loneliness, but HMHA anosmia and the interaction of sightedness and HMHA anosmia predicted neither loneliness nor social withdrawal. In addition, HMHA pleasantness was positively associated with social withdrawal of the subjects with blindness and emotional loneliness correlated with HMHA familiarity regardless of sightedness.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-29T11:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211034376
       
  • Evaluating Research in Personality and Social Psychology: Considerations
           of Statistical Power and Concerns About False Findings

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      Authors: Duane T. Wegener, Leandre R. Fabrigar, Jolynn Pek, Kathryn Hoisington-Shaw
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Traditionally, statistical power was viewed as relevant to research planning but not evaluation of completed research. However, following discussions of high false finding rates (FFRs) associated with low statistical power, the assumed level of statistical power has become a key criterion for research acceptability. Yet, the links between power and false findings are not as straightforward as described. Assumptions underlying FFR calculations do not reflect research realities in personality and social psychology. Even granting the assumptions, the FFR calculations identify important limitations to any general influences of statistical power. Limits for statistical power in inflating false findings can also be illustrated through the use of FFR calculations to (a) update beliefs about the null or alternative hypothesis and (b) assess the relative support for the null versus alternative hypothesis when evaluating a set of studies. Taken together, statistical power should be de-emphasized in comparison to current uses in research evaluation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-26T09:52:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030811
       
  • What Do We Hear in the Voice' An Open-Ended Judgment Study of
           Emotional Speech Prosody

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      Authors: Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Petri Laukka, Jean Althoff, Wanda Chui, Frederick K. Iraki, Thomas Rockstuhl, Nutankumar S. Thingujam
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current study investigated what can be understood from another person’s tone of voice. Participants from five English-speaking nations (Australia, India, Kenya, Singapore, and the United States) listened to vocal expressions of nine positive and nine negative affective states recorded by actors from their own nation. In response, they wrote open-ended judgments of what they believed the actor was trying to express. Responses cut across the chronological emotion process and included descriptions of situations, cognitive appraisals, feeling states, physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, emotion regulation, and attempts at social influence. Accuracy in terms of emotion categories was overall modest, whereas accuracy in terms of valence and arousal was more substantial. Coding participants’ 57,380 responses yielded a taxonomy of 56 categories, which included affective states as well as person descriptors, communication behaviors, and abnormal states. Open-ended responses thus reveal a wide range of ways in which people spontaneously perceive the intent behind emotional speech prosody.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-23T09:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211029786
       
  • You and I Both: Self-Compassion Reduces Self–Other Differences in
           Evaluation of Showing Vulnerability

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      Authors: Anna Bruk, Sabine G. Scholl, Herbert Bless
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People tend to be overly critical of their own displays of vulnerability, whereas observers evaluate others’ showing of vulnerability rather positively (beautiful mess effect). We propose that self-compassion might buffer against such misperceptions of one’s own vulnerabilities. When confronted with challenging situations, self-compassionate people are kind to themselves, see adversity as inevitable, and face the difficulty of their circumstances without overexaggeration. Thus, we hypothesized reduced self–other differences in the evaluation of showing vulnerability in self-compassionate individuals. The hypothesis was addressed in four studies. The first two studies measured self-compassion either immediately (Study 1a) or substantially (Study 1b) before participants evaluated showing of vulnerability. Studies 2 and 3 tested the generalizability of the hypothesis across different situations as well as the discriminant validity of self-compassion’s role in the reduction of the beautiful mess effect. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211031080
       
  • A Polarized Discourse: Effects of Opinion Differentiation and Structural
           Differentiation on Communication

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      Authors: Namkje Koudenburg, Yoshihisa Kashima
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In Western societies, many polarized debates extend beyond the area of opinions, having consequences for social structures within society. Such segmentation of society into opinion-based groups may hinder communication, making it difficult to reconcile viewpoints across group boundaries. In three representative samples from Australia and the Netherlands (N = 1,206), we examine whether perceived polarization predicts the quality (harmony, comfort, and experience of negative emotions) and quantity (avoidance of the issue) of communication with others in the community. We distinguish between perceived opinion differentiation (i.e., the extent to which opinions in society are divided) and perceived structural differentiation (i.e., the extent to which society fissions into subgroups). Results show that although opinion differentiation positively predicts the discussion of societal issues, the belief that these opinions reflect a deeper societal divide predicts negative communication expectations and intentions. We discuss how polarization perceptions may reinforce communicative behaviors that catalyze actual polarization processes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T12:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030816
       
  • Open to Contact' Increased State Openness Can Lead to Greater Interest
           in Contact With Diverse Groups

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      Authors: Victoria Hotchin, Keon West
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Contact is a reliable method of prejudice reduction. However, individuals higher in prejudice are less interested in contact with diverse groups. This research investigates a novel method of encouraging interest in contact, particularly for those lower in the personality trait of Openness/Intellect, who tend to be higher in prejudice. Although long-term traits are relatively stable, momentary personality states show considerable within-person variation, and can be manipulated. In two experimental studies (total N = 687), we tested whether inducing higher state Openness would affect interest in contact. In Study 1, those lower in trait Openness/Intellect showed a positive indirect effect of condition on two outcome measures, via greater state Openness. In a larger sample with lower trait Openness/Intellect (Study 2), the indirect effect on the first outcome was replicated, regardless of disposition. The findings suggest that experiencing open states more frequently could encourage contact and lead to eventual reductions in prejudice.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T12:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030125
       
  • On the Varieties of Diversity: Ideological Variations in Attitudes Toward,
           and Understandings of Diversity

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      Authors: Kathryn A. Howard, Daniel Cervone, Matthew Motyl
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three studies explore the possibility that attitudes toward “diversity” are multidimensional rather than unidimensional and that ideological differences in diversity attitudes vary as a function of diversity subtype. Study 1 (n = 1,001) revealed that the factor structure of attitudes toward 23 diverse community features was bidimensional. Factors involving demographic and viewpoint diversity emerged. Conservatives reported more positive attitudes toward viewpoint diversity, and liberals more positive attitudes toward demographic diversity. Study 2 (n = 1,012) replicated Study 1 findings, and extended Study 1 results by showing attitudes toward the general concept of diversity predicted attitudes toward demographic diversity but not viewpoint diversity. In Study 3, 386 participants rated how relevant a set of features was to their prototypical understanding of diversity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed people discriminate between viewpoint, demographic, and consumer diversity. Conservatives perceived viewpoint features as more relevant to “diversity,” whereas liberals perceived demographic features as more relevant.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T09:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211028141
       
  • Thanks, but No Thanks: Unpacking the Relationship Between Relative Power
           and Gratitude

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      Authors: Eric M. Anicich, Alice J. Lee, Shi Liu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Power and gratitude are universal features of social life and impact a wide range of intra- and interpersonal outcomes. Drawing on the social distance theory of power, we report four studies that examine how relative power influences feelings and expressions of gratitude. An archival analysis of author acknowledgements in published academic articles (N = 1,272) revealed that low-power authors expressed more gratitude than high-power authors. A pre-registered experiment (N = 283) involving live conversations online found that having relatively low power caused increased feelings and expressions of gratitude after benefiting from a favor. Another pre-registered experiment (N = 356) demonstrated that increased interpersonal orientation among lower power individuals and increased psychological entitlement among higher power individuals drove these effects. Finally, an archival analysis of conversational exchanges (N = 136,215) among Wikipedia editors revealed that relational history moderated the effect of relative power on gratitude expression. Overall, our findings highlight when and why relative power influences feelings and expressions of gratitude.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T12:58:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025945
       
  • Examining Automatic Stereotyping From a Propositional Perspective: Is
           Automatic Stereotyping Sensitive to Relational and Validity
           Information'

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      Authors: Tal Moran, Jamie Cummins, Jan De Houwer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research on automatic stereotyping is dominated by the idea that automatic stereotyping reflects the activation of (group–trait) associations. In two preregistered experiments (total N = 391), we tested predictions derived from an alternative perspective that suggests that automatic stereotyping is the result of the activation of propositional representations that, unlike associations, can encode relational information and have truth values. Experiment 1 found that automatic stereotyping is sensitive to the validity of information about pairs of traits and groups. Experiment 2 showed that automatic stereotyping is sensitive to the specific relations (e.g., whether a particular group is more or less friendly than a reference person) between pairs of traits and groups. Interestingly, both experiments found a weaker influence of validity/relational information on automatic stereotyping than on non-automatic stereotyping. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on automatic stereotyping.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T12:54:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024121
       
  • Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Self-Change in Close Relationships:
           Evidence From Hong Kong Chinese and European Americans

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      Authors: Minjoo Joo, Ben C. P. Lam, Susan E. Cross, Sylvia Xiaohua Chen, Victor C. Y. Lau, Hilary K. Y. Ng, Ceren Günsoy
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three studies examined cultural perceptions of self-change in romantic relationships. In Study 1 (N = 191), Chinese participants perceived hypothetical couples who changed for the sake of the relationship to have better relationship quality than couples who did not, compared to European American participants. In Study 2 (N = 396), Chinese individuals in a dating relationship were more likely to perceive that they had changed in the relationship, and self-change was a stronger predictor of relationship quality for them than for American dating individuals. In Study 3 (N = 115 dyads), Chinese married couples perceived greater self-change, and their perceived self-change was due in part to higher endorsement of dutiful adjustment beliefs than American couples. Self-change was a stronger predictor of relationship quality for Chinese married couples than American couples. Our studies provide support for cultural differences in the role of self-change in romantic relationships, which have implications for partner regulation and relationship counseling across cultures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T07:26:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211026129
       
  • The Effect of True Self-Attributions on the Endorsement of Retributive and
           Restorative Justice

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      Authors: Joseph Maffly-Kipp, Grace N. Rivera, Rebecca J. Schlegel, Matthew Vess
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examined how the attribution of criminal behavior to an individual’s “true” self influences justice preferences. In Study 1 (N = 521), the extent to which undergraduates attributed a crime to a target’s true self positively predicted their endorsement of a retributive form of punishment and negatively predicted their endorsement of a restorative form of punishment. Study 2 (N = 404) was preregistered and replicated these associations, even when controlling for other perceived causes (e.g., personality, environment). In Study 3 (N = 282), undergraduates rated retributive punishment more favorably and restorative punishment less favorably when induced to think that the crime was (vs. was not) reflective of the target’s true self. Study 4 (N = 935) was preregistered and replicated these experimental effects across different types of crime vignettes in an online sample. These results highlight the ways that intuitions about “true” selves shape punishment preferences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T07:27:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211027473
       
  • Body Image Projection Bias in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: A
           Dyadic Investigation

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      Authors: Allanah Hockey, Caroline L. Donovan, Nickola Christine Overall, Fiona Kate Barlow
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Guided by projection bias perspectives, this article sought to advance understanding of the associations between body image and relationship and sexual satisfaction within heterosexual romantic relationships. Across two studies, both members of heterosexual dating and/or married couples reported on their body image, perceptions of partner’s attraction to the self, own attraction toward the partner, and relationship satisfaction. Study 2 also incorporated measures of participants’ body mass index (BMI) and sexual satisfaction. Across both studies, women with poorer body image perceived their partner to be less attracted to them (irrespective of their partner’s actual attraction to them, or how attracted they were to their partner), which in turn was associated with lower relationship and sexual satisfaction. For men, attraction to their partner was consistently associated with their own relationship satisfaction. Results demonstrate that projection biases are a possible mechanism through which body image is associated with romantic relationship and sexual satisfaction, and hint at the particular relevance of appearance-related projection biases for women’s relationship and sexual satisfaction.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T11:59:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025202
       
  • Two-Sided Messages Promote Openness for Morally Based Attitudes

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      Authors: Mengran Xu, Richard E. Petty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research demonstrates that two- versus one-sided counterattitudinal messages can encourage people with a strong moral basis for their attitudes to be more open to contrary positions. Studies 1A/B demonstrated that the interaction between moral basis and message sidedness was present not just for a controversial issue with balanced views in society but also for a topic with a majority opinion. In Study 2, the relative effectiveness of two- over one-sided messages for people with a moral attitude basis was shown to occur only when the two-sided message respectfully acknowledged the recipient’s side. In Study 3, the effect was replicated in a preregistered experiment. Furthermore, moral bases provided unique predictive power beyond alternative attitude strength indicators. Across all studies, perceived appreciation of the speaker acknowledging the recipient’s view mediated the impact of the independent variables on openness.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T07:38:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220988371
       
  • PSPB Editorial Philosophy, January 2021

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      Authors: Michael Robinson, Yuen Huo, Emily Impett, Benjamin Wilkowski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:03:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221989322
       
  • My Kind of Guy: Social Dominance Orientation, Hierarchy-Relevance, and
           Tolerance of Racist Job Candidates

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      Authors: Lyangela J. Gutierrez, Miguel M. Unzueta
      First page: 659
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Social psychology suggests that racism, as captured by explicit prejudice and racial discrimination, is perceived negatively in the United States. However, considering the hierarchy-enhancing nature of racism, it may be that negative perceptions of racism are attenuated among perceivers high in anti-egalitarian sentiment. The reported studies support this, suggesting that racist candidates were tolerated more and had relatively greater hireability ratings as a function of perceivers’ social dominance orientation (SDO; Studies 1–4). Candidate race did not impact these evaluations—only the hierarchy relevance of their actions did (i.e., whether the candidate’s behavior was hierarchy enhancing or had no clear implication for the hierarchy; Study 2). Furthermore, anti-racist candidates (e.g., those displaying hierarchy-attenuating behavior) were tolerated less and had lower hireability ratings as a function of perceivers’ SDO (Study 3). Finally, the perceived intentionality of the candidate’s actions affected tolerance toward them as a function of SDO. This suggests hierarchy relevance impacts evaluative outcomes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:52:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211011031
       
  • Proscriptive Injunctions Can Elicit Greater Reactance and Lower Legitimacy
           Perceptions Than Prescriptive Injunctions

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      Authors: Louisa Pavey, Susan Churchill, Paul Sparks
      First page: 676
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Based on previous research investigating proscriptive injunctions (requesting that one should not do something) versus prescriptive injunctions (requesting that one should do something), we propose that proscription leads to greater reactance than does prescription for a range of actions, and that this effect is associated with lower perceived legitimacy of the injunction. Across five experimental studies, our student and general population samples received proscriptions or prescriptions and reported their reactance. Proscription led to greater reactance than did prescription in all five studies. This effect was accentuated by an authoritative source (Study 2), was mediated by the perceived legitimacy of the request (Study 3 and Study 4), and was attenuated by a self-affirmation intervention (Study 5). We suggest that proscriptions are viewed as more obligatory than prescriptions, limit the scope of behavioral alternatives, restrict perceived autonomy, and elicit greater reactance. The findings have implications for the design of effective persuasive communications.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-05T06:41:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211021310
       
  • In a Class on Their Own: Investigating the Role of Social Integration in
           the Association Between Social Class and Mental Well-Being

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      Authors: Olivia Evans, Mark Rubin
      First page: 690
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      It has been established that people from lower social classes tend to have poorer mental well-being compared with people from higher classes. Research also suggests that people from the lower classes are also less socially integrated. This research investigated the role of social integration in the relationship between social class and mental well-being across three studies (Study 1 N = 15,028; Study 2 N = 1,946; Study 3 N = 461). Across all studies, social class had an indirect effect on mental well-being via social integration. Moderation results found that social integration buffers the negative impact of financial issues on mental well-being, social support buffers the effects of class on mental ill-health, and family support amplifies rather than reduces social class differences in mental well-being. We propose that although improving social integration has the potential to improve the mental well-being of lower class populations, some caveats need to be considered.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T05:01:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211021190
       
  • Desperately Seeking Status: How Desires for, and Perceived Attainment of,
           Status and Inclusion Relate to Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism

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      Authors: Nikhila Mahadevan, Christian Jordan
      First page: 704
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The desire for social status is theorized as being central to narcissism; however, research to date has focused exclusively on grandiose narcissism. We examined how desires for, and perceived attainment of, status and inclusion relate to grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, and three-factor models of narcissism. Two studies (total N = 676) found that all expressions of narcissism relate to a stronger desire for status. Within three-factor models, this relation was not due solely to variance shared by grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, but also to phenotype-specific components. Grandiose narcissism was also strongly associated with perceived attainment of status, but not desire for or perceived attainment of inclusion, whereas vulnerable narcissism was strongly associated with desire for inclusion, but not perceived attainment of status or inclusion. Three-factor models of narcissism revealed comparable results. The findings delineate the social and motivational profiles of different expressions of narcissism, helping to illuminate narcissism’s fundamental character.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T07:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211021189
       
  • Knowledge About Individuals’ Interracial Friendships Is Systematically
           Associated With Mental Representations of Race, Traits, and Group
           Solidarity

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      Authors: Jonas R. Kunst, Ivuoma N. Onyeador, John F. Dovidio
      First page: 718
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals with other-race friends are perceived to identify less strongly with their racial in-group than are individuals with same-race friends. Using the reverse-correlation technique, we show that this effect goes beyond perceptions of social identification, influencing how people are mentally represented. In four studies with Black and White American participants, we demonstrate a “racial assimilation effect”: Participants, independent of their own race, represented both Black and White targets with other-race friends as phenotypically more similar to the respective racial out-group. Representations of targets with racial out-group friends were subsequently rated as more likely to engage in social action supportive of the racial out-group. Out-group targets with other-race friends were represented more favorably than out-group targets with mostly same-race friends. White participants had particularly negative representations of in-group members with mostly Black friends. The present research suggests that individuals’ social networks influence how their race and associated traits are mentally represented.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-19T11:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024118
       
  • How Does Nostalgia Conduce to Global Self-Continuity' The Roles of
           Identity Narrative, Associative Links, and Stability

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      Authors: Emily K. Hong, Constantine Sedikides, Tim Wildschut
      First page: 735
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In five studies (N = 1,074), we examined the relation—both correlational and causal—between nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one’s past, and global self-continuity (GSC), a sense of connection among past, present, and future selves. Furthermore, we addressed mechanisms underlying this relation. We asked, in particular, whether nostalgic individuals might achieve GSC by constructing a narrative to give meaning to life transitions (narrative), connecting to the past (associative links), or believing in a self that is resistant to change (stability). Nostalgia predicted (Studies 1–3) and caused (Studies 4 and 5) GSC. The relation between nostalgia and GSC was consistently mediated by narrative, sporadically mediated by associative links, and unmediated by stability. The robust indirect effect via narrative remained significant when controlling for rumination (Study 3). We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T10:05:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024889
       
  • Beliefs About COVID-19 in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United
           States: A Novel Test of Political Polarization and Motivated Reasoning

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      Authors: Gordon Pennycook, Jonathon McPhetres, Bence Bago, David G. Rand
      First page: 750
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What are the psychological consequences of the increasingly politicized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States relative to similar Western countries' In a two-wave study completed early (March) and later (December) in the pandemic, we found that polarization was greater in the United States (N = 1,339) than in Canada (N = 644) and the United Kingdom. (N = 1,283). Political conservatism in the United States was strongly associated with engaging in weaker mitigation behaviors, lower COVID-19 risk perceptions, greater misperceptions, and stronger vaccination hesitancy. Although there was some evidence that cognitive sophistication was associated with increased polarization in the United States in December (but not March), cognitive sophistication was nonetheless consistently negatively correlated with misperceptions and vaccination hesitancy across time, countries, and party lines. Furthermore, COVID-19 skepticism in the United States was strongly correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning mainstream news outlets and trust in conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting that polarization may be driven by differences in information environments.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-28T11:37:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211023652
       
  • Moral Judgments of COVID-19 Social Distancing Violations: The Roles of
           Perceived Harm and Impurity

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      Authors: Daniel L. Rosenfeld, A. Janet Tomiyama
      First page: 766
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Can perceptions of impurity uniquely explain moral judgment' Or is moral judgment reducible to perceptions of harm' Whereas some perspectives posit that purity violations may drive moral judgment distinctly from harm violations, other perspectives contend that perceived harm is an essential precursor of moral condemnation. We tested these competing hypotheses through five preregistered experiments (total N = 2,944) investigating U.S. adults’ perceptions of social distancing violations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived harm was more strongly related to moral judgment than was perceived impurity. Nevertheless, over and above perceived harm, perceived impurity reliably explained unique variance in moral judgment. Effects of perceived harm and impurity were significant among both liberal and conservative participants but were larger among liberals. Results suggest that appraisals of both harm and impurity provide valuable insights into moral cognition. We discuss implications of these findings for dyadic morality, moral foundations, act versus character judgments, and political ideology.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T07:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025433
       
  • Parsing the Mechanisms Underlying Ingroup Facial Resemblance

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      Authors: R. Thora Bjornsdottir, Eric Hehman, Darren Agboh, Nicholas O. Rule
      First page: 782
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People prefer to form relationships with people like themselves—a tendency that extends even to facial appearance, resulting in groups whose members look alike. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying homophilic resemblance using facial photos of fraternity/sorority members from two time points: before joining the group and after belonging to the group for three years. Analyses of both subjective trait impressions and objective face-shape measurements revealed that not only did group members look alike, they resembled one another even before joining the group. Moreover, photos of potential fraternity recruits revealed that facial appearance predicted both the group that individuals sought to join and the group’s likelihood of accepting them. Individuals, therefore, seek to join groups consisting of people who look like them, and the groups preferentially accept new members who resemble those already in the group. This bidirectional preference for homophily likely perpetuates intragroup homogeneity, suggesting potential implications beyond appearance.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T07:22:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025206
       
  • Americans Misperceive Racial Disparities in Economic Mobility

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      Authors: Shai Davidai, Jesse Walker
      First page: 793
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What do people know about racial disparities in “The American Dream”' Across six studies (N = 1,761), we find that American participants consistently underestimate the Black–White disparity in economic mobility, believing that poor Black Americans are significantly more likely to move up the economic ladder than they actually are. We find that misperceptions about economic mobility are common among both White and Black respondents, and that this undue optimism about the prospect of mobility for Black Americans results from a narrow focus on the progress toward equality that has already been made. Consequently, making economic racial disparities salient, or merely reflecting on the unique hardships that Black Americans face in the United States, calibrates beliefs about economic mobility. We discuss the importance of these findings for understanding lay beliefs about the socioeconomic system, the denial of systemic racism in society, and support for policies aimed at reducing racial economic disparities.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T10:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024115
       
  • A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Metamotivational Beliefs About
           Regulatory Focus Task-Motivation Fit

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      Authors: Tina Nguyen, Taku Togawa, Abigail A. Scholer, David B. Miele, Kentaro Fujita
      First page: 807
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Recent metamotivation research revealed that Westerners recognize that promotion versus prevention motivations benefit performance on eager versus vigilant tasks, respectively; that is, they know how to create task-motivation fit with respect to regulatory focus. Westerners also believe that, across tasks, promotion is more beneficial than prevention (i.e., a promotion bias). Adopting a cross-cultural approach, we examined whether beliefs about task-motivation fit generalize across cultures, whether Easterners exhibit a contrasting prevention bias, and the role of independence/interdependence in these beliefs. Results revealed cross-cultural similarities in metamotivational beliefs. Moreover, Easterners and Westerners alike often exhibited a promotion bias, suggesting that this effect may not be shaped by culture. One potential cultural difference did emerge: Easterners appeared to recognize how to create task-motivation fit for both independent and interdependent outcomes, whereas Westerners only recognized how to do so for independent outcomes. We discuss the role of culture in shaping metamotivation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-09T06:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025423
       
  • Does Respect Foster Tolerance' (Re)analyzing and Synthesizing Data
           From a Large Research Project Using Meta-Analytic Techniques

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      Authors: Steffen Zitzmann, Lukas Loreth, Klaus Michael Reininger, Bernd Simon
      First page: 823
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Our own prior research has demonstrated that respect for disapproved others predicts and might foster tolerance toward them. This means that without giving up their disapproval of others’ way of life, people can tolerate others when they respect them as equals (outgroup respect–tolerance hypothesis). Still, there was considerable variation in the study features. Moreover, the studies are part of a larger research project that affords many additional tests of our hypothesis. To achieve integration along with a more robust understanding of the relation between respect and tolerance, we (re)analyzed all existing data from this project, and we synthesized the results with the help of meta-analytic techniques. The average standardized regression coefficient, which describes the relationship between respect and tolerance, was 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.16, 0.34]). In addition to this overall confirmation of our hypothesis, the size of this coefficient varied with a number of variables. It was larger for numerical majorities than for minorities, smaller for high-status than for low-status groups, and larger for religious than for life-style groups. These findings should inspire further theory development and spur growth in the social-psychological literature on tolerance.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-19T11:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024422
       
  • The Contribution of Peer Values to Children’s Values and Behavior

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      Authors: Maya Benish-Weisman, Shaul Oreg, Yair Berson
      First page: 844
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Personal values have a key role in determining people’s perceptions, judgments, and behaviors. Only a handful of studies examined determinants of children’s values outside the family. We used longitudinal data on children’s values from 15,008 children in Grades 3 to 9, and homeroom teachers’ reports about the behaviors of 3,476 of these children. As predicted, peers’ values were positively correlated with the strengthening of children’s corresponding values. Moreover, with the exception of self-transcendence values, peer values had an indirect effect on corresponding child behavior, through children’s self-endorsed values. Girl peers had stronger effects on both girls’ and boys’ values. In addition, we found some evidence for stronger relationships between peer and children’s values among the older children, in particular among boys. These latter effects were even more prominent in an extended sample that included data from first and second graders. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-18T12:11:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211020193
       
  • Does Cross-Race Contact Improve Cross-Race Face Perception' A
           Meta-Analysis of the Cross-Race Deficit and Contact

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      Authors: Balbir Singh, Christopher Mellinger, Holly A. Earls, Janis Tran, Brighid Bardsley, Joshua Correll
      First page: 865
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Contact with racial outgroups is thought to reduce the cross-race recognition deficit (CRD), the tendency for people to recognize same-race (i.e., ingroup) faces more accurately than cross-race (i.e., outgroup) faces. In 2001, Meissner and Brigham conducted a meta-analysis in which they examined this question and found a meta-analytic effect of r = −.13. We conduct a new meta-analysis based on 20 years of additional data to update the estimate of this relationship and examine theoretical and methodological moderators of the effect. We find a meta-analytic effect of r = −.15. In line with theoretical predictions, we find some evidence that the magnitude of this relationship is stronger when contact occurs during childhood rather than adulthood. We find no evidence that the relationship differs for measures of holistic/configural processing compared with normal processing. Finally, we find that the magnitude of the relationship depends on the operationalization of contact and that it is strongest when contact is manipulated. We consider recommendations for further research on this topic.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-26T12:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024463
       
  • Awareness of the Psychological Bias of Naïve Realism Can Increase
           Acceptance of Cultural Differences

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      Authors: Lucía López-Rodríguez, Eran Halperin, Alexandra Vázquez, Isabel Cuadrado, Marisol Navas, Ángel Gómez
      First page: 888
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Acceptance of cultural differences can contribute to diversity. However, naïve realism—the conviction that one’s views are objective whereas others’ are biased—might hinder intercultural coexistence. We tested, in three experimental studies, whether a cognitive strategy based on raising awareness of the naïve realism, without any reference to culture and free of emotional involvement, can have a beneficial effect on cultural acceptance. Results revealed that participants showed more acceptance of cultural differences once they were aware of this bias (Study 1). The intervention had an indirect effect on acceptance via openness, especially for participants higher in prejudice (Study 2). Participants aware of this bias could not maintain an enhanced self-view, which mediated the effect of the manipulation on acceptance (Study 3). These findings suggest that strategies based on “cold” cognition, without an explicit emphasis on culture, might be beneficial for increasing the acceptance of cultural differences in an era of xenophobia.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T09:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211027034
       
  • An Investigation of the Relationship Between Cross-Race Friendships and
           Attraction

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      Authors: Michael Thai, Alexander W. O’Donnell, Rhiannon N. Turner, Fiona Kate Barlow
      First page: 901
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Four studies investigated the link between cross-race friendships and attraction. In Study 1, White Australian participants (N = 240) who reported friendships with racial outgroup members were more likely to report attraction to the members of the racial group their friends belonged to. Studies 2a (N = 300 White American participants) and 2b (N = 303 White British participants) showed that experiences of cross-race non-verbal intimacy, perceived cross-race reciprocity in attraction, positive perceived ingroup norms about dating cross-racially, and warmth toward the racial outgroup were particularly important in explaining the friendship–attraction link in majority samples. Study 3 (N = 292 Black British participants) showed that in addition to the mediators above, self-disclosure was key to explaining the friendship–attraction link for racial minority group members. These findings extend the contact literature by exploring the specificity and mediators of the link between contact and attraction in the context of race relations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-03T01:28:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211026130
       
  • Contrasting Effects of Finding Meaning and Searching for Meaning, and
           Political Orientation and Religiosity, on Feelings and Behaviors During
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: David B. Newman, Stefan Schneider, Arthur A. Stone
      First page: 923
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Perceiving life as meaningful can buffer against negative experiences, whereas searching for meaning in life is often associated with negative outcomes. We examined how these individual differences, along with religiosity and political orientation, are associated with feelings and health-related behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic (N = 7,220; U.S. nationally representative sample). Conservatism and religiosity predicted less negative effect; conservatives (but not the highly religious) were less likely to engage in preventive actions such as wearing face masks and social distancing. Controlling for political orientation, religiosity, and demographics, the presence of meaning in life predicted less negative affect and greater healthy preventive actions, whereas searching for meaning predicted greater negative affect and more preventive and risky health behaviors. Thus, the perception that life is meaningful not only predicts an individual’s emotional well-being but is also associated with beneficial actions that can help protect others from the spread of the coronavirus.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-09T06:28:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030383
       
  • Whose Words Hurt' Contextual Determinants of Offensive Speech

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      Authors: Manuel Almagro, Ivar R. Hannikainen, Neftalí Villanueva
      First page: 937
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Tracing the boundaries of freedom of expression is a matter of wide societal and academic import—especially, as these boundaries encroach on the politics of inclusion. Yet, the elements that constitute offensive speech and determine its legal status remain poorly defined. In two studies, we examined how lay judges evaluate the offensiveness of apparently descriptive statements. Replicating prior work, we found that non-linguistic features (including speaker intent and outcomes on the audience) modulated the statements’ meaning. The speaker’s identity—and, in particular, their membership in the target group—independently influenced evaluations of offensive speech among conservatives and progressives alike. When asked to disclose their abstract principles, or jointly evaluate two contrastive cases, participants tended to deny the relevance of identity while primarily endorsing the intent principle. Taken together, our findings confirm that assessments of offensive speech are governed by contextual features, some of which are not introspectively deemed relevant.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T07:25:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211026128
       
  • Beyond Aesthetic Judgment: Beauty Increases Moral Standing Through
           Perceptions of Purity

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      Authors: Christoph Klebl, Yin Luo, Brock Bastian
      First page: 954
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have tended to focus on mind perception as integral to judgments of moral standing, yet a smaller body of evidence suggests that beauty may also be an important factor (for some people and animals). Across six studies (N = 1,662), we investigated whether beauty increases moral standing attributions to a wide range of targets, including non-sentient entities, and explored the psychological mechanism through which beauty assigns moral standing to targets. We found that people attribute greater moral standing to beautiful (vs. ugly) animals (Study 1 and Study 5a, preregistered) and humans (Study 2). This effect also extended to non-sentient targets, that is, people perceive beautiful (vs. ugly) landscapes (Study 3) and buildings (Study 4 and Study 5b, preregistered) as possessing greater moral standing. Across all studies, perceptions of purity mediated the effect of beauty on moral standing, suggesting that beauty increases the moral standing individuals place on targets through evoking moral intuitions of purity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T06:55:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211023648
       
  • Diversity Initiatives and White Americans’ Perceptions of Racial
           Victimhood

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      Authors: Cheryl R. Kaiser, Tessa L. Dover, Payton Small, Gary Xia, Laura M. Brady, Brenda Major
      First page: 968
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Seven experiments explore whether organizational diversity initiatives heighten White Americans’ concerns about the respect and value afforded toward their racial group and increase their perceptions of anti-White bias. The presence (vs. absence) of organizational diversity initiatives (i.e., diversity awards, diversity training, diversity mission statements) caused White Americans to perceive Whites as less respected and valued than Blacks and to blame a White man’s rejection for a promotion on anti-White bias. Several moderators were tested, including evidence that Whites were clearly advantaged within the organization, that the rejected White candidate was less meritorious than the Black candidate, that promotion opportunities were abundant (vs. scarce), and individual differences related to support for the status hierarchy and identification with Whites. There was little evidence that these moderators reduced Whites’ perceptions of diversity initiatives as harmful to their racial group.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T12:59:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030391
       
 
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