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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
Showing 1 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ACOSS Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
African Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Argumentum     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AZARBE : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Bienestar     Open Access  
Bakti Budaya     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
British Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Social Work Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Care Management Journals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Social Work Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Columbia Social Work Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Community, Work & Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ConCienciaSocial     Open Access  
Contemporary Rural Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Counsellor (The)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Critical and Radical Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Critical Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Cuadernos de Trabajo Social     Open Access  
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Child Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
European Journal of Social Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Families in Society : The Journal of Contemporary Social Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Geopolitical, Social Security and Freedom Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Global Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Grief Matters : The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Groupwork     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health & Social Care In the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
HOLISTICA ? Journal of Business and Public Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Housing Policy Debate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Human Service Organizations Management, Leadership and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Indonesian Journal of Guidance and Counseling     Open Access  
International Journal of Ageing and Later Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Care and Caring     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of School Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
International Journal of Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
International Journal on Child Maltreatment : Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Social Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Islamic Counseling : Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling Islam     Open Access  
Janus Sosiaalipolitiikan ja sosiaalityön tutkimuksen aikakauslehti     Open Access  
Journal for Specialists in Group Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Care Services Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Community Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Comparative Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Danubian Studies and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of European Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Family Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Forensic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Human Rights and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Integrated Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Occupational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Policy Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Journal of Public Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Development in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Social Service Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95)
Journal of Social Work Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Social Work in the Global Community     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Jurnal Karya Abdi Masyarakat     Open Access  
Just Policy: A Journal of Australian Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Kontext : Zeitschrift für Systemische Therapie und Familientherapie     Hybrid Journal  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access  
Learning in Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Leidfaden : Fachmagazin für Krisen, Leid, Trauer     Hybrid Journal  
Links to Health and Social Care     Open Access  
Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mental Health and Social Inclusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mortality: Promoting the interdisciplinary study of death and dying     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Mundos do Trabalho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
National Emergency Response     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Nordic Social Work Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nordisk välfärdsforskning | Nordic Welfare Research     Open Access  
Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Nouvelles pratiques sociales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nusantara of Research: Jurnal Hasil-hasil Penelitian Universitas Nusantara PGRI Kediri     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Parity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Partner Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Pedagogia i Treball Social : Revista de Cičncies Socials Aplicades     Open Access  
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190)
Personality and Social Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Policy Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Practice: Social Work in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Prospectiva : Revista de Trabajo Social e Intervención Social     Open Access  
Psychoanalytic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Public Policy and Aging Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Qualitative Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Qualitative Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Quality in Ageing and Older Adults     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Race and Social Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Research on Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research on Language and Social Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Research on Social Work Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Review of Social Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Revista Internacional De Seguridad Social     Hybrid Journal  
Revista Serviço Social em Perspectiva     Open Access  
Safer Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Science and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Self and Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Service social     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Skriftserien Socialt Arbejde     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Action : The Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology     Free   (Followers: 3)
Social and Personality Psychology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Social Behavior and Personality : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Social Choice and Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Social Cognition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Social Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Influence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Justice Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social Philosophy and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Social Policy & Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Social Policy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Social Science Japan Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Social Semiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Social Work & Social Sciences Review     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Social Work / Maatskaplike Werk     Open Access  
Social Work and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Work Education: The International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Social Work Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Social Work Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Social Work With Groups     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika     Open Access  
Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.999
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 190  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0146-1672 - ISSN (Online) 1552-7433
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Global Ecology and Geography of Gender Equality

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Evert Van de Vliert, Esther S. Kluwer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Proximal socio-economic drivers of gender equality tend to obscure its remote ecological origins. General systems theory predicts that the greater annual variability in daylength, temperature, and daily precipitation at higher latitudes requires greater psychosocial flexibility. We extend this prediction to gender equality as a likely consequence. Accordingly, for 87 pre-industrial societies after 1500 CE, we find more gender equality in more variable habitats, and that this link is mediated by greater subsistence flexibility—foraging rather than raising plants and animals. Mutatis mutandis, these ecological predictors of global gender equality replicate in 175 modern countries after 2000 CE. Gender equality was, and still is, lowest around the Equator, higher toward the North and South Poles, and invariant in east–west direction. The geographical positioning of gender equality in pre-industrial times can predict over 40% of the opposite north–south gradients of gender equality in the opposite Northern and Southern Hemispheres today.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-05-10T07:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241237383
       
  • Mental Contrasting Strategies Promote the Pursuit of Difficult Goals:
           Japanese Cultural Context

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      Authors: Miki Toyama, Masato Nagamine, Li Tang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examined whether mental contrasting inhibits the pursuit of difficult goals in an Eastern culture—Japan—rooted in self-improvement. Our pilot study found that, compared with American participants, Japanese participants did not perceive a difficult situation as a cue to abandon their goal and pursue alternative objectives. Studies 1a–1c found that mental contrasting encouraged Japanese participants to pursue difficult goals. When Japanese participants perceived their own goals as unattainable, they were more likely to pursue these goals if they mentally contrasted their desired future with the inhibiting reality than if they simply imagined their desired future. Study 2 showed that mental contrasting encouraged Japanese (but not American) participants to pursue difficult goals. Study 3 evidenced the causal effect of beliefs about difficulties on the impact of mental contrasting on motivation to pursue difficult goals. Culturally formed beliefs about difficulties underlie the effect of mental contrasting on difficult goal pursuit.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-05-10T07:01:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241247481
       
  • Mobilize Is a Verb: The Use of Verbs and Concrete Language Is Associated
           With Authors’ and Readers’ Perceptions of a Text’s Action
           Orientation and Persuasiveness

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      Authors: Magdalena Formanowicz, Marta Beneda, Marta Witkowska, Jan Nikadon, Caterina Suitner
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In three studies, we investigated the role of linguistic features characterizing texts aiming to mobilize others. In Study 1 (N = 728), participants produced a leaflet either mobilizing others to engage in an action or expressing their thoughts about that action, and evaluated how action-oriented their text was. Mobilizing texts included more verbs and concrete words, and the presence of these linguistic characteristics was positively linked to participants’ evaluations of their messages as action-oriented. In Studies 2 and 3 (N = 557 and N = 556), independent groups of participants evaluated texts produced in Study 1. Readers’ perceptions of texts as action-oriented were associated with the same linguistic features as in Study 1 and further positively linked to perceived message effectiveness (Study 2) and behavioral intention (Study 3). The studies reveal how encoding and decoding of verbs and concrete words serve as distinct persuasive tools in calls to action.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-05-08T12:19:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241238418
       
  • On the Defensive: Identity, Language, and Partisan Reactions to Political
           Scandal

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pierce D. Ekstrom, Marti Hope Gonzales, Allison L. Williams, Elliot Weiner, Rafael Aguilera
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated how individuals judge politicians embroiled in scandal. Drawing on social identity and realistic group conflict theory, we predicted that beyond an overall ingroup bias, partisans would be particularly forgiving of in-party politicians who denied or justified their misconduct rather than apologize for it. By insisting that they did nothing wrong, these politicians defend the public image of their party and signal their commitment to partisan goals. We find qualified support for this prediction across three experiments. Participants did not respond negatively to in-party politicians who apologized but did react more positively to those who denied or justified wrongdoing (relative to silence). These accounts worked only for in-party politicians and were more effective for those whose misconduct furthered their party’s agenda or whose seat was high-status or pivotal for party goals. In intergroup contexts like politics, people may accept explanations for misconduct that they would otherwise find offensive.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-05-06T12:34:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241247084
       
  • Managers Can Support Employees in Working-Class Contexts by Promoting
           Growth Mindsets

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      Authors: Inhyun Han, Peter Belmi, Melissa Thomas-Hunt, Catherine Summers
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      White-collar workplaces are critical “gateway” contexts. They play a crucial role in providing valuable opportunities and upward social mobility. Some groups are less likely, however, to feel they belong in these settings. For example, those with a college degree may feel relatively at ease. However, those without may be uncertain about whether they will be fully included. We examine one possibility for addressing these class-based belonging gaps. A growing education literature demonstrates the power of growth mindsets. We extend this research to the workplace and test its benefits. In two preregistered experiments (N = 1,777), we find that endorsing growth mindsets can support working-class (WK) individuals. When managers have a growth mindset, WK individuals report high sense of belonging. The effect occurred because managers with growth mindsets reduced identity threat. A preregistered survey of employees in the real world (N = 300) triangulated these findings. Sense of belonging was higher among those who believed their manager had a growth mindset. Furthermore, they reported greater job satisfaction and commitment. These findings have important implications for the growing conversation on addressing class divides.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-29T11:47:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241235625
       
  • Thank You for Changing: Gratitude Promotes Autonomous Motivation and
           Successful Partner Regulation

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      Authors: Natalie M. Sisson, Yoobin Park, Nickola C. Overall, Haeyoung Gideon Park, Matthew D. Johnson, Jennifer E. Stellar, Bonnie M. Le, Emily A. Impett
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Romantic partners often attempt to improve their relationship by changing each other’s traits and behaviors, but such partner regulation is often unsuccessful. We examined whether gratitude expressed by agents (i.e., partners requesting change) facilitates greater regulation success from targets (i.e., partners making change) by encouraging targets’ autonomous motivation. Across studies, including observational (Study 1, N = 111 couples), preregistered longitudinal (Study 2, N = 150 couples), and experimental (Study 3a, N = 431; Study 3b, N = 725) designs, agents’ gratitude for targets’ efforts was linked to greater targets’—and less consistently agents’—reported regulation success. These effects were consistently mediated by greater target autonomous motivation, and generally persisted when accounting for how agents communicated their change request and other positive responses to targets’ efforts (e.g., positivity and support). Gratitude for targets’ efforts appears to be an important tool for promoting change success.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-29T11:33:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241246211
       
  • The Privileges We Do and Do Not See: The Relative Salience of
           Interpersonal and Circumstantial Benefits

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      Authors: Julia M. Smith, Shai Davidai, Tom Gilovich
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People attend more to disadvantages in their lives than to advantages, a phenomenon known as the Headwinds/Tailwinds Asymmetry. In seven studies (N = 1,526), we present an important caveat to this pattern: When people do notice and acknowledge their advantages, they mostly focus on the benefits they receive from other people (i.e., interpersonal benefits), as opposed to benefits they receive because of their demographics, personal traits, and life circumstances (i.e., circumstantial benefits). We demonstrate that people notice and remember others who helped them rather than hurt them and that they notice the help they receive from people more than from favorable, non-interpersonal factors. Finally, we find that the tendency to notice interpersonal advantages is related to a social norm requiring people to acknowledge helpful others (but not other advantages) and that changing the salience of this norm affects people’s likelihood of acknowledging the support they have received from others.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-26T06:41:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241247083
       
  • Target Happiness Attenuates Perceivers’ Moral Condemnation of
           Prejudiced People

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hope Rose, Christopher A. Sanders, Chloe Willett, Laura A. King
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Five experiments (combined N = 4,915) tested the prediction that the moral boost of happiness would persist for social targets with moral failings. In Studies 1 and 2, White and Black participants, respectively, judged happy (versus unhappy) racist targets more morally good. In Study 3, happy (versus unhappy) racist targets were judged more morally good and less (more) likely to engage in racist (good) behavior. Behavioral expectations explained the link between happiness and moral evaluations. Study 4 replicated Studies 1 to 3 in the context of sexism. In Study 5, happy (versus unhappy) targets who engaged in racially biased behavior were evaluated as more morally good, and this effect was explained by behavioral forecasts. Happiness boosts attributions of moral goodness for prejudiced people and does so via expectations for future behavior. Future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-25T11:49:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241240160
       
  • Differential Behavioral Pathways Linking Personality to Leadership
           Emergence and Effectiveness in Groups

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tobias M. Härtel, Felix Hoch, Mitja D. Back
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This study integrates leadership process models with process models of personality and behavioral personality science to examine the behavioral–perceptual pathways that explain interpersonal personality traits’ divergent relation to group leadership evaluations. We applied data from an online group interaction study (N = 364) alternately assigning participants as leaders conducting brief tasks. We used four variable types to build the pathways in multiple mediator models: (a) Self-reported personality traits, (b) video recordings of expressed interpersonal behaviors coded by 6 trained raters, (c) interpersonal impressions, and (d) mutual evaluations of leadership emergence/effectiveness. We find interpersonal big five traits to differently relate to the two leadership outcomes via the behavioral-perceptual pathways: Extraversion was more important to leadership emergence due to impressions of assertiveness evoked by task-focused behavior being strongly valued. Agreeableness/emotional stability were more important to leadership effectiveness due to impressions of trustworthiness/calmness evoked by member-focused/calm behavior being stronger valued.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-24T10:21:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241246388
       
  • Relationships on a Pedestal: The Associations Between Relationship
           Pedestal Beliefs, Fear of Being Single, and Life Satisfaction in Single
           and Coupled Individuals

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      Authors: Brittany E. Dennett, Yuthika U. Girme
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The fear of being single can put people at risk for worse personal and relational well-being. The current research moves beyond individual-deficit models by exploring whether endorsement of relationship pedestal beliefs—the belief that people need to be in a relationship to be truly happy—is associated with greater fear of being single. Across four studies (N = 641 single individuals and 256 coupled individuals), single individuals’ endorsement of relationship pedestal beliefs was associated with greater fear of being single, and greater fear of being single was associated with lower daily life satisfaction (Studies 1–4). Coupled individuals’ endorsement of relationship pedestal beliefs was also associated with greater fear of being single, and greater fear of being single was associated with lower daily life and relationship satisfaction (Study 4). These findings highlight how people’s endorsement of societal beliefs that place relationships on a pedestal may contribute to fears about singlehood.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-24T10:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241239122
       
  • Perceived Power Polarizes Moral Evaluations

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      Authors: Russell Roberts, Alex Koch
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We show an interactive effect of perceiver-target similarity in ideological beliefs and target power on impressions of target morality. Consistent with prior research, perceivers rated targets with dissimilar ideologies as less moral than targets with similar ideologies, but this difference in ratings was magnified for powerful targets relative to less powerful targets. We argue that these results emerged because perceivers expected similar-ideology, powerful (vs. powerless) targets to help the self more, and expected dissimilar-ideology, powerful (vs. powerless) targets to hurt the self more. We establish this effect when people evaluate politicians (Study 1), groups, and individuals (Studies 2a-2b); demonstrate its predictive power over other kinds of interpersonal similarity; and show that it affects morality judgments uniquely when compared with other consequential dimensions of social evaluation. Finally, we manipulated power experimentally and showed the interaction when the difference between high- and low-power manipulations was controlled over just $1 (Studies 3-4).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-23T12:55:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241245181
       
  • Be the Change You Want to See: Intergroup Helping Reduces InGroup Bias and
           Facilitates OutGroup Bias in Trading Behaviors

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      Authors: Makenzie J. O’Neil, Ryan S. Hampton, Michelle N. Shiota
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research investigated how an instance of intergroup helping affects intergroup attitudes and cooperative behavior. Past research demonstrates that helping behavior elicits prosociality, both reciprocally and toward uninvolved third parties. However, much of this research has either ignored group membership altogether or has assumed a shared group identity between benefactor and beneficiary. Where intergroup helping has been directly evaluated, more negative intergroup attitudes are often observed. The current study examined the effects of an instance of intergroup helping, introduced during a card game, on the beneficiary’s attitudes of closeness and cooperative trading behavior as well as those of ingroup and outgroup witnesses to the helping act. Results from this well-powered study (N = 1,249) indicate that although intergroup helping is less likely to impact feelings of closeness, intergroup cooperative trading increases for both the beneficiary and the intergroup observers. These findings add to the understanding of how helping impacts intergroup relations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-17T12:28:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241242182
       
  • Weiner’s Attribution-Emotion-Action Model: Uncovering the Mediating Role
           of Self-Blame and the Moderating Effect of the Helper’s Responsibility
           for the Help Recipient’s Behavior

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      Authors: Elvin Yao, Jason T. Siegel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Seven preregistered experimental studies investigated a potential mediator (self-blame) and moderator (the perceived responsibility of the helper for the help recipient’s behavior) of Weiner’s attribution-emotion-action model. When participants considered a nonchild close other experiencing depression, higher perceived controllability was related to lower sympathy, which correlated with less willingness to provide support; however, among parents considering their child experiencing depression, perceived controllability was either positively associated with sympathy (study 1) or did not influence sympathy (study 2). Offering an explanation, studies 3a/3b indicated a significantly weaker relationship between controllability and responsibility attributions when the target of help was the participant’s child. Study 4 investigated the underlying mechanism. Parents experienced self-blame when the cause was controllable, which lowered the association between controllability and responsibility attributions. Studies 5 and 6 revealed this pattern was not specific to the parent–child relationship but occurred whenever the potential helper felt responsible for the help recipient’s behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-16T04:03:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241238132
       
  • Distributing Blame Among Multiple Entities When Autonomous Technologies
           Cause Harm

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      Authors: Ryan M. McManus, Catherine C. Mesick, Abraham M. Rutchick
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      As autonomous technology emerges, new variations in old questions arise. When autonomous technologies cause harm, who is to blame' The current studies compare reactions toward harms caused by human-controlled vehicles (HCVs) or human soldiers (HSs) to identical harms by autonomous vehicles (AVs) or autonomous robot soldiers. Drivers of HCVs, or HSs, were blamed more than mere users of AVs or HSs who outsourced their duties to ARSs. However, as human drivers/soldiers became less involved in (or were unaware of the preprogramming that led to) the harm, blame was redirected toward other entities (i.e., manufacturers and the tech company’s executives), showing the opposite pattern as human drivers/soldiers. Results were robust to how blame was measured (i.e., degrees of blame versus apportionment of total blame). Overall, this research furthers the blame literature, raising questions about why, how (much), and to whom blame is assigned when multiple agents are potentially culpable.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-13T09:13:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241238303
       
  • Intersectional Male-Centric and White-Centric Biases in Collective
           Concepts

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      Authors: April H. Bailey, Adina Williams, Aashna Poddar, Andrei Cimpian
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In principle, the fundamental concepts person, woman, and man should apply equally to people of different genders and races/ethnicities. In reality, these concepts might prioritize certain groups over others. Based on interdisciplinary theories of androcentrism, we hypothesized that (a) person is more associated with men than women (person = man) and (b) woman is more associated with women than man is with men (i.e., women are more gendered: gender = woman). We applied natural language processing tools (specifically, word embeddings) to the linguistic output of millions of individuals (specifically, the Common Crawl corpus). We found the hypothesized person = man / gender = woman bias. This bias was stronger about Hispanic and White (vs. Asian) women and men. We also uncovered parallel biases favoring White individuals in the concepts person, woman, and man. Western society prioritizes men and White individuals as people and “others” women as people with gender, with implications for equity across policy- and decision-making contexts.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-13T09:05:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241232114
       
  • People Reject Free Money and Cheap Deals Because They Infer Phantom Costs

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      Authors: Andrew J. Vonasch, Reyhane Mofradidoost, Kurt Gray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      If money is good, then shouldn’t more money always be better' Perhaps not. Traditional economic theories suggest that money is an ever-increasing incentivizer. If someone will accept a job for US$20/hr, they should be more likely to accept the same job for US$30/hr and especially for US$250/hr. However, 10 preregistered, high-powered studies (N = 4,205, in the United States and Iran) reveal how increasing incentives can backfire. Overly generous offers lead people to infer “phantom costs” that make them less likely to accept high job wages, cheap plane fares, and free money. We present a theory for understanding when and why people imagine these hidden drawbacks and show how phantom costs drive judgments, impact behavior, and intersect with individual differences. Phantom costs change how we should think about “economic rationality.” Economic exchanges are not merely about money, but instead are social interactions between people trying to perceive (and deceive) each others’ minds.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-08T11:11:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241235687
       
  • Taking Stock and Looking Forward to the Future of Pathogen Politics in
           Light of New Insights and Recommendations: COVID-19 Threat Was
           Meaningfully Associated With Support for Liberal Policies in the United
           States

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      Authors: Michael Edem Fiagbenu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Infectious disease outbreaks are expected to predict support for conservative policies. However, earlier studies (January–June, 2020) reached conflicting findings regarding the association between COVID-19 threat and policy preferences in the United States. We revisit this issue by analyzing five nationally representative surveys conducted during the relatively severe periods of the pandemic (August 2020–December, 2020; total N = 82,753). Using Bayesian inference, we find strong evidence that subjective (e.g., fear of infection and pandemic outrage) but not objective (e.g., local cases and deaths) threat predicted support for liberal policies (e.g., immigration and universal health care). Meta-analyses revealed that the estimates depend on the type of subjective (.05 ≥ r ≤ .60) or objective (.00 ≥ r ≤ .14) COVID-19 threat. We propose an emotion-mediated dual-process model of pathogen management suggesting that infectious disease outbreaks activate both avoidance and caregiving motives that translate, respectively, into support for right-wing and left-wing policies.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-04T07:03:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241240903
       
  • Ostracism Experiences of Sexual Minorities: Investigating Targets’
           Experiences and Perceptions by Others

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      Authors: Christiane M. Büttner, Selma C. Rudert, Sven Kachel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people face frequent discrimination, maltreatment, and violence for transgressing gender roles upheld in heteronormative societies. Ostracism (i.e., being excluded and ignored) is likely another, understudied form of discrimination against sexual minorities. In a multi-method approach using a nationally representative panel (N = 4104) and experience sampling data (N = 467, 14 days, k = 926 ostracism experiences), we find that LGB individuals report more ostracism experiences than straight individuals. In line with the idea that ostracism toward sexual minorities occurs as a function of gender role nonconformity, lesbians and gay men are rated by an independent rater sample as more likely to be ostracized (k = 10,760 ratings) when they are also rated as more lesbian/gay and less gender role conforming. Our findings speak in favor of ostracism as a discriminatory experience of LGB individuals that is driven by transgressions of heteronormativity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-04-03T12:51:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241240675
       
  • Attitude Formation in More- and Less-Complex Social Environments

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      Authors: Hans Alves, Vincent Yzerbyt, Christian Unkelbach
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate how the complexity of the social environment (more vs. less groups) influences attitude formation. We hypothesize that facing a larger number of groups renders learning processes about these groups noisier and more regressive, which has two important implications. First, more-complex social environments should lead perceivers to underestimate actual group differences. Second, because most people usually behave positively, more-complex social environments produce negatively biased attitudes and cause perceivers to overestimate the frequency of “negative” individuals among groups. We tested these predictions in five attitude formation experiments (N=2,414). Participants’ attitudes and learned base rates of positive and negative group members proved more regressive in complex social environments, that is, with multiple groups, compared with less-complex environments, that is, with fewer groups. In a predominantly positive social environment, this regression caused participants to form more negative group attitudes and more strongly overestimate negative individuals’ prevalence among groups.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-29T08:35:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241235387
       
  • Does Conceptual Abstraction Moderate Whether Past Moral Deeds Motivate
           Consistency or Compensatory Behavior' A Registered Replication and
           Extension of Conway and Peetz (2012)

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      Authors: Jareef Martuza, Olivia Kim
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A long-standing debate in psychology concerns whether doing something good or bad leads to more of the same or the opposite. Conway and Peetz proposed that conceptual abstraction moderates if past moral deeds lead to consistent or compensatory behavior. Although cited 384 times across disciplines, we did not find any direct replications. It was also unclear how increases or decreases from one’s baseline prosociality might underlie the effect. A large-scale experiment (N = 5,091) in the registered report format tested Conway and Peetz’s original hypothesis. The hypothesized interaction was not replicated: conceptual abstraction did not moderate the effect of recalling moral vs. immoral behavior on prosocial intentions. Our results show that recalling moral behavior led to higher prosocial intentions than recalling either immoral or neutral behavior, irrespective of recalling from the recent or distant past. Thus, the current research found no evidence for compensatory moral behavior, only for positive moral consistency.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-28T06:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241238420
       
  • On the Role of Police Shootings, Recognition of Systemic Racism, and
           Empathy on White Americans’ Support for Police Reform

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      Authors: Diane-Jo Bart-Plange, Sophie Trawalter
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The police kill Black Americans at disproportionate rates. Despite this, White Americans remain mixed on support for policing-related policy reform. We examined whether bearing witness to police violence leads to support for policy reforms. Across three studies (N = 943), White participants either viewed a news video about an unarmed Black man killed at the hands of police or in a car accident due to a collision with another driver. Participants lower but not higher in symbolic racism reported more empathy after viewing a police shooting (vs. car accident) news video (Studies 1–3). Empathy predicted policing-related policy reform support (Studies 1–3) and mediated the relationship between condition and policy reform support (Studies 1 and 3), among those lower in symbolic racism (Studies 1–2). Results suggest that empathy for Black victims of police violence predicts policy support but only among those who recognize that such violence is systemic in nature.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-28T06:35:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241237286
       
  • Investigating How High Perceived Economic Inequality Exacerbates
           Intergroup Competition, Zero-Sum Beliefs, and Perceived Intergroup
           Prejudice

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      Authors: Jaclyn A. Lisnek, Nava Caluori, Jazmin L. Brown-Iannuzzi, Shigehiro Oishi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Rising economic inequality is associated with more prejudice. Little empirical data, however, investigate how inequality affects individuals’ psychological processing and, in turn, exacerbates perceptions of prejudice in people’s geographic area. We hypothesized that higher perceived economic inequality triggers beliefs that unequal economies are zero-sum and leads to beliefs that people are in competition for limited resources, which may ultimately exacerbate perceived prejudice. Through nine experiments (Studies 1-5 in the manuscript and three additional studies in the Supplement), we provide evidence that higher perceived inequality increases perceived prejudice against a wide range of outgroups. Furthermore, zero-sum beliefs and perceived competition serially mediate this relationship (Studies 2 and 3). In Study 4, we investigate nuance in this hypothesized model by testing whether higher perceived economic inequality exacerbates perceived racial/ethnic prejudice among a large, diverse sample and find a similar pattern of results. Finally (Study 5), we demonstrate that assuaging competition beliefs mitigates perceived prejudice.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-28T06:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241234787
       
  • “Not Now, I Am Too Stressed”: Stress and Physical Intimacy in
           Early Marriage

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      Authors: Alyssa M. Sucrese, Lisa A. Neff, Marci E. J. Gleason
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Stressful events can disrupt couples’ emotional connection, yet prior research is mixed regarding whether stress also disrupts couples’ physical intimacy. This study considered whether stress must reach a critical threshold before hindering couples’ sexual activity and physical affection (i.e., a curvilinear association). Couples (N = 144 couples plus four additional wives) completed two 14-day daily diary tasks during the early years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed a within-person curvilinear association between daily stress and sexual activity. Contrary to expectations, the likelihood of sexual activity declined as stress increased from low to moderate, then leveled off as stress continued to increase. For physical affection, a linear effect emerged. On days of greater stress, women, but not men, reported less affection. Further analyses suggested that women’s stress is more influential than men’s stress for couple’s physical intimacy. Findings highlight the nuanced ways in which stress is linked to a vital component of satisfying relationships.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-26T05:57:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241239134
       
  • Economic Inequality Reduces Preferences for Competent Leaders

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      Authors: Feiteng Long, Zi Ye, Guohua Liu
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      It is well-documented that economic inequality can harm political stability and social cohesion. In six experiments (total N = 1,907) conducted in China and the United Kingdom, we tested our primary hypothesis that high (vs. low) economic inequality leads to voters’ reduced preferences for competent political leaders. Across studies, this prediction was consistently supported by experimental evidence, regardless of the voter’s social status. We also found that high (vs. low) economic inequality indirectly diminished preferences for competent political leaders through heightened perceptions that politicians were less inclined to care about the populace in a highly (vs. lowly) unequal societal context. In essence, our findings underscore the idea that economic inequality curtails voters’ preferences for competent political leaders by amplifying their concerns about politicians’ indifference to the populace. It also stresses the need for policies and practices to address economic inequality and maintain the vitality of democracy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-23T04:56:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241235381
       
  • Impacts of Unethical Behavior on Self-Esteem: A Contingent Dual-Process
           Model

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      Authors: Yuan Liang, Lingling Huang, Li Liu, Xuyun Tan, Deyun Ren
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have reported mixed findings on how and why unethical behavior affects self-esteem. To address this issue, a contingent dual-process model is proposed and tested. The model postulates a negative impact of unethical behavior on self-esteem through decreased morality, a positive effect through increased competence, and the relative strength of these two paths depending on system-justifying motives. Studies using unethical behavior for self-interest (Studies 1 and 2), involving ingroup interest (Study 3), and measuring (Studies 1 and 3) and manipulating general system justification (Study 2) provide support for the model. By identifying the effects of system-justifying motives and linking the two competing paths, the model reconciles inconsistencies in previous research regarding how self-esteem is influenced by unethical behavior and reveals the underlying mechanism of this association. Accordingly, the current research constructs a motivational and superordinate framework to clarify the dynamic consequences of unethical behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-20T10:04:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241236983
       
  • Nostalgia, Ritual Engagement, and Meaning in Life

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      Authors: Yige Yin, Tonglin Jiang, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Rituals are pervasive and beneficial. Little is known, however, about causes or antecedents of ritual engagement. We hypothesized that nostalgia—a sentimental longing for one’s past—promotes ritual engagement, which in turn augments meaning in life. We tested this hypothesis in five methodologically diverse studies. In Study 1 (N = 311), nostalgia was positively associated with ritual engagement. In Study 2 (N = 188), nostalgia promoted ritual engagement, and in Study 3 (N = 296), it did so over engagement in a neutral task. In Study 4 (N = 252), nostalgia predicted later ritual engagement but not vice versa, convergent with Studies 2 and 3. Furthermore, nostalgia prospectively predicted meaning in life through specific ritualistic behaviors during a traditional festival. Finally, in Study 5 (N = 166), experimentally manipulated ritual engagement augmented meaning in life. As hypothesized, nostalgia advances ritual engagement, contributing to a meaningful life.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-20T09:56:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241235740
       
  • Setting Appropriateness and Romantic Relationship Initiation Success

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      Authors: Katie N. Adams, Omri Gillath
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Does the setting in which a relationship initiation attempt occurs matter to its success' Identical initiations could yield differential success if enacted in different settings. Data from five independent samples highlight the role settings play in the perception of (hypothetical) relationship initiation attempts and (expectations of) their success. Study 1a sourced a wide variety of settings for real-world relationship initiations. A separate sample rated the identified settings on initiation appropriateness (Study 1b). Study 2 tested the appropriateness and associated outcomes of initiation settings while varying aspects of the interpersonal context (initiator attractiveness, Study 2a; initiator familiarity, Study 2b; sexual nature of proposition, Study 2c). Irrespective of initiator attractiveness, familiarity, or type of proposal, perceptions of initiations’ success were impacted by the settings’ appropriateness. This work is the first to empirically test whether perceptions and outcomes of initiation attempts differ as a function of the setting in which they occur.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-19T05:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241235739
       
  • Prototypes of Victims of Workplace Harassment

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      Authors: Ignazio Ziano, Evan Polman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What do people think of when they think of workplace harassment' In 13 pre-registered studies with French, British, and U.S. American adult participants (N = 3,892), we conducted a multi-method investigation into people’s social prototypes of victims of workplace harassment. We found people imagined such victims in physically, socially, psychologically, and economically different ways compared with non-victims: for example, as less attractive, more introverted, and paid less. In addition, we found ambiguous harassment leveled against a prototypical (vs. non-prototypical) victim was more likely to be classified as harassment, and perceived to cause the victim more psychological pain. As such, both lay-people and professionals wanted to punish harassers of victims who “fit the prototype” more. Notably, providing people with instructions to ignore a victim’s personal description and instead assess the harassment behavior did not reduce the prototype effect.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-16T11:04:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241235388
       
  • Volitional Change in Pathological Traits: Can People Change Their
           Maladaptive Traits'

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      Authors: Sierra M. Rufino, Nathan W. Hudson, Julia L. Briskin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests people want to change their normative personality traits—and they can volitionally do so. However, studies have not yet addressed volitional change in pathological personality. Consequently, the current study examined (a) people’s desires to change pathological traits, (b) whether these change goals predict subsequent trait change, (c) whether this withstands controlling normative traits, and (d) the extent to which pathological trait change predicts relevant outcomes. College students (N = 463) self-reported their pathological traits weekly for up to 16 weeks. People with elevated pathological traits generally desired to decrease these traits. Furthermore, goals to change negative affectivity and disinhibition predicted corresponding trait change. Thus, people want to reduce their pathological traits—and they may be able to do so for some traits.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-16T09:01:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241235737
       
  • On Creating Deeper Relationship Bonds: Felt Understanding Enhances
           Relationship Identification

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      Authors: Emilie Auger, Sabrina Thai, Carolyn Birnie-Porter, John E. Lydon
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Relational experiences play a critical role in shaping how individuals see themselves. In four studies (N=945) using person-perception, longitudinal, and experimental designs, we demonstrate that feeling understood changes individuals’ self-concept by increasing the centrality of a specific relationship (relationship identification). Study 1 showed that participants perceived an individual to be more identified with their relationship when their partner was high (vs. low) in understanding. Study 2 extended these results by examining individuals in romantic relationships longitudinally. The results of Studies 1 and 2 were distinct for understanding compared to acceptance and caring. Studies 3 and 4 manipulated felt understanding. Recalling many versus few understanding instances (Study 3) and imagining a close other being low versus high in understanding (Study 4) led individuals to feel less understood, which reduced identification in their friendships and romantic relationships. Furthermore, Study 4 suggests that coherence may be one mechanism through which felt understanding increases relationship identification.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-13T07:38:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241233419
       
  • When What Is Beautiful Is Not Good: The Role of Trait Self-Control in
           Resisting Eye Candy

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      Authors: Michelle R. vanDellen, William M. Schiavone, Julian W. C. Wright, Jerica X. Bornstein
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People are drawn to and like others who are physically attractive. In the present research, we investigated the influence of trait self-control on individuals’ interest in relationships with physically attractive others. We hypothesized that high (vs. low) self-control individuals would approach relationships by considering information beyond appearance about potential partners, including partners’ self-control. We additionally explored the influence of other traits (e.g., Big 5, self-esteem, and attachment styles) on relationship interest. Across studies, we consistently found that individuals with higher self-control avoided pursuing relationships with attractive individuals who display low self-control. In Study 3, we observed a similar pattern for three other traits: conscientiousness, extraversion, and positivity embracement. These results suggest perceivers’ self-control shapes relationship interest, particularly when attractive individuals possess less desirable qualities. The findings extend past research that attractiveness increases interest in others and highlights the potential for trait self-control to direct relationship interest during initial interactions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-12T05:25:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241235386
       
  • Populism, Economic Distress, Cultural Backlash, and Identity Threat:
           Integrating Patterns and Testing Cross-National Validity

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      Authors: Efisio Manunta, Maja Becker, Vivian L. Vignoles, Paul Bertin, Eleonora Crapolicchio, Camila Contreras, Alin Gavreliuc, Roberto González, Claudia Manzi, Thomas Salanova, Matthew J. Easterbrook
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Populism is on the rise across liberal democracies. The sociopsychological underpinnings of this increasing endorsement of populist ideology should be uncovered. In an online cross-sectional survey study among adult samples from five countries (Chile, France, Italy, Romania, and the United Kingdom; N = 9,105), we aimed to replicate an economic distress pattern in which relative deprivation and identity threat are associated with populism. We further tested a cultural backlash pattern—including perceived anomie, collective narcissism, and identity threat as predictors of populism. Multigroup structural equation models supported both economic distress and cultural backlash paths as predictors of populist thin ideology endorsement. In both paths, identity threat to belonging played a significant role as partial mediator. Furthermore, an integrative model showed that the two patterns were not mutually exclusive. These findings emphasize the implication of identity threat to belonging as an explanatory mediator and demonstrate the cross-national generalizability of these patterns.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-12T05:21:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241231727
       
  • Evaluating the Structure of Subjective Well-Being: Evidence From Three
           Large-Scale, Long-Term, National Longitudinal Studies

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      Authors: Michael A. Busseri
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      To inform the tripartite structure of subjective well-being (SWB), national longitudinal studies from the United States, Germany, and Australia were used to estimate random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPM) in which between- and within-individual variation in life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA) was examined over periods of up to two decades. The RI-CLPMs incorporated a hierarchical conceptualization in which LS, PA, and NA are indicators of a latent SWB factor and a causal systems conceptualization in which PA and NA are inputs to LS. Results from all three samples indicated substantial loadings from LS, PA, and NA on latent SWB factors between and within individuals. Cross-lagged effects were observed among all three SWB components, rather than unidirectional from PA and NA to LS. The present findings provide valuable new insights concerning the tripartite structure of SWB between and within individuals over extended periods of time.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-05T07:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241233433
       
  • Exploring Asymmetries in Self-Concept Change After Discrepant Feedback

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      Authors: Franziska Brotzeller, Mario Gollwitzer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Receiving self-relevant feedback that is discrepant from one’s self-concept can lead to self-concept change. However, it is currently unclear whether positive or negative feedback has a larger effect on self-concept change. Across four studies (total N = 1,438), we demonstrate that intentions for self-concept change (Study 1) as well as actual self-concept change (Studies 2, 3, and 4) are larger (a) for larger discrepancies between self-concept and feedback and (b) for negative compared to positive discrepancies. Exploring these effects further in Study 4, we find no evidence that the opportunity for improvement influences whether self-concept change is positively or negatively biased. In sum, the present research provides consistent evidence for a negativity bias in self-concept change, investigates a theoretical explanation, and discusses alternative explanatory approaches.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-05T07:13:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241232738
       
  • Following Prejudiced Behavior, Confrontation Restores Local Anti-Bias
           Social Norms

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      Authors: Anna Haoyang Li, Elisabeth S. Noland, Margo J. Monteith
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Does confronting, or calling out prejudiced statements or behaviors, signal anti-bias norms' The current studies (N = 1,308) examined this question by assessing observers’ perceptions of descriptive and injunctive anti-bias local norms after a prejudiced comment was confronted. Studies 1 and 2 revealed a restorative function of confrontation: Confrontation of bias expressed toward Mexican people strengthened non-Mexican participants’ perceptions of descriptive anti-bias local norms compared to leaving bias unconfronted and restored the perception of injunctive anti-bias local norms to baseline level (i.e., when no bias had occurred). Study 3 demonstrated that the norm-signaling function of confrontation is applicable to anti-Black bias among both Black and White participants. Moreover, observing confrontation of anti-Black bias boosted participants’ sense that their identity would be safe in the environment, mediated by their perceptions of anti-bias descriptive and injunctive norms. Together, these findings indicate that confrontation effectively transforms norms in the face of bias.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-03-05T07:00:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241229006
       
  • Personality Trait Change Across a Major Global Stressor

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      Authors: Kalista M. Kyle, Brett Q. Ford, Emily C. Willroth
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current research examined three related questions in a 21-month longitudinal study of a diverse sample of U.S. participants (N = 504): (a) How did Big Five traits change during the COVID-19 pandemic' (b) What factors were associated with individual differences in trait change' and (c) How was Big Five trait change associated with downstream well-being, mental health, and physical health' On average, across the 21-month study period, conscientiousness increased slightly, and extraversion decreased slightly. Individual trajectories varied around these average trajectories, and although few factors predicted these individual differences, greater increases in conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness, and greater decreases in neuroticism were associated better well-being and fewer mental and physical health symptoms. The present research provides evidence that traits can change in the context of a major global stressor and that socially desirable patterns of trait change are associated with better health.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-02-23T04:01:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241228624
       
  • Values in Context: The (Dis)connections Between Moral Foundations and
           Moral Conviction

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      Authors: Paul E. Teas, Brittany E. Hanson, Ana Leal, Lindsay M. Novak, Linda J. Skitka
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Moral foundations theory (MFT) argues that liberals and conservatives form different moral positions because liberals emphasize the values of harm and fairness, whereas conservatives emphasize the values of group loyalty, authority, and purity. In five studies (total N = 3,327), we investigated whether political orientation moderated the relationship between the perceived relevance of each moral foundation and moral conviction (i.e., the extent to which one perceives their attitude as based on morality) across four issues. Political differences in this relationship emerged but were inconsistent across issues and did not always align with the predictions of MFT or several other theoretical explanations. Our findings together with previous research indicate that MFT may do a better job predicting attitude position than it does predicting whether people perceive that their attitudes are moral convictions, and that some foundations may reflect conventional rather than moral values (e.g., authority).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T12:39:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231224992
       
  • Perceived Relational Support Is Associated With Everyday Positive, But Not
           Negative, Affectivity in a U.S. Sample

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      Authors: Virginia Ulichney, Helen Schmidt, Chelsea Helion
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that perceived social support bolsters emotional well-being. We tested whether perceived support from friends, family, and spouses/partners was associated with reduced negative and greater positive affectivity (i.e., everyday affective baseline), and whether perceived strain in these relationships had opposite effects, accounting for age and relevant covariates. Using data from the third waves of the Midlife in the United States survey and National Study of Daily Experience (n = 1,124), we found negative affectivity was not tied to relational support nor strain, but instead was associated positively with neuroticism and negatively with conscientiousness. In contrast, positive affectivity was related positively to support from friends and family, conscientiousness, and extroversion, and negatively to strain among partners and neuroticism. Exploratory analyses within second-wave Midlife in Japan data (n = 657) suggest patterns for future cross-cultural study. Some relationship dynamics may vary, but perceived support might enhance emotional well-being by bolstering positive, rather than mitigating negative, emotionality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T12:33:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231224991
       
  • Small Sample Size and Group Homogeneity: A Crucial Ingredient to
           Inter-Group Bias

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      Authors: Johannes Ziegler, Klaus Fiedler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Applying a recently developed framework for the study of sample-based person impressions to the level of group impressions resulted in convergent evidence for a highly robust judgment process. How stimulus traits mapped on the resulting group impressions was subject to two distinct moderators, diagnosticity of traits, and the amplifying impact of early sample truncation. Three indices of diagnosticity—negative valence, extremity, and distance to other traits in a density framework—determined participants’ decision to truncate trait sampling early and hence the final group judgments. When trait samples were negative and extreme and when the distance between high-density traits was small, early truncation of the trait samples fostered high group homogeneity and polarized impressions. Granting that mental representations of in-groups and out-groups rely on systematically different samples, our sampling approach can account for various inter-group biases: out-group homogeneity, out-group polarization and (because negative traits are more diagnostic) out-group derogation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T12:26:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231223335
       
  • Secrecy in Everyday Life

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      Authors: Valentina Bianchi, Katharine H. Greenaway, Ella K. Moeck, Michael L. Slepian, Elise K. Kalokerinos
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Secrecy is common, yet we know little about how it plays out in daily life. Most existing research on secrecy is based on methods involving retrospection over long periods of time, failing to capture secrecy “in the wild.” Filling this gap, we conducted two studies using intensive longitudinal designs to present the first picture of secrecy in everyday life. We investigated momentary contextual factors and individual differences as predictors of mind-wandering to and concealing secrets. Contextual factors more consistently predicted secrecy experiences than person-level factors. Feeling more negative about a secret predicted a greater likelihood of mind-wandering to the secret. Interacting with the secret target was linked with a greater likelihood of secret concealment. Individual differences were not consistently associated with mind-wandering to secrets. We conclude that daily experiences with secrets may be better predicted by momentary feelings rather than individual differences such as personality traits.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T11:49:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672241226560
       
  • Personality and Well-Being Across and Within Relationship Status

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      Authors: Elaine Hoan, Geoff MacDonald
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Trends of increasing singlehood call for understanding of well-being correlates across and within relationship status. While personality is a major predictor of well-being, descriptive trait profiles of singles have not been developed. In the present research (N = 1,811; 53% men; Mage = 29), single and partnered individuals completed measures of personality and well-being, including life, relationship status, and sexual satisfaction. Results revealed effects whereby single individuals were lower in extraversion and conscientiousness but higher in neuroticism. Additional facet analyses showed that singles were lower across all extraversion facets, but specifically lower in productiveness (conscientiousness facet) and higher in depression (neuroticism facet). Largely, personality was associated with well-being similarly for single and partnered people. Furthermore, relationship status accounted for variance in well-being above and beyond personality traits. Our results suggest individual differences in personality could play an important role in understanding well-being’s link with relationship status.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T11:44:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231225571
       
  • How Do Invested Partners Become Invested' A Prospective Investigation of
           Fledgling Relationship Development

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      Authors: Samantha Joel, Laura Machia
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Investment—the feeling that one has put considerable resources into a relationship—is theorized to play a key role in relationship persistence. Yet, the development of investment is not well-understood. We recruited 256 individuals in new dating relationships and surveyed them each week for up to 25 weeks. This design allows us to test underlying theoretical assumptions about how people become invested in new dating partners. Some assumptions, such as the idea that investment increases over time, were confirmed. Other assumptions were not supported: Feelings of investment were quite high after only a few weeks of dating and were not strongly shaped by concrete relationship milestones. Rather, feelings of investment were strongly linked to other subjective indicators of relationship development, such as feeling attached to the partner and believing that the relationship had a good future. We discuss the implications of these findings for existing models of investment.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T11:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231224351
       
  • Longitudinal Changes in Chinese Prosociality

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      Authors: Sijing Chen, Shasha Yang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents three studies using data from the World Values Survey, 128 published studies, and China Family Panel Studies to comprehensively examine the longitudinal dynamics of Chinese prosociality, encompassing prosocial attitudes, tendencies, and behaviors, with the overarching goal of shedding light on the evolving nature of prosociality in the Chinese context. These studies reveal a consistent pattern, illustrating a decline followed by a resurgence in all three aspects, with a nadir around 2014. In addition, the study investigates the intricate relationship between economic inequality, prosocial behavior, and prosocial attitudes. The findings suggest that while economic inequality significantly relates to prosocial behavior, it does not entirely explain its fluctuations. Prosocial attitudes partially mediate the connection between economic inequality and prosocial behavior. These insights suggest that addressing inequality could contribute to a more conducive social environment for societal-level prosociality. However, further research is imperative to explore additional determinants of prosociality shifts.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-31T07:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231225367
       
  • Need Support and Need Thwarting: A Meta-Analysis of Autonomy, Competence,
           

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      Authors: Joshua L. Howard, Gavin R. Slemp, Xiao Wang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In this meta-analysis, we review the nomological networks of six need-supportive and need-thwarting categories, as defined by self-determination theory (SDT), and as they apply to students in educational contexts. We conducted a synthesis of 8693 correlations from 637 samples (N = 388,912). A total of 72 covariates were examined, resulting in 183 meta-analytic effects reported. Results indicate that teachers and parents who experience psychological need satisfaction and well-being are seen as more supportive. Supportive teacher behaviors correlated positively with a range of desired student outcomes, including performance, engagement, and well-being. Thwarting behaviors tended to display the opposite pattern. Our results are consistent with the theoretical expectations of SDT, yet questions remain concerning the incremental validity of these constructs. We highlight the need for further research on (a) factors that cause teachers to provide support and (b) the specific behaviors within each category to distinguish these categories and increase practical utility.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-31T07:32:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231225364
       
  • Prepare to Compare: Effects of an Intervention Involving Upward and
           Downward Social Comparisons on Goal Pursuit in Daily Life

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      Authors: Kathi Diel, Wilhelm Hofmann, Sonja Grelle, Lea Boecker, Malte Friese
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In a preregistered ecological momentary intervention study, we alternately instructed participants to adopt an upward and downward comparison focus. In all, 349 participants reported 8,137 social comparison situations across 6 days and three comparison conditions (baseline, upward, downward). For each comparison, participants reported social comparison direction, motivation, effort intentions, and emotions in five daily reports and one daily end-of-day summary. As predicted, an upward comparison focus resulted in more self-improvement motivation (pushing) and more negative emotions, whereas days with a downward comparison focus resulted in decreased motivation (coasting) but more positive emotions (vs. baseline). However, at the end of the day, people experienced lower goal approach on upward but higher goal approach on downward comparison days. Hence, engaging in strategic upward comparison was motivating in the short term but resulted in surprisingly opposite effects at the end of the day. We offer possible explanations from cognitive and motivational perspectives.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-30T12:55:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231219378
       
  • Nostalgia and Health: A Longitudinal Network Analysis of Different
           Nostalgic Experiences

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      Authors: Kuan-Ju Huang, Raphael Uricher
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The study examines the long-term dynamics of the relationship between nostalgia and health using a population-based longitudinal sample in the Netherlands (N = 958). We identified five types of nostalgia—Home, Peers and shared experiences, Emotional security, Innocence, and Leisure and media—and explored their relationships with health using network analyses. We found bidirectional relationships between nostalgia and health over a 1-year interval. Self-rated health and mental health negatively predicted nostalgia centered on Peers and shared experiences, Emotional security, and Innocence. Nostalgia, especially Emotional security and Innocence, negatively predicted self-rated health and mental health. The effects were further moderated by age. Cross-lagged relationships from nostalgia to health were found in younger but not older adults, while relationships from health to nostalgia were found primarily among older adults. In sum, we demonstrate the importance of considering age and type of nostalgia when exploring long-term relationships between nostalgia and health.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-30T11:02:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231226373
       
  • Order Matters When Using Two-Sided Messages to Influence Morally Based
           Attitudes

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      Authors: Mengran Xu, Richard E. Petty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Contrary to common beliefs, sometimes downplaying or even undermining one’s case can enhance impact, especially for people with strong attitudes. Across four studies (N = 1,548), we demonstrate that the placement of the undermining information within a two-sided message matters. By manipulating message order within a two-sided message, Study 1 showed that the relative effectiveness of two- over one-sided messages for people with a moral attitude primarily occurred when the two-sided message acknowledged the recipient’s side at the end rather than at the beginning of the message. Studies 2A/B showed that this effect was associated with positive source perceptions, such that placing the acknowledgment at the end results in people with a higher moral basis perceiving the source as more thoughtful and sincere. Furthermore, this inference process was more likely to occur when motivation to think was relatively high. Study 3, a preregistered experiment, replicated these findings using a different topic.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-29T01:28:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231223308
       
  • Did Descriptive and Prescriptive Norms About Gender Equality at Home
           Change During the COVID-19 Pandemic' A Cross-National Investigation

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      Authors: Franziska Magdalena Saxler, Angela R. Dorrough, Laura Froehlich, Katharina Block, Alyssa Croft, Loes Meeussen, Maria Olsson, Toni Schmader, Carolin Schuster, Sanne van Grootel, Colette Van Laar, Ciara Atkinson, Tessa Benson-Greenwald, Andreea Birneanu, Vladimira Cavojova, Sapna Cheryan, Albert Lee Kai Chung, Ivan Danyliuk, Ilan Dar-Nimrod, Soledad de Lemus, Amanda Diekman, Léïla Eisner, Lucía Estevan-Reina, Denisa Fedáková, Alin Gavreliuc, Dana Gavreliuc, Adriana Germano, Tabea Hässler, Levke Henningsen, Keiko Ishii, Eva Kundtová Klocová, Inna Kozytska, Clara Kulich, Christina Lapytskaia Aidy, Wilson López López, James Morandini, TamilSelvan Ramis, Carolin Scheifele, Jennifer Steele, Melanie C. Steffens, Laura María Velásquez Díaz, Mar Venegas, Sarah E. Martiny
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Using data from 15 countries, this article investigates whether descriptive and prescriptive gender norms concerning housework and child care (domestic work) changed after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results of a total of 8,343 participants (M = 19.95, SD = 1.68) from two comparable student samples suggest that descriptive norms about unpaid domestic work have been affected by the pandemic, with individuals seeing mothers’ relative to fathers’ share of housework and child care as even larger. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of the pandemic on descriptive norms about child care decreased with countries’ increasing levels of gender equality; countries with stronger gender inequality showed a larger difference between pre- and post-pandemic. This study documents a shift in descriptive norms and discusses implications for gender equality—emphasizing the importance of addressing the additional challenges that mothers face during health-related crises.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-29T01:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231219719
       
  • Defend, Deny, Distance, and Dismantle: A New Measure of Advantaged
           Identity Management

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      Authors: Eric Shuman, Martijn van Zomeren, Tamar Saguy, Eric Knowles, Eran Halperin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The experience of privilege can trigger psychological conflict among advantaged group members. Nonetheless, little work has explored strategies that advantaged group members use to manage their identities as privileged actors. Building on Knowles et al.’s framework and theories of intergroup relations, we address the conceptualization and measurement of advantaged group identity-management strategies. We aim to refine theorizing and validate a measure of these strategies across three contexts (U.S.’s White-Black relations, Israel’s Jewish-Arab/Palestinian relations, and U.S.’s gender relations). This process yielded two novel conceptual and empirical contributions. First, we add a strategy—defend—in which advantaged-group members overtly justify inequality. Second, we discover that distancing has two facets (distancing from inequality and from identity). Across six studies, we find support for our proposed factor structure, measurement invariance, and construct validity. We discuss how advantaged groups contend with privilege and offer a tool for studying these strategies across domains and contexts.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-29T01:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231216769
       
  • The SAFE Model: State Authenticity as a Function of Three Types of Fit

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      Authors: Audrey Aday, Yingchi Guo, Smriti Mehta, Serena Chen, William Hall, Friedrich M. Götz, Constantine Sedikides, Toni Schmader
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The SAFE model asserts that state authenticity stems from three types of fit to the environment. Across two studies of university students, we validated instruments measuring self-concept, goal, and social fit as unique predictors of state authenticity. In Study 1 (N = 969), relationships between fit and state authenticity were robust to controlling for conceptually similar and distinct variables. Using experience sampling methodology, Study 2 (N = 269) provided evidence that fit and authenticity co-vary at the state (i.e., within-person) level, controlling for between-person effects. Momentary variation in each fit type predicted greater state authenticity, willingness to return to the situation, and state attachment to one’s university. Each fit type was also predicted by distinct contextual features (e.g., location, activity, company). Supporting a theorized link to cognitive fluency, situations eliciting self-concept fit elicited higher working memory capacity and lower emotional burnout. We discuss the implications of fit in educational contexts.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-28T01:21:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231223597
       
  • Children Value Animals More Than Adults Do: A Conceptual Replication and
           Extension

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      Authors: Mariola Paruzel-Czachura, Maximilian Maier, Roksana Warmuz, Matti Wilks, Lucius Caviola
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Recent psychological research finds that U.S. American children have a weaker tendency than U.S. American adults to value humans more than animals. We aimed to conceptually replicate and extend this finding in a preregistered study (N = 412). We investigated whether 6- to 9-year-old Polish children (Study 1a) are less likely to prioritize humans over animals than Polish adults are (Studies 1b and 1c). We presented participants with moral dilemmas where they had to prioritize either humans or animals (dogs or chimpanzees) in situations that involved harming (i.e., a trolley problem) or benefiting (i.e., giving a snack). We found that Polish children prioritized humans over animals less than Polish adults did. This was the case both in dilemmas that involved preventing harm and in dilemmas that involved providing snacks. Both children and adults prioritized humans over chimpanzees more than humans over dogs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-09T12:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231219391
       
  • Liking Predicts Judgments of Authenticity in Real-Time Interactions More
           Robustly Than Personality States or Affect

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      Authors: Grace N. Rivera, Jinhyung Kim, Nicholas J. Kelley, Joshua Hicks, Rebecca J. Schlegel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We conducted three studies involving small group interactions (N = 622) that examined whether Big Five personality states, affect, and/or liking predict judgments of others’ authenticity. Study 1 (n = 119) revealed that neither self-rated personality states nor affect predicted other-rated authenticity. Instead, other-rated liking was the only predictor of other-rated authenticity. Study 2 (n = 281) revealed that other-rated personality states and affect were significant predictors of other-rated authenticity, but other-rated liking was a more important factor in predicting other-rated authenticity than specific behaviors or affect. Based on these results, Study 3 (n = 222) examined whether experimental manipulation of likability had a causal effect on other-ratings of authenticity. Likable actors were indeed judged as more authentic. Together, this suggests that we judge people we like as more authentic and that likability may be more important than the “objective” content of behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-09T12:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231218758
       
  • Defensiveness Toward IAT Feedback Predicts Willingness to Engage in
           Anti-Bias Behaviors

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      Authors: Nicole Lofaro, Louis H. Irving, Kate A. Ratliff
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People who are more defensive about their feedback on the Race-Attitudes Implicit Association Test (IAT) are less willing to engage in anti-bias behaviors. Extending on this work, we statistically clarified defensiveness constructs to predict willingness to engage in anti-bias behaviors among people who received pro-White versus no-bias IAT feedback. We replicated the finding that U.S. Americans are generally defensive toward pro-White IAT feedback, and that more defensiveness predicts less willingness to engage in anti-bias behaviors. However, people who believed their pro-White IAT feedback was an inaccurate reflection of their “true attitudes” were more willing to engage in anti-bias behaviors compared with people who received no-bias IAT feedback. These results better illuminate the defensiveness construct suggesting that receiving self-threatening feedback about bias may motivate people’s willingness to engage in anti-bias behaviors in different ways depending on how people respond to that feedback.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-05T12:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231219948
       
  • Effort Expenditure Increases Risk-Taking for Improbable Rewards

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      Authors: Huiping Jiang, Ya Zheng
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have found that exerting effort can lead people to engage in risk-taking behaviors. While effort can be either cognitive or physical, risk-taking can take place in either a risky context with known outcome probabilities or an ambiguous context with unknown outcome probabilities. The goal of the current research is to investigate how effort type and decision context influence risk-taking after effort exertion. Across three experiments, we find evidence that investing effort increases risk-taking at a short timescale. Importantly, this effect is particularly noticeable when the chance of winning is low, rather than when it is uncertain. Furthermore, the increase in risk-taking happens regardless of whether the effort is cognitive or physical. These findings suggest the existence of a cost-invariant but decision context-variant mechanism for the risk-taking after-effect of effort expenditure, which helps to bring the negative emotions caused by effort exertion back to a state of emotional homeostasis.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2024-01-05T06:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231218746
       
  • Reverence and Reciprocity in Prioritization of Care to a Parent: The Role
           of Cultural Ecologies and Implications for Decolonizing Relationality

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      Authors: Xian Zhao, Glenn Adams, Dongyu Li, Darlingtina Esiaka
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Relationship research in the dominant psychological science portrays the prioritization of conjugal over consanguine relationships as a healthy standard. We argue that this “standard” pattern is only evident in cultural ecologies of independence. Drawing on the Confucian concept of filial piety, we conducted five studies and two mini meta-analyses to normalize the prioritization of mother over spouse. Cultural ecologies were operationalized by a variety of indexes, including histories of residential mobility, country, manipulated relational/residential mobility, and race. While participants situated in cultural ecologies of independence prioritized care to spouse over mother, participants inhabited in interdependence prioritized care to mother over spouse. Both American and Chinese participants showed greater prioritization of care for mother over spouse when they imagined a relational ecology of interdependence versus independence. Authoritarian filial piety mediated cultural-ecological variation on relational prioritization. Results illuminate cultural-ecological foundations of care and naturalize love as dutiful fulfillment of obligation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-29T11:38:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231218341
       
  • Local Legislation is Associated With Regional Transgender Attitudes

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      Authors: Eliane Roy, Eric Hehman, Jordan Axt
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Using a newly developed measure of implicit transgender attitudes, we investigate the association between state-level antitransgender policies and individual-level attitudes about transgender people among residents. In a large sample of U.S. participants (N = 211,133), we find that individuals living in states with more discriminatory policies against transgender people (e.g., not allowing changes to one’s gender identity on official identity papers) exhibited more negative implicit and explicit transgender attitudes. This pattern held after controlling for participant race and gender, as well as when looking only at cisgender participants. These findings extend prior work concerning how intergroup biases relate to regional characteristics such as legislation and do so in a novel and consequential context. This research also informs ongoing work concerning the role of policy-making and social norms on the development and expression of intergroup prejudice.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-28T12:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231218340
       
  • New Wine in an Old Bottle' Exposure to Bullying-Related Media and Bullying
           Perpetration Behavior in Daily Life Among Adolescents

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      Authors: Zhaojun Teng, Qian Nie, Meg Stomski, Chuanjun Liu, Cheng Guo
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although the effect of media violence on aggression has garnered major attention, little is known about the link between bullying-related media exposure and bullying behaviors. Across three studies, we examined this association among Chinese adolescents. Study 1 used a large sample of adolescents (n=10,391, 51.4% boys) to investigate the link between bullying-related media exposure and bullying perpetration. Using another adolescent sample (n=3,125, 49.5% boys), Study 2 replicated the findings from Study 1 and extended the investigation from traditional bullying to cyberbullying perpetration. Study 3 examined the longitudinal associations between bullying-related media exposure and (cyber)bullying perpetration 6 months later (n = 2,744, 47.0% boys). The results suggested a positive, albeit small, association between exposure to bullying-related media and (cyber)bullying perpetration. Importantly, personal anti-bullying attitudes moderated this link, with a significant association observed among adolescents holding weak anti-bullying attitudes. Findings are discussed with respect to the media’s effect on bullying behaviors.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-26T10:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231218047
       
  • Shorter Goals for the Faster Life: Childhood Unpredictability Is
           Associated With Shorter Motivational Time Horizons

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      Authors: José L. Martínez, Jon K. Maner
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Models of adaptive calibration provide an overarching theoretical framework for understanding the developmental roots of psychological and behavioral outcomes in adulthood. An adaptive calibration framework was used to examine an important dimension of motivation: goal timing. Across two studies, we saw mixed support for the hypothesis that unpredictability experienced in childhood would be negatively associated with the time horizons people use to set their goals, such that people who reported experiencing more unpredictability in their childhood tended to set goals on relatively shorter time horizons. The association was observed based on independent ratings of goal timing, but not based on participants’ self-reported ratings of goal timing, and was statistically mediated by people’s tendency to consider the short- versus long-term future consequences of their actions. These studies isolate a key component of childhood adversity—unpredictability—potentially underlying the time horizons people use to set, prioritize, and pursue their goals.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-26T10:42:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231216821
       
  • All You Nonconformists Are (Not) All Alike: Dissociable Social Stereotypes
           of Mavericks and Contrarians

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      Authors: Brian W. Haas, W. Keith Campbell, Xiaobin Lou, Rowena J. Xia
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      While some people easily align themselves with others, others find themselves less aligned with sociocultural norms (e.g., nonconformists). Though people outside the mainstream tend to capture societies’ attention, very little known is regarding how nonconformists are construed. In these studies, we investigated how different types of nonconformists are stereotyped. We sought to elucidate common and dissociable social stereotypes of two types of nonconformity; mavericks and contrarians, driven toward independence versus being different, respectively. We found that mavericks are construed as highly competent and conscientious, well suited for leadership roles, and more likely to be male, older, and satisfied with their life. Contrarians are construed as highly social, low in warmth and agreeableness, highly neurotic, well suited for roles involving creativity and self-expression, and more likely to be female, younger, and less satisfied with their lives. We situate these findings within models linking cultural context with conformity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-24T01:02:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231217630
       
  • Racialized Sexism: Nonverbal Displays of Power in Workplace Settings are
           Evaluated as More Masculine When Displayed by White (vs. Black) Women With
           Implications for the Expression of Ambivalent Sexism

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      Authors: Quang-Anh Ngo Tran, Erin Cooley, Jaclyn A. Lisnek, Jazmin L. Brown-Iannuzzi, William Cipolli
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We hypothesized that White (vs. Black) women in high- (vs. low-) power poses would be evaluated as particularly masculine and unfeminine due to greater perceived violations of gendered racial stereotypes. As predicted, White (vs. Black) women in high- (but not low-) power poses were evaluated as more masculine and less feminine (Studies 1-3). Moreover, greater perceived masculinity of White (vs. Black) women in high-power poses predicted more hostile sexism; and, lesser perceived femininity of White (vs. Black) women predicted less benevolent sexism. Finally, these associations between masculinity/hostile sexism and femininity/benevolent sexism serially mediated reduced hiring desirability of White (vs. Black) women (Study 2). Study 3 replicated these serial indirect effects and found that these effects emerged regardless of job status and even when controlling for socially desirable responding. We conclude that gendered racism leads sexism to be expressed toward White and Black women embodying power in distinct ways.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-21T05:56:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231216041
       
  • The Humor Advantage: Humorous Bragging Benefits Job Candidates and
           Entrepreneurs

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      Authors: Jieun Pai, Eileen Y. Chou, Nir Halevy
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      From job candidates to entrepreneurs, people often face an inherent tension between the need to share personal accomplishments and the need to avoid appearing arrogant. We propose that humorbragging—incorporating self-enhancing humor into self-promoting communications—can signal warmth and competence simultaneously, leading to instrumental benefits. Four studies explored humorbragging as a potential solution to the self-promotion paradox. Study 1 demonstrated that a humorbragging (vs. self-promoting) resume attracted more hiring interest from recruiters. Study 2 showed that perceived warmth and competence mediate the positive effect of humorbragging on hiring intentions. Study 3 found that humorbragging entrepreneurs achieved greater success securing funding compared to entrepreneurs who used other kinds of humor. Finally, Studies 4a to 4c established that the positive effect of humorbragging on hiring intentions is unique to self-enhancing humor. Overall, the current research establishes the instrumental benefits of humorbragging and explains why and when it functions as an effective impression management strategy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-21T05:51:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231214462
       
  • Studying Daily Social Interaction Quantity and Quality in Relation to
           Depression Change: A Multi-Phase Experience Sampling Study

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      Authors: Timon Elmer, Nilam Ram, Andrew T. Gloster, Laura F. Bringmann
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Day-to-day social life and mental health are intertwined. Yet, no study to date has assessed how the quantity and quality of social interactions in daily life are associated with changes in depressive symptoms. This study examines these links using multiple-timescale data (iSHAIB data set; N = 133), where the level of depressive symptoms was measured before and after three 21-day periods of event-contingent experience sampling of individuals’ interpersonal interactions (T = 64,112). We find weak between-person effects for interaction quantity and perceiving interpersonal warmth of others on changes in depressive symptoms over the 21-day period, but strong and robust evidence for overwarming—a novel construct representing the self-perceived difference between one’s own and interaction partner’s level of interpersonal warmth. The findings highlight the important role qualitative aspects of social interactions may play in the progression of individuals’ depressive symptoms.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-15T05:22:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231211469
       
  • Are Members of Political Out-Groups More Morally or Physically
           Disgusting'

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      Authors: Tal Moran, Tal Eyal
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research has found that Americans are disgusted by anonymous members of their political out-group. Determining whether the disgust elicited by political out-group members is more physical or moral may contribute to the understating of what enables its elicitation and regulation. Building on research showing the experience of moral disgust involves relatively abstract construal and the experience of physical disgust involves relatively concrete construal, we predicted that disgust experienced toward political out-group members is more moral than physical. Two preregistered experiments (total N=854) found that (a) the effect of level of construal on the intensity of disgust from political out-group members is more similar to the effect of level of construal on moral disgust than on physical disgust, and (b) the appraisal underlying disgust from political out-group members involves more abstract than concrete construal, similar to moral disgust. We discuss implications of these findings for intergroup relations and emotion regulation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-14T09:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231213127
       
  • A Tale of Two Tweets: What Factors Predict Forgiveness of Past
           Transgressions on Social Media'

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      Authors: Andrew J. Dawson, Sarah Williams, Anne E. Wilson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      As more of our lives take place online, it is increasingly common for public figures to have their current image tarnished by their mistakes and transgressions in what is often the distant past. Three experiments (N = 2,296) found that judgments of a public figure who tweeted racist statements in the past were less harsh when more time had passed and when the public figure was younger at the time of the tweet. However, politics also played a powerful role. Independent of time and age, liberals allowed less possibility of redemption for anti-Black tweets, while conservatives were less forgiving for anti-White tweets. Such partisan differences extended not only to moral judgments of the individual, but also general moral principles and participants’ subjective perceptions of the situation itself, including subjective temporal distance from the tweet, the subjective age of the public figure, and the current relevance of the past statements.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-12T09:08:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231214629
       
  • A Comprehensive Aspect-Level Approach to the Personality Micro-Foundations
           of Foreign Policy Attitudes

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      Authors: Fabricio H. Chagas-Bastos
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We analyze in this article the effects of personality on attitudes toward foreign policy through a comprehensive aspect-level approach. We claim that previous observed null domain-level effects are the product of the aspect-level effects of opposing signs. By and large, we show that some personality effects are of comparable size or bigger than demographics studied in the literature, and that some of these effects are unique and independent of demographic covariates. Our results show that openness, orderliness, and compassion render people to be more supportive of cooperation. Assertiveness is the primary driver of support for the use of military force, whereas politeness and withdrawal ground reverse effects. Volatility roots isolationism postures, whereas industriousness, enthusiasm, and compassion show strong opposing effects. Moving beyond the Big Five personality domain approach provides us with a deeper and more nuanced understanding of how personality is associated with attitudes toward international issues.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-07T11:18:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231213899
       
  • When Future Leads to a Moral Present: Future Self-Relatedness Predicts
           Moral Judgments and Behavior in Everyday Life

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      Authors: Andrej Simić, Simona Sacchi, Marco Perugini
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Future self-perceptions seem to promote far-sighted decisions in intertemporal choices. Previous work suggested that future self-relatedness, the extent to which we feel similar and connected to our future self, is associated with moral concerns. We aimed to extend these findings to everyday moral judgments and behavior using experience sampling methods. In addition, we assessed how moral foundation concerns mediate the relationship between future self-relatedness and moral behavior. Participants (N = 151) reported their state-levels of future self-relatedness, individualizing, and binding moral foundations and answered whether they performed a moral action five times a day for seven days. Within- and between-participants future self-relatedness predicted daily fluctuations in individualizing and binding moral foundations concerns. On the behavioral level, only within-participants future self-relatedness predicted individualizing moral actions with individualizing moral foundations mediating this effect. Our findings suggest that within- and between-person changes in future self-relatedness might be used to predict everyday moral concerns and behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-06T08:56:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231211128
       
  • Motivated Knowledge Acquisition: Implicit Self-Theories and the Preference
           for Knowledge Breadth or Depth

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      Authors: Cammy Crolic, Joshua J. Clarkson, Ashley S. Otto, Mary C. Murphy
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Implicit self-theories posit that individuals ascribe to one of two beliefs regarding the self: an incremental theory motivated by learning goals and an entity theory motivated by performance goals. This work proposes that these theories—and their underlying motivations—reflect individuals’ preferences for different knowledge types. Specifically, we propose that incremental theorists prefer knowledge that expands their understanding of diverse experiences within a category (i.e., knowledge breadth), whereas entity theorists prefer knowledge that refines their understanding of a preferred experience within a category (i.e., knowledge depth). Five studies show the effect of implicit self-theories on individuals’ preferences for knowledge breadth and depth and the role of learning and performance goals in motivating these knowledge preferences. We address alternative explanations related to general openness, risk-seeking, and perceived quality differences, and we demonstrate the role of negative feedback in reversing these knowledge preferences.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-04T10:57:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231211635
       
  • Workplace Objectification Leads to Self-Harm: The Mediating Effect of
           Depressive Moods

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      Authors: Yuwan Dai, Tonglin Jiang, Wangchu Gaer, Kai-Tak Poon
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In the current research, we aimed to extend the literature on workplace objectification and contribute to employees’ well-being by exploring whether and how workplace objectification increases self-harm as well as the coping strategy that may weaken the effect. Employing archive data analytic, correlational, longitudinal, and experimental designs, we found that workplace objectification was associated with, or led to, self-harm, irrespective of whether such actions provided an escape from work. This effect could not be simply ascribed to the negative nature of workplace objectification. We further found that depressive moods mediated this effect. The detrimental effect of workplace objectification on self-harm was lessened when employees perceived higher alternatives in life. Theoretical and managerial implications were discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-12-04T10:56:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231213898
       
  • What Comes First, Acculturation or Adjustment' A Longitudinal
           Investigation of Integration Versus Mental Resources Hypotheses

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      Authors: Marina M. Doucerain, Catherine E. Amiot, Tomas Jurcik, Andrew G. Ryder
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A focal point in the acculturation literature is the so-called “integration hypothesis,” whereby integration (high mainstream cultural engagement and heritage cultural maintenance) is associated with higher psychosocial adjustment, compared to other strategies. Yet, the vast majority of this literature is cross-sectional, raising questions about how best to understand associations between integration and adjustment. Does greater integration lead to greater psychosocial adjustment, as proposed by the integration hypothesis' Or is it the other way around, with more adjustment leading to greater integration, consistent with what we name the “mental resources hypothesis'” This study tests these 2 competing hypotheses in a 4-wave longitudinal study of 278 international students in their first weeks and months in Canada. The results replicate well-documented cross-sectional acculturation-adjustment associations. They also show that baseline adjustment is prospectively associated with later integration and mainstream acculturation, but not vice versa, supporting the mental resources hypothesis but not the integration hypothesis.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-30T10:04:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231210460
       
  • Do Chameleons Lead Better' A Meta-Analysis of the Self-Monitoring and
           Leadership Relationship

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      Authors: Linghe Lei, Chen Wang, Jonathan Pinto
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The relationship between self-monitoring and leadership has been debated. We attempt to resolve this debate through a meta-analysis (N = 9,029 across 55 samples). Since this is the first meta-analysis that focuses on this relationship, we were able to study both focal constructs at a granular level. As hypothesized, self-monitoring is positively associated with leadership emergence and leadership effectiveness. Whereas self-monitoring is positively related to managerial leadership, its relationship with transactional leadership is non-significant. Contrary to our prediction that self-monitoring is negatively related to authentic leadership and to transformational leadership, we found positive relationships. Importantly, the relationship between self-monitoring and leadership variables is typically non-significant when the latter is measured by subordinate ratings. This casts doubt on the general finding that self-monitoring is positively related to leadership. Also, the relationships significantly differ when self-monitoring was measured by different scales. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T11:56:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231210778
       
  • Extraverts Reap Greater Social Rewards From Passion Because They Express
           Passion More Frequently and More Diversely

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      Authors: Kai Krautter, Anabel Büchner, Jon M. Jachimowicz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Passion is stereotypically expressed through animated facial expressions, energetic body movements, varied tone, and pitch—and met with interpersonal benefits. However, these capture only a subset of passion expressions that are more common for extraverts. Indeed, in an initial dyadic study of supervisors and their subordinates (N = 330), extraverts expressed their passion more strongly through these stereotypical expressions of passion, and observers perceived extraverts as more passionate than introverts. Across three studies (Ntotal = 1,373), we subsequently developed a more comprehensive passion expressions and behaviors scale (PEBS). Using this measure in a daily diary study (N = 206, k = 1,862), we found that extraverts not only expressed their passion in more stereotypical ways, but through a broader variety of expressions in general. Extraverts are perceived as more passionate because they have a broader behavioral repertoire, express their passion more frequently and diversely, and thereby attain greater interpersonal rewards.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T11:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231211843
       
  • Income Is a Stronger Predictor of Subjective Social Class in More
           Economically Unequal Places

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      Authors: Youngju Kim, Nicolas Sommet
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In this research, we examine how the lay conceptualization of subjective social class varies based on economic contexts. We argue that income should be a more central component of subjective social class in areas with higher income inequality. To address the issue of low power in existing research, we combined local-level income inequality indicators with large-scale repeated cross-sectional data, enabling the most reliable test to date on how the relationship between income and subjective social class is moderated by inequality. We used nationally representative datasets from the United States and South Korea (encompassing 25,000+ participants from 1,246 regional-year units). In both cultural contexts, our multilevel models revealed that income is a stronger predictor of subjective social class in regions with higher levels of income inequality. This work advances the theoretical and empirical understanding of how income and income inequality interact to shape the perception of one’s position in the social hierarchy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T09:25:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231210772
       
  • Why Do People Sometimes Wear an Anonymous Mask' Motivations for
           Seeking Anonymity Online

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      Authors: Lewis Nitschinsk, Stephanie J. Tobin, Deanna Varley, Eric J. Vanman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Anonymous environments are more accessible than ever. As such, it is important to understand not only how anonymity can change human behavior but also why people are motivated to seek anonymity in online spaces. In four studies, we investigated differences in motivations for seeking anonymity online and their associations with related dispositional factors and online behavior. We found that some people were motivated to seek anonymity to self-express or behave toxically. Both motivations to seek anonymity were associated with low self-concept clarity and high Machiavellianism but differed in their relation to traits such as self-consciousness and psychopathy. Further analyses suggested that people selectively engage in behaviors in anonymous online environments, in line with the specific gratifications they seek through anonymity. We conclude that people seek anonymity to pursue self- or other-related goals that are otherwise more difficult or costly to pursue when identifiable.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T11:33:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231210465
       
  • People in Tight Cultures and Tight Situations Wear Masks More: Evidence
           From Three Large-Scale Studies in China

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      Authors: Liuqing Wei, Alexander Scott English, Thomas Talhelm, Xiaoyuan Li, Xuemin Zhang, Shuang Wang
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Studies have found large differences in masks use during the pandemic. We found evidence that cultural tightness explains mask use differences and this association was more robust in tight situations like subways. In Study 1, we observed 23,551 people’s actual mask use in public places around China. People wore masks more in tight situations; however, differences did not extend to outdoor streets and public parks, where norms are looser. We replicated this finding using a data from 15,985 people across China. Finally, in a preregistered study we observed mask use with the removal of COVID-19 restrictions, people still wore masks more in tight situations like subways than in loose situations of parks. These findings suggest that norm tightness has a lasting association with people’s health-protective behaviors, especially in tight situations. It provides insight into how different cultures might respond with future pandemics and in what situations people adopt health-protective behaviors.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T11:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231210451
       
  • Assessing Validity and Bias of Within-Person Variability in Affect and
           Personality

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      Authors: Farid Anvari, Noëlle Z. Rensing, Elise K. Kalokerinos, Richard E. Lucas, Iris K. Schneider
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Within-person variability in affect (e.g., Neuroticism) and personality have been linked to well-being. These are measured either by asking people to report how variable they are or to give multiple reports on the construct and calculating a within-person standard deviation adjusted for confounding by the person-level mean. The two measures are weakly correlated with one another and the links of variability with well-being depend on which measure researchers use. Recent research suggests that people’s repeated ratings may be biased by response styles. In a 7-day study (N = 399) with up to five measurements per day, we confirmed that the measures of variability lacked sufficient convergent validity to be used interchangeably. We found only 1 significant correlation (of 10) between variability in repeated ratings of affect or personality and variability in repeated ratings of a theoretically unrelated construct (i.e., features of images). There was very little evidence supporting the response styles hypothesis.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T12:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231208499
       
  • Need Fulfillment During Intergroup Contact: Three Experience Sampling
           Studies

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      Authors: Jannis Kreienkamp, Maximilian Agostini, Laura F. Bringmann, Peter de Jonge, Kai Epstude
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      One challenge of modern intergroup contact research has been the question of when and why an interaction is perceived as positive and improves intergroup relations. We propose to consider the perceived fulfillment of the situationally most relevant need. We conducted three intensive longitudinal studies with recent migrants to capture their interactions with the majority out-group (Nmeasurements = 10,297; Nparticipants = 207). The situational need fulfillment mechanism is consistently a strong predictor of perceived interaction quality and positive out-group attitudes following intergroup interactions. The model is specific to out-group contact, robust to various need types, and works at least as well as Allport’s contact conditions. As one of the first studies to test intergroup contact theory using intensive longitudinal data, we offer insight into the mechanisms of positive intergroup contact during real-life interactions and find situational motivations to be a key building block for understanding and addressing positive intergroup interactions.Public significance statement: In this article, we provide evidence that the fulfillment of situational needs during real-life intergroup contacts meaningfully predicts perceived interaction quality and positive outgroup attitudes. Methodologically, this offers a testament to the emerging practice of capturing real-life interactions using intensive longitudinal data. Theoretically, our results give weight to motivational fulfillment as a flexible and effective mechanism for understanding positive intergroup contact.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-21T08:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231204063
       
  • Biased Beliefs About White Releasees’ Sensitivity to Social Pain

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      Authors: Samantha R. Pejic, Jason C. Deska
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The accurate perception of others’ pain is a prerequisite to provide needed support. However, social pain perception is prone to biases. Multiple characteristics of individuals bias both physical and social pain judgments (e.g., ethnicity and facial structure). The current work extends this research to a chronically stigmatized population: released prisoners (i.e., releasees). Recognizing the large United States releasee rates and the significant role support plays in successful re-integration, we conducted four studies testing whether people have biased judgments of White male releasees’ sensitivity to social pain. Compared with the noncriminally involved, people judged releasees as less sensitive to social pain in otherwise identical situations (Studies 1a–3), an effect that was mediated by perceived life hardship (Study 2). Finally, judging releasees’ as relatively insensitive to social pain undermined perceivers’ social support judgments (Study 3). The downstream consequences of these findings on re-integration success are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-16T12:11:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231207952
       
  • Economic Inequality Fosters the Belief That Success Is Zero-Sum

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      Authors: Shai Davidai
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Ten studies (N = 3,628; including five pre-registered), using correlational and experimental methods and employing various measures and manipulations, reveal that perceived economic inequality fosters zero-sum beliefs about economic success—the belief that one person’s gains are inevitably offset by others’ losses. As the gap between the rich and the poor expands, American participants increasingly believed that one can only get richer at others’ expense. Moreover, perceptions of economic inequality fostered zero-sum beliefs even when the distribution of resources was not strictly zero-sum and did so beyond the effect of various demographics variables (household income, education, subjective socioeconomic status) and individual differences (political ideology, social dominance orientation, interpersonal trust). Finally, I find that zero-sum beliefs account for the effect of inequality on people’s view of the world as unjust. The article concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of zero-sum beliefs about economic success.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-15T10:02:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231206428
       
  • Examining the Context and Content of Organizational Solidarity Statements
           on Black Americans’ Expectations of Identity Safety

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      Authors: Veronica Derricks, Eva S. Pietri, Tuyen Dinh, India R. Johnson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the increasing use of organizational solidarity statements following instances of social injustice, little-to-no research has examined whether these statements signal inclusion for minoritized groups. The present work investigates how different types of solidarity statements affect Black Americans’ sense of identity safety and assesses mechanisms underlying their responses. Across three online experiments, Black Americans recruited from Prolific Academic (N = 1,668) saw solidarity statements from a fictional organization that were either written in response to a race-related event at the societal level (e.g., George Floyd’s murder; Studies 1–2) or an instance of racism occurring at the organizational level (Study 3). The statements were manipulated on three dimensions: acknowledgment of systemic racism, acknowledgment of organizational racism, and inclusion of concrete actions to address racism (Study 2). Findings showed that statements which acknowledged systemic racism or included actions to address racism were more likely to increase identity safety, whereas statements acknowledging racist organizational practices were relatively less effective at promoting identity safety. Feelings of identity safety emerged via decreased perceptions that the organization was engaging in performative allyship and/or increased perceptions of procedural fairness. Collectively, findings elucidate features of organizational solidarity statements that are more (versus less) effective for promoting identity safety among Black Americans.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-11T04:44:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231208508
       
  • Looking on the (B)right Side of Life: Cognitive Ability and Miscalibrated
           Financial Expectations

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      Authors: Chris Dawson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      It is a puzzle why humans tend toward unrealistic optimism, as it can lead to excessively risky behavior and a failure to take precautionary action. Using data from a large nationally representative U.K. sample [math] our claim is that optimism bias is partly a consequence of low cognition—as measured by a broad range of cognitive skills, including memory, verbal fluency, fluid reasoning and numerical reasoning. We operationalize unrealistic optimism as the difference between a person’s financial expectation and the financial realization that follows, measured annually over a decade. All else being equal, those highest on cognitive ability experience a 22% (53.2%) increase in the probability of realism (pessimism) and a 34.8% reduction in optimism compared with those lowest on cognitive ability. This suggests that the negative consequences of an excessively optimistic mindset may, in part, be a side product of the true driver, low cognitive ability.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-10T10:00:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231209400
       
  • Barriers to Biculturalism: Historical Negation and Symbolic Exclusion
           Predict Longitudinal Increases in Bicultural Policy Opposition

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      Authors: Zoe Bertenshaw, Chris G. Sibley, Danny Osborne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The colonial ideologies of historical negation and symbolic exclusion (i.e., the “Dark Duo”) promote inequality between settler colonizers and Indigenous peoples by denying the contemporary relevance of past injustices and excluding Indigenous culture from the nation’s identity, respectively. Although their correlates are established, the temporal ordering of the relationship between the Dark Duo and bicultural policy opposition is unclear. We address this oversight by utilizing nine annual waves of panel data from a nationwide random sample of New Zealand adults (N = 31,104) to estimate two multigroup RI-CLPMs using the Dark Duo to predict symbolic and resource-based policy opposition (and vice versa). Results revealed that within-person increases in historical negation and symbolic exclusion predicted subsequent increases in symbolic and resource-based bicultural policy opposition for both majority and minority ethnic groups. These relationships were, however, bidirectional, demonstrating a self-perpetuating cycle, whereby the Dark Duo undermines biculturalism and antibiculturalism strengthens the Dark Duo.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-09T11:32:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231209657
       
  • Inferences of Masculinity and Femininity Across Intersections of Social
           Class and Gender: A Social Structural Perspective

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      Authors: Andrew D. White, Amanda B. Diekman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This research employs a social structural perspective to analyze the content of intersectional social class and gender stereotypes. We investigated how the structural positioning of class and gender categories differentially foster inferences of masculinity and femininity. The social structures that organize class and gender differ: Class is marked by access to resources, and gender is marked by a division of labor for care work. Thus, we examined whether masculinity inferences more strongly varied by social class and whether femininity inferences more strongly varied by gender categories. In Study 1, a total 427 undergraduates provided open-ended descriptions of social class and gender groups. In Study 2, a total 758 undergraduates rated the same groups on preselected trait measures. In Study 3, a total 83 adult participants considered a vignette that manipulated a target’s structural resources and gender. Across datasets, variation in social class primarily influenced inferences about masculinity while variation in gender primarily influenced inferences about femininity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-07T04:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231204487
       
  • Should I Stay or Should I Go' Motives and Barriers for Sustained
           Collective Action Toward Social Change

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      Authors: Noa Cohen-Eick, Eric Shuman, Martijn van Zomeren, Eran Halperin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Israel’s year-long protest calling for Prime Minister Netanyahu’s resignation created an opportunity to examine unique factors influencing sustained collective action (SCA; i.e., repeated participation in social movement action for the same cause). As little is known about how to explain such dedication, we compared a well-established set of predictors of one-time collective action (CA) with a new predictors set of SCA, focusing on collective instrumental and socio-emotional (CISE) motivations grounded in previous participation experience, to predict subsequent participation. In a unique longitudinal design, we tracked protestors over 6 weeks. Our findings showed that less emotional exhaustion, more subjective effort into participation, and a perceived closer timeframe for desired social change positively predicted SCA. This differentiates SCA from CA—moreover, as one-time CA predictors did not predict SCA, this suggests a need for a new model to explain SCA based on CISE motivations that reflect continuous goal pursuit.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-03T10:11:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231206638
       
  • The Perks of Pet Ownership' The Effects of Pet Ownership on Well-Being
           During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: William J. Chopik, Jeewon Oh, Rebekka Weidmann, Jonathan R. Weaver, Rhonda N. Balzarini, Giulia Zoppolat, Richard B. Slatcher
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Pet ownership has often been lauded as a protective factor for well-being, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. We expanded this question to consider how pet (i.e., species, number) and owner (i.e., pet relationship quality, personality, attachment orientations) characteristics affected the association between pet ownership and well-being in a pre-registered mixed method analysis of 767 people assessed three times in May 2020. In our qualitative analyses, pet owners listed both benefits and costs of pet ownership during the COVID-19 pandemic. In our quantitative analyses, we found that pet ownership was not reliably associated with well-being. Furthermore, this association largely did not depend on the number of pets owned, the species of pet(s) owned, the quality of the human–pet relationship, or the owner’s psychological characteristics. Our findings are consistent with a large body of research showing null associations of pet ownership on well-being (quantitatively) but positive reports of pet ownership (qualitatively).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-11-03T08:15:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231203417
       
  • Some Evidence That Truth-Tellers Are More Attractive Than Liars

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      Authors: Leanne ten Brinke, Isaac Raymundo, Merusha Mukherjee, Dana R. Carney
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the prevalence of deception, people rarely doubt others’ sincerity. However, indirect evaluations of liars and truth-tellers may differ even in the absence of suspicion about veracity. Across three studies, we provide evidence for the truth attraction effect in two samples of target stimuli and three samples of participant judges. Target people are perceived as more attractive when telling the truth versus when they lie, an effect mediated by target warmth and openness. The truth attraction effect is stronger for female targets (vs. males); however, it is unaffected by the gender of the judge. Findings suggest people may be more likely to approach truth-tellers versus liars, even when not actively judging veracity. We discuss the challenges and benefits of treating both targets and participants as random factors in linear mixed-effect analyses and join the chorus of calls to increase the number of target stimuli in deception research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-27T10:34:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231207567
       
  • Pitch as a Recipient, Channel, and Context Factor Affecting Thought
           Reliance and Persuasion

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      Authors: Joshua J. Guyer, Pablo Briñol, Thomas I. Vaughan-Johnston, Leandre R. Fabrigar, Lorena Moreno, Borja Paredes, Richard E. Petty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three experiments tested how low versus high pitch generated from sources beyond a message communicator can affect reliance on thoughts and influence recipients’ attitudes. First, participants wrote positive or negative thoughts about an exam proposal (Experiments 1, 2) or their academic abilities (Experiment 3). Then, pitch from the message recipient (Experiment 1), channel (Experiment 2), or context (Experiment 3) was manipulated to be high or low. Experiment 1 showed that when participants vocally expressed their thoughts using low (vs. high) pitch, thoughts had a greater effect on attitudes toward exams. Experiment 2 revealed low (vs. high) pitch sounds from the keyboard participants used to write their thoughts produced the same effect on thought usage. Experiment 3 demonstrated that thoughts influenced attitudes more when listed while background music was low (vs. high) Pitch can influence attitudes through a meta-cognitive thought reliance process whether emerging from the recipient, channel, or context.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231197547
       
  • Gender Prototypes Hinder Bystander Intervention in Women’s Sexual
           Harassment

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      Authors: Rebecca Schachtman, Jonathan Gallegos, Cheryl R. Kaiser
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Bystander intervention is a powerful response to sexual harassment that reduces victims’ burden to respond. However, gender prototypes depicting sexual harassment victims as prototypical women (i.e., stereotypically feminine) may hinder intervention when harassment targets women who deviate from this prototype. Across four preregistered experiments (N = 1,270 Americans), we test whether bystanders intervene less readily in nonprototypical (vs. prototypical) women’s sexual harassment. Participants observed a man manager ask a series of increasingly sexually harassing job interview questions toward either a gender prototypical or nonprototypical woman by traits (Studies 1–3) or gender identity (Study 4). Participants were instructed to intervene to stop the interview if/when they judged the questions as inappropriate. A meta-analysis revealed participants had a greater threshold for intervention when harassment targeted a nonprototypical (vs. prototypical) woman—a small but meaningful effect. Efforts to foster bystander intervention in sexual harassment would benefit by recognizing this neglect of nonprototypical women.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:46:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231203290
       
  • Why Do People Think Individuals in Poverty Are Less Vulnerable to Harm':
           Testing the Role of Intuitions About Adaptation

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      Authors: Nathan N. Cheek, Jackson Murray
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People often falsely believe that individuals from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are less harmed than those from higher SES backgrounds by a wide range of negative events. We report three studies (total N = 1,625) that provide evidence that this “thick skin bias” emerges at least in part because people overgeneralize otherwise accurate intuitions about adaptation. Across studies, participants accurately intuited that people adapt to psychophysical experiences (e.g., brightness, weight, and volume) but also inaccurately intuited that people similarly adapt to life hardships that actually tend to exacerbate the harm of future negative events. Experimentally decreasing the salience of psychophysical adaptation intuitions reduced the thick skin bias, suggesting a causal link between these adaptation intuitions and the belief that people in poverty are less vulnerable to harm and underlining the importance of studying how biased beliefs about the effects of poverty may perpetuate inequality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231202756
       
  • Do Measures of Systemizing and Empathizing Reflect Perceptions of Gender
           Differences in Learning Affordances'

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      Authors: Audrey Aday, Toni Schmader, Michelle Ryan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Gender differences in systemizing and empathizing are sometimes attributed to inherent biological factors. We tested whether such effects are more often interpreted as reflecting men’s and women’s different learning affordances. Study 1 (N = 624) estimated gender differences in item-level activities from systemizing and empathizing scales (SQ, EQ) in large representative samples. Lay coders (Study 2, N = 199) and psychology experts (Study 3, N = 116) rated SQ and EQ activities as being more learned (vs. innate) and believed that men receive more systemizing and women receive more empathizing (Study 3 only) affordances. Items showing the largest gender differences in Study 1 were those rated as having the largest gender affordances (more than gendered genetic advantages) in Studies 2 and 3. Claims about inherent sex differences in systemizing, and to a lesser degree empathizing, appear to be out of step with a consensus view from the public and psychological scientists.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:40:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231202268
       
  • Stereotypical Questions: How Stereotypes About Conversation Partners Are
           Reflected in Question Formulations

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      Authors: Camiel J. Beukeboom, Christian Burgers, Maxim van Woerkom, Sibren de Meijer, Laura de Vries, Denise Ferdinandus
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In conversations, activated stereotypes about conversation partners can influence communicative behaviors. We investigate whether and how stereotypes about categorized conversation partners shape topic choice and the types of questions asked. In three experiments, participants imagined having a conversation. Gender or age stereotypes of the conversation partner were manipulated by means of a picture. Results show a higher likelihood of addressing conversation and question topics consistent with stereotypic expectancies about conversation partners. Moreover, stereotypes were reflected in subtle variations in question formulations. When questions address stereotype-consistent topics, they are likelier formulated with high-frequency adverbs and positive valence, while questions addressing stereotype-inconsistent topics more likely contain low-frequency adverbs and negative valence. In addition, Experiment 4 suggests that recipients are sensitive to detect that questions reflect stereotypes about themselves, which can influence the evaluation of the conversation and partner. We discuss the consequences of biased question asking for interpersonal conversation and stereotype maintenance.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:35:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231205084
       
  • Intraindividual Changes in Political Identity Strength (But Not Direction)
           Are Associated With Political Animosity in the United States and the
           Netherlands

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      Authors: Mark J. Brandt, Shree Vallabha
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We test if within-person changes in political identities are associated with within-person changes in political animosity in two longitudinal studies (United States N = 552, Waves = 26; Netherlands N = 1,670, Waves = 12). Typical studies examine cross-sectional associations without assessing within-person change. Our work provides a stronger test of the relationship. We find that within-person changes in the strength of people’s ideological and partisan identities are associated with increased political animosity. We found no such associations with within-person changes in identity direction. These patterns were robust to covariates and emerged in both studies. In addition to these average effects, we found substantial heterogeneity across participants in the associations among identity strength, identity direction, and political animosity. We did not find robust and replicable moderators for this heterogeneity. These findings suggest that identity strength (but not identity direction) is a key, if heterogenous, factor in changes in political animosity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:32:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231203471
       
  • Adding Fuel to the Collective Fire: Stereotype Threat, Solidarity, and
           Support for Change

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      Authors: Clarissa I. Cortland, Zoe Kinias
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We hypothesize a yet-unstudied effect of experiencing systemic stereotype threat on women’s collective action efforts: igniting women’s support for other women and motivation to improve organizational gender balance. Hypotheses are supported in two surveys (Study 1: N = 1,365 business school alumnae; Study 2: N = 386 women Master of Business Administration [MBA]), and four experiments (Studies 3–6; total N = 1,897 working women). Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that experiencing stereotype threat is negatively associated with women’s domain-relevant engagement (supporting extant work on the negative effects of stereotype threat), but positively associated with women’s support and advocacy of gender balance. Studies 3 to 6 provide causal evidence that stereotype threat activation leads to greater attitudes and intentions to support gender balance, ruling out negative affect as an alternative explanation and identifying ingroup solidarity as a mechanism. We discuss implications for working women, women leaders, and organizations striving to empower their entire workforce through developing equitable and inclusive practices.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:29:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231202630
       
  • Funny Date, Creative Mate' Unpacking the Effect of Humor on Romantic
           Attraction

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      Authors: Erika B. Langley, Michelle N. Shiota
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Extensive research shows that people are attracted to funny dating partners, with several competing, sometimes conflicting, explanations for why humor is strongly desired in a mate. The present research asks whether humor is interpreted as a reliable, hard-to-fake indicator of some other, valuable trait. Across six experiments, we manipulated humor in a hypothetical date, online dating profile, or video profile and asked which of several traits statistically linked to humor are reliably inferred about funny partners. Humor—specifically partners producing humor—consistently led to higher ratings of partner creative ingenuity. This effect was not moderated by gender, and mediated desirability for different types of partnership. Results further revealed stronger preference for a first-date activity requiring creative ingenuity with a funny versus non-funny partner. Humor may signal that a potential partner is skilled at creative problem-solving, which may be particularly important when considering various forms of partnership.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-14T08:46:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231202288
       
  • Polarizing Plates: Both Omnivores and Vegans Represent In-Group Foods With
           Eating Simulations

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      Authors: Tess Davis, Libby Harkins, Esther K Papies
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In two pre-registered experiments, we assessed how people cognitively represent meat and plant-based foods, to examine processes underlying dietary polarization in society. Food descriptions from U.K.-based omnivores (NExp. 1 = 109; NExp. 2 = 436) and vegans (NExp. 1 = 111; NExp. 2 = 407) were coded for features about consumption and reward (e.g., “rich,” “indulgent,” and “treat”) or features independent of the consumption situation (e.g., “healthy,” “protein,” and “eco-friendly”). Participants used more consumption and reward features for diet-congruent dishes (meat dishes for omnivores and plant-based dishes for vegans) than for diet-incongruent dishes (vice versa). Omnivores focused on abstract, long-term consequences of plant-based foods, whereas vegans focused on the socio-political associations with meat foods. Consumption and reward features also positively predicted attractiveness ratings, the likelihood of ordering a dish, and eating intentions. These findings indicate the cognitive processes of polarized dietary groups that may hinder the mainstream transition to more sustainable food choices.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-12T11:41:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231202276
       
  • They Saw a Hearing: Democrats’ and Republicans’ Perceptions of and
           Responses to the Ford-Kavanaugh Hearings

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      Authors: Emma L. Grisham, Pasha Dashtgard, Daniel P. Relihan, E. Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In several highly publicized hearings, Dr. Christine Blasey Ford and Judge Brett Kavanaugh presented two opposing accounts of an alleged sexual assault. In the wake of these proceedings, partisans appeared similarly divided in how they regarded this political event. Using a U.S. national sample (N = 2,474) and a mixed-methods design, we investigated partisans’ perceptions of, and responses to, the Ford-Kavanaugh hearings. Respondents reported their views of the hearings soon after they occurred. We used topic modeling to analyze these open-ended responses and found uniquely partisan topics emerged, including judicial impartiality and due process. Acute stress (AS) responses to the hearings were also related to partisan identities and perceptions; both Republicans (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.78, 0.84]) and individuals who wrote more about Republican topics (IRR = 0.72, 95% CI = [0.56, 0.92]) reported lower AS than their Democratic counterparts. Results demonstrate different partisan perceptions with implications for mental health outcomes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-10-05T10:02:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231185605
       
  • Diversity of Group Memberships Predicts Well-Being: Cross-Sectional and
           Longitudinal Evidence

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      Authors: Sarah J. Charles, Clifford Stevenson, Juliet R. H. Wakefield, Emanuele Fino
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Groups have their health and well-being impacted by satisfying their members’ needs and providing resources to help cope with threats. Multiple group memberships serve to accumulate these benefits and also provide resilience to the effects of group loss. However, the additional well-being benefits of belonging to multiple different types of group remain to be determined. In a preregistered cross-sectional survey in Nottingham, England (Study 1, N = 328), we found that group-type diversity predicted well-being and that this effect was fully serially mediated by increased creative self-efficacy, then reduced loneliness. To confirm our hypothesis in a more robust sample we conducted longitudinal analyses on the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) dataset (Study 2, N = 5,838) finding that group-type diversity at time one (T1) predicted well-being at T2 (4 years later), even when accounting for wellbeing and loneliness at T1. We discuss the implications for enhancing group-based health interventions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-30T02:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231202278
       
  • Revisiting the Relation Between Steroid Hormones and Unethicality in an
           Exploratory, Longitudinal Study With Female Participants

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      Authors: Julia Stern, Christoph Schild, Ingo Zettler
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Research on the relation between hormones and unethical behaviors and tendencies has provided mixed results, hindering the understanding of the potential biological regulation of unethical behaviors and tendencies. We conducted an exploratory, longitudinal study (N = 257 women) allowing to estimate relations between, on the one hand, steroid hormones (testosterone, cortisol, estradiol, and progesterone) and conception probability and, on the other hand, a broad variety of measures related to unethicality (self-reported personality variables, cheating in committed relationships, self-serving economic dishonesty in a behavioral task, namely, the mind game). Contrary to theoretical assumptions of and results from some previous studies, we find no consistent relation between hormones and unethical behavior or tendencies in the majority of analyses. Yet, some small, exploratory associations emerged that call for (preregistered) replications, before more firm conclusions can be made.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-25T10:33:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231199961
       
  • Give Me a Straight Answer: Response Ambiguity Diminishes Likability

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      Authors: Deming Wang, Ignazio Ziano
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across nine experiments (eight preregistered) involving Western and Asian samples, we showed that people providing ambiguous (vs. specific) responses to questions in various social scenarios are seen as less likable. This is because, depending on the social context, response ambiguity may be interpreted as a way to conceal the truth and as a sign of social disinterest. Consequently, people reported lower inclination to befriend or date individuals who appeared to provide ambiguous responses. We also identified situations in which response ambiguity does not harm likability, such as when the questions are sensitive and the responder may need to “soften the blow.” A final exploratory study showed that response ambiguity also impacts personality perceptions—individuals providing ambiguous responses are judged as less warm, less extraverted, less gullible, and more cautious. We discuss theoretical implications for the language psychology and person perception literatures and practical implications for impression management and formation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-22T09:50:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231199161
       
  • Which Identities Are Concealable' Individual Differences in
           Concealability

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      Authors: Joel M. Le Forestier, Elizabeth Page-Gould, Alison L. Chasteen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Concealment is a common and consequential identity management strategy. But which identities are concealable' In three studies (n = 468; obs = 4,068), we find substantial individual differences in which identities people experience as concealable. These individual differences in concealability manifest as Person × Identity interactions, such that people experience varying levels of concealability for each of their individual identities. In two additional studies (n = 465; obs = 3,784), we find that these individual differences predict the frequency and efficacy of concealment. We conclude that it is inaccurate to label entire categories of identities as either concealable or conspicuous and urge intergroup researchers to consider people’s unique experiences of concealability. Pre-registrations for Studies 1 to 4 and open materials, code, and data for all studies are available on the Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/m95qu/.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-16T02:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231198162
       
  • An Assimilative Effect of Stimulus Co-Occurrence on Evaluation Despite
           Contrasting Relational Information

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      Authors: Yahel Nudler, Tal Moran, Yoav Bar Anan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The co-occurrence of a neutral stimulus with affective stimuli typically causes the neutral stimulus’s evaluation to shift toward the affective stimuli’s valence. Does that assimilative effect occur even when one knows the co-occurrence is due to an opposition relation between the stimuli (e.g., Batman stops crime)' Previous evidence tentatively supported that possibility, based on results compatible with an assimilative effect obscured by a larger contrast effect of the opposition relation (e.g., people like Batman less than expected, perhaps due to his co-occurrence with crime). We report three experiments (N = 802) in which participants preferred stimuli that stopped positive events over stimuli that stopped negative events—an assimilative effect of co-occurrence, unobscured by a contrast effect, despite comprehending the opposition relation and its evaluative implications. Our findings suggest that the assimilative effect of co-occurrence is potentially ubiquitous, not limited only to co-occurrence due to relations that suggest valence similarity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-16T02:46:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231196046
       
  • Empathic Conservatives and Moralizing Liberals: Political Intergroup
           Empathy Varies by Political Ideology and Is Explained by Moral Judgment

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      Authors: James P. Casey, Eric J. Vanman, Fiona Kate Barlow
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Empathy has the potential to bridge political divides. Here, we examine barriers to cross-party empathy and explore when and why these differ for liberals and conservatives. In four studies, U.S. and U.K. participants (total N = 4,737) read hypothetical scenarios and extended less empathy to suffering political opponents than allies or neutral targets. These effects were strongly shown by liberals but were weaker among conservatives, such that conservatives consistently showed more empathy to liberals than liberals showed to conservatives. This asymmetry was partly explained by liberals’ harsher moral judgments of outgroup members (Studies 1–4) and the fact that liberals saw conservatives as more harmful than conservatives saw liberals (Studies 3 and 4). The asymmetry persisted across changes in the U.S. government and was not explained by perceptions of political power (Studies 3 and 4). Implications and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-15T12:35:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231198001
       
  • The Best-Case Heuristic: Relative Optimism in Relationships, Politics, and
           a Global Health Pandemic

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      Authors: Hallgeir Sjåstad, Jay Van Bavel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In four experiments covering three different life domains, participants made future predictions in what they considered the most realistic scenario, an optimistic best-case scenario, or a pessimistic worst-case scenario (N = 2,900 Americans). Consistent with a best-case heuristic, participants made “realistic” predictions that were much closer to their best-case scenario than to their worst-case scenario. We found the same best-case asymmetry in health-related predictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, for romantic relationships, and a future presidential election. In a fully between-subject design (Experiment 4), realistic and best-case predictions were practically identical, and they were naturally made faster than the worst-case predictions. At least in the current study domains, the findings suggest that people generate “realistic” predictions by leaning toward their best-case scenario and largely ignoring their worst-case scenario. Although political conservatism was correlated with lower covid-related risk perception and lower support of early public-health interventions, the best-case prediction heuristic was ideologically symmetric.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T12:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231191360
       
  • Truthfulness Predominates in Americans’ Conceptualizations of
           Honesty: A Prototype Analysis

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      Authors: Caleb J. Reynolds, Emily Stokes, Eranda Jayawickreme, R. Michael Furr
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Honesty is a near universally valued trait. However, the term honesty captures a litany of traits and behaviors, obscuring research on social perceptions and trait measurement of honesty and creating philosophical difficulties in accounting for what (if anything) unifies this diversity. We applied a prototype analysis approach to identify the most central elements of lay honesty conceptualizations, identifying elements that come to mind and are explicitly acknowledged as important to honesty. In five studies (N = 1,442), U.S. American participants generated 6,000+ free responses characterizing honesty and indicated which subtraits and behaviors best represent honesty. Truthfulness was most central to lay honesty conceptualizations across all studies and several centrality indices (frequency among responses and participants, agreement across participants, priority in lists, explicit ratings), though several other features were prominent. Findings illuminate social perceptions of honesty, critique popular measurement of trait honesty, and offer empirical foundations for philosophical analysis of honesty.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-09T11:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231195355
       
  • Who Do We Turn to and What Do We Get' Cultural Differences in Attachment
           Structure and Function Among East Asian and Western Individuals

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      Authors: Minjoo Joo, Susan E. Cross, Sun W. Park
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      To whom do we turn for support in times of need, and what does the support from close others convey' The present research investigated how the structure and function of attachment differ for individuals in East Asian and Western cultures. In three studies, using survey and daily diary data, we examined the role of the romantic partner as an attachment figure, and the consequences of receiving responsive support in close relationships among individuals in Korea and the United States. As expected, the role of the romantic partner as an attachment figure was less emphasized for Koreans compared with U.S. participants. Also, responsive support from close others was more strongly linked to affiliation-related end states (i.e., in-group agency) for Koreans than U.S. individuals. The present research demonstrates the need to consider nuanced cultural influences in the attachment literature for the broader application of the theory.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-07T11:32:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231195781
       
  • Emphasizing Similarities Between Politically Opposed Groups and Their
           Influence in Perceptions of the Political Opposition: Evidence From Five
           Experiments

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      Authors: Stylianos Syropoulos, Bernhard Leidner
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across five experiments (four pre-registered, N = 4,431), we investigate whether emphasizing similarities between Republicans and Democrats can improve intergroup relations between the two groups. Members of both groups who were presented with evidence emphasizing similarities rather than differences in the psychological attitudes of both parties reported greater inclusion of the political opposition in the self, greater belief that common ground can be reached for major social issues, and warmer feelings toward the opposition. Inclusion of the political outgroup in the self mediated the effect of the similarities condition on additional outcomes, relating to more positive and less threatening perceptions of political opposition members. These findings held even when compared with a baseline condition with no information presented to participants. We conclude that by emphasizing the study of group similarities and by disseminating research in a way that highlights similarities, researchers could reduce intergroup hostilities in the political domain.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-05T07:31:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231192384
       
  • Friendships in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Parental and Friendship
           Attachment Representations and Intimacy

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      Authors: Marie G. Oldeman, Antonius H. N. Cillessen, Yvonne H. M. van den Berg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current studies addressed the associations between attachment representations with parents and a single best friend, intimacy behaviors (self-disclosure and support-seeking), and friendship quality in emerging adulthood, using the actor–partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM). Study 1 (N = 186 dyads) examined whether attachment to parents predicted friendship quality, and whether this was mediated by attachment to their best friend. More avoidance or anxiety with parents predicted lower friendship quality, which was mediated by avoidance or anxiety with their best friend. Study 2 (N = 118 dyads) examined whether self-disclosure and support-seeking mediated the link between attachment with best friend and friendship quality. Anxiety with their best friend predicted lower friendship quality, which was mediated by support-seeking. Anxiety predicted less self-disclosure and support-seeking. We found no effects of avoidance. No partner effects were found in both studies. The findings are discussed in terms of adult attachment theory.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-05T07:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231195339
       
  • Perceived Relative Deprivation Across the Adult Lifespan: An Examination
           of Aging and Cohort Effects

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      Authors: Kieren J. Lilly, Chris G. Sibley, Danny Osborne
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Despite being a core psychological construct for over 70 years, research has yet to examine how perceptions of deprivation relative to other individuals and/or groups develop across adulthood. As such, this preregistered study uses cohort-sequential latent growth modeling to examine changes in individual- and group-based relative deprivation (IRD and GRD, respectively) across the adult lifespan. Across 10 annual assessments of a nationwide random sample of adults (Ntotal = 58,878; ethnic minority n = 11,927; 62.7% women; ages 21–80), mean levels of IRD trended downward across the lifespan, whereas mean levels of GRD generally increased from young-to-middle adulthood before declining across late adulthood. Subtle cohort effects emerged for both constructs, although both IRD and GRD largely followed a normative aging process. Critically, the development of GRD—but not IRD—differed between ethnic groups, providing insights into how one’s objective status may shape subjective (dis)advantage over time.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-05T07:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231195332
       
  • How Do Women and Men Perceive the Sacrifice of Leaving Work for Their
           Families' A Cost–Benefit Analysis

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      Authors: Laura Villanueva-Moya, Francisca Expósito
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We aimed to analyze perceptions of the costs and benefits of family and work sacrifices. In Study 1, participants (n = 222) rated the associated benefits and costs of a sacrifice (work vs. family). In Study 2, participants (n = 213) rated the associated benefits and costs of a work sacrifice, their willingness to sacrifice, and their sense of authenticity. In Study 3, participants (n = 186) reported on commitment and relationship satisfaction, rated the associated benefits and costs of a work sacrifice, and their life satisfaction. Participants perceived that work sacrifices were costlier for men and more beneficial for women and that women felt more authentic for making them. For women, higher commitment or relationship satisfaction was associated with greater perception of benefits, which was associated with greater life satisfaction. These findings highlight the relevance of gender differences in work sacrifices and hence in women’s professional advancement.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-05T07:11:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231195331
       
  • Cyclical Links Between Daily Partner Interactions and Sleep Quality in
           Older Adult Couples: The Mediating Role of Perceived Partner
           Responsiveness and Negative Affect

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      Authors: Yuxi Xie, Edward P. Lemay, Brooke C. Feeney
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have found significant associations between romantic relationship experiences and sleep quality. However, most existing studies are cross-sectional, few have focused on the aging population, and few have considered mechanisms underlying such associations. To address these gaps, 238 older adult couples completed 7-day daily diaries, reporting on their daily relationship, emotional, and sleep experiences. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that husbands’ higher negative partner interactions and lower positive partner interactions were indirectly associated with their own and their wives’ decreased sleep quality that night via lower perceived partner responsiveness and increased negative affect. Moreover, decreased sleep quality was associated with participants’ and their partners’ increased negative partner interactions and participants’ decreased positive partner interactions the next day, with no significant gender differences. This research provides a foundation for future research on cyclical associations between romantic relationship experiences and sleep quality, with implications for relationship-based interventions to improve sleep quality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-09-05T07:06:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231193800
       
  • Holism and Causal Responsibility: The Role of Number and Valence of Event
           Consequences

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      Authors: David Santos, Blanca Requero, Manuel Martín-Fernández
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The present research examines the effect of holistic-analytic thinking style on causal responsibility. Across seven studies (N = 4,103), participants’ thinking style was either measured or manipulated. Then, the valence or number of consequences varied in several scenarios involving a cause–consequence relationship. As a dependent measure, participants indicated the degree of responsibility attributed to the cause mentioned in each scenario. The results revealed that holistic (vs. analytic) participants assigned more responsibility to the cause when the consequences presented were a combination of positive and negative outcomes (vs. univalent), and when multiple (vs. single) consequences were triggered in the scenario. To explore the explanatory factor for these results, a final study manipulated the complexity of the consequences, along with the number. The results of this research suggested that holistic (vs. analytic) individuals consider the degree of complexity of consequences to establish causal attribution.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-30T04:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231192827
       
  • Spirituality of Science: Implications for Meaning, Well-Being, and
           Learning

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      Authors: Jesse L. Preston, Thomas J. Coleman, Faith Shin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Scientists often refer to spiritual experiences with science. This research addresses this unique component of science attitudes—spirituality of science: feelings of meaning, awe, and connection derived through scientific ideas. Three studies (N = 1,197) examined individual differences in Spirituality of Science (SoS) and its benefits for well-being, meaning, and learning. Spirituality of Science was related to belief in science, but unlike other science attitudes, spirituality of science was also associated with trait awe and general spirituality (Study 1). spirituality of science also predicted meaning in life and emotional well-being in a group of atheists and agnostics, showing that scientific sources of spirituality can provide similar psychological benefits as religious spirituality (Study 2). Finally, Spirituality of Science predicted stronger engagement and recall of scientific information (Study 3). Results provide support for an experience of spirituality related to science, with benefits for meaning, well-being, and learning.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-26T04:56:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231191356
       
  • Measuring Morality: An Examination of the Moral Foundation
           Questionnaire’s Factor Structure

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      Authors: Alexandra S. Wormley, Matthew Scott, Kevin J. Grimm, Adam B. Cohen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Moral foundations theory proposes five domains of morality—harm, fairness, loyalty, purity, and authority. Endorsement of these moral domains is assessed by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ), a 30-item scale that has undergone intense measurement scrutiny. Across five samples (N = 464,229), we show greatly improved model fit using a Bifactor model that accounts for two kinds of items in the MFQ: judgment and relevance. We add to this space by demonstrating how using this improved measurement structure changes the strength of correlations of the moral foundations with numerous attitudes, cognitive styles, and moral decision-making. Future research should continue to identify what, if anything, the relevance and judgment factors might substantively capture over and above the substantive domains of moral foundations. In the meantime, we recommend that researchers use the Bifactor model for its improved model structure, rather than dropping the relevant items as some have proposed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-12T06:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231191362
       
  • The Way They See Us: Examining the Content, Accuracy, and Bias of
           Metaperceptions Held by Syrian Refugees About the Communities That Host
           Them

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      Authors: David Webber, Erica Molinario, Katarzyna Jasko, Michele J. Gelfand, Arie W. Kruglanski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Discourse about people seeking refuge from conflict varies considerably. To understand what components of this discourse reach refugees the most, we examined refugees’ perceptions of how their host communities perceive them (i.e., intergroup metaperceptions). We sampled refugees who fled Syria to Jordan, Lebanon, Germany, and the Netherlands. Focus groups with 102 Syrian refugees revealed that the most prevalent metaperception discussed by refugees was that they thought their host communities saw them as threatening (Study 1). Surveys with 1,360 Syrian refugees and 1,441 members of the host communities (Study 2) found that refugees’ metaperceptions tracked the perceptions held by their host communities (i.e., they were accurate), but there was also a significant mean difference, indicating that they were positively biased. Analyses further tested the roles of evaluative concern and group salience on metaperception accuracy, as well as differences in accuracy and bias across country and perception domain.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-12T06:09:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231190222
       
  • The Profiles, Predictors, and Intergroup Outcomes of Cultural Attachment

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      Authors: Yuanze Liu, Yubo Hou, Ying-yi Hong
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The recent backlash against cultural globalization has raised a conundrum regarding how individuals should navigate their relationship with their cultural groups to both meet their basic need for belongingness and embrace diversity to fully leverage the benefits of globalization. Here we take an attachment perspective to tackle this issue. Employing both person- and variable-centered approaches in two studies (n1 = 328; n2 = 1,317), we verify that people can develop different cultural attachment styles toward their cultural groups (i.e., secure, preoccupied, dismissing, and fearful), which are influenced by various societal, interpersonal and intrapersonal factors. People who securely attach to their cultures will perceive less out-group threat, exhibit more identity inclusiveness, hold less intergroup biases and excessive collective self-esteem, display a greater willingness to engage in intergroup contact, and demonstrate better psychological functioning. All these effects of cultural attachment are independent from and incremental to those of general and place attachment.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-11T07:17:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231190753
       
  • Intergroup Context Moderates the Impact of White Americans’
           Identification on Racial Categorization of Ambiguous Faces

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      Authors: Jacqueline M. Chen, Chanel Meyers, Kristin Pauker, Sarah E. Gaither, David L. Hamilton, Jeffrey W. Sherman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We examined how the number of groups in a categorization task influences how White Americans categorize ambiguous faces. We investigated the strength of identity-driven ingroup overexclusion–wherein highly identified perceivers overexclude ambiguous members from the ingroup–proposing that, compared with dichotomous tasks (with only the ingroup and one outgroup), tasks with more outgroups attenuate identity-driven ingroup overexclusion (a dilution effect). Fourteen studies (n = 4,001) measured White Americans’ racial identification and their categorizations of ambiguous faces and manipulated the categorization task to have two groups, three groups, or an unspecified number of groups (open-ended). In all three conditions, participants overexcluded faces from the White category on average. There was limited support for the dilution effect: identity-driven ingroup overexclusion was absent in the three-group task and only weakly supported in the open-ended task. The presence of multiple outgroups may dampen the impact of racial identity on race perceptions among White Americans.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-10T06:57:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231190264
       
  • The Onset of the COVID-19 Pandemic Made People Feel Threatened, but Had a
           Limited Impact on Political Attitudes in the United States

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      Authors: Mark J. Brandt, Shree Vallabha, Felicity M. Turner-Zwinkels
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated if the COVID-19 pandemic’s onset caused changes in political attitudes. Influential theories predict that the pandemic’s onset will cause people to adopt more conservative attitudes, more culturally conservative attitudes, or more extreme attitudes. We comprehensively tested the external validity of these predictions by estimating the causal effect of the pandemic’s onset on 84 political attitudes and eight perceived threats using fine-grained repeated cross-sectional data (Study 1, N = 232,684) and panel data (Study 2, N = 552) collected in the United States. Although the pandemic’s onset caused feelings of threat, the onset only caused limited attitude change (six conservative shifts, four extremity shifts, 12 liberal shifts, 62 no change). Prominent theories of threat and politics did not make accurate predictions for this major societal threat. Our results highlight the necessity of testing psychological theories’ predictive powers in real-life circumstances.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-09T06:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231190233
       
  • The Improvement Default: People Presume Improvement When Lacking
           Information

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      Authors: James G. Hillman, Jillian P. Antoun, David J. Hauser
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People erroneously think that things they know little about improve over time. We propose that, due to salient cultural narratives, improvement is a highly accessible expectation that leads people to presume improvement in the absence of diagnostic information. Five studies investigated an improvement default: a general tendency to presume improvement even in self-irrelevant domains. Participants erroneously presumed improvement over esoteric historical time periods associated with decline (Study 1). Participants arranged a stranger’s experiences to produce trends of improvement (Study 2). Participants presumed improvement for a fictional city when given no diagnostic information about it (Study 3). Finally, participants who perceived more past improvement were less supportive of policies that may precipitate further improvement (Study 4). Implications for consequences, such as complacency toward improving inequality, are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-07T07:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231190719
       
  • Ideology Strength Versus Party Identity Strength: Ideology Strength Is the
           Key Predictor of Attitude Stability

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      Authors: Felicity M. Turner-Zwinkels, Mark J. Brandt
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate the relationship between attitude instability and both party identity strength and ideology strength. We test the explorative hypotheses that higher party identity strength (H1) and ideology strength (H2) predict more attitude stability using intensive longitudinal data collected in the United States every 2 weeks over 1 year (Study 1, N = 552) and in the Netherlands over 6 months (Study 2, N = 1,670). We found mixed support for H1: In the United States, there was no association between party identity strength and attitude stability. In the Netherlands, people with stronger party identity had more stable attitudes. We found stronger support for H2: Individuals with a stronger ideology than average had more stable attitudes in the United States and the Netherlands. The context-dependent nature of relations is discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-03T11:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231189015
       
  • Toward a Comprehensive, Data-Driven Model of American Political Goals:
           Recognizing the “Values” and “Vices” Within Both Liberalism and
           Conservativism

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      Authors: Benjamin M. Wilkowski, Emilio Rivera, Laverl Z. Williamson, Erika DiMariano, Brian P. Meier, Adam Fetterman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      When a person indicates they are “liberal” or “conservative,” an important part of what they are communicating is their goals for how they would like society to be structured. However, past theories have described these goals in dramatically different fashions, suggesting that either conservativism or liberalism reflects a divisive or unifying goal. To help overcome this impasse, we systematically compared a broad, representative sample of all possible higher-order goals (drawn a previous lexical investigation of more than 1,000 goals) to the political ideology of American adults (total n = 1,588). The results of five studies suggested that proposals from competing theories are all partially correct. Conservativism simultaneously reflects the unifying “value” of Tradition, as well as the divisive “vice” of Elitism; while Liberalism simultaneously reflects the unifying “value” of Inclusiveness, and the divisive “vice” of Rebellion. These results help to integrate proposals from previous competing theories into a single framework.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-02T10:55:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231185484
       
  • Investigating Cortisol in a STEM Classroom: The Association Between
           Cortisol and Academic Performance

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      Authors: Hyun Joon Park, Kate M. Turetsky, Julia L. Dahl, Michael H. Pasek, Adriana L. Germano, Jackson O. Harper, Valerie Purdie-Greenaway, Geoffrey L. Cohen, Jonathan E. Cook
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education can be stressful, but uncertainty exists about (a) whether stressful academic settings elevate cortisol, particularly among students from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups, and (b) whether cortisol responses are associated with academic performance. In four classes around the first exam in a gateway college STEM course, we investigated participants’ (N = 271) cortisol levels as a function of race/ethnicity and tested whether cortisol responses predicted students’ performance. Regardless of race/ethnicity, students’ cortisol, on average, declined from the beginning to the end of each class and across the four classes. Among underrepresented minority (URM) students, higher cortisol responses predicted better performance and a lower likelihood of dropping the course. Among non-URM students, there were no such associations. For URM students, lower cortisol responses may have indicated disengagement, whereas higher cortisol responses may have indicated striving. The implication of cortisol responses can depend on how members of a group experience an environment.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-02T01:11:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231188277
       
  • Do Demographic Increases in LGBT and Nonreligious Americans Increase
           Threat'

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      Authors: Cameron Mackey, Kimberly Rios
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Building on previous research demonstrating that demographic growth of racial minorities increases realistic threat and prejudice among majority group members, we examined whether demographic increases of groups associated with symbolic threat (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT] and nonreligious groups) increased realistic threat, symbolic threat, and/or prejudice. In a single-paper meta-analysis across four studies, participants who read that LGBT groups were becoming more prevalent in the United States exhibited heightened perceptions of realistic threat and (especially) symbolic threat from these groups, which in turn predicted anti-LGBT prejudice. Two similar studies examining the growth of nonreligious groups demonstrated weaker effects. Implications for America’s growing diversity and future directions for studying these effects are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-01T10:59:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231188278
       
  • Nostalgia Promotes Parents’ Tradition Transfer to Children by
           Strengthening Parent-Child Relationship Closeness

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      Authors: Yige Yin, Tonglin Jiang, Sander Thomaes, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Parental tradition transfer to children is pivotal for their socialization, identity formation, and culture perpetuation. But what motivates parents to transfer traditions to their children' We hypothesized that nostalgia, an emotion strengthening interpersonal bonds, would promote tradition transfer through parent-child relationship closeness. We tested these hypotheses using cross-sectional (Studies 1 and 4), cross-lagged (Study 2 and preregistered Study 5), and experimental (Studies 3 and 6) designs. In Studies 1 to 3, nostalgia was associated with, had lagged effect on, and promoted tradition transfer. In Studies 4–6, parent-child relationship closeness mediated the link between nostalgia and tradition transfer. The findings enrich our understanding of the vertical transmission of knowledge, customs, and values, offering insight into how intergenerational bonds are reinforced and cultural heritage is maintained.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-08-01T10:50:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231187337
       
  • A Growth Mindset Frame Increases Opting In to Reading Information About
           Bias

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      Authors: Mary C. Kern, Aneeta Rattan, Dolly Chugh
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We explore the conditions under which people will opt in to reading information about bias and stereotypes, a key precursor to the types of self-directed learning that diversity and anti-bias advocates increasingly endorse. Across one meta-analysis (total N = 1,122; 7 studies, 5 pre-registered) and 2 pre-registered experiments (total N = 1,717), we identify a condition under which people opt in to reading more about implicit bias and stereotypes. People randomly assigned to read a growth, rather than fixed, mindset frame about bias opted in to read more information about stereotypes and implicit bias (Study 1 and Study 3). The mechanism that drove these effects was individuals’ construal of the task as a challenge (Studies 2 and 3). Our findings offer insight into how to promote engagement with information about stereotypes and biases. We discuss how this work advances the study of mindsets and diversity science.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-31T10:41:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231186853
       
  • Retraction Notice

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-26T07:05:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231179476
       
  • The “Partial Innocence” Effect: False Guilty Pleas to
           Partially Unethical Behaviors

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      Authors: Stephanie A. Cardenas, Patricia Y. Sanchez, Saul M. Kassin
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although research has focused on the “innocence problem,” “partial innocence” may also plague individuals who plead guilty to crimes they did not commit, but that are either comparable, more severe, or less severe than their actual crimes. Using a high-stake experimental paradigm and an immersive role-playing paradigm, we examined the psychology of partial innocence. Students were randomly induced (or imagined themselves) to be innocent, guilty, or partially innocent of committing an academic transgression and then given the choice to accept or reject a deal to avoid disciplinary sanction. Across three studies (Ns = 88, 75, 746), partially innocent students pled to cheating nearly as often as guilty students and vastly more often than innocent students. Partially innocent students—not unlike guilty students—experienced greater feelings of guilt than did innocent students. In turn, these feelings of guilt, but not shame, were associated with taking responsibility for a range of transgressions not committed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-26T07:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231185639
       
  • Affective Polarization and Political Belief Systems: The Role of Political
           Identity and the Content and Structure of Political Beliefs

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      Authors: Felicity M. Turner-Zwinkels, Jochem van Noord, Rebekka Kesberg, Efrain García-Sánchez, Mark J. Brandt, Toon Kuppens, Matthew J. Easterbrook, Lien Smets, Paulina Gorska, Marta Marchlewska, Tomas Turner-Zwinkels
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate the extent that political identity, political belief content (i.e., attitude stances), and political belief system structure (i.e., relations among attitudes) differences are associated with affective polarization (i.e., viewing ingroup partisans positively and outgroup partisans negatively) in two multinational, cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 4,152, Study 2 N = 29,994). First, we found a large, positive association between political identity and group liking—participants liked their ingroup substantially more than their outgroup. Second, political belief system content and structure had opposite associations with group liking: Sharing similar belief system content with an outgroup was associated with more outgroup liking, but similarity with the ingroup was associated with less ingroup liking. The opposite pattern was found for political belief system structure. Thus, affective polarization was greatest when belief system content similarity was low and structure similarity was high.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-21T07:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231183935
       
  • Appetitive and Aversive Motivation in Dysregulated Behaviors: A
           Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Konrad Bresin, Rowan A. Hunt
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Appetitive and aversive motivation are prominent in theories of dysregulated behaviors. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of the association between individual differences in appetitive and aversive motivation and several dysregulated behaviors (i.e., alcohol use, marijuana use, tobacco use, binge eating, aggression, gambling, and nonsuicidal self-injury). Alcohol use (r = .17, k = 141), marijuana use (r = .13, k = 23), aggression (r = .22, k = 52), and gambling (r = .08, k = 55) were all significantly positively related to appetitive motivation. Binge eating (r = .28, k = 34) and self-injury (r = .17, k = 10) were significantly positively related to aversive motivation. Effect sizes were similar to the median effect size in personality research. Together, these results provide some evidence that some dysregulated behaviors are more correlated with approach motivation, whereas others are more correlated with aversive motivation, which may indicate distinct etiological pathways.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-21T07:14:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231185509
       
  • The Dilution of Diversity: Ironic Effects of Broadening Diversity

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      Authors: Teri A. Kirby, Nicole Russell Pascual, Laura K. Hildebrand
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Diversity is one of the buzzwords of the 21st century. But who counts as diverse' We coded diversity statements to examine how organizations typically define diversity and whether oppressed-group members perceive some definitions as diluting diversity, or detracting from the original intention of diversity initiatives. Organizations most commonly opted for a broad definition of diversity (38%) that focused on diversity in perspectives and skills, with no mention of demographic group identities (e.g., race; Study 1). In Studies 2 and 3, people of color perceived broad statements as diluting diversity more than other diversity statements. They were also less interested in working at those organizations, and broad statements led sexual minorities to be less willing to disclose their sexual identity (Study 4). Thus, broadening the definition of diversity to include individual characteristics and skills may backfire, unless the importance of demographic diversity is also acknowledged.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-18T11:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231184925
       
  • Evaluating the Evidence for Enclothed Cognition: Z-Curve and Meta-Analyses

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      Authors: C. Blaine Horton, Hajo Adam, Adam D. Galinsky
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Enclothed cognition refers to the systematic influence that clothes can have on the wearer’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors through their symbolic meaning. It has attracted considerable academic and nonacademic interest, with the 2012 article that coined the phrase cited more than 600 times and covered in more than 160 news outlets. However, a recent high-powered replication failed to replicate one of the original effects. To determine whether the larger body of research on enclothed cognition possesses evidential value and replicable effects, we performed z-curve and meta-analyses using 105 effects from 40 studies across 24 articles (N = 3,789). Underscoring the marked improvement of psychological research practices in the mid-2010s, our results raise concerns about the replicability of early enclothed cognition studies but affirm the evidential value for effects published after 2015. These later studies support the core principle of enclothed cognition—what we wear influences how we think, feel, and act.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-17T11:35:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231182478
       
  • Implicit Theories of Happiness: When Happiness Is Viewed as Changeable,
           Happy People Are Perceived Much More Positively Than Unhappy People

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      Authors: Emily K. Hong, Jinhyung Kim, Incheol Choi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Happy people are often perceived positively, perhaps more than they actually are, whereas unhappy people are often perceived negatively, perhaps more than they actually are. What would make this bias stronger or weaker' The present research addresses this question by exploring the roles of implicit theories of happiness in the trait perceptions toward happy and unhappy people. Specifically, four studies (N = 998) tested hypotheses that an incremental theory of happiness would enhance and an entity theory of happiness would attenuate the trait perceptions favoring happy over unhappy people. Results found converging evidence that believing happiness as changeable (incremental theory) enhances the positive perceptions toward happy people, while providing less consistent evidence that believing happiness as fixed (entity theory) mitigates the negative perceptions toward unhappy people. The current research contributes to the literature on essentialism and advances the understanding of the roles of implicit theories of happiness in person perception.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-17T10:39:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231184711
       
  • In it Together: Relationship Transitions and Couple Concordance in Health
           and Well-Being

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      Authors: Theresa Pauly, Elisa Weber, Christiane A. Hoppmann, Denis Gerstorf, Urte Scholz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Events that change the family system have the potential to impact couple dynamics such as concordance, that is, partner similarity in health and well-being. This project analyzes longitudinal data (≥ two decades) from both partners of up to 3,501 German and 1,842 Australian couples to investigate how couple concordance in life satisfaction, self-rated health, mental health, and physical health might change with transitioning to parenthood and an empty nest. Results revealed couple concordance in intercepts (averaged r = .52), linear trajectories (averaged r = .55), and wave-specific fluctuations around trajectories (averaged r = .21). Concordance in linear trajectories was stronger after transitions (averaged r = .81) than before transitions (averaged r = .43), whereas no systematic transition-related change in concordance of wave-specific fluctuations was found. Findings emphasize that shared transitions represent windows of change capable of sending couples onto mutual upward or downward trajectories in health and well-being.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-11T10:08:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231180450
       
  • Political Attitudes and Disease Threat: Regional Pathogen Stress Is
           Associated With Conservative Ideology Only for Older Individuals

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      Authors: Gordon D. A. Brown, Lukasz Walasek, Timothy L. Mullett, Edika G. Quispe-Torreblanca, Corey L. Fincher, Michal Kosinski, David Stillwell
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      What environmental factors are associated with individual differences in political ideology, and do such associations change over time' We examine whether reductions in pathogen prevalence in U.S. states over the past 60 years are associated with reduced associations between parasite stress and conservatism. We report a positive association between infection levels and conservative ideology in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s. However, this correlation reduces from the 1980s onwards. These results suggest that the ecological influence of infectious diseases may be larger for older people who grew up (or whose parents grew up) during earlier time periods. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the political affiliation of 45,000 Facebook users, and find a positive association between self-reported political affiliation and regional pathogen stress for older (>40 years) but not younger individuals. It is concluded that the influence of environmental pathogen stress on ideology may have reduced over time.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-10T08:21:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231183199
       
  • Asymmetric Effects of Holding Power Versus Status: Implications for
           Motivation and Group Dynamics

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      Authors: Ji Sok Choi, Seungbeom Hong, Jinkyung Na, Bo Kyung Kim
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although extant research suggests that power without status, but not status without power, induces interpersonal conflict, we are yet to fully understand the asymmetric effects of holding power or status on psychological processes and group functioning. The present research attempts to fill this gap by arguing that holding power would heighten the motivation for status, whereas holding status may not necessarily have an equivalent effect on the motivation for power. We further proposed that power–status misalignment within a group would lead powerholders to be competitive toward statusholders due to heightened status motive and (upon failure to attain status) invest less in their group due to greater emotional distress. Across four (and one Supplemental) studies, we found support for our hypotheses. Our findings not only shed further light on the interactive effects of power and status, but also help better explain why power without status is particularly related to negative outcomes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-10T08:19:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231182852
       
  • When Does Competence Matter' Character as a Moderator in the
           Development of Trust

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      Authors: Xuchang Zheng, Wanxin Wang, Jonathan Pinto
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the relationship between the two fundamental attributes of the trustee: character and competence. Although the trust research predominantly adopts an additive perspective, our research emphasizes a moderation (i.e., multiplicative) relationship and the significance of their interaction. We find that competence is an important but not always reliable predictor of trust. First, the positive effect of competence is conditional on the trustee’s high character. Second, higher competence can have a lower marginal effect as character decreases. Furthermore, situational assurance weakens the effect of character on competence, which explains the additive joint effect found in previous research. Our modified trust game also makes a methodological contribution by examining the interaction between the various personal and situational sources of trust (as compared with the lone operationalization of character in the classic trust game). We discuss the shortcomings of the additive perspective and the implications of our method and findings.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-08T12:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231167693
       
  • “The Secret” to Success' The Psychology of Belief in
           Manifestation

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      Authors: Lucas J. Dixon, Matthew J. Hornsey, Nicole Hartley
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We explored the psychology of those who believe in manifestation: the ability to cosmically attract success in life through positive self-talk, visualization, and symbolic actions (e.g., acting as if something is true). In three studies (collective N = 1,023), we developed a reliable and valid measure—the Manifestation Scale—and found over one third of participants endorsed manifestation beliefs. Those who scored higher on the scale perceived themselves as more successful, had stronger aspirations for success, and believed they were more likely to achieve future success. They were also more likely to be drawn to risky investments, have experienced bankruptcy, and to believe they could achieve an unlikely level of success more quickly. We discuss the potential positives and negatives of this belief system in the context of growing public desire for success and an industry that capitalizes on these desires.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-08T11:53:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231181162
       
  • Masculinity Threats Sequentially Arouse Public Discomfort, Anger, and
           Positive Attitudes Toward Sexual Violence

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      Authors: Theresa K. Vescio, Nathaniel E. C. Schermerhorn, Kathrine A. Lewis, Katsumi Yamaguchi-Pedroza, Abigail J. Loviscky
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Three experiments (N = 943) tested whether men (but not women) responded to gender threats with increased concern about how one looks in the eyes of others (i.e., public discomfort) and subsequent anger that, in turn, predicted attitudes about sexual violence. Consistent with predictions, for men, learning that one is like a woman was associated with threat-related emotions (public discomfort and anger) that, in turn, predicted the increased likelihood to express intent to engage in quid-pro-quo sexual harassment (Study 1), recall sexually objectifying others (Study 2), endorse sexual narcissism (Study 2), and accept rape myths (Study 3). These findings support the notion that failures to uphold normative and socially valued embodiments of masculinity are associated with behavioral intentions and attitudes associated with sexual violence. The implications of these findings for the endurance of sexual violence are discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-07T12:20:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231179431
       
  • Looking Competent Does Not Appeal to All Voters Equally: The Role of
           Social Class and Politicians’ Facial Appearance for Voting Likelihood

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      Authors: Fabienne Unkelbach, Tatjana Brütting, Nina Schilling, Michaela Wänke
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Voters generally value competence in politicians. Four studies, all conducted in Germany, show that this is especially pronounced in people of higher compared with lower social class. The first study, with a representative sample (N1 = 2239), found that the reported importance of competence in politicians increased with increasing socioeconomic status (SES). This was mediated by self-perceived competence which was higher in participants of higher SES. In three further studies (two preregistered, N2a&2b = 396, N3 = 400) participants merely saw pictures of politicians’ faces. Perceived competence based on facial appearance increased the likelihood of voting for a politician. Again, this effect was stronger among participants of higher compared with lower SES. This moderation persisted after controlling for participants’ political orientation and politicians’ perceived warmth and dominance. We discuss implications for future research on the psychological underpinnings of social class as well as appearance effects in the political context.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-07T07:26:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231181465
       
  • Political (Meta-)Dehumanization in Mental Representations: Divergent
           Emphases in the Minds of Liberals Versus Conservatives

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      Authors: Christopher D. Petsko, Nour S. Kteily
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We conducted two reverse-correlation studies, as well as two pilot studies reported in the online supplement (total N = 1,411), on the topics of (a) whether liberals and conservatives differ in the types of dehumanization that they cognitively emphasize when mentally representing one another, and if so, (b) whether liberals and conservatives are sensitive to how they are represented in the minds of political outgroup members. Results suggest that partisans indeed differ in the types of dehumanization that they cognitively emphasize when mentally representing one another: whereas conservatives’ dehumanization of liberals emphasizes immaturity (vs. savagery), liberals’ dehumanization of conservatives more strongly emphasizes savagery (vs. immaturity). In addition, results suggest that partisans may be sensitive to how they are represented. That is, partisans’ meta-representations—their representations of how the outgroup represents the ingroup—appear to accurately index the relative emphases of these two dimensions in the minds of political outgroup members.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-07T07:21:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231180971
       
  • Beautiful Strangers: Physical Evaluation of Strangers Is Influenced by
           Friendship Expectation

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      Authors: Natalia Kononov, Danit Ein-Gar
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People tend to evaluate themselves as better than they actually are. Such enhanced positive evaluation occurs not only for the self but also for close others. We extend the exploration of enhanced evaluation of close others to that of strangers. We predict that when individuals consider becoming friends with a stranger, their preference for a pleasant physical experience will drive an enhanced evaluation of that person. In two experiments, participants who considered friendship with a stranger evaluated the stranger as looking, sounding, and smelling better than how control participants evaluated them. The amount of time participants expected to spend with the stranger predicted their evaluation (Studies 1–2). In a large-scale third study, using various target stimuli, we found that when participants have an interest in a friendship but then are unable to physically spend time together, the enhanced-evaluation effect is weaker compared with when they could spend time together.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-06T10:47:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231180150
       
  • Google is Free: Moral Evaluations of Intergroup Curiosity

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      Authors: Ariel J. Mosley, Larisa Heiphetz Solomon
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Two experiments investigated how evaluations of intergroup curiosity differed depending on whether people placed responsibility for their learning on themselves or on outgroup members. In Study 1, participants (n = 340; 51% White-American, 49% Black-American) evaluated White actors who were curious about Black culture and placed responsibility on outgroup members to teach versus on themselves to learn. Both Black and White participants rated the latter actors as more moral, and perceptions of effort mediated this effect. A follow-up preregistered study (n = 513; 75% White-American) asked whether perceptions of greater effort cause greater perceptions of moral goodness. Replicating Study 1, participants rated actors as more moral when they placed responsibility on themselves versus others. Participants also rated actors as more moral when they exerted high versus low effort. These results clarify when and why participants view curiosity as morally good and help to strengthen bridges between work on curiosity, moral cognition, and intergroup relations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-07-06T10:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231180149
       
  • Thinking About Reasons for One’s Choices Increases Sensitivity to Moral
           Norms in Moral-Dilemma Judgments

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      Authors: Nyx L. Ng, Dillon M. Luke, Bertram Gawronski
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Whereas norm-conforming (deontological) judgments have been claimed to be rooted in automatic emotional responses, outcome-maximizing (utilitarian) judgments are assumed to require reflective reasoning. Using the CNI model to disentangle factors underlying moral-dilemma judgments, the current research investigated effects of thinking about reasons on sensitivity to consequences, sensitivity to moral norms, and general action preferences. Three experiments (two preregistered) found that thinking about reasons (vs. responding intuitively or thinking about intuitions) reliably increased sensitivity to moral norms independent of processing time. Thinking about reasons had no reproducible effects on sensitivity to consequences and general action preferences. The results suggest that norm-conforming responses in moral dilemmas can arise from reflective thoughts about reasons, challenging the modal view on the role of cognitive reflection in moral-dilemma judgment. The findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between degree (high vs. low elaboration) and content (intuitions vs. reasons) as distinct aspects of cognitive reflection.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-06-30T06:17:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231180760
       
  • Does Mindfulness Improve Intergroup Bias, Internalized Bias, and Anti-Bias
           

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      Authors: Doris F. Chang, James Donald, Jennifer Whitney, Iris Yi Miao, Baljinder Sahdra
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Whereas mindfulness has been shown to enhance personal well-being, studies suggest it may also benefit intergroup dynamics. Using an integrative conceptual model, this meta-analysis examined associations between mindfulness and (a) different manifestations of bias (implicit/explicit attitudes, affect, behavior) directed toward (b) different bias targets (outgroup or ingroup, e.g., internalized bias), by (c) intergroup orientation (toward bias or anti-bias). Of 70 samples, 42 (N = 3,229) assessed mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and 30 (N = 6,002) were correlational studies. Results showed a medium-sized negative effect of MBIs on bias outcomes, g = −0.56, 95% confidence interval [−0.72, −0.40]; I(2;3)2: 0.39; 0.48, and a small-to-medium negative effect between mindfulness and bias for correlational studies, r = −0.17 [−0.27, −0.03]; I(2;3)2: 0.11; 0.83. Effects were comparable for intergroup bias and internalized bias. We conclude by identifying gaps in the evidence base to guide future research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-06-29T12:46:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231178518
       
  • Successful Goal Attainment: Longitudinal Effects of Goal Commitment and
           Implicit Motives Among German and Zambian Adolescents

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      Authors: Jan Hofer, Ellen Kerpen, Holger Busch, Meike Lehmann, Anitha Menon
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Goal commitment typically relates to successful goal realization. Yet, individuals differ in how much their goals correspond to their implicit motives. We hypothesized that for those adolescents high in a given implicit motive, goal commitment and goal success in the corresponding motive domain (i.e., achievement, affiliation, power) are more closely related than for those low in the implicit motive. Data were assessed in an individualistic (Germany) and a collectivistic cultural context (Zambia) on two measurement occasions (i.e., T1: Picture Story Exercise for implicit motives; T1 and T2: GOALS questionnaire for goal commitment and success, respectively). Goal success at T2 was reliably predicted by goal importance and goal success at T1, respectively. The hypothesized interaction was found only for the implicit power motive but not for the implicit needs of achievement and affiliation, respectively. Results were equivalent across adolescents’ cultural backgrounds. Findings are discussed with respect to motive-specific effects on goal dimensions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-06-23T11:46:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231181938
       
  • How Elicitation Procedure Shapes Beliefs About Others’ Affective
           Responses to Action and Inaction

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      Authors: Ioannis Evangelidis, Manissa P. Gunadi
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Humans have long pondered the distinction between action and inaction. Classic work in social sciences provides evidence that most people believe that others experience higher levels of affect when they obtain the same outcome through action as opposed to inaction. In this paper, we theorize that people’s attributions of affect to identical outcomes resulting from action versus inaction are largely constructive in nature, such that they heavily depend on the elicitation procedure. Seven preregistered studies demonstrate that most individuals cease to attribute greater affect to identical outcomes resulting from action as opposed to inaction when it is made possible—or salient—that they can state that action and inaction are associated with equal levels of affect. Consequently, the present studies suggest that researchers can reach different conclusions about participants’ general proclivity to attribute greater affect to identical outcomes resulting from action (vs. inaction) depending on how participants’ beliefs are measured.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-06-23T11:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231175958
       
  • Holding the Belief That Gender Roles Can Change Reduces Women’s
           Work–Family Conflict

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      Authors: Charlotte H. Townsend, Laura J. Kray, Alexandra G. Russell
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Across four studies (N = 1544), we examined the relationship between individuals’ gender role mindsets, or beliefs about the malleability versus fixedness of traditional gender roles, and work–family conflict. We found that undergraduate women (but not men) business students holding a fixed, compared to growth, gender role mindset anticipated more work–family conflict. Next, we manipulated gender role mindset and demonstrated a causal link between women’s growth mindsets (relative to fixed mindsets and control conditions) and reduced work–family conflict. We showed mechanistically that growth gender role mindsets unburden women from prescriptive gender roles, reducing work–family conflict. Finally, during COVID-19, we demonstrated a similar pattern among working women in high-achieving dual-career couples. We found an indirect effect of women’s gender role mindset on job and relationship satisfaction, mediated through work–family conflict. Our preregistered studies suggest that holding the belief that gender roles can change mitigates women’s work–family conflict.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-06-19T05:37:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231178349
       
  • Toward an Index of Adaptive Personality Regulation

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      Authors: Paul Irwing, Clare Cook, David J. Hughes
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The idea that matching personality expression with situational demands is adaptive is implicit in many accounts of personality. Numerous constructs and measures have been posited to address this or similar phenomena. Few have proven adequate. In response, we proposed and tested a novel measurement approach (the APR index) assessing real-time behavior to rate participants’ success in matching personality expression with situational demands, which we denote adaptive personality regulation. An experimental study (N = 88) and an observational study of comedians (N = 203) provided tests of whether the APR index constituted a useful metric of adaptive personality regulation. In both studies, the APR index showed robust psychometric properties; was statistically unique from mean-level personality, self-monitoring, and the general factor of personality expression; and provided incremental concurrent prediction of task/job performance. The results suggest that the APR index provides a useful metric for studying the phenomenon of successfully matching personality expression to situational demands.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-06-19T05:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231177567
       
  • Do Good Citizens Look to the Future' The Link Between National
           Identification and Future Time Perspective and Their Role in Explaining
           Citizens’ Reactions to Conflicts Between Short-Term and Long-Term
           National Interests

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      Authors: Katarzyna Jamróz-Dolińska, Maciej Sekerdej, Mirjana Rupar, Maryna Kołeczek
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      When people consider what is good for their country, they might face a conflict between the country’s short-term and long-term interests. We suggest that resolving this conflict depends on people’s form of national identification and future time perspective. Across four studies (N = 4,274), we showed that constructive patriotism, but not conventional patriotism or glorification, was positively associated with future time perspective. Moreover, we showed that this further translated into people’s responses to intertemporal conflicts. Specifically, constructive patriotism was indirectly linked to higher support for national policies with long-term advantages (despite short-term disadvantages) and lower support for national policies with long-term disadvantages (despite short-term advantages), and these links were mediated by future time perspective. Overall, our results demonstrate that distinct forms of national identification are differently linked to future time perspective. Likewise, this helps explain differences in how much people care about their country’s present and future.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-06-19T05:27:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231176337
       
  • In the In-Between: Low-Income Latinx Students Sensemaking of Paradoxes of
           Independence and Interdependence

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      Authors: Rebecca Covarrubias, Ibette Valle
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Low-income, Latinx students navigate independent norms in U.S. educational systems and interdependent norms in their familial dynamics. Yet, their everyday interactions with important others (e.g., peers, parents, instructors) reveal more complexity in between these contexts, often communicating paradoxes of independence and interdependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 35 low-income, Latinx high school graduates before they entered college to examine how their daily interactions in home and school contexts facilitated dynamic and paradoxical engagement with interdependence and independence. Using constructivist grounded theory, we constructed five types of paradoxes. For example, strong practices of interdependence in their college-preparatory high school setting (e.g., extensive academic support) undermined students’ desires to be independent. These contradictions reflect an in-between space, referred to as nepantla, where students give voice to and make sense of past, present, and future understandings of how to be a self.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-06-17T12:04:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231180148
       
  • Understanding the Magnitude of Hypocrisy in Moral Contradictions: The Role
           of Surprise at Violating Strong Attitudes

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      Authors: Jacob D. Teeny, Jaroth V. Lanzalotta, Richard E. Petty
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although two people could both enact similar forms of hypocrisy, one person might be judged as more hypocritical than the other. The present research advances a novel, theoretical explanation for a paradigmatic instance of this: the increased hypocrisy ascribed to contradicting a morally (vs. nonmorally) based attitude. In contrast to prior explanations, the present research shows that people infer targets holding morally (vs. nonmorally) based attitudes are more difficult to change. Consequently, when people are hypocritical on these stances, it elicits greater surprise, which amplifies the perceived hypocrisy. Through both statistical mediation and experimental moderation, we provide evidence for this process and show how our explanation generalizes to understanding heightened hypocrisy in other contexts, too (i.e., violating nonmoral attitudes held with certainty vs. uncertainty). Altogether, we provide an integrative, theoretical lens for predicting when moral and nonmoral acts of hypocrisy will be perceived as particularly hypocritical.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-06-15T09:09:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231177773
       
  • Half Empty and Half Full' Biased Perceptions of Compassionate Love and
           Effects of Dyadic Complementarity

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      Authors: James J. Kim, Harry T. Reis, Michael R. Maniaci, Samantha Joel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The prevailing theory on relationship judgments for interaction attributes suggests individuals tend to underestimate a romantic partner’s expressions of compassionate love and that such underestimation is beneficial for the relationship. Yet, limited research has incorporated dyadic perspectives to assess how biased perceptions are associated with both partners’ outcomes. In two daily studies of couples, we used distinct analytical approaches (Truth and Bias Model; Dyadic Response Surface Analysis) to inform perspectives on how biased perceptions are interrelated and predict relationship satisfaction. Consistent with prior research, people demonstrated an underestimation bias. However, there were differential effects of biased perceptions for actors versus partners: Underestimation predicted lower actor satisfaction but generally higher satisfaction for partners. Furthermore, we find evidence for complementarity effects: partners’ directional biases were inversely related, and couples were more satisfied when partners had opposing patterns of directional bias. Findings help integrate theoretical perspectives on the adaptive role of biased relationship perceptions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-26T12:54:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231171986
       
  • Nasty and Noble Notes: Interdependence Structures Drive Self-Serving
           Gossip

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      Authors: Terence D. Dores Cruz, Romy van der Lee, Myriam N. Bechtoldt, Bianca Beersma
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Much information people receive about others reaches them via gossip. But is this gossip trustworthy' We examined this in a scenario study (Nsenders = 350, Nobservations = 700) and an interactive laboratory experiment (Nsenders = 126; Nobservations = 3024). In both studies, participants played a sequential prisoner’s dilemma where a gossip sender observed a target’s (first decider’s) decision and could gossip about this to a receiver (second decider). We manipulated the interdependence structure such that gossipers’ outcomes were equal to targets’ outcomes, equal to receivers’ outcomes, or independent. Compared to no interdependence, gossip was more often false when gossipers were interdependent with targets but not when interdependent with receivers. As such, false positive gossip (self-serving when interdependent with targets) increased but false negative gossip (self-serving when interdependent with receivers) did not. In conclusion, the interdependence structure affected gossip’s trustworthiness: When gossipers’ outcomes were interdependent with targets, gossip was less trustworthy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-26T06:04:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231171054
       
  • How Much Is It Weighing on You' Development and Validation of the
           Secrecy Burden Scale

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      Authors: Alisa Bedrov, Shelly L. Gable
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Keeping a secret is often considered burdensome, with numerous consequences for well-being. However, there is no standardized measure of secrecy burden, and most studies focus on individual/cognitive burden without considering social/relational aspects. This research aimed to develop and validate a secrecy burden measure tapping both intrapersonal and interpersonal components. Study 1 used exploratory factor analysis to reveal a four-factor model of secrecy burden: Daily Personal Impact, Relationship Impact, Pull to Reveal, and Anticipated Consequences. Study 2 used confirmatory factor analysis to replicate this factor structure and found that each factor was uniquely associated with different emotional and well-being outcomes. Study 3 employed a longitudinal design and found that higher scores on each factor predicted lower authenticity and higher depression and anxiety 2 to 3 weeks later. Altogether, this research is the first step in standardizing a secrecy burden measure and applying it to real-world secrets and well-being outcomes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-24T08:50:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231172387
       
  • Socioeconomic Status and Meta-Perceptions: How Markers of Culture and Rank
           Predict Beliefs About How Others See Us

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      Authors: Holly R. Engstrom, Kristin Laurin, Nick R. Kay, Lauren J. Human
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      How does a person’s socioeconomic status (SES) relate to how she thinks others see her' Seventeen studies (eight pre-registered; three reported in-text and 14 replications in supplemental online material [SOM], total N = 6,124) found that people with low SES believe others see them as colder and less competent than those with high SES. The SES difference in meta-perceptions was explained by people’s self-regard and self-presentation expectations. Moreover, lower SES people’s more negative meta-perceptions were not warranted: Those with lower SES were not seen more negatively, and were less accurate in guessing how others saw them. They also had important consequences: People with lower SES blamed themselves more for negative feedback about their warmth and competence. Internal meta-analyses suggested this effect was larger and more consistent for current socioeconomic rank than cultural background.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-22T11:05:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231171435
       
  • When Interdependence Backfires: The Coronavirus Infected Three Times More
           People in Rice-Farming Areas During Chinese New Year

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      Authors: Xindong Wei, Thomas Talhelm, Kaili Zhang, Wang Fengyan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Interdependent cultures around the world have generally controlled COVID-19 better. We tested this pattern in China based on the rice theory, which argues that historically rice-farming regions of China are more interdependent than wheat-farming areas. Unlike earlier findings, rice-farming areas suffered more COVID-19 cases in the early days of the outbreak. We suspected this happened because the outbreak fell on Chinese New Year, and people in rice areas felt more pressure to visit family and friends. We found historical evidence that people in rice areas visit more family and friends for Chinese New Year than people in wheat areas. In 2020, rice areas also saw more New Year travel. Regional differences in social visits were correlated with COVID-19 spread. These results reveal an exception to the general idea that interdependent culture helps cultures contain COVID-19. When relational duties conflict with public health, interdependence can lead to more spread of disease.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-19T12:52:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231174070
       
  • Estimating the Reliability and Stability of Cognitive Processes
           Contributing to Responses on the Implicit Association Test

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      Authors: Jacob Elder, Liz Wilson, Jimmy Calanchini
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Implicit measures were initially assumed to assess stable individual differences, but other perspectives posit that they reflect context-dependent processes. This pre-registered research investigates whether the processes contributing to responses on the race Implicit Association Test are temporally stable and reliably measured using multinomial processing tree modeling. We applied two models—the Quad model and the Process Dissociation Procedure—to six datasets (N = 2,036), each collected over two occasions, examined the within-measurement reliability and between-measurement stability of model parameters, and meta-analyzed the results. Parameters reflecting accuracy-oriented processes demonstrate adequate stability and reliability, which suggests these processes are relatively stable within individuals. Parameters reflecting evaluative associations demonstrate poor stability but modest reliability, which suggests that associations are either context-dependent or stable but noisily measured. These findings suggest that processes contributing to racial bias on implicit measures differ in temporal stability, which has practical implications for predicting behavior using the Implicit Association Test.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-19T12:50:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231171256
       
  • Psychopathic Traits and Utilitarian Moral Judgment Revisited

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      Authors: Mariola Paruzel-Czachura, Zuzanna Farny
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      To provide deeper insights into the relationships between psychopathic traits and utilitarian moral judgment, we studied N = 702 adults using three psychopathy scales: (a) the Levenson’s Self-report Psychopathy Scale; (b) the Psychopathic Personality Inventory; and (c) the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; and three measures of utilitarian moral judgment: (a) trolley dilemmas; (b) the Consequences, Norms, and Inaction (CNI) model of moral decision-making; and (c) the Oxford Utilitarianism Scale. When using the traditional approach to moral judgment (i.e., trolley dilemmas, instrumental harm, traditional score from the CNI model), we found that higher levels of psychopathic traits were associated with a higher utilitarian tendency. When using the modeling approach, we found that a higher level of psychopathic traits was related to weaker sensitivity to moral norms and less action averse in morally problematic situations. In addition, we found negative associations between impartial beneficence and all psychopathy scores.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-11T12:37:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231169105
       
  • Lasting Declines in Couples’ Social Network Interactions in the
           First Years of COVID

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      Authors: Benjamin B. Haggerty, David P. Kennedy, Thomas N. Bradbury, Benjamin R. Karney
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Since the onset of COVID-19, a rise in loneliness has raised concerns about the social impact of lockdowns and distancing mandates. Yet, to date, the effects of the pandemic on social networks have been studied only indirectly. To evaluate how the pandemic affected social networks, the current analyses analyzed five waves of detailed social network interviews conducted before and during the first 18 months of the pandemic in a sample especially vulnerable to contracting the virus: mostly non-White couples (243 husbands and 250 wives) recruited from lower income neighborhoods. Pre-COVID interviews asked spouses to name 24 individuals with whom they interact regularly. Post-COVID interviews indicated a nearly 50% decline in face-to-face interactions and a nearly 40% decline in virtual interactions, with little recovery over the first 18 months of the pandemic. Compared with less affluent couples, those with higher incomes maintained more of their network relationships, especially when virtual interactions were taken into account.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-09T10:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231169591
       
  • A Race-Based Size Bias for Black Adolescent Boys: Size, Innocence, and
           Threat

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      Authors: Erin Freiburger, Mattea Sim, Amy G. Halberstadt, Kurt Hugenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      We adopted an intersectional stereotyping lens to investigate whether race-based size bias—the tendency to judge Black men as larger than White men—extends to adolescents. Participants judged Black boys as taller than White boys, despite no real size differences (Studies 1A and 1B), and even when boys were matched in age (Study 1B). The size bias persisted when participants viewed computer-generated faces that varied only in apparent race (Study 2A) and extended to perceptions of physical strength, with Black boys judged as stronger than White boys (Study 2B). The size bias was associated with threat-related perceptions, including beliefs that Black boys were less innocent than White boys (Study 3). Finally, the size bias was moderated by a valid threat signal (i.e., anger expressions, Studies 4A and 4B). Thus, adult-like threat stereotypes are perpetrated upon Black boys, leading them to be erroneously perceived as more physically formidable than White boys.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-09T10:09:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231167978
       
  • We Need Tough Brothers and Sisters in a Tight World: Cultural Tightness
           Leads to a Preference for Dominant and Muscular Leaders

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      Authors: Hao Chen, Xijing Wang, Huilin Zang, Ana Guinote
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Cultural tightness is characterized by strong norms and harsh punishments for deviant behaviors. We hypothesized that followers in tight (vs. loose) cultures would more strongly prefer muscular leaders. This hypothesis was confirmed across seven studies (N = 1,615) employing samples from the United States, the United Kingdom, and China. Using actual political leaders, we demonstrated that the tighter the state’s culture was, the more muscular the elected governor was (Study 1). Temporarily situating participants in a tight (vs. loose) culture made them select a leader higher on muscularity but not on body fat, and the effects obtained occurred for both male and female leaders (Studies 2–3B). In addition, we demonstrated the mediating role of authoritarianism and a preference for a dominant leadership in this process (Studies 4–5B). These results demonstrate the importance of considering the interface between culture and the physical appearance of leaders.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-08T12:39:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231169107
       
  • Millennials Versus Boomers: An Asymmetric Pattern of Realistic and
           Symbolic Threats Drives Intergenerational Tensions in the United States

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      Authors: Stéphane P. Francioli, Felix Danbold, Michael S. North
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Intergenerational conflict appears frequently in American public discourse, often framed as clashes between Millennials and Baby Boomers. Building on intergroup threat theory in an exploratory survey, a preregistered correlational study, and a preregistered intervention (N = 1,714), we find that (a) Millennials and Baby Boomers do express more animosity toward each other than toward other generations (Studies 1–3); (b) their animosity reflects asymmetric generational concerns: Baby Boomers primarily fear that Millennials threaten traditional American values (symbolic threat) while Millennials primarily fear that Baby Boomers’s delayed transmission of power hampers their life prospects (realistic threat; Studies 2–3); (c) finally, an intervention challenging the entitativity of generational categories alleviates perceived threats and hostility for both generations (Study 3). These findings inform research on intergroup threat, provide a theoretically grounded framework to understand intergenerational relations, and put forward a strategy to increase harmony in aging societies.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-05-03T12:48:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231164203
       
  • Extreme Reactions to Globalization: Investigating Indirect, Longitudinal,
           and Experimental Effects of the Globalization–Radicalization Nexus

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      Authors: Simon Ozer, Milan Obaidi, Gulnaz Anjum
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Radicalization—as a complex process of adopting extremist attitudes—includes maladaptive responses to the transformative power of globalization. Globalization contains sociocultural disruptive and acculturative processes, initiating exclusionary and integrative reactions. These reactions have dissimilarly been associated with aspects of extremism. In seven preregistered studies (N = 2,161), we draw on various methods combining naturalistic circumstances, cross-sectional, longitudinal, experimental, and representative data to scrutinize the complex globalization–radicalization nexus within the contexts of the United States, the United Kingdom, and Pakistan. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that insecure life attachment (i.e., experience of contextual safety, inclusiveness, reliability, fairness, and facilitating well-being) and globalization perceived as a threat can lead to extremism through defensive reactions to globalization. Specifically, we found ethnic protection to be a central mechanism connecting sociocultural disruption and threats with extremism. Globalized radicalization ascends as a contemporary phenomenon reflecting the dark side of global interconnectivity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-29T01:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231167694
       
  • Invariance Violations and the CNI Model of Moral Judgments

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      Authors: Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, Karl Christoph Klauer
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      A number of papers have applied the CNI model of moral judgments to investigate deontological and consequentialist response tendencies. A controversy has emerged concerning the methodological assumptions of the CNI model. In this article, we contribute to this debate by extending the CNI paradigm with a skip option. This allows us to test an invariance assumption that the CNI model shares with prominent process-dissociation models in cognitive and social psychology. Like for these models, the present experiments found violations of the invariance assumption for the CNI model. In Experiment 2, we replicate these results and selectively influence the new parameter for the skip option. In addition, structural equation modeling reveals that previous findings for the relationship between gender and the CNI parameters are completely mediated by the association of gender with primary psychopathy.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-22T11:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231164888
       
  • Choosing Money Over Meaningful Work: Examining Relative Job Preferences
           for High Compensation Versus Meaningful Work

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      Authors: Sarah Ward
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People sometimes must choose between prioritizing meaningful work or high compensation. Eight studies (N = 4,177; 7 preregistered) examined the relative importance of meaningful work and salary in evaluations of actual and hypothetical jobs. Although meaningful work and high salaries are both perceived as highly important job attributes when evaluated independently, when presented with tradeoffs between these job attributes, participants consistently preferred high-salary jobs with low meaningfulness over low-salary jobs with high meaningfulness (Studies 1-5). Forecasts of happiness and meaning outside of work helped explain condition differences in job interest (Studies 4 and 5). Extending the investigation toward actual jobs, Studies 6a and 6b showed that people express stronger preferences for higher pay (vs. more meaningful work) in their current jobs. Although meaningful work is a strongly valued job attribute, it may be less influential than salary to evaluations of hypothetical and current jobs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-20T12:30:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231159781
       
  • Minds of Monsters: Scary Imbalances Between Cognition and Emotion

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      Authors: Ivan Hernandez, Ryan S. Ritter, Jesse L. Preston
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Four studies investigate a fear of imbalanced minds hypothesis that threatening agents perceived to be relatively mismatched in capacities for cognition (e.g., self-control and reasoning) and emotion (e.g., sensations and emotions) will be rated as scarier and more dangerous by observers. In ratings of fictional monsters (e.g., zombies and vampires), agents seen as more imbalanced between capacities for cognition and emotion (high cognition–low emotion or low cognition–high emotion) were rated as scarier compared to those with equally matched levels of cognition and emotion (Studies 1 and 2). Similar effects were observed using ratings of scary animals (e.g., tigers, sharks; Studies 2 and 3), and infected humans (Study 4). Moreover, these effects are explained through diminished perceived control/predictability over the target agent. These findings highlight the role of balance between cognition and emotion in appraisal of threatening agents, in part because those agents are seen as more chaotic and uncontrollable.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-20T12:27:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231160035
       
  • Behind the Blackpill: Self-Verification and Identity Fusion Predict
           Endorsement of Violence Against Women Among Self-Identified Incels

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      Authors: Gregory J. Rousis, Francois Alexi Martel, Jennifer K. Bosson, William B. Swann
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Incels (involuntary celibates) have advocated for and even enacted violence against women. We explored two mechanisms that may underly incels’ actions: identity fusion and self-verification. Study 1 (n = 155) revealed stronger identity fusion (deep alignment) with the ingroup among men active in online incel communities compared to men active in other male-dominated groups. Study 2 (n = 113) showed that feeling self-verified by other incels predicted fusion with incels; fusion, in turn, predicted endorsement of past and future violence toward women. Study 3 (n = 283; preregistered) replicated the indirect effects from Study 2 and extended them by linking fusion to online harassment of women. All indirect effects were particularly strong among self-identified incels high in narcissism. We discuss the synergistic links between self-verification and identity fusion in fostering extreme behaviors and identify directions for future research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-18T11:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231166481
       
  • Black + White = Prototypically Black: Visualizing Black and White
           People’s Mental Representations of Black–White Biracial People

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      Authors: Andre’ Oliver, Ryan E. Tracy, Steven G. Young, Daryl A. Wout
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Utilizing reverse correlation, we investigated Black and White participants’ mental representations of Black–White Biracial people. Across 200 trails, Black and White participants chose which of two faces best fit specific social categories. Using these decisions, we visually estimated Black and White people’s mental representations of Biracial people by generating classification images (CIs). Independent raters blind to condition determined that White CI generators’ Biracial CI was prototypically Blacker (i.e., more Afrocentric facial features and darker skin tone) than Black CI generators’ Biracial CI (Study 1a/b). Furthermore, independent raters could not distinguish between White CI generators’ Black and Biracial CIs, a bias not exhibited by Black CI generators (Study 2). A separate task demonstrated that prejudiced White participants allocated fewer imaginary funds to the more prototypically Black Biracial CI (Study 3), providing converging evidence. How phenotypicality bias, the outgroup homogeneity effect, and hypodescent influences people’s mental images of ingroup/outgroup members is discussed.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-13T12:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231164026
       
  • The Gap Between Us: Income Inequality Reduces Social Affiliation in Dyadic
           Interactions

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      Authors: Daniel M. Stancato, Dacher Keltner, Serena Chen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that increased income inequality between individuals will reduce social affiliation within dyadic interactions. In three experiments, we examined the effects of income inequality on key indices of affiliation using semi-structured interactions. In the first two experiments, a participant and confederate were randomly assigned to a low- or high-power role and compensated mildly or extremely unequally. In Experiment 3, inequality and inequity were orthogonally manipulated to determine whether inequality’s social consequences are moderated by the fairness of the income distribution. We demonstrated that greater inequality produced more negative emotional responses, reduced desire for closeness, and harsher evaluations of one’s partner, regardless of one’s power role and the equitability of the income distribution. We also obtained evidence that greater inequality reduces behavioral warmth, although this effect was less consistent. Our results begin to unpack the psychological processes through which income inequality worsens societal well-being.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-11T11:27:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231164213
       
  • Stability and Change of Individual Differences in Ideal Partner
           Preferences Over 13 Years

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      Authors: Julie C. Driebe, Julia Stern, Lars Penke, Tanja M. Gerlach
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Ideal partner preferences for traits in a partner are said to be stable cognitive constructs. However, longitudinal studies investigating the same participants’ ideals repeatedly have so far been limited to relatively short retest intervals of a maximum of 3 years. Here, we investigate the stability and change of ideals across 13 years and participants’ insight into how ideals have changed. A total of 204 participants (M = 46.2 years, SD = 7.4, 104 women) reported their ideals at two time points. We found a mean rank-order stability of r = .42 and an overall profile stability of r = .73 (distinctive r = .53). Some ideals changed over time, for example, increased for status-resources in relation to age and parenthood. We found some but varying insight into how ideals had changed (mean r = .20). Results support the idea of ideals being stable cognitive constructs but suggest some variability related to the demands of different life stages.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-08T08:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231164757
       
  • Discrimination and Perceived Cultural Mismatch Increase Status-Based
           Identity Uncertainty

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      Authors: Sierra H. Feasel, Tessa L. Dover, Payton A. Small, Brenda Major
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Periods of social mobility, such as attending college, can challenge one’s status-based identity, leading to uncertainty around one’s status in society. Status uncertainty is associated with poorer well-being and academic outcomes. Little is known, however, about what experiences lead to status uncertainty. The current longitudinal study investigated discrimination experiences and cultural mismatch as predictors of status uncertainty. We propose that discrimination indirectly predicts increased status uncertainty by increasing perceived cultural mismatch with the university. Participants were Latinx college students, all of whom were low-income and/or first generation to college. Discrimination experiences were measured at the end of participants’ first year. Cultural mismatch and status uncertainty were measured at the end of Year 2. Status uncertainty was measured again at the end of Year 3. Results indicated that students who experienced more frequent discrimination felt more cultural mismatch 1 year later, and, in turn, reported increased status uncertainty over the following year.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-07T09:13:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231163736
       
  • Selfie-Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Selfie
           Behaviors and Self-Evaluations

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      Authors: Roxanne N. Felig, Jamie L. Goldenberg
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The “selfie” phenomenon shaped the past two decades, yet there is inconsistent evidence concerning the relationship between selfie behaviors and self-evaluations. This meta-analysis investigates the relationship between selfie taking, editing, and posting behavior and general and appearance-specific self-evaluations. The results reveal that selfie taking and posting are related to positive appearance-specific self-evaluations. In contrast, selfie editing is related to negative self-evaluations both generally and specific to appearance. Gender and age did not moderate these relationships, but methodological factors did, suggesting these relationships depend on factors, such as how selfie behaviors are measured and study design. We interpret these findings through the lens of prominent social psychological theories and conclude with suggestions to guide future research.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-06T07:11:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231158252
       
  • Putting Oneself Ahead of the Group: The Liability of Narcissistic
           Leadership

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      Authors: Jennifer Lynch, Alex J. Benson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Integrating insights from interdependence theory with the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept, we propose that a pivotal obstacle for narcissistic leaders is their inability to sustain benevolent perceptions over time. As people strive to interpret social behavior in terms of self- or other-interest, the narcissistic tendency of prioritizing self-interests over the collective may become apparent and eventually taint their reputation as a leader. We examined how interpersonal motive perceptions—based on attributions of self- and other-interest—would clarify the leadership paradox of narcissism. We tracked 472 participants in 119 teams across four time-points. Narcissistic rivalry (but not admiration) corresponded to increasingly negative leader effectiveness ratings. The extent to which individuals were perceived as self-maximizing and lacking concern for other interests was tightly connected to declines in leader effectiveness across time. Altogether, these results offer insight into how perceived interpersonal motives may explain the downfall of narcissistic leadership.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-04T09:32:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231163645
       
  • Social Class, Sex, and the Ability to Recognize Emotions: The Main Effect
           is in the Interaction

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      Authors: Susan A. Brener, Willem E. Frankenhuis, Ethan S. Young, Bruce J. Ellis
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has demonstrated an inverse relation between subjective social class (SSC) and performance on emotion recognition tasks. Study 1 (N = 418) involved a preregistered replication of this effect using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and the Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery. The inverse relation replicated; however, exploratory analyses revealed a significant interaction between sex and SSC in predicting emotion recognition, indicating that the effect was driven by males. In Study 2 (N = 745), we preregistered and tested the interaction on a separate archival dataset. The interaction replicated; the association between SSC and emotion recognition again occurred only in males. Exploratory analyses (Study 3; N = 381) examined the generalizability of the interaction to incidental face memory. Our results underscore the need to reevaluate previous research establishing the main effects of social class and sex on emotion recognition abilities, as these effects apparently moderate each other.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-04T09:29:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231159775
       
  • Why Do God and Humans Punish' Perceived Retributivist Punishment Motives
           Hinge on Views of the True Self

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      Authors: Young-eun Lee, James P. Dunlea, Larisa Heiphetz
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Laypeople often believe that God punishes transgressions; however, their inferences about God’s punishment motives remain unclear. We addressed this topic by asking laypeople to indicate why God punishes. We also examined participants’ inferences about why humans punish to contribute to scholarly conversations regarding the extent to which people may anthropomorphize God’s mind. In Studies 1A to 1C, participants viewed God as less retributive than humans. In Study 2, participants expected God (vs. humans) to view humans’ true selves more positively; this difference mediated participants’ views of God as less retributive than humans. Study 3 manipulated agents’ views of humans’ true selves and examined how such information influenced each agent’s perceived motives. Participants viewed a given agent as less retributive when that agent regarded the true self as good (versus bad). These findings extend scholarship on lay theories of punishment motives and highlight links between religious and moral cognition.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T06:18:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231160027
       
  • When High Subjective Social Status Becomes a Burden: A Japan–U.S.
           Comparison of Biological Health Markers

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      Authors: Jiyoung Park, Shinobu Kitayama, Yuri Miyamoto
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      High subjective social status (SSS) is believed to protect health in the current literature. However, high SSS entails social responsibilities that can be stressful in collectivistic cultural contexts. Here, we tested the hypothesis that those socialized in collectivistic societies (e.g., Japan) recognize their high social status as entailing social duties difficult to ignore even when they are excessive. Using cross-cultural survey data (N = 1,289) and a measure of biological health risk (BHR) by biomarkers of inflammation and cardiovascular malfunction, we found that higher SSS predicted lower BHR for American males. In contrast, higher SSS predicted higher BHR for Japanese males, mediated by the perceived difficulty of disengaging from their current goals. In both cultural groups, females showed no association between SSS and BHR. These findings suggest that social status has differing health implications, depending on the relative salience of privileges and burden-producing responsibilities in different cultural contexts.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-01T06:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231162747
       
  • The Authentic Self Is the Self-Enhancing Self: A Self-Enhancement
           Framework of Authenticity

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      Authors: Corey L. Guenther, Yiyue Zhang, Constantine Sedikides
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Authenticity refers to behaving in a manner that aligns with one’s true self. The true self, though, is positive. From a self-enhancement standpoint, people exaggerate their strengths and overlook their shortcomings, forming positively-distorted views of themselves. We propose a self-enhancement framework of authenticity, advocating a reciprocal relation between the two constructs. Trait self-enhancement was associated with higher trait authenticity (Study 1), and day-to-day fluctuations in self-enhancement predicted corresponding variations in state authenticity (Study 2). Furthermore, manipulating self-enhancement elevated state authenticity (Studies 3–4), which was associated with meaning in life (Study 4), and manipulating authenticity augmented self-enhancement, which was associated with meaning in life and thriving (Study 5). The authentic self is largely the self-enhancing self.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-04-01T06:56:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231160653
       
  • Do Beliefs That Older Adults Are Inflexible Serve as a Barrier to Racial
           Equality'

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      Authors: Kimberly E. Chaney, Alison L. Chasteen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Past research has demonstrated that older adults are stereotyped as less malleable than young adults. Moreover, beliefs that people are less malleable are associated with lower confrontations of prejudice, as perpetrators are seen as less capable of changing their (prejudiced) behavior. The present research sought to integrate these lines of research to demonstrate that endorsement of ageist beliefs that older adults are less malleable will lead to a lower confrontation of anti-Black prejudice espoused by older adults. Across four experimental studies (N = 1,573), people were less likely to confront anti-Black prejudice espoused by an 82-year-old compared with a 62-, 42-, or 20-year-old, due, in part, to beliefs that older adults are less malleable. Further exploration demonstrated that malleability beliefs about older adults were held across young, middle-aged, and older adult samples. These findings demonstrate how stereotypes about older adults can impede racial equality.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-31T11:36:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231159767
       
  • Biological Essentialism Correlates With (But Doesn’t Cause')
           Intergroup Bias

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      Authors: April H. Bailey, Joshua Knobe
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      People with biological essentialist beliefs about social groups also tend to endorse biased beliefs about individuals in those groups, including intensified emphasis on the group, stereotypes, and prejudices. These correlations could be due to biological essentialism causing bias, and some experimental studies support this causal direction. Given this prior work, we expected to find that biological essentialism would lead to increased bias compared with a control condition and set out to extend this prior work in a new direction (regarding “value-based” essentialism). But although the manipulation affected essentialist beliefs and essentialist beliefs were correlated with group emphasis (Study 1), stereotyping (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c), prejudice (Studies 3a), there was no evidence that biological essentialism caused these outcomes (NTotal = 1,903). Given these findings, our initial research question became moot. We thus focus on reexamining the relationship between essentialism and bias.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-29T04:50:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231158095
       
  • Beliefs About Linear Social Progress

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      Authors: Julia D. Hur, Rachel L. Ruttan
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Society changes, but the degree to which it has changed can be difficult to evaluate. We propose that people possess beliefs that society has made, and will make, progress in a linear fashion toward social justice. Five sets of studies (13 studies in total) demonstrate that American participants consistently estimated that over time, society has made positive, linear progress toward social issues, such as gender equality, racial diversity, and environmental protection. These estimates were often not aligned with reality, where much progress has been made in a nonlinear fashion. We also ruled out some potential alternative explanations (Study 3) and explored the potential correlates of linear progress beliefs (Study 4). We further showed that these beliefs reduced the perceived urgency and effort needed to make further progress on social issues (Study 5), which may ultimately inhibit people’s willingness to act.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-23T10:17:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231158843
       
  • To Protect or to Kill' Environmental Contingent Self-Worth Moderates Death
           Prime Effects on Animal-Based Attitudes

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      Authors: Samuel Fairlamb, Andrada-Elena Stan, Katinka Lovas
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Lifshin et al. found that death primes increased support for killing animals, suggesting that the killing of animals serves a terror management function. The present research adds to this by suggesting that protecting animals can also serve a terror management function when people see such behaviors as culturally valuable. In three studies (N = 765), environmental contingent self-worth (ECSW) moderated the effect of death primes on attitudes toward animals. Attitudes toward animals also mediated the effect of a death prime on increased power-based invulnerability for those with low ECSW and decreased power-based invulnerability for those with high ECSW (Study 3). Finally, we found little support that death primes influenced beliefs regarding human–animal superiority (Study 1 and 2) or similarity (Study 2). Our findings therefore provide partial support for past terror management research and further the understanding regarding how to promote more benevolent human–animal relations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T06:20:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231160652
       
  • Do Experimental Manipulations of Pathogen Avoidance Motivations Influence
           Conformity'

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      Authors: Florian van Leeuwen, Bastian Jaeger, Willem W.A. Sleegers, Michael Bang Petersen
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      By conforming to ingroup norms, individuals coordinate with other group members, preserve cohesion, and avoid costs of exclusion. Previous experiments have shown that increased concerns about infectious disease increase conformity. However, coordination with other group members has multiple benefits, most of which exist independent of pathogenic infection. Hence, a strong causal effect of pathogen avoidance motivations on conformity seems unlikely. Results from five experiments (N = 1,931) showed only limited support for the hypothesis that experimentally increasing pathogen avoidance motivations influences conformity. Overall, our findings are not consistent with the notion that the human mind contains a fast-acting psychological mechanism that regulates conformity as a function of short-term pathogen avoidance motivations.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T06:18:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231160655
       
  • Volatility in Expectations While Awaiting Important News

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      Authors: Melissa Wilson, Kate Sweeny
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Waiting for important news is uniquely anxiety provoking, and expectations for one’s outcome fluctuate throughout the wait. Emotional volatility is typically associated with negative outcomes, but little is known about volatility in expectations. In Study 1, law graduates (N = 248) estimated their chances of passing the bar exam every 2 weeks during the wait for results. Greater volatility in expectations, operationalized as the frequency with which outcome expectations changed during the wait, was associated with greater worry and more negative emotionality throughout the wait. Study 2 partially replicated these findings in a sample of Trump and Biden supporters (N = 444) awaiting the result of the 2020 presidential election. Study 2 also demonstrated a causal link between constrained (vs. volatile) expectations and worry. Our findings have implications for how best to manage one’s expectations while awaiting important news, with the goal of minimizing worry and other negative emotions.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T12:33:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231158883
       
  • Values in Romantic Relationships

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      Authors: Reine C. van der Wal, Lukas F. Litzellachner, Johan C. Karremans, Nadia Buiter, Jamie Breukel, Gregory R. Maio
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      There are substantive theoretical questions about whether personal values affect romantic relationship functioning. The current research tested the association between personal values and romantic relationship quality while considering potential mediating mechanisms related to pro-relational attitudes, communal strength, intrinsic relationship motivation, and entitlement. Across five studies using different measures of value priorities, we found that the endorsement of self-transcendence values (i.e., benevolence, universalism) was related to higher romantic relationship quality. The findings provided support for the mediating roles of pro-relational attitudes, communal strength, and intrinsic relationship motivation. Finally, a dyadic analysis in our fifth study showed that self-transcendence values mostly influence a person’s own relationship quality but not that of their partner. These findings provide the first evidence that personal values are important variables in romantic relationship functioning while helping to map the mechanisms through which this role occurs.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T12:29:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231156975
       
  • Social Class and Social Pain: Target SES Biases Judgments of Pain and
           Support for White Target Individuals

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      Authors: Brielle N. Johnson, Erin Freiburger, Jason C. Deska, Jonathan W. Kunstman
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Social pain, defined as distress caused by negative interpersonal experiences (e.g., ostracism, mistreatment), is detrimental to health. Yet, it is unclear how social class might shape judgments of the social pains of low-socioeconomic status (SES) and high-SES individuals. Five studies tested competing toughness and empathy predictions for SES’s effect on social pain judgments. Consistent with an empathy account, in all studies (Ncumulative = 1,046), low-SES White targets were judged more sensitive to social pain than high-SES White targets. Further, empathy mediated these effects, such that participants felt greater empathy and expected more social pain for low-SES targets relative to high-SES targets. Social pain judgments also informed judgments of social support needs, as low-SES targets were presumed to need more coping resources to manage hurtful events than high-SES targets. The current findings provide initial evidence that empathic concern for low-SES White individuals sensitizes social pain judgments and increases expected support needs for lower class White individuals.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-11T06:43:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231156025
       
  • Difficulty-as-Improvement: The Courage to Keep Going in the Face of
           Life’s Difficulties

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      Authors: Veronica X. Yan, Daphna Oyserman, Gülnaz Kiper, Mohammad Atari
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      When a task or goal is hard to think about or do, people can infer that it is a waste of their time (difficulty-as-impossibility) or valuable to them (difficulty-as-importance). Separate from chosen tasks and goals, life can present unchosen difficulties. Building on identity-based motivation theory, people can see these as opportunities for self-betterment (difficulty-as-improvement). People use this language when they recall or communicate about difficulties (autobiographical memories, Study 1; “Common Crawl” corpus, Study 2). Our difficulty mindset measures are culture-general (Australia, Canada, China, India, Iran, New Zealand, Turkey, the United States, Studies 3–15, N = 3,532). People in Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD)-er countries slightly agree with difficulty-as-improvement. Religious, spiritual, conservative people, believers in karma and a just world, and people from less-WEIRD countries score higher. People who endorse difficulty-as-importance see themselves as conscientious, virtuous, and leading lives of purpose. So do endorsers of difficulty-as-improvement—who also see themselves as optimists (all scores lower for difficulty-as-impossibility endorsers).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-02T09:20:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231153680
       
  • On the Disposition to Think Analytically: Four Distinct Intuitive-Analytic
           Thinking Styles

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      Authors: Christie Newton, Justin Feeney, Gordon Pennycook
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Many measures have been developed to index intuitive versus analytic thinking. Yet it remains an open question whether people primarily vary along a single dimension or if there are genuinely different types of thinking styles. We distinguish between four distinct types of thinking styles: Actively Open-minded Thinking, Close-Minded Thinking, Preference for Intuitive Thinking, and Preference for Effortful Thinking. We discovered strong predictive validity across several outcome measures (e.g., epistemically suspect beliefs, bullshit receptivity, empathy, moral judgments), with some subscales having stronger predictive validity for some outcomes but not others. Furthermore, Actively Open-minded Thinking, in particular, strongly outperformed the Cognitive Reflection Test in predicting misperceptions about COVID-19 and the ability to discern between vaccination-related true and false news. Our results indicate that people do, in fact, differ along multiple dimensions of intuitive-analytic thinking styles and that these dimensions have consequences for understanding a wide range of beliefs and behaviors.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-03-02T09:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231154886
       
  • Can’t Live With Them, Can’t Live Without Them: The Ambivalent Effects
           of Existential Outgroup Threat on Helping Behavior

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      Authors: Johannes Berendt, Esther van Leeuwen, Sebastian Uhrich
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Social comparison theories suggest that ingroups are strengthened whenever important outgroups are weakened (e.g., by losing status or power). It follows that ingroups have little reason to help outgroups facing an existential threat. We challenge this notion by showing that ingroups can also be weakened when relevant comparison outgroups are weakened, which can motivate ingroups to strategically offer help to ensure the outgroups’ survival as a highly relevant comparison target. In three preregistered studies, we showed that an existential threat to an outgroup with high (vs. low) identity relevance affected strategic outgroup helping via two opposing mechanisms. The potential demise of a highly relevant outgroup increased participants’ perceptions of ingroup identity threat, which was positively related to helping. At the same time, the outgroup’s misery evoked schadenfreude, which was negatively related to helping. Our research exemplifies a group’s secret desire for strong outgroups by underlining their importance for identity formation.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-02-27T09:04:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231158097
       
  • Decoupling the Conflicting Evaluative Meanings in Automatically Activated
           Race-Based Associations

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      Authors: Suraiya Allidina, Elizabeth U. Long, Wyle Baoween, William A. Cunningham
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Implicit measures of attitudes have classically focused on the association between a social group and generalized valence, but debate exists surrounding how these associations arise and what they can tell us about beliefs and attitudes. Here, we suggest that representations of oppression, which relate positively to implicitly measured prejudice but negatively to explicitly measured prejudice, can serve to decrease the predictive validity of implicit measures through statistical suppression. We had participants complete a Black–White implicit association test (IAT) and an IAT measuring representations of oppression, and find that oppression-related representations statistically suppress the relation between IAT scores and explicit attitudes, such that accounting for these representations increases the total amount of variance explained by implicit measures. We discuss the implications of this work both for practical matters around use of the IAT and for theoretical debates on the conceptualization of valence in implicit attitudes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-02-27T09:02:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231156029
       
  • Big Is Bad: Stereotypes About Organizational Size, Profit-Seeking, and
           Corporate Ethicality

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      Authors: Andrea Freund, Francis Flynn, Kieran O’Connor
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals tend to hold a dim view of for-profit corporations, believing that profit-seeking comes at the expense of ethicality. In the present research, we show that this belief is not universal; rather, people associate ethicality with an organization’s size. Across nine experiments (N = 4,796), people stereotyped large companies as less ethical than small companies. This size-ethicality stereotype emerged spontaneously (Study 1), implicitly (Study 2), and across industries (Study 3). Moreover, we find this stereotype can be partly explained by perceptions of profit-seeking behavior (Supplementary Studies A and B), and that people construe profit-seeking and its relationship to ethicality differently when considering large and small companies (Study 4). People attribute greater profit-maximizing motives (relative to profit-satisficing motives) to large companies, and these attributions shape their subsequent judgments of ethicality (Study 5; Supplementary Studies C and D).
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-02-16T09:57:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672231151791
       
  • On Cultural Differences of Heroes: Evidence From Individualistic and
           Collectivistic Cultures

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      Authors: Yuning Sun, Elaine L. Kinsella, Eric R. Igou
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Building on earlier research that examined the characteristics people associate with heroes, our research examined similarities and differences of the hero stereotype across cultures. Specifically, in Study 1 (N = 209) and Study 2 (N = 298), we investigated lay perceptions of heroes among participants from a collectivistic culture. In Study 3 (N = 586), we examined whether group membership could be determined by participants’ centrality ratings of the combined set of hero features. In Study 4 (N = 197), we tested whether the hero features that distinguish American and Chinese participants, when used to describe a target person, influence the impression that the target person is a hero. In Study 5 (N = 158) and Study 6 (N = 591), we investigated cultural differences in perceptions of different types of heroes (e.g., social, martial, civil) and the influence of individualism and collectivism on the perception of those heroes.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-02-02T11:08:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221150238
       
  • Similarity Among Friends Serves as a Social Prior: The Assumption That
           “Birds of a Feather Flock Together” Shapes Social Decisions and
           Relationship Beliefs

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      Authors: Miriam E. Schwyck, Meng Du, Yuchen Li, Luke J. Chang, Carolyn Parkinson
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Social interactions unfold within networks of relationships. How do beliefs about others’ social ties shape—and how are they shaped by—expectations about how others will behave' Here, participants joined a fictive online game-playing community and interacted with its purported members, who varied in terms of their trustworthiness and apparent relationships with one another. Participants were less trusting of partners with untrustworthy friends, even after they consistently showed themselves to be trustworthy, and were less willing to engage with them in the future. To test whether people not only expect friends to behave similarly but also expect those who behave similarly to be friends, an incidental memory test was given. Participants were exceptionally likely to falsely remember similarly behaving partners as friends. Thus, people expect friendship to predict similar behavior and vice versa. These results suggest that knowledge of social networks and others’ behavioral tendencies reciprocally interact to shape social thought and behavior.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-02-02T11:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221140269
       
  • Domain-Specific Greed

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      Authors: Martin Weiß, Julian Schulze, Stefan Krumm, Anja S. Göritz, Johannes Hewig, Patrick Mussel
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Greed, the insatiable and excessive desire and striving for more even at the expense of others, may be directed toward various goods. In this article, we propose that greed may be conceptualized as a domain-specific construct. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we identified 10 domains of greed which we operationalized with the DOmain-SPEcific Greed (DOSPEG) questionnaire. In Study 1 (N = 725), we found support for the proposed structure and convergent validity with related constructs. Bifactor-(S-1) models revealed that generic greed is differentially related to the greed domains, indicating that generic greed primarily captures a striving for money and material things. In the second study (N = 591), we found that greed domains had incremental validity beyond generic greed with regard to corresponding criteria assessed via self- and other-reports. We conclude that greed can be conceptualized as a domain-specific construct and propose an onion model reflecting this structure.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-01-25T11:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221148004
       
  • Waist-to-Hip Ratio Predicts Sexual Perception and Responses to Sexual
           Assault Disclosures

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      Authors: Gina A. Paganini, A. Alex McConnell, Jason C. Deska, Steven M. Almaraz, Kurt Hugenberg, E. Paige Lloyd
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      The current work investigates the effects of target of perception’s waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) on perceivers’ judgments of sexual unrestrictedness and sexual victimization prototypicality. Studies 1a and 1b found that women with lower WHRs were perceived as relatively more sexually unrestricted. Studies 2a and 2b found that women with lower WHRs were perceived as relatively more prototypic of sexual victimization. Study 3 built on these findings to consider implications for responses to sexual assault disclosures. Perceivers disbelieved and minimized a disclosure of assault relatively more when made by a woman with a higher WHR. In sum, this body of work implicates WHR as a body cue that can inform consequential sexual perception. Thereby, this work identifies factors that could influence judgments of credibility of sexual violence reports, which may have implications for hesitancy to report sexual violence.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-01-21T09:54:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221148008
       
  • A Comparative Investigation of the Predictive Validity of Four Indirect
           Measures of Bias and Prejudice

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      Authors: Jordan Axt, Nicholas Buttrick, Ruo Ying Feng
      Abstract: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Ahead of Print.
      Although measures of implicit associations are influential in the prejudice literature, comparative tests of the predictive power of these measures are lacking. A large-scale (N> 100,000) analysis of four commonly used measures—the Implicit Association Test (IAT), Single-Category IAT (SC-IAT), evaluative priming task (EPT), and sorting paired features task (SPF)—across 10 intergroup domains and 250 outcomes found clear evidence for the superiority of the SC-IAT in predictive and incremental predictive validity. Follow-up analyses suggested that the SC-IAT benefited from an exclusive focus on associations toward stigmatized group members, as associations toward non-stigmatized group members diluted the predictive strength of relative measures like the IAT, SPF, and EPT. These results highlight how conclusions about predictive validity can vary drastically depending on the measure selected and reveal novel insights about the value of different measures when focusing on predictive than convergent validity.
      Citation: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
      PubDate: 2023-01-20T08:26:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/01461672221150229
       
 
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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 224 journals)
Showing 1 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
ACOSS Papers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Adoption & Fostering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
African Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Argumentum     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Journal of Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Asian Social Work and Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AZARBE : Revista Internacional de Trabajo Social y Bienestar     Open Access  
Bakti Budaya     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
British Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Social Work Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Care Management Journals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Social Work Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Columbia Social Work Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Community, Work & Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ConCienciaSocial     Open Access  
Contemporary Rural Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Counsellor (The)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Critical and Radical Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Critical Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Cuadernos de Trabajo Social     Open Access  
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Child Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethics and Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
European Journal of Social Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Review of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Families in Society : The Journal of Contemporary Social Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Finnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare : Finjehew     Open Access  
Geopolitical, Social Security and Freedom Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Global Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Grief Matters : The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Groupwork     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Health & Social Care In the Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Health and Social Care Chaplaincy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Health and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
HOLISTICA ? Journal of Business and Public Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hong Kong Journal of Social Work, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Housing Policy Debate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Human Service Organizations Management, Leadership and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Indonesian Journal of Guidance and Counseling     Open Access  
International Journal of Ageing and Later Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Care and Caring     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of School Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Social Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
International Journal of Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
International Journal on Child Maltreatment : Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Social Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Social Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Islamic Counseling : Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling Islam     Open Access  
Janus Sosiaalipolitiikan ja sosiaalityön tutkimuksen aikakauslehti     Open Access  
Journal for Specialists in Group Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Care Services Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Community Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Comparative Social Welfare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Comparative Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Danubian Studies and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of European Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Family Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Forensic Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Human Rights and Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Integrated Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Language and Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Occupational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353)
Journal of Policy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Policy Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Public Health