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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 243 journals)
Showing 1 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACOSS Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
African Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Argumentum     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
AZARBE : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Bienestar     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bakti Budaya     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
British Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 104)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Social Work Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Care Management Journals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Social Work Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Columbia Social Work Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Community, Work & Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Comunitania : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCienciaSocial     Open Access  
Contemporary Rural Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Counsellor (The)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Critical and Radical Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Critical Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Critical Social Work : An Interdisciplinary Journal Dedicated to Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Trabajo Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Developmental Child Welfare     Hybrid Journal  
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
ECI Interdisciplinary Journal for Legal and Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
European Journal of Social Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Families in Society : The Journal of Contemporary Social Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Gambling Research: Journal of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Geopolitical, Social Security and Freedom Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Global Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Grief Matters : The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Health & Social Care In the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
HOLISTICA ? Journal of Business and Public Administration     Open Access  
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Housing Policy Debate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Human Service Organizations Management, Leadership and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Impact     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Guidance and Counseling     Open Access  
International Journal of Ageing and Later Life     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Care and Caring     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of School Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
International Journal of Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
International Journal on Child Maltreatment : Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Social Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Islamic Counseling : Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Janus Sosiaalipolitiikan ja sosiaalityön tutkimuksen aikakauslehti     Open Access  
Journal for Specialists in Group Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Care Services Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Community Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Comparative Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Danubian Studies and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of European Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Family Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Forensic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Rights and Social Work     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Integrated Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Occupational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 394)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Policy Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory & Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
Journal of Public Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Social Service Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205)
Journal of Social Work Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Social Work in the Global Community     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Jurnal Guidena : Journal of Guidance and counseling, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Karya Abdi Masyarakat     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Learning in Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Leidfaden : Fachmagazin für Krisen, Leid, Trauer     Hybrid Journal  
Links to Health and Social Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mental Health and Social Inclusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Migration Action     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Mundos do Trabalho     Open Access  
National Emergency Response     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Nordic Social Work Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nordisk välfärdsforskning | Nordic Welfare Research     Open Access  
Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nouvelles pratiques sociales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nusantara of Research: Jurnal Hasil-hasil Penelitian Universitas Nusantara PGRI Kediri     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Parity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Partner Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Pedagogia i Treball Social : Revista de Cičncies Socials Aplicades     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Policy Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Practice: Social Work in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Prospectiva : Revista de Trabajo Social e Intervención Social     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psikopedagogia : Jurnal Bimbingan dan Konseling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Public Policy and Aging Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Qualitative Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Qualitative Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Quality in Ageing and Older Adults     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research on Language and Social Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Research on Social Work Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Review of Social Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista Brasileira de Tecnologias Sociais     Open Access  
Revista Internacional De Seguridad Social     Hybrid Journal  
Revista Katálysis     Open Access  
Revista Serviço Social em Perspectiva     Open Access  
Safer Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Science and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Self and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
SER Social     Open Access  
Service social     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Serviço Social & Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sexualidad, Salud y Sociedad (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Skriftserien Socialt Arbejde     Open Access  
Social Action : The Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Social Care and Neurodisability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Social Policy & Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)

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Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.999
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 239  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-1672 - ISSN (Online) 1552-7433
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1166 journals]
  • Happiness Singled Out: Bidirectional Associations Between Singlehood and
           Life Satisfaction

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jeewon Oh, William J. Chopik, Richard E. Lucas
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Despite constituting a large portion of society, single people—and their satisfaction with singlehood and life—are rarely examined in their own right. How happy are single people and does their happiness change over time' In 3,439 people followed over 10 years, we found that people reported being more satisfied than not, but both singlehood satisfaction and life satisfaction declined over time. Older adults, men, and highly educated people, and people with worse health reported lower singlehood satisfaction. Constrained random-intercept cross-lagged panel models suggested that singlehood and life satisfaction had lagged bidirectional influences with each other. Results are discussed in the context of the origins of singlehood satisfaction and life satisfaction.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T02:38:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211049049
       
  • Making Diversity Work for Everybody' The Double-Edged Sword of
           All-Inclusive Diversity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Payton A. Small, Brenda Major, Cheryl Kaiser
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three experiments investigated how framing diversity as all-inclusive affects recognition of racial injustice. Among Whites, viewing a company mission statement that specifically included Whites/European Americans when defining diversity or made no mention of diversity led to increased recognition of unfair treatment of racial minorities relative to viewing a standard multicultural diversity statement (Experiment 1). Decreased concern about losing out on resources to racial minorities mediated these effects. Among racial minorities, viewing a company statement that included Whites/European Americans or made no mention of diversity similarly increased recognition of unfair treatment of racial minorities, an effect mediated by minorities’ reduced feelings of inclusion (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 replicated these effects using a more subtle manipulation of the all-inclusive diversity statement. These studies suggest defining diversity as inclusive of Whites/European Americans increases Whites’ sensitivity to racial injustice against minorities but simultaneously increases racial minority Americans’ concerns about exclusion and unfair treatment.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T03:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211047016
       
  • It’s About Time! Identifying and Explaining Unique Trajectories of
           Solidarity-Based Collective Action to Support People in Developing
           Countries

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Emma F. Thomas, Craig McGarty, Winnifred R Louis, Michael Wenzel, Simon Bury, Lydia Woodyatt
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Social change occurs over years and decades, yet we know little about how people sustain, increase or diminish their actions over time, and why they do so. This article examines diverging trajectories of solidarity-based collective action to support people in developing nations more than 5 years. We suggest that sustained, diminished, and/or increased action over time will be predicted by identification as a supporter, group efficacy beliefs, and discrete emotions about disadvantage. Latent Growth Mixture Models (N = 483) revealed two trajectories with unique signatures: an activist supporter trajectory with a higher intercept and weakly declining action; and a benevolent supporter trajectory with a lower intercept but weakly increasing action. The activist trajectory was predicted by social identification, outrage, and hope, whereas the benevolent supporter trajectory was predicted by sympathy. The results highlight the role of combinations of emotions and the need for person-centered longitudinal methods in collective action research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T03:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211047083
       
  • Attitude Moralization Within Polarized Contexts: An Emotional
           Value-Protective Response to Dyadic Harm Cues

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chantal D’Amore, Martijn van Zomeren, Namkje Koudenburg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Polarization about societal issues involves attitudinal conflict, but we know little about how such conflict transforms into moral conflict. Integrating insights on polarization and psychological value protection, we propose a model that predicts when and how attitude moralization (i.e., when attitudes become grounded in core values) may be triggered and develops within polarized contexts. We tested this model in three experiments (total N = 823) in the context of the polarized Zwarte Piet (blackface) debate in the Netherlands. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (a) situational cues to dyadic harm in this context (i.e., an outgroup that is perceived as intentionally inflicting harm onto innocent victims) trigger individuals to moralize their relevant attitude, because of (b) emotional value-protective responses. Findings supported both hypotheses across different regional contexts, suggesting that attitude moralization can emerge within polarized contexts when people are exposed to actions by attitudinal opponents perceived as causing dyadic harm.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T03:24:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211047375
       
  • Accuracy in Facial Trustworthiness Impressions: Kernel of Truth or Modern
           Physiognomy' A Meta-Analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Y. Z. Foo, C. A. M. Sutherland, N. S. Burton, S. Nakagawa, G. Rhodes
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Being able to identify trustworthy strangers is a critical social skill. However, whether such impressions are accurate is debatable. Critically, the field currently lacks a quantitative summary of the evidence. To address this gap, we conducted two meta-analyses. We tested whether there is a correlation between perceived and actual trustworthiness across faces, and whether perceivers show above-chance accuracy at assessing trustworthiness. Both meta-analyses revealed significant, modest accuracy (face level, r = .14; perceiver level, r = .27). Perceiver-level effects depended on domain, with aggressiveness and sexual unfaithfulness having stronger effects than agreeableness, criminality, financial reciprocity, and honesty. We also applied research weaving to map the literature, revealing potential biases, including a preponderance of Western studies, a lack of “cross-talk” between research groups, and clarity issues. Overall, this modest accuracy is unlikely to be of practical utility. Moreover, we strongly urge the field to improve reporting standards and generalizability of the results.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T03:24:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211048110
       
  • Sacrificing Animals in the Name of Scientific Authority: The Relationship
           Between Pro-Scientific Mindset and the Lethal Use of Animals in Biomedical
           Experimentation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Laurent Bègue, Kevin Vezirian
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research investigated how scientific authority increases the lethal use of animals in biomedical experimentation. In two behavioral studies (N = 151 and 150), participants were required to incrementally administer 12 doses of a toxic chemical to a 53-cm fish (in reality, a biomimetic robot) for research on animal learning. Consistent with the Engaged Followership Theory on obedience, participants placed in a pro-scientific mindset more severely harmed the laboratory animal. In a cross-sectional study (N = 351), participants in medical fields endorsed a more pro-scientific attitude than those in paramedical fields, which mediated their support for animal experimentation. Drawing on a representative European sample (N = 31,238), we also confirmed the specificity of this link by controlling for potential demographic and ideological confounds. In a final study (N = 1,598), instrumental harm was shown as mediating the link between a pro-scientific attitude and support for animal experimentation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T06:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211039413
       
  • Appearance Reveals Music Preferences

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Laura Tian, Ravin Alaei, Nicholas O. Rule
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Disclosing idiosyncratic preferences can help to broker new social interactions. For instance, strangers exchange music preferences to signal their identities, values, and preferences. Recognizing that people’s physical appearances guide their decisions about social engagement, we examined whether cues to people’s music preferences in their physical appearance and expressive poses help to guide social interaction. We found that perceivers could detect targets’ music preferences from photos of their bodies, heads, faces, eyes, and mouths (but not hair) and that the targets’ apparent traits (e.g., submissiveness, neatness) undergirded these judgments. Perceivers also desired to meet individuals who appeared to match their music preferences versus those who did not. Music preferences therefore seem to manifest in appearance, regulating interest in others and suggesting that one’s identity redundantly emerges across different types of cues. People may thus infer others’ music preferences to identify candidates for social bonding.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T12:01:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211048291
       
  • Two Ways to Stay at the Top: Prestige and Dominance Are Both Viable
           Strategies for Gaining and Maintaining Social Rank Over Time

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kaylene J. McClanahan, Jon K. Maner, Joey T. Cheng
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The dual-strategies theory of social rank proposes that both dominance and prestige are effective strategies for gaining social rank (i.e., the capacity for influence) in groups. However, the only existing longitudinal investigation of these strategies suggests that, among undergraduate students, only prestige allows people to maintain social rank over time. The current study provides a longitudinal test of dominance and prestige in a context where dominance is more normative: MBA project groups. Among 548 MBA students in 104 groups, peer-rated dominance and prestige predicted gains in social rank over the course of 4 weeks, indicating that both strategies may help people not only gain social rank but also maintain it over time. Furthermore, prestige—but not dominance—led to social rank because of willingly given deference from group members. This confirms a central but thus-far-untested principle of dual-strategies theory: While prestige is based on freely conferred deference, dominance is not.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-23T01:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211042319
       
  • Do Smarter People Have More Conservative Economic Attitudes' Assessing
           the Relationship Between Cognitive Ability and Economic Ideology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alexander Jedinger, Axel M. Burger
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence on the association of cognitive ability with economic attitudes is mixed. We conducted a meta-analysis (k = 20, N = 46,426) to examine the relationship between objective measures of cognitive ability and economic ideology and analyzed survey data (N = 3,375) to test theoretical explanations for the association. The meta-analysis provided evidence for a small positive association with a weighted mean effect size of r = .07 (95% CI = [0.02, 0.12]), suggesting that higher cognitive ability is associated with conservative views on economic issues, but effect sizes were extremely heterogeneous. Tests using representative survey data provided support for both a positive association of cognitive ability with economic conservatism that is mediated through income as well as for a negative association that is mediated through a higher need for certainty. Hence, multiple causal mechanisms with countervailing effects might explain the low overall association of cognitive ability with economic political attitudes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-22T11:29:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211046808
       
  • Diversity’s Impact on the Quality of Deliberations

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      Authors: Amanda Nicholson Bergold, Margaret Bull Kovera
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research builds on previous models of jury diversity’s benefits by exploring how diversity impacts the deliberation process. In Study 1, community members (N = 433) participated in a jury decision-making study manipulating the strength of evidence (ambiguous vs. weak) and the diversity of the jury. When the evidence in the case was ambiguous, both white and black jurors made high-quality contributions to discussion in diverse juries than in nondiverse juries. In Study 2, undergraduate students (N = 369) were randomly assigned to wealth and power conditions and then deliberated in diverse and nondiverse groups. Diverse juries were less likely to convict the defendant, and jurors on diverse juries made high-quality contributions to discussion. Although previous work has documented effects of diversity on high-status jurors’ contributions to deliberations, this work suggests that diversity may relate to more complex evidence evaluation for members of low-status groups as well.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T12:06:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211040960
       
  • Cultural Syndromes in a Changing World: A Longitudinal Investigation of
           Brazilian Jeitinho Social Problem-Solving Strategies

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      Authors: Ronald Fischer, Johannes Alfons Karl, Ronaldo Pilati
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We report a longitudinal study of Jeitinho brasileiro (salient cultural characteristic of Brazil) during a period of significant political instability. Previous historical and anthropological sources have pointed to the importance of political instability for cultural changes in behaviors such as jeitinho. We are the first to examine possible individual-level dynamics over time, reporting a 3-year longitudinal study (N = 205) of two dimensions that differentiate keeping a socially pleasant social climate (simpatia) from trickery and breaking social norms. Using longitudinal network analysis, we found (a) reinforcing links between behavioral nodes within each of these two jeitinho clusters over time, (b) few between-cluster links, (c) within-person and between-person components were distinct, and (d) only the between-person structure resembled the overall factor structure. Overall, our data show that cultural behaviors are systematically changing during a political crisis, offering first insights how cultural systems may change via shifts in individual behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T12:05:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211043385
       
  • You Play a Sport, Right' A Persistent and Pernicious Intersectional
           Bias in Categorization of Students vs. Student-Athletes

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      Authors: Gerald D. Higginbotham, Jessica Shropshire, Kerri L. Johnson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Black male students on college campuses report being frequently misperceived as student-athletes. Across three studies, we tested the role of perceivers’ racial and gendered biases in categorization of Black and White students and student-athletes and the subsequent evaluative consequences. Participants viewed faces of actual Black and White male and female undergraduates who were either non-athlete students or student-athletes and made binary judgments about whether the undergraduate was a student or an athlete. We found an overall bias to judge Black male undergraduates to be student-athletes, driven by Black male students being more likely to be misperceived as student-athletes than White male students. Furthermore, male targets perceived to be student-athletes were rated lower on academic ability (Studies 2 and 3). In contrast, we found an overall bias to judge female undergraduates as students. Implications for how perceiver bias plays a dual role in negatively affecting academic climates for underrepresented groups are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T12:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211044067
       
  • Attitudinal Effects of Stimulus Co-occurrence and Stimulus Relations:
           Paradoxical Effects of Cognitive Load

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      Authors: Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that evaluations of an object can be jointly influenced by (a) the mere co-occurrence of the object with a pleasant or unpleasant stimulus (e.g., mere co-occurrence of object A and negative event B) and (b) the object’s specific relation to the co-occurring stimulus (e.g., object A starts vs. stops negative event B). Three experiments investigated the impact of cognitive load during learning on the effects of stimulus co-occurrence and stimulus relations. Counter to the shared prediction of competing theories suggesting that effects of stimulus relations should be reduced by cognitive load during learning, effects of stimulus relations were greater (rather than smaller) under high-load compared with low-load conditions. Effects of stimulus co-occurrence were not significantly affected by cognitive load. The results are discussed in terms of theories suggesting that cognitive load can influence behavioral outcomes via strategic shifts in resource allocation in response to task-specific affordances.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T07:15:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211044322
       
  • Action and Inaction in Moral Judgments and Decisions: Meta-Analysis of
           Omission Bias Omission-Commission Asymmetries

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      Authors: Siu Kit Yeung, Tijen Yay, Gilad Feldman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Omission bias is people’s tendency to evaluate harm done through omission as less morally wrong and less blameworthy than commission when there is harm. However, findings are inconsistent. We conducted a preregistered meta-analysis, with 21 samples (13 articles, 49 effects) on omission-commission asymmetries in judgments and decisions. We found an overall effect of g = 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.14, 0.77], with stronger effects for morality and blame than for decisions. Publication bias tests produced mixed results with some indication for publication bias, though effects persisted even after most publication bias adjustments. The small sample of studies included limited our ability to draw definite conclusions regarding moderators, with inconclusive findings when applying different models. After compensating for low power, we found indication for moderation by role responsibility, perspective (self vs. others), outcome type, and study design. We hope this meta-analysis will inspire research on this phenomenon and applications to real-life, especially given the raging pandemic. Materials, data, and code are available on https://osf.io/9fcqm/.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T07:12:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211042315
       
  • Social Media Use Predicts Greater Liking in In-Person Initial Interactions

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      Authors: Jennifer L. Heyman, Lauren Gazzard Kerr, Lauren J. Human
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Does how people generally engage with their online social networks relate to offline initial social interactions' Using a large-scale study of first impressions (N = 806, Ndyad = 4,565), we examined how different indicators of social media use relate to the positivity of dyadic in-person first impressions, from the perspective of the participants and their interaction partners. Many forms of social media use (e.g., Instagram, Snapchat, passive) were associated with liking and being liked by others more, although some forms of use (e.g., Facebook, active) were not associated with liking others or being liked by others. Furthermore, most associations held controlling for extraversion and narcissism. Thus, while some social media use may be generally beneficial for offline social interactions, some may be unrelated, highlighting the idea that how, rather than how much, people use social media can play a role in their offline social interactions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-09-09T07:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211040964
       
  • Rational Dictators in the Dictator Game Are Seen as Cold and Agentic but
           Not Intelligent

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      Authors: Janna Katrin Ruessmann, Christian Unkelbach
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In Dictator Games, dictators decide how much of a given endowment to send to receivers with no further interactions. We explored the social inferences people draw about dictators from the dictators’ money amount sent and vice versa in 11 experiments (N = 1,425): Participants rated “unfair” dictators, who sent little or no money, as more agentic, but less communal than “fair” dictators, who sent half of the endowment. Conversely, participants expected more agentic and conservative but less communal dictators to send less money than less agentic, more liberal, or more communal dictators. Participants also rated unfair dictators as less intelligent but expected less intelligent dictators to send more money. When participants played the Dictator Game with real money, only self-reported communion predicted the money amount sent. Thus, participants’ inferences might not reflect reality, but rational social actors should not only fear to appear unfair but also unintelligent.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-30T05:45:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211040686
       
  • Lockdown Lives: A Longitudinal Study of Inter-Relationships Among Feelings
           of Loneliness, Social Contacts, and Solidarity During the COVID-19
           Lockdown in Early 2020

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      Authors: Jolien A. van Breen, Maja Kutlaca, Yasin Koç, Bertus F. Jeronimus, Anne Margit Reitsema, Veljko Jovanović, Maximilian Agostini, Jocelyn J. Bélanger, Ben Gützkow, Jannis Kreienkamp, Georgios Abakoumkin, Jamilah Hanum Abdul Khaiyom, Vjollca Ahmedi, Handan Akkas, Carlos A. Almenara, Mohsin Atta, Sabahat Cigdem Bagci, Sima Basel, Edona Berisha Kida, Allan B. I. Bernardo, Nicholas R. Buttrick, Phatthanakit Chobthamkit, Hoon-Seok Choi, Mioara Cristea, Sára Csaba, Kaja Damnjanovic, Ivan Danyliuk, Arobindu Dash, Daniela Di Santo, Karen M. Douglas, Violeta Enea, Daiane Gracieli Faller, Gavan Fitzsimons, Alexandra Gheorghiu, Ángel Gómez, Ali Hamaidia, Qing Han, Mai Helmy, Joevarian Hudiyana, Ding-Yu Jiang, Željka Kamenov, Anna Kende, Shian-Ling Keng, Tra Thi Thanh Kieu, Kamila Kovyazina, Inna Kozytska, Joshua Krause, Arie W. Kruglanski, Anton Kurapov, Nóra Anna Lantos, Edward P. Lemay, Cokorda Bagus Jaya Lesmana, Winnifred R. Louis, Adrian Lueders, Najma Iqbal Malik, Anton Martinez, Kira McCabe, Jasmina Mehulić, Mirra Noor Milla, Idris Mohammed, Erica Molinario, Manuel Moyano, Hayat Muhammad, Silvana Mula, Hamdi Muluk, Solomiia Myroniuk, Reza Najafi, Claudia F. Nisa, Boglárka Nyúl, Paul A. O’Keefe, Jose Javier Olivas Osuna, Evgeny N. Osin, Joonha Park, Gennaro Pica, Antonio Pierro, Jonas Rees, Elena Resta, Marika Rullo, Michelle K. Ryan, Adil Samekin, Pekka Santtila, Edyta Sasin, Birga Mareen Schumpe, Heyla A. Selim, Michael Vicente Stanton, Samiah Sultana, Robbie M. Sutton, Eleftheria Tseliou, Akira Utsugi, Caspar J. van Lissa, Kees van Veen, Michelle R. vanDellen, Alexandra Vázquez, Robin Wollast, Victoria Wai-Lan Yeung, Somayeh Zand, Iris Lav Žeželj, Bang Zheng, Andreas Zick, Claudia Zúñiga, N. Pontus Leander
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examine how social contacts and feelings of solidarity shape experiences of loneliness during the COVID-19 lockdown in early 2020. From the PsyCorona database, we obtained longitudinal data from 23 countries, collected between March and May 2020. The results demonstrated that although online contacts help to reduce feelings of loneliness, people who feel more lonely are less likely to use that strategy. Solidarity played only a small role in shaping feelings of loneliness during lockdown. Thus, it seems we must look beyond the current focus on online contact and solidarity to help people address feelings of loneliness during lockdown. Finally, online contacts did not function as a substitute for face-to-face contacts outside the home—in fact, more frequent online contact in earlier weeks predicted more frequent face-to-face contacts in later weeks. As such, this work provides relevant insights into how individuals manage the impact of restrictions on their social lives.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T05:36:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211036602
       
  • The Neural Basis Linking Achievement Motivation With Procrastination: Left
           Precuneus Connectivity With Right Anterior Cingulate Cortex

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      Authors: Yuhua Li, Libin Zhang, Rong Zhang, Ting Xu, Tingyong Feng
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Procrastination adversely affects individual’s learning, working, health, and well-being, which troubles many people around the world. Previous studies have indicated that people with higher achievement motivation tend to have less procrastination. However, how achievement motivation is linked with procrastination at the neural level is still poorly understood. Here, we adopted the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods to study this issue. The VBM analysis revealed that higher achievement motivation was correlated with larger gray matter volumes in left precuneus (lPre). Furthermore, the RSFC results showed that the functional connectivity between lPre and right anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) was positively associated with achievement motivation and negatively correlated with procrastination. More importantly, a mediation analysis demonstrated that achievement motivation fully mediated the relation between lPre–rACC connectivity and procrastination. These findings suggested that lPre–rACC coupling might be the neural correlate underlying the association between achievement motivation and procrastination.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-19T05:38:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211040677
       
  • Mixing Misery and Gin: The Effect of Alcohol Administration on Ostracism
           Response

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      Authors: Catharine E. Fairbairn, Kasey G. Creswell, Andrew H. Hales, Kipling D. Williams, Kaleigh V. Wilkins
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Williams’s need-threat model proposes that ostracism responses are reflexive and, because of their evolutionary significance, difficult to diminish. Alcohol is widely consumed in social contexts and for reasons of coping with social stress, and major theories of alcohol propose that intoxication disrupts cognitive appraisal of environmental threats, leading to stress relief. Surprisingly, though, no well-powered experimental research has examined the impact of alcohol intoxication on distress from social ostracism. In three studies across two independent laboratories (N = 438), participants were randomly assigned to receive either an alcoholic or nonalcoholic (i.e., no-alcohol control or placebo) beverage and were exposed to an ostracism (or social inclusion) manipulation. Results, which emerged as remarkably consistent across all studies, indicated strong and consistent effects of ostracism on mood and needs satisfaction among both intoxicated and sober participants. Findings have important implications for ostracism theory and speak to boundary conditions for alcohol’s ability to relieve stress.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T07:10:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211038450
       
  • Remembering Social Events: A Construal Level Approach

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      Authors: Natalie A. Wyer, Timothy J. Hollins, Sabine Pahl
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Social events are rich in information, yet research into how people remember such events has typically been limited to considering one aspect (e.g., faces, behaviors) at a time. Based on an internal meta-analysis of a program work encompassing 15 laboratory, field, and on-line experiments involving 1,230 participants, we found that construal level influences both the ability to recognize people involved in the event (d = 0.30) and the way the social aspects of the event are described (average d = 0.48). In contrast, memory for background objects/scenes that were present during the event was unaffected by construal level. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for both event memory (and situations where different aspects of the same event are remembered) and for construal level (and the question of how and when construal is likely to affect memory).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T07:08:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211038188
       
  • Preparing Silver Linings for a Cloudy Day: The Consequences of Preemptive
           Benefit Finding

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      Authors: Kyla Rankin, Kate Sweeny
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Waiting for important news is stressful. In four studies, we assess the utility of preemptive benefit finding, a coping strategy in which people seek silver linings in bad news before receiving news, for emotional well-being across several waiting periods (waiting for bar exam results, the outcome of political elections, and results of a fictitious health risk assessment). Our findings support the effectiveness of preemptive benefit finding while waiting, such that identifying benefits in bad news while waiting predicts more positive emotions during the wait (Studies 3 and 4) and buffers people against the emotional consequences of bad news by boosting post-news positive emotions (Studies 2–4). Importantly, engaging in preemptive benefit finding does not backfire if a person ultimately receives good news (Studies 1, 3, and 4). We discuss results from a mini meta-analysis and consider implications of our findings for interventions to improve well-being while waiting and after news arrives.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T07:05:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211037863
       
  • Psychology and the Threat of Contagion: Feeling Vulnerable to a Disease
           Moderates the Link Between Xenophobic Thoughts and Support for
           Ingroup-Protective Actions

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      Authors: Heejung S. Kim, Kimin Eom, Roxie Chuang, David K. Sherman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The widespread threat of contagious disease disrupts not only everyday life but also psychological experience. Building on findings regarding xenophobic responses to contagious diseases, this research investigates how perceived vulnerability to a disease moderates the psychological link between people’s xenophobic thoughts and support for ingroup-protective actions. Three datasets collected during the time of Ebola (N = 867) and COVID-19 (Ns = 992 and 926) measured perceived disease risk, group-serving biases (i.e., xenophobic thoughts), and support for restrictive travel policies (i.e., ingroup-protective actions). Using correlational and quasi-experimental analyses, results indicated that for people who perceive greater disease risk, the association between group-serving bias and restrictive policy support is weakened. This weakened association occurred because people who felt more vulnerable to these diseases increased support for ingroup-protective actions more strongly than xenophobic thoughts. This research underscores the importance of understanding the impact of threats on psychological processes beyond the impact on psychological outcomes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-17T05:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211037138
       
  • Stereotypes About Political Attitudes and Coalitions Among U.S. Racial
           Groups: Implications for Strategic Political Decision-Making

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      Authors: Maureen A. Craig, Linda X. Zou, Hui Bai, Michelle M. Lee
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What are people’s expectations of interracial political coalitions' This research reveals expectations of flexible interracial coalitions stemming from how policies and racial groups are viewed in terms of perceived status and foreignness. For policies seen as changing societal status (e.g., welfare), people expected Black–Hispanic political coalitions and viewed Asian Americans as more likely to align with Whites than with other minorities. For policies seen as impacting American identity (e.g., immigration), people expected Asian–Hispanic coalitions and that Black Americans would align with Whites more than other minorities. Manipulating a novel group’s alleged status and cultural assimilation influenced coalitional expectations, providing evidence of causality. These expectations appear to better reflect stereotypes than groups’ actual average policy attitudes and voting behavior. Yet these beliefs may have implications for a diversifying electorate as White Americans strategically amplified the political voice of a racial group expected to agree with their personal preferences on stereotyped policies.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T05:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211037134
       
  • Cultural Differences in Susceptibility to the End of History Illusion

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      Authors: Brian W. Haas, Kazufumi Omura
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The End of History Illusion (EoHI) is the tendency to report that a greater amount of change occurred in the past than is predicted to occur in the future. We investigated if cultural differences exist in the magnitude of the EoHI for self-reported life satisfaction and personality traits. We found an effect of culture such that the difference between reported past and predicted future change was greater for U.S. Americans than Japanese, and that individual differences in two aspects of the self (self-esteem and self-concept clarity) mediated the link between culture and the magnitude of the EoHI. We also found a robust cultural difference in perceptions of past change; U.S. Americans tended to think about the past more negatively than their Japanese counterparts. These findings yield new insight onto the link between cultural context and the way people remember the past and imagine the future.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-13T05:51:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211036873
       
  • System Justification or Social Dominance' A Multilevel Test of the
           Ideological Motivators of Perceived Discrimination

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      Authors: Joaquín Bahamondes, Chris G. Sibley, Danny Osborne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although system-justifying beliefs often mitigate perceptions of discrimination, status-based asymmetries in the ideological motivators of perceived discrimination are unknown. Because the content and societal implications of discrimination claims are status-dependant, social dominance orientation (SDO) should motivate perceptions of (reverse) discrimination among members of high-status groups, whereas system justification should motivate the minimization of perceived discrimination among the disadvantaged. We tested these hypotheses using multilevel regressions among a nationwide random sample of New Zealand Europeans (n = 29,169) and ethnic minorities (n = 5,118). As hypothesized, group-based dominance correlated positively with perceived (reverse) discrimination among ethnic-majority group members, whereas system justification correlated negatively with perceived discrimination among the disadvantaged. Furthermore, the proportion of minorities within the region strengthened the victimizing effects of SDO-Dominance, but not SDO-Egalitarianism, among the advantaged. Together, these results reveal status-based asymmetries in the motives underlying perceptions of discrimination and identify a key contextual moderator of this association.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T10:05:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211036020
       
  • The Language of Inequality: Evidence Economic Inequality Increases Wealth
           Category Salience

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      Authors: Kim Peters, Jolanda Jetten, Porntida Tanjitpiyanond, Zhechen Wang, Frank Mols, Maykel Verkuyten
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      There is evidence that in more economically unequal societies, social relations are more strained. We argue that this may reflect the tendency for wealth to become a more fitting lens for seeing the world, so that in economically more unequal circumstances, people more readily divide the world into “the haves” and “have nots.” Our argument is supported by archival and experimental evidence. Two archival analyses reveal that at times of greater inequality, books in the United Kingdom and the United States and news media in English-speaking countries were more likely to mention the rich and poor. Three experiments, two preregistered, provided evidence for the causal role of economic inequality in people’s use of wealth categories when describing life in a fictional society; effects were weaker when examining real economic contexts. Thus, one way in which inequality changes the world may be by changing how we see it.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T09:50:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211036627
       
  • My Fair Lady' Inferring Organizational Trust From the Mere Presence of
           Women in Leadership Roles

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      Authors: Mansi P. Joshi, Amanda B. Diekman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The history of male dominance in organizational hierarchy can leave a residue of mistrust in which women in particular do not expect fair treatment. The mere presence of a female leader relative to a male leader led perceivers to anticipate fairer treatment in that organization (Study 1) and greater projected salary and status (Study 2). This mere presence effect occurred uniquely through communal and not agentic affordances; these patterns emerged especially or only for women. Female leaders cued organizational trust in both male- and female-dominated industries (Study 3) and when they occupied different levels of the organizational hierarchy (Study 4). When information about organizational communal affordances is directly communicated, both female and male leaders signal trust (Study 5). The processes and practices of male-dominated organizational culture can leave a residue of mistrust, but viewing women in leadership is one beacon illuminating paths forward and upward.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T09:43:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211035957
       
  • Temporal Stability of Moral Dilemma Judgments: A Longitudinal Analysis
           Using the CNI Model

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      Authors: Dillon M. Luke, Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although moral dilemma judgments are influenced by a variety of situational factors, there is evidence for considerable disagreement between individuals. Using the CNI model to disentangle (a) sensitivity to consequences, (b) sensitivity to moral norms, and (c) general preference for inaction versus action in responses to moral dilemmas, the current research examined the temporal stability of individual differences along the three dimensions. Across two time points 1 month apart, sensitivity to consequences (r = .81) and sensitivity to norms (r = .84) showed high levels of stability that were comparable to the Big Five personality traits; general preference for inaction versus action showed lower stability (r = .41). Exploratory analyses revealed reliable associations between the three dimensions of moral dilemma judgments and three of the Big Five (extraversion, agreeableness, openness). Together, these findings provide evidence for stable individual differences in moral dilemma judgments that are related to basic personality traits.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-08-02T05:04:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211035024
       
  • Blindness, But Not HMHA Anosmia, Predicts Loneliness: A Psychophysical
           Study

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      Authors: Agnieszka Sorokowska, Anna Janczak, Camille Ferdenzi, Nicolas Baldovini, Anna Oleszkiewicz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Olfactory deficits can play a detrimental role in everyday social functioning. Perception of 3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid (HMHA)—a body odor component—could also be linked to this research area. However, no study so far has addressed the problem of HMHA perception in the context of the previously reported relationship between olfactory abilities and social difficulties. Here, we tested whether HMHA-specific anosmia predicted loneliness understood both as a cognitive evaluation of social participation and as one’s social isolation, and we additionally analyzed the effects and correlates of HMHA perception in relation to sightedness. The study comprised 196 people, of whom 99 were blind. We found that subjects with blindness declared particularly high loneliness, but HMHA anosmia and the interaction of sightedness and HMHA anosmia predicted neither loneliness nor social withdrawal. In addition, HMHA pleasantness was positively associated with social withdrawal of the subjects with blindness and emotional loneliness correlated with HMHA familiarity regardless of sightedness.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-29T11:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211034376
       
  • Evaluating Research in Personality and Social Psychology: Considerations
           of Statistical Power and Concerns About False Findings

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      Authors: Duane T. Wegener, Leandre R. Fabrigar, Jolynn Pek, Kathryn Hoisington-Shaw
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Traditionally, statistical power was viewed as relevant to research planning but not evaluation of completed research. However, following discussions of high false finding rates (FFRs) associated with low statistical power, the assumed level of statistical power has become a key criterion for research acceptability. Yet, the links between power and false findings are not as straightforward as described. Assumptions underlying FFR calculations do not reflect research realities in personality and social psychology. Even granting the assumptions, the FFR calculations identify important limitations to any general influences of statistical power. Limits for statistical power in inflating false findings can also be illustrated through the use of FFR calculations to (a) update beliefs about the null or alternative hypothesis and (b) assess the relative support for the null versus alternative hypothesis when evaluating a set of studies. Taken together, statistical power should be de-emphasized in comparison to current uses in research evaluation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-26T09:52:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030811
       
  • What Do We Hear in the Voice' An Open-Ended Judgment Study of
           Emotional Speech Prosody

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      Authors: Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Petri Laukka, Jean Althoff, Wanda Chui, Frederick K. Iraki, Thomas Rockstuhl, Nutankumar S. Thingujam
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current study investigated what can be understood from another person’s tone of voice. Participants from five English-speaking nations (Australia, India, Kenya, Singapore, and the United States) listened to vocal expressions of nine positive and nine negative affective states recorded by actors from their own nation. In response, they wrote open-ended judgments of what they believed the actor was trying to express. Responses cut across the chronological emotion process and included descriptions of situations, cognitive appraisals, feeling states, physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, emotion regulation, and attempts at social influence. Accuracy in terms of emotion categories was overall modest, whereas accuracy in terms of valence and arousal was more substantial. Coding participants’ 57,380 responses yielded a taxonomy of 56 categories, which included affective states as well as person descriptors, communication behaviors, and abnormal states. Open-ended responses thus reveal a wide range of ways in which people spontaneously perceive the intent behind emotional speech prosody.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-23T09:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211029786
       
  • You and I Both: Self-Compassion Reduces Self–Other Differences in
           Evaluation of Showing Vulnerability

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      Authors: Anna Bruk, Sabine G. Scholl, Herbert Bless
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People tend to be overly critical of their own displays of vulnerability, whereas observers evaluate others’ showing of vulnerability rather positively (beautiful mess effect). We propose that self-compassion might buffer against such misperceptions of one’s own vulnerabilities. When confronted with challenging situations, self-compassionate people are kind to themselves, see adversity as inevitable, and face the difficulty of their circumstances without overexaggeration. Thus, we hypothesized reduced self–other differences in the evaluation of showing vulnerability in self-compassionate individuals. The hypothesis was addressed in four studies. The first two studies measured self-compassion either immediately (Study 1a) or substantially (Study 1b) before participants evaluated showing of vulnerability. Studies 2 and 3 tested the generalizability of the hypothesis across different situations as well as the discriminant validity of self-compassion’s role in the reduction of the beautiful mess effect. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211031080
       
  • A Polarized Discourse: Effects of Opinion Differentiation and Structural
           Differentiation on Communication

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      Authors: Namkje Koudenburg, Yoshihisa Kashima
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In Western societies, many polarized debates extend beyond the area of opinions, having consequences for social structures within society. Such segmentation of society into opinion-based groups may hinder communication, making it difficult to reconcile viewpoints across group boundaries. In three representative samples from Australia and the Netherlands (N = 1,206), we examine whether perceived polarization predicts the quality (harmony, comfort, and experience of negative emotions) and quantity (avoidance of the issue) of communication with others in the community. We distinguish between perceived opinion differentiation (i.e., the extent to which opinions in society are divided) and perceived structural differentiation (i.e., the extent to which society fissions into subgroups). Results show that although opinion differentiation positively predicts the discussion of societal issues, the belief that these opinions reflect a deeper societal divide predicts negative communication expectations and intentions. We discuss how polarization perceptions may reinforce communicative behaviors that catalyze actual polarization processes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T12:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030816
       
  • Open to Contact' Increased State Openness Can Lead to Greater Interest
           in Contact With Diverse Groups

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      Authors: Victoria Hotchin, Keon West
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Contact is a reliable method of prejudice reduction. However, individuals higher in prejudice are less interested in contact with diverse groups. This research investigates a novel method of encouraging interest in contact, particularly for those lower in the personality trait of Openness/Intellect, who tend to be higher in prejudice. Although long-term traits are relatively stable, momentary personality states show considerable within-person variation, and can be manipulated. In two experimental studies (total N = 687), we tested whether inducing higher state Openness would affect interest in contact. In Study 1, those lower in trait Openness/Intellect showed a positive indirect effect of condition on two outcome measures, via greater state Openness. In a larger sample with lower trait Openness/Intellect (Study 2), the indirect effect on the first outcome was replicated, regardless of disposition. The findings suggest that experiencing open states more frequently could encourage contact and lead to eventual reductions in prejudice.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-22T12:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030125
       
  • On the Varieties of Diversity: Ideological Variations in Attitudes Toward,
           and Understandings of Diversity

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      Authors: Kathryn A. Howard, Daniel Cervone, Matthew Motyl
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three studies explore the possibility that attitudes toward “diversity” are multidimensional rather than unidimensional and that ideological differences in diversity attitudes vary as a function of diversity subtype. Study 1 (n = 1,001) revealed that the factor structure of attitudes toward 23 diverse community features was bidimensional. Factors involving demographic and viewpoint diversity emerged. Conservatives reported more positive attitudes toward viewpoint diversity, and liberals more positive attitudes toward demographic diversity. Study 2 (n = 1,012) replicated Study 1 findings, and extended Study 1 results by showing attitudes toward the general concept of diversity predicted attitudes toward demographic diversity but not viewpoint diversity. In Study 3, 386 participants rated how relevant a set of features was to their prototypical understanding of diversity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed people discriminate between viewpoint, demographic, and consumer diversity. Conservatives perceived viewpoint features as more relevant to “diversity,” whereas liberals perceived demographic features as more relevant.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T09:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211028141
       
  • Diversity Initiatives and White Americans’ Perceptions of Racial
           Victimhood

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      Authors: Cheryl R. Kaiser, Tessa L. Dover, Payton Small, Gary Xia, Laura M. Brady, Brenda Major
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Seven experiments explore whether organizational diversity initiatives heighten White Americans’ concerns about the respect and value afforded toward their racial group and increase their perceptions of anti-White bias. The presence (vs. absence) of organizational diversity initiatives (i.e., diversity awards, diversity training, diversity mission statements) caused White Americans to perceive Whites as less respected and valued than Blacks and to blame a White man’s rejection for a promotion on anti-White bias. Several moderators were tested, including evidence that Whites were clearly advantaged within the organization, that the rejected White candidate was less meritorious than the Black candidate, that promotion opportunities were abundant (vs. scarce), and individual differences related to support for the status hierarchy and identification with Whites. There was little evidence that these moderators reduced Whites’ perceptions of diversity initiatives as harmful to their racial group.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T12:59:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030391
       
  • Thanks, but No Thanks: Unpacking the Relationship Between Relative Power
           and Gratitude

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      Authors: Eric M. Anicich, Alice J. Lee, Shi Liu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Power and gratitude are universal features of social life and impact a wide range of intra- and interpersonal outcomes. Drawing on the social distance theory of power, we report four studies that examine how relative power influences feelings and expressions of gratitude. An archival analysis of author acknowledgements in published academic articles (N = 1,272) revealed that low-power authors expressed more gratitude than high-power authors. A pre-registered experiment (N = 283) involving live conversations online found that having relatively low power caused increased feelings and expressions of gratitude after benefiting from a favor. Another pre-registered experiment (N = 356) demonstrated that increased interpersonal orientation among lower power individuals and increased psychological entitlement among higher power individuals drove these effects. Finally, an archival analysis of conversational exchanges (N = 136,215) among Wikipedia editors revealed that relational history moderated the effect of relative power on gratitude expression. Overall, our findings highlight when and why relative power influences feelings and expressions of gratitude.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T12:58:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025945
       
  • Examining Automatic Stereotyping From a Propositional Perspective: Is
           Automatic Stereotyping Sensitive to Relational and Validity
           Information'

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      Authors: Tal Moran, Jamie Cummins, Jan De Houwer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research on automatic stereotyping is dominated by the idea that automatic stereotyping reflects the activation of (group–trait) associations. In two preregistered experiments (total N = 391), we tested predictions derived from an alternative perspective that suggests that automatic stereotyping is the result of the activation of propositional representations that, unlike associations, can encode relational information and have truth values. Experiment 1 found that automatic stereotyping is sensitive to the validity of information about pairs of traits and groups. Experiment 2 showed that automatic stereotyping is sensitive to the specific relations (e.g., whether a particular group is more or less friendly than a reference person) between pairs of traits and groups. Interestingly, both experiments found a weaker influence of validity/relational information on automatic stereotyping than on non-automatic stereotyping. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on automatic stereotyping.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T12:54:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024121
       
  • Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Self-Change in Close Relationships:
           Evidence From Hong Kong Chinese and European Americans

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      Authors: Minjoo Joo, Ben C. P. Lam, Susan E. Cross, Sylvia Xiaohua Chen, Victor C. Y. Lau, Hilary K. Y. Ng, Ceren Günsoy
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three studies examined cultural perceptions of self-change in romantic relationships. In Study 1 (N = 191), Chinese participants perceived hypothetical couples who changed for the sake of the relationship to have better relationship quality than couples who did not, compared to European American participants. In Study 2 (N = 396), Chinese individuals in a dating relationship were more likely to perceive that they had changed in the relationship, and self-change was a stronger predictor of relationship quality for them than for American dating individuals. In Study 3 (N = 115 dyads), Chinese married couples perceived greater self-change, and their perceived self-change was due in part to higher endorsement of dutiful adjustment beliefs than American couples. Self-change was a stronger predictor of relationship quality for Chinese married couples than American couples. Our studies provide support for cultural differences in the role of self-change in romantic relationships, which have implications for partner regulation and relationship counseling across cultures.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T07:26:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211026129
       
  • Whose Words Hurt' Contextual Determinants of Offensive Speech

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      Authors: Manuel Almagro, Ivar R. Hannikainen, Neftalí Villanueva
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Tracing the boundaries of freedom of expression is a matter of wide societal and academic import—especially, as these boundaries encroach on the politics of inclusion. Yet, the elements that constitute offensive speech and determine its legal status remain poorly defined. In two studies, we examined how lay judges evaluate the offensiveness of apparently descriptive statements. Replicating prior work, we found that non-linguistic features (including speaker intent and outcomes on the audience) modulated the statements’ meaning. The speaker’s identity—and, in particular, their membership in the target group—independently influenced evaluations of offensive speech among conservatives and progressives alike. When asked to disclose their abstract principles, or jointly evaluate two contrastive cases, participants tended to deny the relevance of identity while primarily endorsing the intent principle. Taken together, our findings confirm that assessments of offensive speech are governed by contextual features, some of which are not introspectively deemed relevant.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T07:25:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211026128
       
  • Moral Judgments of COVID-19 Social Distancing Violations: The Roles of
           Perceived Harm and Impurity

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      Authors: Daniel L. Rosenfeld, A. Janet Tomiyama
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Can perceptions of impurity uniquely explain moral judgment' Or is moral judgment reducible to perceptions of harm' Whereas some perspectives posit that purity violations may drive moral judgment distinctly from harm violations, other perspectives contend that perceived harm is an essential precursor of moral condemnation. We tested these competing hypotheses through five preregistered experiments (total N = 2,944) investigating U.S. adults’ perceptions of social distancing violations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived harm was more strongly related to moral judgment than was perceived impurity. Nevertheless, over and above perceived harm, perceived impurity reliably explained unique variance in moral judgment. Effects of perceived harm and impurity were significant among both liberal and conservative participants but were larger among liberals. Results suggest that appraisals of both harm and impurity provide valuable insights into moral cognition. We discuss implications of these findings for dyadic morality, moral foundations, act versus character judgments, and political ideology.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T07:24:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025433
       
  • Parsing the Mechanisms Underlying Ingroup Facial Resemblance

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      Authors: R. Thora Bjornsdottir, Eric Hehman, Darren Agboh, Nicholas O. Rule
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People prefer to form relationships with people like themselves—a tendency that extends even to facial appearance, resulting in groups whose members look alike. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying homophilic resemblance using facial photos of fraternity/sorority members from two time points: before joining the group and after belonging to the group for three years. Analyses of both subjective trait impressions and objective face-shape measurements revealed that not only did group members look alike, they resembled one another even before joining the group. Moreover, photos of potential fraternity recruits revealed that facial appearance predicted both the group that individuals sought to join and the group’s likelihood of accepting them. Individuals, therefore, seek to join groups consisting of people who look like them, and the groups preferentially accept new members who resemble those already in the group. This bidirectional preference for homophily likely perpetuates intragroup homogeneity, suggesting potential implications beyond appearance.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T07:22:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025206
       
  • Contrasting Effects of Finding Meaning and Searching for Meaning, and
           Political Orientation and Religiosity, on Feelings and Behaviors During
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: David B. Newman, Stefan Schneider, Arthur A. Stone
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Perceiving life as meaningful can buffer against negative experiences, whereas searching for meaning in life is often associated with negative outcomes. We examined how these individual differences, along with religiosity and political orientation, are associated with feelings and health-related behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic (N = 7,220; U.S. nationally representative sample). Conservatism and religiosity predicted less negative effect; conservatives (but not the highly religious) were less likely to engage in preventive actions such as wearing face masks and social distancing. Controlling for political orientation, religiosity, and demographics, the presence of meaning in life predicted less negative affect and greater healthy preventive actions, whereas searching for meaning predicted greater negative affect and more preventive and risky health behaviors. Thus, the perception that life is meaningful not only predicts an individual’s emotional well-being but is also associated with beneficial actions that can help protect others from the spread of the coronavirus.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-09T06:28:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211030383
       
  • A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Metamotivational Beliefs About
           Regulatory Focus Task-Motivation Fit

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      Authors: Tina Nguyen, Taku Togawa, Abigail A. Scholer, David B. Miele, Kentaro Fujita
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Recent metamotivation research revealed that Westerners recognize that promotion versus prevention motivations benefit performance on eager versus vigilant tasks, respectively; that is, they know how to create task-motivation fit with respect to regulatory focus. Westerners also believe that, across tasks, promotion is more beneficial than prevention (i.e., a promotion bias). Adopting a cross-cultural approach, we examined whether beliefs about task-motivation fit generalize across cultures, whether Easterners exhibit a contrasting prevention bias, and the role of independence/interdependence in these beliefs. Results revealed cross-cultural similarities in metamotivational beliefs. Moreover, Easterners and Westerners alike often exhibited a promotion bias, suggesting that this effect may not be shaped by culture. One potential cultural difference did emerge: Easterners appeared to recognize how to create task-motivation fit for both independent and interdependent outcomes, whereas Westerners only recognized how to do so for independent outcomes. We discuss the role of culture in shaping metamotivation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-09T06:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025423
       
  • An Investigation of the Relationship Between Cross-Race Friendships and
           Attraction

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      Authors: Michael Thai, Alexander W. O’Donnell, Rhiannon N. Turner, Fiona Kate Barlow
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Four studies investigated the link between cross-race friendships and attraction. In Study 1, White Australian participants (N = 240) who reported friendships with racial outgroup members were more likely to report attraction to the members of the racial group their friends belonged to. Studies 2a (N = 300 White American participants) and 2b (N = 303 White British participants) showed that experiences of cross-race non-verbal intimacy, perceived cross-race reciprocity in attraction, positive perceived ingroup norms about dating cross-racially, and warmth toward the racial outgroup were particularly important in explaining the friendship–attraction link in majority samples. Study 3 (N = 292 Black British participants) showed that in addition to the mediators above, self-disclosure was key to explaining the friendship–attraction link for racial minority group members. These findings extend the contact literature by exploring the specificity and mediators of the link between contact and attraction in the context of race relations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-03T01:28:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211026130
       
  • The Effect of True Self-Attributions on the Endorsement of Retributive and
           Restorative Justice

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      Authors: Joseph Maffly-Kipp, Grace N. Rivera, Rebecca J. Schlegel, Matthew Vess
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examined how the attribution of criminal behavior to an individual’s “true” self influences justice preferences. In Study 1 (N = 521), the extent to which undergraduates attributed a crime to a target’s true self positively predicted their endorsement of a retributive form of punishment and negatively predicted their endorsement of a restorative form of punishment. Study 2 (N = 404) was preregistered and replicated these associations, even when controlling for other perceived causes (e.g., personality, environment). In Study 3 (N = 282), undergraduates rated retributive punishment more favorably and restorative punishment less favorably when induced to think that the crime was (vs. was not) reflective of the target’s true self. Study 4 (N = 935) was preregistered and replicated these experimental effects across different types of crime vignettes in an online sample. These results highlight the ways that intuitions about “true” selves shape punishment preferences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T07:27:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211027473
       
  • Awareness of the Psychological Bias of Naïve Realism Can Increase
           Acceptance of Cultural Differences

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      Authors: Lucía López-Rodríguez, Eran Halperin, Alexandra Vázquez, Isabel Cuadrado, Marisol Navas, Ángel Gómez
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Acceptance of cultural differences can contribute to diversity. However, naïve realism—the conviction that one’s views are objective whereas others’ are biased—might hinder intercultural coexistence. We tested, in three experimental studies, whether a cognitive strategy based on raising awareness of the naïve realism, without any reference to culture and free of emotional involvement, can have a beneficial effect on cultural acceptance. Results revealed that participants showed more acceptance of cultural differences once they were aware of this bias (Study 1). The intervention had an indirect effect on acceptance via openness, especially for participants higher in prejudice (Study 2). Participants aware of this bias could not maintain an enhanced self-view, which mediated the effect of the manipulation on acceptance (Study 3). These findings suggest that strategies based on “cold” cognition, without an explicit emphasis on culture, might be beneficial for increasing the acceptance of cultural differences in an era of xenophobia.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T09:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211027034
       
  • Body Image Projection Bias in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: A
           Dyadic Investigation

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      Authors: Allanah Hockey, Caroline L. Donovan, Nickola Christine Overall, Fiona Kate Barlow
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Guided by projection bias perspectives, this article sought to advance understanding of the associations between body image and relationship and sexual satisfaction within heterosexual romantic relationships. Across two studies, both members of heterosexual dating and/or married couples reported on their body image, perceptions of partner’s attraction to the self, own attraction toward the partner, and relationship satisfaction. Study 2 also incorporated measures of participants’ body mass index (BMI) and sexual satisfaction. Across both studies, women with poorer body image perceived their partner to be less attracted to them (irrespective of their partner’s actual attraction to them, or how attracted they were to their partner), which in turn was associated with lower relationship and sexual satisfaction. For men, attraction to their partner was consistently associated with their own relationship satisfaction. Results demonstrate that projection biases are a possible mechanism through which body image is associated with romantic relationship and sexual satisfaction, and hint at the particular relevance of appearance-related projection biases for women’s relationship and sexual satisfaction.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T11:59:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211025202
       
  • Beliefs About COVID-19 in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United
           States: A Novel Test of Political Polarization and Motivated Reasoning

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      Authors: Gordon Pennycook, Jonathon McPhetres, Bence Bago, David G. Rand
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What are the psychological consequences of the increasingly politicized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States relative to similar Western countries' In a two-wave study completed early (March) and later (December) in the pandemic, we found that polarization was greater in the United States (N = 1,339) than in Canada (N = 644) and the United Kingdom. (N = 1,283). Political conservatism in the United States was strongly associated with engaging in weaker mitigation behaviors, lower COVID-19 risk perceptions, greater misperceptions, and stronger vaccination hesitancy. Although there was some evidence that cognitive sophistication was associated with increased polarization in the United States in December (but not March), cognitive sophistication was nonetheless consistently negatively correlated with misperceptions and vaccination hesitancy across time, countries, and party lines. Furthermore, COVID-19 skepticism in the United States was strongly correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning mainstream news outlets and trust in conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting that polarization may be driven by differences in information environments.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-28T11:37:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211023652
       
  • Does Cross-Race Contact Improve Cross-Race Face Perception' A
           Meta-Analysis of the Cross-Race Deficit and Contact

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      Authors: Balbir Singh, Christopher Mellinger, Holly A. Earls, Janis Tran, Brighid Bardsley, Joshua Correll
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Contact with racial outgroups is thought to reduce the cross-race recognition deficit (CRD), the tendency for people to recognize same-race (i.e., ingroup) faces more accurately than cross-race (i.e., outgroup) faces. In 2001, Meissner and Brigham conducted a meta-analysis in which they examined this question and found a meta-analytic effect of r = −.13. We conduct a new meta-analysis based on 20 years of additional data to update the estimate of this relationship and examine theoretical and methodological moderators of the effect. We find a meta-analytic effect of r = −.15. In line with theoretical predictions, we find some evidence that the magnitude of this relationship is stronger when contact occurs during childhood rather than adulthood. We find no evidence that the relationship differs for measures of holistic/configural processing compared with normal processing. Finally, we find that the magnitude of the relationship depends on the operationalization of contact and that it is strongest when contact is manipulated. We consider recommendations for further research on this topic.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-26T12:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024463
       
  • Beyond Aesthetic Judgment: Beauty Increases Moral Standing Through
           Perceptions of Purity

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      Authors: Christoph Klebl, Yin Luo, Brock Bastian
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have tended to focus on mind perception as integral to judgments of moral standing, yet a smaller body of evidence suggests that beauty may also be an important factor (for some people and animals). Across six studies (N = 1,662), we investigated whether beauty increases moral standing attributions to a wide range of targets, including non-sentient entities, and explored the psychological mechanism through which beauty assigns moral standing to targets. We found that people attribute greater moral standing to beautiful (vs. ugly) animals (Study 1 and Study 5a, preregistered) and humans (Study 2). This effect also extended to non-sentient targets, that is, people perceive beautiful (vs. ugly) landscapes (Study 3) and buildings (Study 4 and Study 5b, preregistered) as possessing greater moral standing. Across all studies, perceptions of purity mediated the effect of beauty on moral standing, suggesting that beauty increases the moral standing individuals place on targets through evoking moral intuitions of purity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T06:55:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211023648
       
  • How Does Nostalgia Conduce to Global Self-Continuity' The Roles of
           Identity Narrative, Associative Links, and Stability

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      Authors: Emily K. Hong, Constantine Sedikides, Tim Wildschut
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In five studies (N = 1,074), we examined the relation—both correlational and causal—between nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one’s past, and global self-continuity (GSC), a sense of connection among past, present, and future selves. Furthermore, we addressed mechanisms underlying this relation. We asked, in particular, whether nostalgic individuals might achieve GSC by constructing a narrative to give meaning to life transitions (narrative), connecting to the past (associative links), or believing in a self that is resistant to change (stability). Nostalgia predicted (Studies 1–3) and caused (Studies 4 and 5) GSC. The relation between nostalgia and GSC was consistently mediated by narrative, sporadically mediated by associative links, and unmediated by stability. The robust indirect effect via narrative remained significant when controlling for rumination (Study 3). We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T10:05:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024889
       
  • Americans Misperceive Racial Disparities in Economic Mobility

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      Authors: Shai Davidai, Jesse Walker
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What do people know about racial disparities in “The American Dream”' Across six studies (N = 1,761), we find that American participants consistently underestimate the Black–White disparity in economic mobility, believing that poor Black Americans are significantly more likely to move up the economic ladder than they actually are. We find that misperceptions about economic mobility are common among both White and Black respondents, and that this undue optimism about the prospect of mobility for Black Americans results from a narrow focus on the progress toward equality that has already been made. Consequently, making economic racial disparities salient, or merely reflecting on the unique hardships that Black Americans face in the United States, calibrates beliefs about economic mobility. We discuss the importance of these findings for understanding lay beliefs about the socioeconomic system, the denial of systemic racism in society, and support for policies aimed at reducing racial economic disparities.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T10:02:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024115
       
  • Does Respect Foster Tolerance' (Re)analyzing and Synthesizing Data
           From a Large Research Project Using Meta-Analytic Techniques

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      Authors: Steffen Zitzmann, Lukas Loreth, Klaus Michael Reininger, Bernd Simon
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Our own prior research has demonstrated that respect for disapproved others predicts and might foster tolerance toward them. This means that without giving up their disapproval of others’ way of life, people can tolerate others when they respect them as equals (outgroup respect–tolerance hypothesis). Still, there was considerable variation in the study features. Moreover, the studies are part of a larger research project that affords many additional tests of our hypothesis. To achieve integration along with a more robust understanding of the relation between respect and tolerance, we (re)analyzed all existing data from this project, and we synthesized the results with the help of meta-analytic techniques. The average standardized regression coefficient, which describes the relationship between respect and tolerance, was 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.16, 0.34]). In addition to this overall confirmation of our hypothesis, the size of this coefficient varied with a number of variables. It was larger for numerical majorities than for minorities, smaller for high-status than for low-status groups, and larger for religious than for life-style groups. These findings should inspire further theory development and spur growth in the social-psychological literature on tolerance.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-19T11:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024422
       
  • Knowledge About Individuals’ Interracial Friendships Is Systematically
           Associated With Mental Representations of Race, Traits, and Group
           Solidarity

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      Authors: Jonas R. Kunst, Ivuoma N. Onyeador, John F. Dovidio
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals with other-race friends are perceived to identify less strongly with their racial in-group than are individuals with same-race friends. Using the reverse-correlation technique, we show that this effect goes beyond perceptions of social identification, influencing how people are mentally represented. In four studies with Black and White American participants, we demonstrate a “racial assimilation effect”: Participants, independent of their own race, represented both Black and White targets with other-race friends as phenotypically more similar to the respective racial out-group. Representations of targets with racial out-group friends were subsequently rated as more likely to engage in social action supportive of the racial out-group. Out-group targets with other-race friends were represented more favorably than out-group targets with mostly same-race friends. White participants had particularly negative representations of in-group members with mostly Black friends. The present research suggests that individuals’ social networks influence how their race and associated traits are mentally represented.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-19T11:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211024118
       
  • The Contribution of Peer Values to Children’s Values and Behavior

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      Authors: Maya Benish-Weisman, Shaul Oreg, Yair Berson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Personal values have a key role in determining people’s perceptions, judgments, and behaviors. Only a handful of studies examined determinants of children’s values outside the family. We used longitudinal data on children’s values from 15,008 children in Grades 3 to 9, and homeroom teachers’ reports about the behaviors of 3,476 of these children. As predicted, peers’ values were positively correlated with the strengthening of children’s corresponding values. Moreover, with the exception of self-transcendence values, peer values had an indirect effect on corresponding child behavior, through children’s self-endorsed values. Girl peers had stronger effects on both girls’ and boys’ values. In addition, we found some evidence for stronger relationships between peer and children’s values among the older children, in particular among boys. These latter effects were even more prominent in an extended sample that included data from first and second graders. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-18T12:11:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211020193
       
  • Desperately Seeking Status: How Desires for, and Perceived Attainment of,
           Status and Inclusion Relate to Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism

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      Authors: Nikhila Mahadevan, Christian Jordan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The desire for social status is theorized as being central to narcissism; however, research to date has focused exclusively on grandiose narcissism. We examined how desires for, and perceived attainment of, status and inclusion relate to grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, and three-factor models of narcissism. Two studies (total N = 676) found that all expressions of narcissism relate to a stronger desire for status. Within three-factor models, this relation was not due solely to variance shared by grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, but also to phenotype-specific components. Grandiose narcissism was also strongly associated with perceived attainment of status, but not desire for or perceived attainment of inclusion, whereas vulnerable narcissism was strongly associated with desire for inclusion, but not perceived attainment of status or inclusion. Three-factor models of narcissism revealed comparable results. The findings delineate the social and motivational profiles of different expressions of narcissism, helping to illuminate narcissism’s fundamental character.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T07:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211021189
       
  • When Polarization Triggers Out-Group “Counter-Projection”
           Across the Political Divide

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      Authors: Kathryn R. Denning, Sara D. Hodges
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although projecting one’s own characteristics onto another person is pervasive, “counter-projection,” or seeing the opposite of oneself in others is also sometimes found, with implications for intergroup conflict. After a focused review of previous studies finding counter-projection (often unexpectedly), we map conditions for counter-projection to an individual out-group member. Counter-projection requires identified antagonistic groups, is moderated by in-group identity, and is moderated by which information is assessed in the target person. Using political groups defined by support for former U.S. President Trump, across our Initial Experiment (N = 725) and Confirmatory Experiment (N = 618), we found counter-projection to individual political out-group targets for moral beliefs, personality traits, and everyday likes (e.g., preference for dogs vs. cats). Counter-projection was increased by in-group identification and overlapped considerably with “oppositional” out-group stereotypes, but we also found counter-projection independent of out-group stereotypes (degree of overlap with stereotyping depended on the information being projected).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:37:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211021211
       
  • In a Class on Their Own: Investigating the Role of Social Integration in
           the Association Between Social Class and Mental Well-Being

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      Authors: Olivia Evans, Mark Rubin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      It has been established that people from lower social classes tend to have poorer mental well-being compared with people from higher classes. Research also suggests that people from the lower classes are also less socially integrated. This research investigated the role of social integration in the relationship between social class and mental well-being across three studies (Study 1 N = 15,028; Study 2 N = 1,946; Study 3 N = 461). Across all studies, social class had an indirect effect on mental well-being via social integration. Moderation results found that social integration buffers the negative impact of financial issues on mental well-being, social support buffers the effects of class on mental ill-health, and family support amplifies rather than reduces social class differences in mental well-being. We propose that although improving social integration has the potential to improve the mental well-being of lower class populations, some caveats need to be considered.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T05:01:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211021190
       
  • Proscriptive Injunctions Can Elicit Greater Reactance and Lower Legitimacy
           Perceptions Than Prescriptive Injunctions

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      Authors: Louisa Pavey, Susan Churchill, Paul Sparks
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Based on previous research investigating proscriptive injunctions (requesting that one should not do something) versus prescriptive injunctions (requesting that one should do something), we propose that proscription leads to greater reactance than does prescription for a range of actions, and that this effect is associated with lower perceived legitimacy of the injunction. Across five experimental studies, our student and general population samples received proscriptions or prescriptions and reported their reactance. Proscription led to greater reactance than did prescription in all five studies. This effect was accentuated by an authoritative source (Study 2), was mediated by the perceived legitimacy of the request (Study 3 and Study 4), and was attenuated by a self-affirmation intervention (Study 5). We suggest that proscriptions are viewed as more obligatory than prescriptions, limit the scope of behavioral alternatives, restrict perceived autonomy, and elicit greater reactance. The findings have implications for the design of effective persuasive communications.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-06-05T06:41:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211021310
       
  • Do You Feel Better When You Behave More Extraverted Than You Are' The
           Relationship Between Cumulative Counterdispositional Extraversion and
           Positive Feelings

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      Authors: E. Kuijpers, J. Pickett, B. Wille, J. Hofmans
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The idea that increased levels of extraversion are beneficial to well-being is widespread. Drawing on the idea that behaving discordant to one’s trait level is demanding and effortful to maintain, and that repeated taxations of one’s self-regulatory resources are unpleasant, we examined the relationship between cumulative counterdispositional extraversion and positive feelings. In two experience-sampling (ESM) studies, participants repeatedly rated their level of state extraversion and positive feelings. Results revealed that cumulative positive deviations from one’s trait extraversion level were positively associated with positive feelings, whereas cumulative negative deviations were negatively associated with positive feelings. This confirms the idea that, also when looking at cumulative instances of extraversion-related behaviors, higher levels of extraversion go hand in hand with higher levels of positive feelings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T06:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211015062
       
  • How Long Has It Been' Self-Construal and Subjective Time Perception

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      Authors: Eugene Y. Chan, Najam U. Saqib
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Do people with independent and interdependent self-construals perceive the amount of time that has passed differently' Results from four experiments (one preregistered) and three supplementary ones reveal that an independent (vs. interdependent) self-construal elongates time perception by making individuals feel that more time has passed than in reality. We find evidence that this is likely because an independent self-construal increases arousal that affects one’s “internal clock,” which determines the subjective passage of time. We find this effect with externally valid and practical measures, such as by measuring how long an online video feels, how long loading a webpage feels, and how long waiting in a line feels. Our research adds to an understanding of the consequences of self-construal for one of human beings’ most important judgments—time. We discuss the theoretical and practical considerations of our results as well as research limitations in closing.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-31T06:52:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211016919
       
  • Assumptions About Algorithms’ Capacity for Discrimination

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      Authors: Arthur S. Jago, Kristin Laurin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although their implementation has inspired optimism in many domains, algorithms can both systematize discrimination and obscure its presence. In seven studies, we test the hypothesis that people instead tend to assume algorithms discriminate less than humans due to beliefs that algorithms tend to be both more accurate and less emotional evaluators. As a result of these assumptions, people are more interested in being evaluated by an algorithm when they anticipate that discrimination against them is possible. We finally investigate the degree to which information about how algorithms train using data sets consisting of human judgments and decisions change people’s increased preferences for algorithms when they themselves anticipate discrimination. Taken together, these studies indicate that algorithms appear less discriminatory than humans, making people (potentially erroneously) more comfortable with their use.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T08:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211016187
       
  • Moderators of the Liking Bias in Judgments of Moral Character

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      Authors: Konrad Bocian, Wieslaw Baryla, Bogdan Wojciszke
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research found evidence for a liking bias in moral character judgments because judgments of liked people are higher than those of disliked or neutral ones. This article sought conditions moderating this effect. In Study 1 (N = 792), the impact of the liking bias on moral character judgments was strongly attenuated when participants were educated that attitudes bias moral judgments. In Study 2 (N = 376), the influence of liking on moral character attributions was eliminated when participants were accountable for the justification of their moral judgments. Overall, these results suggest that although liking biases moral character attributions, this bias might be reduced or eliminated when deeper information processing is required to generate judgments of others’ moral character.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T08:43:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211013272
       
  • My Kind of Guy: Social Dominance Orientation, Hierarchy-Relevance, and
           Tolerance of Racist Job Candidates

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      Authors: Lyangela J. Gutierrez, Miguel M. Unzueta
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Social psychology suggests that racism, as captured by explicit prejudice and racial discrimination, is perceived negatively in the United States. However, considering the hierarchy-enhancing nature of racism, it may be that negative perceptions of racism are attenuated among perceivers high in anti-egalitarian sentiment. The reported studies support this, suggesting that racist candidates were tolerated more and had relatively greater hireability ratings as a function of perceivers’ social dominance orientation (SDO; Studies 1–4). Candidate race did not impact these evaluations—only the hierarchy relevance of their actions did (i.e., whether the candidate’s behavior was hierarchy enhancing or had no clear implication for the hierarchy; Study 2). Furthermore, anti-racist candidates (e.g., those displaying hierarchy-attenuating behavior) were tolerated less and had lower hireability ratings as a function of perceivers’ SDO (Study 3). Finally, the perceived intentionality of the candidate’s actions affected tolerance toward them as a function of SDO. This suggests hierarchy relevance impacts evaluative outcomes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T09:52:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211011031
       
  • Loudness Perceptions Influence Feelings of Interpersonal Closeness and
           Protect Against Detrimental Psychological Effects of Social Exclusion

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      Authors: Deming Wang, Ignazio Ziano, Martin S. Hagger, Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We propose that perceptions of auditory loudness and interpersonal closeness are bidirectionally related. Across 12 experiments (total N = 2,219; 10 preregistered; with Singaporean, British, U.S. American, and Australian participants), we demonstrated that louder audio made people feel physically (Study 1a) and socially (Study 1b) closer to others, presumably because loudness activates interpersonal closeness-related concepts implicitly (Studies 1c and 1d). This loudness–interpersonal closeness effect was observed across diverse samples (Studies 2a, 3a, and S1), for longer listening intervals (Study 2b), and in natural settings (Studies 3a and 3b). Conversely, individuals made to feel socially excluded rated their surroundings as quieter (Study 4). Furthermore, following social exclusion, individuals showed a preference for louder volume (Study 5). Finally, exposure to loud stimuli mitigated detrimental psychological effects of social exclusion (Study 6). Theoretical implications for the social cognition of loudness, social exclusion and compensatory strategies, and practical implications for ameliorating loneliness are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T09:50:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211015896
       
  • An Examination of the Conceptual Structure of Long-Term Goal Striving

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      Authors: Kelly Ka Lai Lam, Mingming Zhou
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Long-term goal striving has been recognized as an important stage in goal achievement. Compared with the development of measurements of goal setting, researchers tended to measure goal striving in different manners. This study examined the conceptual structure of goal striving and validated a new scale to operationalize the construct within academic learning contexts. A 25-item scale was validated with 522 Chinese university students to assess its factor structure, reliability, gender invariance, criterion-related validity, and incremental validity. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported both the first-order and second-order model. Overall, the scale showed good reliability, validity, and invariance across gender. We suggested that this new scale could be used as an effective measure to assess the level of goal striving among university students in a Chinese context.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T09:48:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211016190
       
  • Within-Couple Associations Between Communication and Relationship
           Satisfaction Over Time

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      Authors: Matthew D. Johnson, Justin A. Lavner, Marcus Mund, Martina Zemp, Scott M. Stanley, Franz J. Neyer, Emily A. Impett, Galena K. Rhoades, Guy Bodenmann, Rebekka Weidmann, Janina Larissa Bühler, Robert Philip Burriss, Jenna Wünsche, Alexander Grob
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Relationship science contends that the quality of couples’ communication predicts relationship satisfaction over time. Most studies testing these links have examined between-person associations, yet couple dynamics are also theorized at the within-person level: For a given couple, worsened communication is presumed to predict deteriorations in future relationship satisfaction. We examined within-couple associations between satisfaction and communication in three longitudinal studies. Across studies, there were some lagged within-person links between deviations in negative communication to future changes in satisfaction (and vice versa). But the most robust finding was for concurrent within-person associations between negative communication and satisfaction: At times when couples experienced less negative communication than usual, they were also more satisfied with their relationship than was typical. Positive communication was rarely associated with relationship satisfaction at the within-person level. These findings indicate that within-person changes in negative communication primarily covary with, rather than predict, relationship satisfaction.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T09:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211016920
       
  • Is Seeing Believing' A Longitudinal Study of Vividness of the Future
           and Its Effects on Academic Self-Efficacy and Success in College

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      Authors: Samantha L. McMichael, Michael T. Bixter, Morris A. Okun, Cameron J. Bunker, Oliver Graudejus, Kevin J. Grimm, Virginia S. Y. Kwan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research followed students over their first 2 years of college. During this time, many students lose sight of their goals, leading to poor academic performance and leaving STEM and business majors. This research was the first to examine longitudinal changes in future vividness, how those changes impact academic success, and identify sex differences in those relationships. Students who started college with clear pictures of graduation and life after graduation, and those who gained clarity, were more likely to believe in their academic abilities, and, in turn, earn a higher cumulative GPA, and persist in STEM and business. Compared to men, women reported greater initial vividness in both domains. In vividness of graduation, women maintained their advantage with no sex differences in how vividness changed. However, men grew in vividness of life after graduation while women remained stagnant. These findings have implications for interventions to increase academic performance and persistence.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-21T01:31:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211015888
       
  • Welcome to Be Like Us: Expectations of Outgroup Assimilation Shape
           Dominant Group Resistance to Diversity

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      Authors: Felix Danbold, Yuen J. Huo
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We propose a theoretical framework for when and why members of dominant groups experience threat and express intolerant attitudes in response to social change. Scholarship on symbolic threat suggests that the detection of intergroup differences in values and norms is sufficient to elicit negative intergroup attitudes. Building on this theory, we argue that the experience of threat is actually shaped by prospective beliefs about difference (i.e., expectations of whether outgroups will assimilate to ingroup norms over time or not). Across two studies and two accompanying pilots, we show how outgroup assimilation expectation shapes dominant groups’ experiences of threat, specifically as it relates to their ability to define the norms of their superordinate category (prototypicality threat). We observe that members of dominant groups are surprisingly tolerant of both social change and intergroup difference in the present, so long as they expect outgroup assimilation in the future.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T04:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211004806
       
  • The Effect of War Commemorations on Support for Diplomacy: A Five-Nation
           Study

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      Authors: Hanne M. Watkins, Mengyao Li, Aurélien Allard, Bernhard Leidner
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We remember the past in order not to repeat it, but does remembrance of war in fact shape support for military or diplomatic approaches to international conflict' In seven samples from five countries (collected online, total N = 2,493), we examined support for military and diplomatic approaches to conflict during war commemorations (e.g., Veterans Day). During war commemorations in the United States, support for diplomacy increased, whereas support for military approaches did not change. We found similar results in the United Kingdom and Australia on Remembrance Day, but not in Germany, or France, nor in Australia on Anzac Day. Furthermore, support for diplomacy was predicted by concern about loss of ingroup military lives during war, independently of concern about harm to outgroup civilians. These studies expand our understanding of how collective memories of war may be leveraged to promote diplomatic approaches to contemporary geopolitical conflict.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-05-03T11:48:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211010625
       
  • Subjective Identity Concealability and the Consequences of Fearing
           Identity-Based Judgment

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      Authors: Joel M. Le Forestier, Elizabeth Page-Gould, Calvin K. Lai, Alison L. Chasteen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In intergroup contexts, people may fear being judged negatively because of an identity they hold. For some, the prospect of concealment offers an opportunity to attenuate this fear. Therefore, believing an identity is concealable may minimize people’s fears of identity-based judgment. Here, we explore the construct of subjective identity concealability: the belief that an identity one holds is concealable from others. Across four pre-registered studies and a set of internal meta-analyses, we develop and validate a scale to measure individual differences in subjective identity concealability and provide evidence that it is associated with lower levels of the psychological costs of fearing judgment in intergroup contexts. Open materials, data, and code for all studies, pre-registrations for Studies 1–4, and online supplementary materials can be found at the following link: https://osf.io/pzcf9/.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T11:18:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211010038
       
  • Curvilinear Sexism and Its Links to Men’s Perceived Mate Value

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      Authors: Jennifer K. Bosson, Gregory J. Rousis, Roxanne N. Felig
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We tested the novel hypothesis that men lower in status-linked variables—that is, subjective social status and perceived mate value—are relatively disinclined to offset their high hostile sexism with high benevolent sexism. Findings revealed that mate value, but not social status, moderates the hostile–benevolent sexism link among men: Whereas men high in perceived mate value endorse hostile and benevolent sexism linearly across the attitude range, men low in mate value show curvilinear sexism, characterized by declining benevolence as hostility increases above the midpoint. Study 1 (N = 15,205) establishes the curvilinear sexism effect and shows that it is stronger among men than women. Studies 2 (N = 328) and 3 (N = 471) show that the curve is stronger among men low versus high in perceived mate value, and especially if they lack a serious relationship partner (Study 3). Discussion considers the relevance of these findings for understanding misogyny.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-23T11:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211009726
       
  • Biased Benevolence: The Perceived Morality of Effective Altruism Across
           Social Distance

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      Authors: Kyle Fiore Law, Dylan Campbell, Brendan Gaesser
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Is altruism always morally good, or is the morality of altruism fundamentally shaped by the social opportunity costs that often accompany helping decisions' Across four studies, we reveal that in cases of realistic tradeoffs in social distance for gains in welfare where helping socially distant others necessitates not helping socially closer others with the same resources, helping is deemed as less morally acceptable. Making helping decisions at a cost to socially closer others also negatively affects judgments of relationship quality (Study 2) and in turn, decreases cooperative behavior with the helper (Study 3). Ruling out an alternative explanation of physical distance accounting for the effects in Studies 1 to 3, social distance continued to impact moral acceptability when physical distance across social targets was matched (Study 4). These findings reveal that attempts to decrease biases in helping may have previously unconsidered consequences for moral judgments, relationships, and cooperation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T09:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211002773
       
  • Why People Hate Congress but Love Their Own Congressperson: An Information
           Processing Explanation

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      Authors: Joris Lammers, Eileen Pauels, Alexandra Fleischmann, Adam D. Galinsky
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Citizens in Western democracies often have negative attitudes toward political bodies, yet consistently re-elect their own representatives to these same political bodies. They hate Congress, but love their own congressperson. In contrast to resource-based explanations, we propose that this Paradox of Congressional Support is partly due to the wide availability of negative information about politicians in open societies combined with basic processes of information processing. Five studies found that unrelated negative political information decreases attitudes toward political categories such as U.S. governors but has no effect on attitudes of familiar, individual politicians (e.g., one’s own governor); additional studies further identify familiarity as the critical process. Importantly, we demonstrate that this effect generalizes to all U.S. regions and remains when controlling for and is not moderated by political ideology. These results place a presumed macrolevel political paradox within the domain of cognitive mechanisms of basic information processing.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T09:34:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211002336
       
  • Phenotypic Mimicry Distinguishes Cues of Mating Competition From Paternal
           Investment in Men’s Conspicuous Consumption

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      Authors: Daniel J. Kruger
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Evolutionary psychologists propose that men’s conspicuous consumption facilitates mate attraction because it predicts resource investment in offspring. This article elaborates on the ultimate functions of men’s luxury displays based on Life History Theory. Three studies provide evidence for phenotypic mimicry, in which consumer product features mimicking male secondary sex characteristics indicate investment in mating competition, at the expense of paternal investment. Men owning shirts with larger luxury brand logos were rated higher on mating effort, lower on parental investment, higher on interest in brief sexual affairs, lower on interest in long-term committed romantic relationships, higher in attractiveness to women for brief sexual affairs, lower in attractiveness to women for long-term committed relationships, and higher in developmental environment unpredictability compared with men owning shirts displaying a smaller logo. Participants recognized the strategic use of luxury display properties across social contexts but did not consistently associate product properties with owners’ physiological characteristics.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T05:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211007229
       
  • How Fair is Economic Inequality' Belief in a Just World and the
           Legitimation of Economic Disparities in 27 European Countries

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      Authors: Efraín García-Sánchez, Isabel Correia, Cícero R. Pereira, Guillermo B. Willis, Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón, Jorge Vala
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article aims to examine the role of Belief in a Just World (BJW) in the legitimation of economic inequality. Using data from 27 European countries (N=47,086), we conducted multilevel analyses and found that BJW positively predicted the legitimation of economic inequality, measured by three indicators: the perceived fairness of the overall wealth inequality, and the fairness of the earnings made by the Top 10% and the Bottom 10% of society. These results persisted after controlling for individual- and country-level variables. Moreover, the BJW effect was stronger on the legitimation of the Bottom 10% incomes, compared to the legitimation of the Top 10%. We also found that economic inequality at the country-level reduced the BJW effect on legitimation of inequality. Finally, BJW displayed a negative indirect effect on support for redistribution, via the legitimation of economic inequalities.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T05:44:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211002366
       
  • The Relation Between Gender Identity and Well-Being

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      Authors: Hila Zitelny, Tzipi Dror, Shahar Altman, Yoav Bar-Anan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Does strong gender identity help or harm one’s well-being' Previous research suggests that acceptance of one’s social group and feelings of belongingness to the group are positively related to well-being, regardless of the group’s social status. However, there are inconsistent findings about the relation between well-being and how central the group is to one’s identity (centrality), especially among disadvantaged groups (e.g., women). In Studies 1 to 10 (total N = 5,955), we clarified these relations by controlling for shared variance between distinct gender identity aspects. Acceptance and belongingness were positively related to a range of well-being variables. Centrality was negatively related to well-being. These results were consistent across genders. Studies 11 to 14 (total N = 2,380) found that the negative relation between gender centrality and well-being might be mediated by perceived pressure to conform to the masculine role among men and perceived gender inequality among women. These results uncover a burden of strong gender identity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T05:42:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211002362
       
  • Beliefs and Social Norms as Precursors of Environmental Support: The Joint
           Influence of Collectivism and Socioeconomic Status

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      Authors: David K. Sherman, John A. Updegraff, Michelle S. Handy, Kimin Eom, Heejung S. Kim
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research investigates how the cultural value of collectivism interacts with socioeconomic status (SES) to influence the basis of action. Using a U.S. national sample (N = 2,538), the research examines how these sociocultural factors jointly moderate the strength of two precursors of environmental support: beliefs about climate change and perceived descriptive norms. SES and collectivism interacted with climate change beliefs such that beliefs predicted environmental support (i.e., proenvironmental behaviors and policy support) more strongly for those who were high in SES and low in collectivism than for all other groups. This interaction was explained, in part, by sense of control. For descriptive norms, SES and collectivism did not interact but rather norms predicted action most strongly for those high in collectivism and high in SES. These findings demonstrate the theoretical and applied importance of examining multiple sociocultural characteristics together to understand the factors that drive action.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T11:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211007252
       
  • Low Self-Control: A Hidden Cause of Loneliness'

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      Authors: Olga Stavrova, Dongning Ren, Tila Pronk
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Loneliness has been associated with multiple negative outcomes. But what contributes to loneliness in the first place' Drawing from the literature on the importance of self-regulatory ability for successful social functioning, the present research explored the role of low self-control as a factor leading to loneliness. A set of four studies (and three additional studies in Supplementary Online Materials) using cross-sectional, experimental, daily diary, and experience sampling methods showed that lower self-control is associated with higher loneliness at both trait and state levels. Why does low self-control contribute to loneliness' Self-control failures that have negative implications for others lead to higher risks for being ostracized by others, which predicts increased feelings of loneliness over time. These results suggest that low self-control, which is often associated with negative intrapersonal outcomes, can have important interpersonal consequences by evoking ostracism, and consequently, loneliness.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T11:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211007228
       
  • How Narcissism Shapes Responses to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior:
           Hypo-Responsiveness or Hyper-Responsiveness'

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      Authors: Jiafang Chen, Barbara Nevicka, Astrid C. Homan, Gerben A. van Kleef
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Narcissists have a relatively higher proclivity for displaying antisocial rather than prosocial behaviors, suggesting a comparatively higher tendency for unfavorably impacting societies. However, maintenance of social order also depends on appropriate responses to others’ social behavior. Once we focus on narcissists as observers rather than actors, their impact on social functioning becomes less clear-cut. Theoretical arguments suggest that narcissists could be either hypo-responsive or hyper-responsive to others’ social behavior. Across four studies, we examined narcissists’ responsiveness to variations in others’ antisocial and prosocial behaviors. Results showed that narcissists differentiated less between others’ antisociality/prosociality, as reflected in their subsequent moral character evaluations (Studies 1–4) and reward and punishment (Studies 3 and 4). These results suggest that narcissists are hypo-responsive to others’ social behaviors. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T07:14:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211007293
       
  • Strength Is Still a Weakness in Coalition Formation: Replicating and
           Understanding the Strength-Is-Weakness Effect

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      Authors: Joeri Wissink, Ilja van Beest, Tila Pronk, Niels van de Ven
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A key observation in coalition formation is that bargainers with most resources are often excluded from coalitions: the Strength-is-Weakness effect. Previous studies have suffered from low sample sizes and lack of (appropriate) incentives and have rarely focused on underlying processes. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-platform replication using the Online Coalition Game. We replicated the Strength-is-Weakness effect in a psychology laboratory, on Amazon Mechanical Turk, and on Prolific. Moreover, our results showed that the equity norm shapes the Strength-is-Weakness effect in two ways. First, strong bargainers claim a higher larger of the payoffs than weak bargainers do, making them less attractive coalition partners. Second, weak bargainers expect strong bargainers to make these larger claims, directing weak bargainers to each other from the outset. Finally, the studies suggest that the Online Coalition Game is a viable tool for conducting high-powered coalition formation research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T11:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211005883
       
  • Powerful Effects of Diagnostic Information on Automatic and Self-Reported
           Evaluation: The Moderating Role of Memory Recall

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      Authors: Pieter Van Dessel, Jeremy Cone, Anne Gast
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We sometimes learn about certain behaviors of others that we consider diagnostic of their character (e.g., that they did immoral things). Recent research has shown that such information trumps the impact of other (less diagnostic) information both on self-reported evaluations and on more automatic evaluations as probed with indirect measures such as the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP). We examined whether facilitating memory recall of alternative information moderates the impact of diagnostic information on evaluation. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants learned one diagnostic positive and one diagnostic negative behavior of two unfamiliar people. Presenting a cue semantically related to this information during evaluation influenced AMP scores but not self-reported liking scores. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that elaborative rehearsal of low diagnostic information eliminated diagnosticity effects on AMP scores and reduced them on self-reported liking scores. These findings help elucidate the role of memory recall and diagnosticity in evaluation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T09:04:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211007290
       
  • I Care About Your Plight, But Only If I Like Your Leader: The Effect of
           National Leaders’ Perceived Personality on Empathy and Pro-Social
           Behavior Towards Their Citizenry

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      Authors: Meital Balmas, Eran Halperin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People’s default levels of empathy toward members of a distant group tend to be low. The current research shows that favorable perceptions regarding the personality of a group’s leader can stimulate empathy and pro-social behavior toward his or her countrymen. In four experimental studies (N = 884), we found that exposure to a news article that positively (vs. negatively) characterizes a foreign national leader (vs. non-national leader) led to (a) increased levels of empathy toward distressed citizens of that leader’s nation, (b) willingness to help those citizens, (c) motivation to invest time in inspecting additional information elucidating the circumstances that led to this adversity, and (d) an actual monetary donation for the benefit of those people. This effect turned out to be prominent when the national leader’s domestic popularity was perceived as high. The results show that national leaders are in a position to contribute to more empathetic inter-society relations and enhance pro-social behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-13T09:03:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220987989
       
  • Perceived Physical Vulnerability Promotes Prosocial Behavior

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      Authors: Marina Motsenok, Tehila Kogut, Ilana Ritov
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Our research examines the association between perceived physical vulnerability and prosocial behavior. Studies 1 to 4 establish a positive association between individuals’ vulnerability and their prosociality. To increase generality, these studies looked at different behaviors (volunteering vs. monetary donations), various physical harms (e.g., war vs. illness), and different samples (students vs. MTurk workers). Study 4 also provides initial evidence of a partial mediating effect of closeness on the observed association. In Study 5, perceived vulnerability is experimentally manipulated, demonstrating a causal link between vulnerability and willingness to donate. Study 6 further demonstrates that closeness partially mediates the association between vulnerability and donation, while ruling out an alternative explanation of the effect—such as that vulnerable people donate in expectation of future reciprocity. Together, our research demonstrates a consistent positive association between perceived physical vulnerability and prosociality. This effect appears small when considering daily threats and stronger when vulnerability becomes more salient.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T01:30:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672211005879
       
  • The Role of Individual and Dyadic Planning in Couples’ Daily Goal
           Pursuits

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      Authors: Ophir Katzenelenbogen, Nina Knoll, Gertraud Stadler, Eran Bar-Kalifa
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Planning promotes progress toward goal achievement in a wide range of domains. To date, planning has mostly been studied as an individual process. In couples, however, the partner is likely to play an important role in planning. This study tested the effects of individual and dyadic planning on goal progress and goal-related actions. Two samples of couples (N = 76 and N = 87) completed daily diaries over a period of 28 and 21 days. The results indicate that individual and dyadic planning fluctuate on a daily basis and support the idea that dyadic planning is predominantly used as a complementary strategy to individual planning. As expected, individual and dyadic planning were positively associated with higher levels of action control and goal progress. In Sample 2, dyadic planning was only associated with goal progress on days in which individuals felt that they were dependent upon their partners’ behaviors to achieve their goals.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-30T12:07:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221997630
       
  • Equal Performance, Different Grade: Women’s Performance in Discussion
           Perceived Worse Than Men’s

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      Authors: Angela R. Dorrough, Monika Leszczyńska, Sandra Werner, Lovis Schaeffer, Anna-Sophie Galley, Enis Akin, Jacqueline Bachmann, Marius Bruske, Ulla Burghardt, Franziska Simandi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate how men and women are evaluated in group discussions. In five studies (N = 761) using a variant of a Hidden Profile Task, we find that, when experimentally and/or statistically controlling for actual gender differences in behavior, the female performance in a group discussion is devalued in comparison to male performance. This was observed for fellow group members (Study 1) and outside observers (Studies 2–5), in both primarily student (Studies 1, 4, and 5) and mixed samples (Studies 2 and 3), for different measures of performance (perceived helpfulness of the contribution, for work-related competence), across different discussion formats (preformulated chat messages, open chat), and when controlling for the number of female group members (Study 5). In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a moderating effect of selection procedure in that women were devalued to a similar degree in both situations with a women’s quota and without.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-23T12:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221992213
       
  • Perceived Partner Responsiveness Forecasts Behavioral Intimacy as Measured
           by Affectionate Touch

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      Authors: Tatum A. Jolink, Yen-Ping Chang, Sara B. Algoe
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Affectionate touch is an important behavior in close relationships throughout the lifespan. Research has investigated the relational and individual psychological and physical benefits of affectionate touch, but the situational factors that give rise to it have been overlooked. Theorizing from the interpersonal process model of intimacy, the current studies tested whether perceived partner responsiveness forecasts affectionate touch in romantic couples. Following a preliminary integrative data analysis (N = 842), three prospective studies use ecologically valid behavioral (Studies 1 and 2) and daily (Studies 2 and 3) data, showing a positive association between perceived partner responsiveness and affectionate touch. Furthermore, in Study 3, we tested a theoretical extension of the interpersonal process of intimacy, finding that affectionate touch forecasts the partner’s perception of the touch-giver’s responsiveness the next day. Findings suggest affectionate touch may be an untested mechanism at the heart of the interpersonal process of intimacy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-19T08:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221993349
       
  • The Price of Predictability: Estimating Inconsistency Premiums in Social
           Interactions

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      Authors: Judith Gerten, Michael K. Zürn, Sascha Topolinski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      For financial decision-making, people trade off the expected value (return) and the variance (risk) of an option, preferring higher returns to lower ones and lower risks to higher ones. To make decision-makers indifferent between a risky and risk-free option, the expected value of the risky option must exceed the value of the risk-free option by a certain amount—the risk premium. Previous psychological research suggests that similar to risk aversion, people dislike inconsistency in an interaction partner’s behavior. In eight experiments (total N = 2,412) we pitted this inconsistency aversion against the expected returns from interacting with an inconsistent partner. We identified the additional expected return of interacting with an inconsistent partner that must be granted to make decision-makers prefer a more profitable, but inconsistent partner to a consistent, but less profitable one. We locate this inconsistency premium at around 31% of the expected value of the risk-free option.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T12:30:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221998533
       
  • Stepping Outside the Echo Chamber: Is Intellectual Humility Associated
           With Less Political Myside Bias'

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      Authors: Shauna M. Bowes, Thomas H. Costello, Caroline Lee, Stacey McElroy-Heltzel, Don E. Davis, Scott O. Lilienfeld
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, an upsurge of polarization has been a salient feature of political discourse in America. A small but growing body of research has examined the potential relevance of intellectual humility (IH) to political polarization. In the present investigation, we extend this work to political myside bias, testing the hypothesis that IH is associated with less bias in two community samples (N1 = 498; N2 = 477). In line with our expectations, measures of IH were negatively correlated with political myside bias across paradigms, political topics, and samples. These relations were robust to controlling for humility. We also examined ideological asymmetries in the relations between IH and political myside bias, finding that IH–bias relations were statistically equivalent in members of the political left and right. Notwithstanding important limitations and caveats, these data establish IH as one of a small handful psychological features known to predict less political myside bias.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T12:31:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221997619
       
  • How Diverse Task Experience Affects Both Group and Subsequent Individual
           Performance

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      Authors: Sheli D. Sillito Walker, Bryan L. Bonner
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Task demonstrability defines the criteria that, when met, facilitate the effective exchange of knowledge within a problem-solving group. The extent to which those criteria are met should vary as a consequence of the relevant experiences that members have prior to entering the group. We investigate whether group members’ ability to coordinate with one another is facilitated by their prior task-related experiences. Participants worked individually, then in groups, and then individually again to complete a series of circuit board assembly tasks. Groups in which all members had pre-task experience performed significantly better than groups with even a single member lacking task experience, or individuals. Mediation analysis showed that prior task experience helps group members coordinate by improving task demonstrability. Group experience composition also affected post-group individual performance. Groups with diverse task experience produced individuals who performed better solo but only after working on an unstructured task that allowed for greater exploration.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:25:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221992220
       
  • Attributions to Discrimination Against Black Victims in a Multiracial
           Society: Isolating the Effect of Perpetrator Group Membership

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      Authors: Laurie T. O’Brien, Sally K. Merritt
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      As the United States becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, interactions between Black people and other minority groups have become increasingly common. The present research examined how a perpetrator’s group membership affects judgments of employment discrimination against a Black victim. Four experiments (combined N = 1,016) tested predictions derived from the prototype model of discrimination. Participants reviewed a case file where a Black, Latino, Asian, or White manager rejected a Black job applicant. Attributions to discrimination were much stronger for a Latino, Asian, or White manager compared with a Black manager. Attributions to discrimination were slightly stronger for a White manager compared with an Asian or Latino manager; however, effect sizes for these differences were small. Attributions to discrimination were similar for the Asian and Latino managers. Whether the perpetrator had outgroup standing relative to the victim was the strongest factor influencing attributions to discrimination for a Black victim of employment discrimination.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T11:40:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220988372
       
  • The “Big Two” in Hiring Discrimination: Evidence From a
           Cross-National Field Experiment

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      Authors: Susanne Veit, Hannah Arnu, Valentina Di Stasio, Ruta Yemane, Marcel Coenders
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We tested whether signaling warmth and competence (“Big Two”) in job applications increases hiring chances. Drawing on a field experimental data from five European countries, we analyzed the responses of employers (N = 13,162) to applications from fictitious candidates of different origin: native candidates and candidates of European, Asian, or Middle-Eastern/African descent. We found that competence signals slightly increased invitation rates, while warmth signals had no effect. We also found ethnic discrimination, a female premium, and differences in callbacks depending on job characteristics. Importantly, however, providing stereotype signals did not reduce the level of ethnic discrimination or the female premium. Likewise, we found little evidence for interactions between stereotype signals and job demands. While speaking against the importance of “Big Two” signals in application documents, our results highlight the importance of group membership and hopefully stimulate further research on the role of in particular ethnic stereotypes for discrimination in hiring.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-06T11:37:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220982900
       
  • When race trumps political ideology: Black teachers who advocate for
           social responsibility are penalized by both liberals and conservatives

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      Authors: Grace N. Rivera, Phia S. Salter, Matt Friedman, Jaren Crist, Rebecca J. Schlegel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Meritocracy is a prominent narrative embedded in America’s educational system: work hard and anyone can achieve success. Yet, racial disparities in education suggest this narrative does not tell the full story. Four studies (N = 1,439) examined how applicants for a teaching position are evaluated when they invoke different narratives regarding who or what is to blame for racial disparities (i.e., individuals vs. systems). We hypothesized these evaluations would differ depending on teacher race (Black/White) and evaluator political orientation. Results revealed conservatives evaluated Black and White applicants advocating for personal responsibility more favorably than applicants advocating for social responsibility. Liberals preferred social responsibility applicants, but only when they were White. They were more ambivalent in their evaluations and hiring decisions if the applicants were Black. Our findings suggest that Black applicants advocating for social change are penalized by both liberal and conservative evaluators.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T06:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221994025
       
  • Affective Interpersonal Touch in Close Relationships: A Cross-Cultural
           Perspective

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      Authors: Agnieszka Sorokowska, Supreet Saluja, Piotr Sorokowski, Tomasz Frąckowiak, Maciej Karwowski, Toivo Aavik, Grace Akello, Charlotte Alm, Naumana Amjad, Afifa Anjum, Kelly Asao, Chiemezie S. Atama, Derya Atamtürk Duyar, Richard Ayebare, Carlota Batres, Mons Bendixen, Aicha Bensafia, Boris Bizumic, Mahmoud Boussena, David M. Buss, Marina Butovskaya, Seda Can, Katarzyna Cantarero, Antonin Carrier, Hakan Cetinkaya, Dominika Chabin, Daniel Conroy-Beam, Jorge Contreras-Graduño, Marco Antonio Correa Varella, Rosa María Cueto, Marcin Czub, Daria Dronova, Seda Dural, Izzet Duyar, Berna Ertugrul, Agustín Espinosa, Carla Sofia Esteves, Farida Guemaz, Mária Haľamová, Iskra Herak, Ivana Hromatko, Chin-Ming Hui, Jas Laile Jaafar, Feng Jiang, Konstantinos Kafetsios, Tina Kavcic, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair, Nicolas O. Kervyn, Imran Ahmed Khilji, Nils C. Köbis, Aleksandra Kostic, András Láng, Georgina R. Lennard, Ernesto León, Torun Lindholm, Giulia Lopez, Zoi Manesi, Rocio Martinez, Sarah L. McKerchar, Norbert Meskó, Girishwar Misra, Conal Monaghan, Emanuel C. Mora, Alba Moya-Garofano, Bojan Musil, Jean Carlos Natividade, George Nizharadze, Elisabeth Oberzaucher, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Ike Ernest Onyishi, Baris Özener, Ariela Francesca Pagani, Vilmante Pakalniskiene, Miriam Parise, Farid Pazhoohi, Marija Pejičić, Annette Pisanski, Katarzyna Pisanski, Nejc Plohl, Camelia Popa, Pavol Prokop, Muhammad Rizwan, Mario Sainz, Svjetlana Salkičević, Ruta Sargautyte, Ivan Sarmany-Schuller, Susanne Schmehl, Anam Shahid, Rizwana Shaikh, Shivantika Sharad, Razi Sultan Siddiqui, Franco Simonetti, Meri Tadinac, Karina Ugalde González, Olga Uhryn, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Luis Diego Vega Araya, Dwi Ajeng Widarini, Gyesook Yoo, Zainab Fotowwat Zadeh, Marta Zaťková, Maja Zupančič, Ilona Croy
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Interpersonal touch behavior differs across cultures, yet no study to date has systematically tested for cultural variation in affective touch, nor examined the factors that might account for this variability. Here, over 14,000 individuals from 45 countries were asked whether they embraced, stroked, kissed, or hugged their partner, friends, and youngest child during the week preceding the study. We then examined a range of hypothesized individual-level factors (sex, age, parasitic history, conservatism, religiosity, and preferred interpersonal distance) and cultural-level factors (regional temperature, parasite stress, regional conservatism, collectivism, and religiosity) in predicting these affective-touching behaviors. Our results indicate that affective touch was most prevalent in relationships with partners and children, and its diversity was relatively higher in warmer, less conservative, and religious countries, and among younger, female, and liberal people. This research allows for a broad and integrated view of the bases of cross-cultural variability in affective touch.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T12:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220988373
       
  • Two-Sided Messages Promote Openness for Morally Based Attitudes

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      Authors: Mengran Xu, Richard E. Petty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research demonstrates that two- versus one-sided counterattitudinal messages can encourage people with a strong moral basis for their attitudes to be more open to contrary positions. Studies 1A/B demonstrated that the interaction between moral basis and message sidedness was present not just for a controversial issue with balanced views in society but also for a topic with a majority opinion. In Study 2, the relative effectiveness of two- over one-sided messages for people with a moral attitude basis was shown to occur only when the two-sided message respectfully acknowledged the recipient’s side. In Study 3, the effect was replicated in a preregistered experiment. Furthermore, moral bases provided unique predictive power beyond alternative attitude strength indicators. Across all studies, perceived appreciation of the speaker acknowledging the recipient’s view mediated the impact of the independent variables on openness.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T07:38:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220988371
       
  • Are Morphs a Valid Substitute for Real Multiracial Faces in Race
           Categorization Research'

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      Authors: Debbie S. Ma, Justin Kantner, Jonathan Benitez, Stephanie Dunn
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The rise of the multiracial population has been met with a growing body of research examining multiracial face perception. A common method for creating multiracial face stimuli in past research has been mathematically averaging two monoracial “parent” faces of different races to create computer-generated multiracial morphs, but conclusions from research using morphs will only be accurate to the extent that morphs yield perceptual decisions similar to those that would be made with real multiracial faces. The current studies compared race classifications of real and morphed multiracial face stimuli. We found that oval-masked morphed faces were classified as multiracial significantly more often than oval-masked real multiracial faces (Studies 1 and 2), but at comparable levels to unmasked real multiracial faces (Study 2). Study 3 examined factors that could explain differences in how morphs and real multiracial faces are categorized and pointed to the potential role that unusualness/distinctiveness might play.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:05:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221989836
       
  • PSPB Editorial Philosophy, January 2021

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      Authors: Michael Robinson, Yuen Huo, Emily Impett, Benjamin Wilkowski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T12:03:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221989322
       
  • Enjoying Each Other’s Company: Gaining Other-Gender Friendships Promotes
           Positive Gender Attitudes Among Ethnically Diverse Children

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      Authors: May Ling D. Halim, Carol Lynn Martin, Naomi C. Z. Andrews, Kristina M. Zosuls, Diane N. Ruble
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Gender segregation is ubiquitous and may lead to increased bias against other-gender peers. In this study, we examined whether individual differences in friendships with other-gender children reduce gender bias, and whether these patterns vary by gender or ethnicity. Using a 1-year longitudinal design (N = 408 second graders [Mage = 7.56 years] and fourth graders [Mage = 9.48 years]), we found that, across groups, gaining more other-gender friendships over the year led to (a) increased positive cognitive-based attitudes toward the other gender and (b) increased positive and decreased negative affect when with the other gender. We also tested the reverse pattern and found support for a bidirectional link. Girls and Latinx children often showed more gender bias than did boys and European American children. Implications for promoting positive relationships between girls and boys are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T10:15:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220984407
       
  • Outside the Eye of the Storm: Can Moderate Hurricane Exposure Improve
           Social, Psychological, and Attachment Functioning'

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      Authors: Anthony D. Mancini, Maren Westphal, Paul Griffin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      High-intensity disaster can harm psychological functioning. Could moderate-intensity disaster improve psychological and attachment functioning through its effects on social functioning' We used a prospective quasi-experimental cohort design to investigate this possibility among college students. Hurricane cohort participants (N = 209) completed assessments before, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after Hurricane Sandy. Two matched comparison cohorts (Ns> 140) were assessed 4 months and 1 year later. The hurricane cohort, in contrast to matched comparison cohorts, reported increased social support, reduced global distress, reduced negative emotion, and reduced attachment avoidance at the end of the semester. Increased social support mediated the relationship between hurricane cohort and reduced global distress, negative emotion, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety, and increased positive emotion and self-esteem at 6 weeks poststorm. The results suggest moderate disaster exposure can benefit short-term social, psychological, and attachment functioning, underscoring the critical role of the social context in stress adaptation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T09:20:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167221990488
       
  • The Implicit Component of Moral Disengagement: Applying the Relational
           Responding Task to Investigate Its Relationship With Cheating Behavior

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      Authors: R. Fida, V. Ghezzi, M. Paciello, C. Tramontano, F. Dentale, C. Barbaranelli
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article aims to conceptualize, for the first time, an implicit form of moral disengagement and investigate its role in relation to cheating behavior. In line with the implicit social-cognition models, we argue that the implicit moral disengagement would represent an unintentional, automatic, and less accessible form of the mechanisms bypassing the moral self-regulatory system. We anticipate that in situations implying on-the-spot decisions and where individuals might suffer no consequences for the misconduct, the implicit moral disengagement would predict the actual behavior while the explicit moral disengagement would predict self-reported conduct. The results of three empirical studies provide support for the theorization of an implicit moral disengagement and its assessment through a newly developed implicit measurement procedure using the relational responding task. Results of the structural equation models, including both implicit and explicit moral disengagement, demonstrated that only the implicit one was associated with the actual misconduct.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T11:56:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220984293
       
  • Conditional Love: Threat and Attitudinal Perceptions of Immigrants Depend
           on Their Instrumentality to Locals’ Basic Psychological Needs

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      Authors: Jose C. Yong, Lile Jia, Ismaharif Ismail, Peiwei Lee
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although threat perceptions are commonly used to explain attitudes toward immigrants, the psychological factors underlying threat are surprisingly understudied. Drawing from goal pursuit and self-determination theory, we examined the perceived instrumentality of immigrants as an antecedent of locals’ threat and attitudinal perceptions. Through four studies (N = 1,372) with different configurations of local population segments and target immigrant groups, we investigated the impact of immigrants’ instrumentality in terms of hindrances to locals’ autonomy, belonging, and competence needs. Including hindrances to our proposed model of threats and attitudes led to an improvement in the overall fit with the data, allowed for a better specification of the threats-to-attitudes pathways, and elucidated the complexity and downstream consequences (endorsement of pro-immigration policies) of attitudes. The present findings underscore the utility of goal-driven approaches to studying intergroup conflicts, and implications for understanding and improving locals’ attitudes toward immigrants are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T11:49:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220984648
       
  • Attitudinal Effects of Stimulus Co-Occurrence and Stimulus Relations:
           Range and Limits of Intentional Control

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      Authors: Bertram Gawronski, Skylar M. Brannon
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that evaluations of an object can be simultaneously influenced by (a) the mere co-occurrence of the object with a pleasant or unpleasant stimulus (e.g., mere co-occurrence of object A and negative event B) and (b) the object’s particular relation to the co-occurring stimulus (e.g., object A starts vs. stops negative event B). Using a multinomial modeling approach to disentangle the two kinds of influences on choice decisions, three experiments investigated whether learners can intentionally control the relative impact of stimulus co-occurrence and stimulus relations. An integrative analysis of the data from the three experiments (N = 1,154) indicate that incentivized instructions to counteract effects of stimulus co-occurrence by focusing on stimulus relations increased the impact of stimulus relations without affecting the impact of stimulus co-occurrence. Implications for evaluative learning, intentional control, and public policy are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-30T06:35:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220982906
       
  • Victim Number Effects in Charitable Giving: Joint Evaluations Promote
           Egalitarian Decisions

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      Authors: Alexander Garinther, Holly Arrow, Pooya Razavi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Studies of victim number effects in charitable giving consistently find that people care more and help more when presented with an appeal to help an individual compared with an appeal to help multiple people in need. Across three online experiments (N = 1,348), Bayesian estimation revealed the opposite pattern when people responded to multiple appeals to help targets of different sizes (1, 2, 5, 7, and 12). In this joint evaluation context, participants donated more to larger groups, when appeals were presented in both ascending order (Study 1) and random order (Study 2). The pattern held whether or not participants saw an overview of all appeals at the start of the study and when a single individual was added to the array (Study 3). These results clarify how compassion fade findings typical of separate evaluations may not generalize to contexts in which people encounter multiple appeals within a short temporal window.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-30T06:33:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220982734
       
  • The Utility of Clinical Psychology Concepts for Judgment and
           Decision-Making Research: The Case of Histrionic Features

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      Authors: Steven S. Posavac, Frank R. Kardes, Heidi D. Posavac, Donald R. Gaffney
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research was conducted to highlight the utility of considering clinical psychology concepts in judgment and decision research. Our overarching thesis is that the judgments and choices people make may often be influenced by clinically relevant phenomena, and that understanding these relationships can, in a reciprocal fashion, help advance our understanding of judgment and decision making as well as specific clinical diagnoses and proclivities. We focused on histrionic personality disorder and conducted four studies that show that histrionic symptomology predicts preferences and choices that facilitate grabbing others’ attention, even when such choices cost more money, and are at the expense of giving up more tangible features. In addition to demonstrating a new implication of the histrionic personality, we provide insight into the process underlying this tendency and discuss implications for mental health service providers.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-30T06:32:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220980887
       
  • The Spatial Ingroup Bias: Ingroup Teams Are Positioned Where Writing
           Starts

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      Authors: Maria Laura Bettinsoli, Caterina Suitner, Anne Maass, Luigi Finco, Steven J. Sherman, Bruno Gabriel Salvador Casara
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In four studies, we test the hypothesis that people, asked to envisage interactions between an ingroup and an outgroup, tend to spatially represent the ingroup where writing starts (e.g., left in Italian) and as acting along script direction. Using soccer as a highly competitive intergroup setting, in Study 1 (N = 100) Italian soccer fans were found to envisage their team on the left side of a horizontal soccer field, hence playing rightward. Studies 2a and 2b (N = 219 Italian and N = 200 English speakers) replicate this finding, regardless of whether the own team was stronger or weaker than the rival team. Study 3 (N = 67 Italian and N = 67 Arabic speakers) illustrates the cultural underpinnings of the Spatial Intergroup Bias, showing a rightward ingroup bias for Italian speakers and a leftward ingroup bias for Arabic speakers. Findings are discussed in relation to how space is deployed to symbolically express ingroup favoritism (Spatial Ingroup Bias) versus shared stereotypes (Spatial Agency Bias).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-30T06:18:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220984297
       
  • The Influence of Daily Events on Emotion Regulation and Well-Being in
           Daily Life

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      Authors: David B. Newman, John B. Nezlek
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examined within-person relationships among daily events, emotion regulation strategies, and well-being in daily life. Each day for 2 to 3 weeks, participants in two studies (total N = 445) reported the extent to which they reappraised and suppressed their positive and negative emotions, the types of events they experienced, and their well-being. Using multilevel modeling, we found that the extent to which people reappraised positive and negative emotions and suppressed negative emotions was positively related to the number/importance of daily positive events, whereas the suppression of positive emotions was negatively related. Furthermore, the positive relationships between well-being and reappraisal of positive and negative emotions and the suppression of negative emotions were stronger as the number of negative events increased. These results demonstrate that most emotion regulation strategies are employed when the day is going well but are most beneficial for people’s well-being when the day is not going well.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T05:38:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220980882
       
  • Mind Your Goals, Mind Your Emotions: Mechanisms Explaining the Relation
           Between Dispositional Mindfulness and Action Crises

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      Authors: Ariane S. Marion-Jetten, Geneviève Taylor, Kaspar Schattke
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Action crises describe the intra-psychic conflicts people face when deliberating whether to continue pursuing or to give up a goal for which difficulties keep accumulating. Action crises lead to negative consequences such as elevated distress and depression. Less is known about their predictors. We propose mindfulness as a negative predictor of action crises because mindful people should set more autonomous goals and better regulate their emotions. Three prospective studies examined the relation between mindfulness and action crises and explored goal motivation and emotion regulation as mediators (Study 1, N = 137 students, mean age 22; Study 2, N = 79 students, mean age 24.27; Study 3, N = 236 workers, mean age 40.71). Results showed that mindfulness predicts action crises over time and that this relation is mediated by goal motivation and emotion regulation. We discuss how mindfulness can affect action crises in the phases of the Rubicon Model of goal pursuit.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-27T11:22:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220986310
       
  • The Blame Intensity Inventory: Assessing the Propensity to Blame Harshly
           and Its Unique Capacity to Predict Malicious Satisfaction From Offender
           Victimization

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      Authors: Michael J. Gill, Stephanie C. Cerce
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Blame permeates our social lives. When done properly, blame can facilitate the upholding of moral norms. When done with excessive intensity or harshness, however, blame can have significant negative impacts. Here, we develop and validate a scale—the Blame Intensity Inventory—to measure individual differences in the propensity for intense blame responses. First, we present evidence for its convergent and divergent validity by examining relations with existing scales. In addition, in two studies, we show that the Blame Intensity Inventory—rooted in an affective conception of blame—predicts hostile responses to offenders better than do measures focused on blame-related cognitive appraisals (e.g., free will, intentionality). Finally, in three studies, we show that Blame Intensity uniquely predicts malicious satisfaction, or gratification upon learning that an offender has suffered gratuitous harm. Results are discussed in terms of important research questions that could be addressed using the Blame Intensity Inventory.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T07:01:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220985362
       
  • Religious Identity and Morality: Evidence for Religious Residue and Decay
           in Moral Foundations

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      Authors: Daryl R. Van Tongeren, C. Nathan DeWall, Sam A. Hardy, Philip Schwadel
      First page: 1550
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Religion provides a powerful social identity. Building on previous work demonstrating that formerly religious individuals (i.e., religious dones) more closely resemble currently religious individuals than do never religious individuals (i.e., religious nones), we report three studies examining a potential religious residue effect for the endorsement of moral foundations. In Study 1 (N = 312), we found evidence of a stairstep pattern of endorsement of the five moral foundations, descending from currently religious to formerly religious to never religious individuals. Study 2 (N = 957) replicated these findings with a larger sample. In Study 3 (N = 2,071), we found evidence for the religious residue effect in a 4-wave longitudinal study of adolescents and young adults and suggest that the residual effects of religion on endorsement of moral foundations may erode over time. These studies add to a recently burgeoning line of work on the nature and consequences of religious deidentification.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-11T11:04:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220970814
       
  • A Functional Coupling of Brain and Behavior During Social Categorization
           of Faces

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      Authors: Hannah I. Volpert-Esmond, Bruce D. Bartholow
      First page: 1580
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Considerable research has focused on how people derive information about others’ social category memberships from their faces. Theoretical models posit that early extraction of task-relevant information from a face should determine the efficiency with which that face is categorized, but evidence supporting this idea has been elusive. Here, we used a novel trial-level data analytic approach to examine the relationship between two event-related potential components—the P2, indexing early attention to category-relevant information, and the P3, indexing stimulus evaluation—and the speed of overt categorization judgments. As predicted, a larger face-elicited P2 on a particular trial was associated with faster overt race or gender categorization of that face. Moreover, this association was mediated by P3 latency, indicating that extraction of more category-relevant information early in processing facilitated stimulus evaluation. These findings support continuous flow models of information processing and the long-theorized functional significance of face-elicited neurophysiological responses for social categorization.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-09T06:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220976688
       
  • “Be a Man”: The Role of Social Pressure in Eliciting
           Men’s Aggressive Cognition

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      Authors: Adam Stanaland, Sarah Gaither
      First page: 1596
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Threatening a man’s manhood—but not a woman’s womanhood—elicits aggression. In two studies, we found evidence that this aggression is related to the social pressure men experience to “be a man.” In Study 1a, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis to isolate participants’ (N = 195; Mage = 19.92) differential motivations for conforming to gender norms. Study 1b then showed that pressure to be masculine moderates the relationship between gender identity threat and aggressive cognition for men. In Study 2a, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to validate the aforementioned scales with an age-diverse sample of men (N = 391; Mage = 33.16, range = 18–56 years). Study 2b replicated Study 1b, most notably with younger men. In all, these findings reveal one pathway—the pressure men experience to be stereotypically masculine—that elicits aggressive cognition when under threat in a U.S. context.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T05:38:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220984298
       
  • #NotAllWhites: Liberal-Leaning White Americans Racially Disidentify and
           Increase Support for Racial Equity

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      Authors: J. Doris Dai, Arianne E. Eason, Laura M. Brady, Stephanie A. Fryberg
      First page: 1612
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Donald Trump won the 2016 presidential election largely due to support from White Americans. This win created a new sociopolitical reality in which White Americans as a group became associated with Trump and his anti-egalitarianism. Four studies (N = 3,245) explored how liberal-leaning White Americans negotiate their racial identity to contend with group-image threat arising from the association between their racial ingroup and Trump. Trump-related group-image threat (i.e., White Americans’ support for Trump’s anti-egalitarianism or his continuation in office) led liberal-leaning White Americans to disidentify from their racial ingroup. In turn, racial disidentification predicted greater signaling of egalitarian beliefs (i.e., expressing intentions to advocate for racial equity and supporting policies designed to benefit racially minoritized groups) and behaviors (i.e., donating money to racial equity-focused organizations). These results suggest that the process of negotiating Trump-related group-image threat has implications for both White Americans’ racial identities and ongoing efforts to achieve racial equity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T11:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0146167220987988
       
 
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