Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3268 journals)
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BIOPHYSICS (53 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced NanoBiomed Research     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BBA Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BBA Bioenergetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BBA Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports     Open Access  
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biophysical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biophysical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Biophysical Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biophysical Reviews and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biophysics Reports     Open Access  
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Topics in Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Biophysics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Freshwater Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
IEEE Life Sciences Letters     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Nanotechnology Express     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biophysics     Open Access  
Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Biophotonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biophysics and Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Chemistry & Biophysics     Open Access  
Membranes and Membrane Technologies     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Natural Products and Bioprospecting     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nature Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 310)
PMC Biophysics     Open Access  
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access  
Statistics in Biopharmaceutical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Similar Journals
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Food Biophysics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.74
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1557-1866 - ISSN (Online) 1557-1858
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2537 journals]
  • Quantifying Phase Behaviour in Model Food Composites Using 3D Confocal
           Laser Scanning Microscopy

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      Abstract: There is an increasing demand for the design of complex bio-composites with customized structural characteristics for use in processed food products. Phase behaviour of these mixtures determines textural properties, encouraging the pursue of a rapid technique that can accurately quantify it. The present work tests the efficacy of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) coupled with image analysis software (Imaris), for the quantification of phase behaviour in complex tertiary systems. In doing so, it develops phase separated gels of agarose and gelatin supporting inclusions of canola oil. The polysaccharide was replaced with whey protein isolate (WPI) and the topology of the tertiary dispersion with gelatin and canola oil was also examined. Reproducible phase volume estimates were obtained, including those of the lipid phase, which were a close match to the actual concentrations added to the hydrocolloid gel. The approach could offer an alternative to the rheological estimation, via theoretical blending law analysis, of phase volumes in bio-composites. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
       
  • The melting properties of D-α-glucose, D-β-fructose, D-sucrose,
           

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      Abstract: Saccharides are still commonly isolated from biological feedstock by crystallization from aqueous solutions. Precise thermodynamic data on solubility are essential to optimize the downstream crystallization process. Solubility modeling, in turn, requires knowledge of melting properties. In the first part of this work, following our previous work on amino acids and peptides, D-α-glucose, D-β-fructose, D-sucrose, D-α-galactose, and D-α-xylose were investigated with Fast Scanning Calorimetry (FSC) in a wide scanning rate range (2000 K·s−1 to 10000 K·s−1). Using the experimental melting properties of saccharides from FSC allowed successfully modeling aqueous solubility for D-sucrose and D-α-galactose with the equation of state PC-SAFT. This provides cross-validation of the measurement methods to determine accurate experimental melting properties with FSC. Unexpectedly, the experimental FSC melting temperatures, extrapolated to zero scanning rates for thermal lag correction, were higher than results determined with DSC and available literature data. To clarify this inconsistency, FSC measurements towards low scanning rates from 10000 K·s−1 to 1 K·s−1 (D-α-glucose, D-β-fructose, D-sucrose) overlapping with the scanning rates of DSC and literature data were combined. At scanning rates below 1000 K·s−1, the melting properties followed a consistent non-linear trend, observed in both the FSC and the literature data. In order to understand the non-linear decrease of apparent melting temperatures with decreasing heating rate, the endothermic peaks were investigated in terms of isoconversional kinetics. The activation energies in the non-linear dependency region are in the range of \(300<{E}_{A}< 600 {\text{kJ}}\bullet {\text{mo}}{\text{l}}^{-1}\) . These values are higher than the enthalpy of sublimation for D-α-glucose, indicating that the non-linear behavior does not have a physical nature but attributes to chemical processes corresponding to the decomposition of molecular compounds within the crystal lattice before melting. The melting properties reported in the literature, commonly determined with conventional methods such as DSC, lead to inaccurate results due to the decomposition of these biomolecules at low heating rates. In addition, the FSC results at lower scanning rates coincide with results from DSC and literature in the overlapping scanning rate range, further validating the accuracy of FSC measurements to determine reliable melting properties of thermally labile biomolecules. The experimental FSC melting properties determined at higher scanning rates are considered as the correct equilibrium melting properties, which are not influenced by any chemical processes. The combination of FSC and PC-SAFT opens the door to model solubility of solid compounds that commonly decompose before melting.
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
       
  • Impact of Saturation of Fatty Acids of Phosphatidylcholine and Oil Phase
           on Properties of β-Lactoglobulin at the Oil/Water Interface

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      Abstract: Oil in water emulsions are commonly stabilized by emulsifying constituents like proteins and/or low molecular weight emulsifiers. The emulsifying constituents can compete or coexist at the interface. Interfacial properties thus depend on molecular structure of the emulsifying constituents and the oil phase and the resulting molecular interactions. The present study systematically analyzed the impact of fatty acid saturation of triacylglycerides and phosphatidylcholine on the interfacial properties of a β-lactoglobulin-stabilized interface. The long-term adsorption behaviour and the viscoelasticity of β-lactoglobulin-films were analyzed with or without addition of phosphatidylcholine via drop tensiometry and dilatational rheology. Results from the present study showed that increasing similarity in fatty acid saturation and thus interaction of phosphatidylcholine and oil phase increased the interfacial tension for the phosphatidylcholine alone or in combination with β-lactoglobulin. The characteristics and stability of interfacial films with β-lactoglobulin-phosphatidylcholine are further affected by interfacial adsorption during changes in interfacial area and crystallization events of low molecular weight emulsifiers. This knowledge gives guidance for improving physical stability of protein-based emulsions in foods and related areas. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
       
  • Digestive and Physicochemical Properties of Small Granular Starch from
           Euryale ferox Seeds Growing in Yugan of China

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      Abstract: In this study, the morphological, physicochemical and digestibility properties of Yugan Euryale ferox seeds starch (Y-EFS) were comprehensively analyzed. The results showed that Y-EFS contained 45.85% amylose. These starch granules of Y-EFS appeared as irregular polyhedron shape with smooth surface and relatively uniform size around 2.29 μm. The determined average molecular weight of Y-EFS were 1.85 × 105 and 3.00 × 103 Da, respectively. X-ray diffraction verified that Y-EFS was a typical A-type starch with 38.84% relative crystallinity, which demonstrated that Y-EFS had a relatively high crystallinity and larger crystallization area. Differential scanning calorimeter analysis showed that Y-EFS had relatively high gelatinization enthalpy (ΔH = 1576.0 J/g) and temperature (To = 84.69 °C, Tp = 110.30 °C and Tc = 118.10 °C). The results of rapid viscometer analyzer demonstrated that pasting temperature of Y-EFS was 82.27 °C, and high setback value indicated that Y-EFS was possibly easy to retrograde. Y-EFS gel displayed small adhesiveness and high hardness. In vitro digestion study showed that Y-EFS was indigestible because of its 37.54% slowly digestible starch and 36.46% resistant starch content. Our results suggest that Y-EFS has great application prospect in hypoglycemic functional foods.
      PubDate: 2021-12-04
       
  • Validation of Bioinformatic Modeling for the Zeta Potential of Vicilin,
           Legumin, and Commercial Pea Protein Isolate

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      Abstract: The zeta potential of a molecule is an important property in the food industry, since the electrostatic potential of a material governs its ability to interact through ionic forces with other molecules in solution. In particular, emulsions that are kept in solutions with a high magnitude of the zeta potential are shown to be more stable over time, as the electrostatic repulsive forces of protein far from its isoelectric point can help prevent oil globule coalescence over time. However, modeling the zeta potential of protein is difficult given the anisotropy of protein molecules, the shifts in amino acid side chain ionization across pH, and understanding at what distance to measure the zeta potential from the molecular surface to accurately capture the shear plane between the particle and solvent under flow. In this work, we use the Poisson-Boltzmann Equation to model the net electrostatic surface potential of pea vicilin and legumin. We then use a weighted average of these globular proteins to predict the measured zeta potential in pea protein. The R2 between the bioinformatically modeled net surface charge and the measured commercial isolate zeta potential is 0.987 between pH 2.50 and 9.50, and this equation predicted the zeta potential of a different commercial pea protein isolate with a standard error of 0.040. This shows that using the Poisson-Boltzmann Equation to solve for the net electrostatic surface potential, it is possible to accurately estimate the zeta potential of pea protein.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Preparation and Characterization of Pullulan/Carboxymethyl
           Cellulose/Nano-TiO2 Composite Films for Strawberry Preservation

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      Abstract: Biodegradable composite films based on pullulan/carboxymethyl cellulose/nano-TiO2 were prepared using a solution casting method. In this study, the composite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties were investigated. FTIR and XRD results confirmed that the presence of nano-TiO2 could enhance the interaction between the film matrix. SEM analysis revealed that the composite films had a homogeneous network structure, and good particle dispersion could be obtained when the nano-TiO2 particle content was low. DSC results indicated that the composite films possessed good thermal stability. The incorporation of nano-TiO2 increased the thickness and contact angle while significantly decreasing the water solubility (p < 0.05). As the content of nano-TiO2 increased, the water vapor and ultraviolet visible (UV–Vis) light barrier properties of composite films were significantly improved (p < 0.05). Mechanical analysis demonstrated that the tensile strength of the composite films first increased and then decreased, whereas the elongation at break decreased significantly (p < 0.05). In addition, the composite films exhibited excellent activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus mainly due to the inactivation of bacteria by nano-TiO2 photocatalysis. Preservation experiments showed that the composite films could decrease the weight loss significantly and maintain the firmness, titratable acidity, vitamin c and skin color of strawberries, thereby improving the overall quality of strawberries and extending their shelf life. This finding suggested that pullulan/carboxymethyl cellulose/nano-TiO2 composite films possessed excellent potential for application in food packaging.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Impacts of Whey Protein on Digestion of Lotus Seed Starch Subjected to a
           Dynamic In Vitro Gastric Digestion

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      Abstract: The exogenous protein (e.g. whey protein isolate, WPI) is commonly used to fortify and modify the functionality of starchy food, that might influence starch hydrolysis during gastric digestion. In this study, the effect of whey protein on the digestion of lotus seed starch (LS) subjected to a dynamic in vitro gastric digestion was investigated. The particle size distribution, the swelling power of the starch and the changes in pH, viscosity, microstructure and hydrolysis of 2% LS and blends of 2% LS with 1, 2 and 4% WPI were investigated. The presence of whey protein caused decreases in the particle size and the swelling power and an increase in the viscosity of the LS granules. The presence of whey protein also delayed the decrease in the pH and increased the hydrolysis of LS during the in vitro gastric digestion. WPI surrounded or encapsulated the LS granules observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and may have been the reason for the decrease in swelling power of the starch granules. The increased degree of gastric digestion of LS with the addition of WPI was largely related to the delayed decrease in the gastric pH rather than to alterations in the swelling power and viscosity and WPI’s physical barrier toward starch.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Novel Protein Hydrocolloids Constructed by Hydrophobic Rice Proteins and
           Walnut Proteins as Loading Platforms for Nutraceutical Models

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      Abstract: Low water solubility strictly limits the application potential of such plant-derived proteins as rice proteins (RPs) and walnut proteins (WPs), albeit their nutritional and health-related properties. In this study, by simply dissolving RPs and WPs at pH 12 prior to neutralization, we successfully prepared nanoscale hydrocolloidal composites with shared internal molecular arrangements, boosting the solubility of RPs to over 80% (w/v) while completely solubilizing WPs. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the two polypeptide chains were packed into homogeneous particles with a diameter ranging from 50 to 100 nm. Varying the mass ratio of RPs/WPs enabled the flexible or rigid chain configuration, which was confirmed by static and dynamic light scattering. The results from zeta-potential and surface hydrophobicity demonstrated that the burial of hydrophobic groups and the exposure of charged moieties stipulated the aqueous stability of the protein composites. The apigenin encapsulated in protein composites showed preferable aqueous solubility. Moreover, the improvement of bioaccessibility of apigenin was proved by in vitro simulated digestion experiment. This study provided a new route for utilizing underdeveloped protein resources, especially those with hydrophobic attributes, and potentially expanding the applications of these proteins in the fields of food and related areas.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Interfacial Rheology and Foaming Properties of Soy Protein and
           Hydrolysates under Acid Condition

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      Abstract: In this study, the foamability of soy protein isolate (SPI), β-conglycinin (7S), soy protein selective hydrolysates (SPSH) and soy protein limited hydrolysate (SPLH) were tested at both acid and neutral conditions (pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 7.0). The properties of soy proteins (SPI and 7S) and hydrolysates (SPSH and SPLH) were analysed by particle size distribution, zeta potential, surface tension, interfacial rheology, foam expansion and stability. The particle size of soy proteins and hydrolysates decreased near the isoelectric point (pH 4.0). The 7S, SPSH and SPLH under acid conditions had lower surface tension than at pH 7.0. Under acid conditions, the higher foaming expansion of 7S, SPSH and SPLH than those under the neutral condition could be explained by lower surface tension, quicker adsorption and stronger viscoelastic properties; the better foaming stability can be attributed to a robust interfacial film. In summary, the SPSH and SPLH can be effective alternatives to egg white in aerated food due to the high foamability at both acid and neutral conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Polysaccharide-Peptides-Based Microgels: Characterization, In Vitro
           Digestibility, and Rheological Behavior of their Suspensions

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      Abstract: Coating layers and the use of fillers can alter the microgel's functional performance such as texture modifiers or delivery systems. The present research evaluates how the rheological properties of gellan-collagen peptides microgels suspensions and digestibility behavior can be modulated by the addition of a coating layer and by the use of starch (filler agent). Gellan-collagen peptides microgels were successfully produced through atomization process. Starch addition decreased anthocyanin retention (~ 1%) for non-coated particles, and for all formulations caused peptides loss (~ 32%), besides increasing the polydispersity of the microgels (> SPAN value). Gellan coating, on the other hand, caused anthocyanin loss (~ 2.5%) for non-starch microgels, produced more uniform particle sizes (< SPAN) and decreased collagen peptides adsorption in 72%. Rheology data demonstrated that microgels without both coating and starch did not influence the relative viscosity of suspensions (ƞrel) independently of concentration, within the range evaluated (2.5% – 15%). Moreover, the addition of starch in coated microgels led to a synergistic effect on the increase of ƞrel, indicating that these microgels can exert greater influence on the viscosity of the product to which they are applied. Regarding the in vitro digestibility, although no particle disintegration was observed for any formulation before the intestinal phase, a distinguished degrading behavior occurred during this last stage, where coated particles added with starch exhibited the least degraded structure. Our work shows the potential of gellan-collagen peptides microgels for application in foods with high moisture content and to act as carriers of drugs and bioactive compounds for protection and controlled release applications.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Egg-Curry: Insights into the Interaction Between Curcumin and Ovalbumin
           Using Spectroscopic Analyses and Protein-Ligand Docking Simulations

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      Abstract: We investigate the interaction between curcumin and ovalbumin using spectroscopic analyses and protein-ligand docking simulations. The fluorescence intensity of ovalbumin decreased upon complexation with curcumin through a static quenching mechanism. The binding constant for curcumin-ovalbumin complex was in the order of 104 M−1 suggesting a stable complex with 1:1 stoichiometry. Both FTIR spectroscopy and molecular docking simulations revealed that hydrogen bonding (Lys39) and hydrophobic interactions (Phe35) were the major interaction forces in the binding of curcumin to ovalbumin. The aqueous solubility of curcumin was enhanced (234-fold) by complexation with ovalbumin while the degradation of curcumin in aqueous solutions was significantly diminished (0.25-fold) in the wide range of pH (1.2-8.5). The physicochemical properties of curcumin were stably maintained for 12 h by the complexation. This work provides an insight into the binding mechanism of small chemicals and large biomolecules for medicines and functional foods.
      PubDate: 2021-11-17
       
  • Effects of NaCl on the Freezing-Thawing Induced Gelation of Egg Yolk at
           pH 2.0–8.0

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      Abstract: During the freezing preservation of egg yolk, the functionalities of egg yolk become weakened due to freezing-thawing induced yolk gelation (FTYG). FTYG can be inhibited by adding NaCl. However, the physicochemical mechanism of NaCl is not fully understood yet. The effects of NaCl on FTYG were investigated in this study at different pHs. Decreasing pH to 2.0 to 3.0 caused the release of Ca2+ and the dissociation of yolk granules, and the addition of NaCl at this pH range resulted in the re-aggregation of dissociated granules and the promotion of FTYG due to the charge screening effect. On the other hand, at pH 4.0–8.0, the addition of NaCl led to the dissociation of granules due to the displacement of Ca2+ by Na+ in the calcium bridges, consequently leading to the inhibition of FTYG. The differed effect of NaCl indicated the NaCl modulated the FTYG by strengthening or weakening the filler effect of granules in yolk gel. Our findings suggested that weakening the filler effect of granules is a promising method to inhibit FTYG.
      PubDate: 2021-11-09
       
  • Structural Properties of Egg Yolks Modify In-vitro Lipid Digestion

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      Abstract: Changes in egg yolk physical structure, induced by thermal processing at temperatures between 65 – 85 °C, significantly correlate to alterations in lipid bioaccessibility measured using a multi-compartment, in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion system (TIM-1). The cumulative free fatty acid (FFA) bioaccessibility fits a shifted logistic model and obtains bioaccessibility parameters, including maximum bioaccessibility, induction time, and the rate constant at each cook temperature. FFA bioaccessibility decreased from 25 – 29% for raw yolks compared to 20 – 24% for eggs cooked to 85 °C, and the induction time increased significantly from 138 – 156 min for raw yolks compared to 158 – 184 min for 85 °C cooked yolks. Lipid bioaccessibility negatively correlates to storage modulus (G′) and protein intermolecular β-sheets content; while, peak enthalpy and native protein content positively correlate with lipid bioaccessibility.
      PubDate: 2021-11-06
       
  • Tailoring Water-Induced Multi-Component (Ceramide and Lecithin) Oleogels:
           Influence of Solute Added in Water

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      Abstract: In our previous study, a water-induced multi-component oleogel comprised of ceramide and lecithin was developed for the first time. The water hydrated the ceramide/lecithin crystals and rearranged the crystal packing, thus leading to oleogelation. To further tailor the gelation properties of this multi-component system, we added different solutes in the aqueous phase. Samples with NaOH and H3PO4 solutions in various ionic concentrations (2 M, 10 M and 20 M) were prepared. It was observed that the addition of NaOH enhanced the gel strength, while the addition of H3PO4 reduced the gel strength. The G’ of 10.0 M NaOH sample (~2.3 × 104 Pa) was significantly higher than that of H2O sample (~6.6 × 102 Pa). Results from temperature scanning showed that the aqueous phase properties affected the microstructure and rheological properties of the gel by adjusting the arrangement of crystals. FTIR results indicated that the addition of NaOH or H3PO4 mainly affected the system by interfering the interactions between lecithin and water molecules. This study confirmed the importance of aqueous phase on self-assembly of water-induced multicomponent gel systems and provided solutions that could be utilized to further adjust the properties of such systems.
      PubDate: 2021-11-06
       
  • Effects of Hydrothermal Treatments on Physicochemical Properties and In
           Vitro Digestion of Starch

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      Abstract: Starchy food items such as rice and potato with high carbohydrate content raise blood sugar. Hence, consuming low glycaemic foods is one tool to keep diabetes under control. In this study, potato and brown rice (Njavara rice) starches were subjected to hydrothermal treatments: heat moisture treatment (HMT) and annealing (ANN) to develop starch-based food products fit for consumption by diabetic patients. The effects of hydrothermal treatments on physicochemical properties and in-vitro enzymatic digestion of starch were determined. It was observed that hydrothermal treatments decreased the swelling power (SP)% and increased the water solubility (WS)% of the native starches. Native potato starch (PSN) showed a high SP of 80.33%, while annealed potato starch (PANN) and heat moisture treated potato starch (PHMT) showed SP reduced to 65.33% and 51.66%, respectively. Similarly, the SP % reduced from 64.33% in native brown rice (BRN) to 44.66% in annealed brown rice (BRANN) and 38.33% in heat moisture treated brown rice (BRHMT). WS % increased from 32.86% in PSN to 36.66% in PANN and 40.66% in PHMT. In BRN, the WS % increased from 14.0% to 14.66% in BRANN and 18.33% in BRHMT. Amylose content increased from 13.23% and 14.56% in PSN and BRN to 16.14% in PANN 17.99% in PHMT, 17.33% in BRANN, and 18.98% in BRHMT. The PSN crystallinity index reduced from 33.49 to 30.50% in PANN and 32.60% in PHMT. At 12 h of enzymatic digestion, it was found that the degree of hydrolysis (DoH) of PHMT (31.66%) and PANN (36.82%) reduced when compared to PSN (41.09%). Similarly, BRHMT exhibited the lowest DoH at 12 h compared to BRANN (29.24%) and BRN (35.48%). This study highlights the importance of hydrothermal treatments on starch in developing low glycaemic index commercial starch-based food products.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11483-021-09687-7
       
  • Rice Glutelins and β-Conglycinin or Glycinin Forming Binary Structures
           with Different Structural and Functional Properties

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      Abstract: Design of binary proteins based on protein–protein interactions has proven to be a facile approach to improve such functional properties as foaming and emulsifying properties of individual proteins. In this study, novel binary protein complexes were fabricated which was performed by co-dissolving glutelins of rice proteins (RGs) with β-conglycinin (7S) or glycinin (11S) of soybean proteins at pH 12 prior to neutralization. Fluorescence spectra, far-ultraviolet circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and morphological characterizations revealed that either 7S or 11S formed shared conformations with RGs by hydrophobicity, leading to the formation of nanoscale (80–120 nm), water-dispersible complexes, i.e., RG-7S or RG-11S, respectively. The functionalities of both binary structures, e.g., foaming properties and emulsifying properties, were profoundly enhanced as compared to their individual components. Specifically, the foaming stability of RG-11S was four times that of 11S. Moreover, RG-7S or RG-11S had varied performance in emulsifying capacity due to varied structural flexibility. Thus, this study provided a feasible approach utilizing protein–protein interactions as a tool for enhancing the functional properties of individual proteins, especially foaming and emulsifying properties. Graphic
      PubDate: 2021-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11483-021-09693-9
       
  • Mucoadhesive Biopolymer Nanoparticles for Encapsulation of Lipophilic
           Nutrients With Enhanced Bioactivity

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      Abstract: Biopolymer-based nanoparticles, prepared from stearic acid-chitosan derivative, sodium caseinate (NaCas) and oxidized dextran (Odex), have been shown to have high biocompatibility and exceptional gastrointestinal (GI) stability. However, the mucoadhesive properties of such nanoparticles have yet to be analyzed. Therefore, interactions between the nanoparticles and mucin, the major protein of the mucus layer, were evaluated through rheological studies, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) analysis, and adsorption testing. There was an increase in the elastic and viscous properties of mucin when complexed with the nanoparticles during the frequency sweep, denoting rheological synergism. The nanoparticles exhibited rapid decreases in frequency and increases in dissipation during the QCM-D analysis, denoting successful adsorption onto the mucin layer. Following adsorption testing, peak adsorption (91 %) was found to be at a ratio of 1:4 at mucin/nanoparticles (weight/weight). Once the role of the nanoparticles’ mucoadhesive properties in GI stability was determined, astaxanthin (ASTX) was utilized as a model nutrient for enhanced bioavailability via encapsulation. The effect of encapsulation on ASTX was determined through measuring particulate properties. Encapsulated ASTX exhibited enhanced antioxidant activity compared to free ASTX in ABTS and DPPH antioxidant assays. This study suggests that the as-prepared biopolymer nanoparticles exhibit mucoadhesive properties that could beneficially interact with the mucus layer of the GI tract. Given their enhanced mucoadhesive properties, the nanoparticles make an excellent candidate for the encapsulation of nutrients with low bioavailability such as the lipophilic ASTX.
      PubDate: 2021-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11483-021-09691-x
       
  • Investigation of Protein Denaturation and Textural Changes of Atlantic
           Salmon (Salmo salar) During Simulated Cooking

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      Abstract: The production of plant-based fish alternatives that look, feel, taste, and cook like real fish is critical for widespread consumer acceptance. Consequently, a thorough understanding of the properties of real fish is critical for the successful design of high-performance plant-based fish analogs. In this study, we investigated changes in the optical, mechanical, and water holding properties of Atlantic salmon during simulated cooking at different temperatures. Differential scanning calorimetry and diffusive wave spectroscopy exhibited characteristic peaks around 40 °C (myosin and collagen) and 72 °C (actin), which caused appreciable changes in the salmons’ physicochemical properties. The textural properties of salmon during simulated cooking were characterized using a dynamic shear rheometer and texture analyzer. Changes in color, cook loss, and surface area were related to the cooking temperature. This study provides valuable insights into the relationship between protein denaturation, protein aggregation, microstructural changes, and texture of real fish. This information will be useful for creating higher quality plant-based fish analogs.
      PubDate: 2021-09-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11483-021-09690-y
       
  • Use of Solid Echo Sequence to Monitor Crystallization Kinetics of Mono and
           Di-Saccharides

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      Abstract: Crystallization is an important quality parameter that can significantly affect consumer acceptability and perceived quality of the products. Especially in high sugar products, controlling crystallization is a challenge. In this study, the goal is to explain the mechanism of crystallization kinetics of common simple sugars that are mostly used in food processes, namely glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose as well as a low-calorie rare sugar, allulose. The crystallization process was monitored by Time-domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. Solid Echo (SE) pulse sequence was used for the measurements. Measurements were recorded as the temperature of high sugar content solutions decreased from 50 to 28 °C. The acquired data were fit to a kinetic model. The crystallization rate of disaccharides (sucrose and lactose) were found to be much faster than the monosaccharides as expected. However, the crystallization rate of glucose and fructose was much slower than their isomer, allulose. Position of the hydroxyl group, as well as mutarotation vs. crystallization reaction rate, was hypothesized to be the determinant on the crystallization behavior. The results were also supported by moisture content, optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Time-domain NMR by SE sequence was suggested as a practical, quick means as a quality control technique to predict crystallization rate and crystal content of high sugar products. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11483-021-09688-6
       
  • Influence of repeated freeze–thaw treatments on the functional and
           structural properties of myofibrillar protein from mirror carp (Cyprinus
           carpio L.)

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      Abstract: The influence of repeated freeze–thaw (F-T) treatments (0, 1, 3 and 5) on the functional and structural properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was investigated according to the changes in rheological properties, particle distribution, Zeta (ζ)-potential, molecular force, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and sulfhydryl content. After F-T treatment with five cycles, a significant decrease in the storage modulus values (G'), loss modulus values (G"), ζ- potential, total sulfhydryl content and reactive sulfhydryl content of MP was observed (P < 0.05). The particle size increased within the third F-T cycles, but it decreased in the fifth F-T treatments (P < 0.05). The hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds of protein were broken during multiple F-T treatments. In addition, as the F-T cycles increased, the α-helix and β-turn contents decreased (P < 0.05), and the β-sheet and random coil content increased (P < 0.05). Therefore, repeated F-T treatments damaged the structure of MP and reduced the functional properties of MP from mirror carp.
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11483-021-09689-5
       
 
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