Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3268 journals)
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BIOPHYSICS (53 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced NanoBiomed Research     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BBA Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BBA Bioenergetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BBA Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports     Open Access  
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biophysical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biophysical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Biophysical Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biophysical Reviews and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biophysics Reports     Open Access  
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Topics in Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Biophysics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Freshwater Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
IEEE Life Sciences Letters     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Nanotechnology Express     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biophysics     Open Access  
Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Biophotonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biophysics and Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Chemistry & Biophysics     Open Access  
Membranes and Membrane Technologies     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Natural Products and Bioprospecting     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nature Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 310)
PMC Biophysics     Open Access  
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access  
Statistics in Biopharmaceutical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Similar Journals
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Progress in Physical Geography
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.373
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0309-1333 - ISSN (Online) 1477-0296
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1169 journals]
  • Cross-continental hydroclimate proxies: Tree-rings in Central Chile
           reconstruct historical streamflow in Southeastern South American rivers

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      Authors: Christine Lucas, Isabella Aguilera-Betti, Ariel A Muñoz, Paulina Puchi, Gonzalo Sapriza, Ludmila Profumo, R Stockton Maxwell, Alejandro Venegas-González
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Regional teleconnections permit cross-continental modeling of hydroclimate throughout the world. Tree-rings are a good hydroclimatic proxy used to reconstruct drought and streamflow in regions that respond to common global forcings. We used a multi-species dataset of 32 tree-ring width chronologies from Chile and Uruguay as a climate proxy to infer annual streamflow (Q) variability in the Negro River basin, a grassland-dominated watershed of lowland Southeastern South America. A positive linear correlation between tree-ring chronologies from Central Chile and annual Negro River instrumental streamflow from 1957 to 2012 indicated a cross-continental teleconnection between hydroclimate variability in Central Chile and Northeastern Uruguay. This relationship was mediated in part by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), whereby the El Nino 3.4 Index was positively correlated with regional rainfall, annual tree growth, and Q anomalies. Despite the proximity of Uruguayan tree-ring chronologies to Negro River hydrometric stations, the Chilean tree-ring chronologies best predicted annual streamflow. Thus, using tree-ring data from four long-term moisture-sensitive chronologies of the species Cryptocarya alba in Central Chile (32–34°S), we present the first streamflow reconstruction (1890–2009) in the lower La Plata Basin. The reconstruction supports regional evidence for increasing frequency of extreme flood years over the past century in Uruguay. We demonstrate how climate teleconnections that mediate local hydroclimate variability permit the cross-continental reconstruction of streamflow, filling a major geographical gap in historical proxies for flooding and drought in grassland biomes of the southern hemisphere.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T01:28:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211067466
       
  • Nonlinear characteristics of the vegetation change and its response to
           climate change in the karst region of southwest China

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      Authors: Mingyang Zhang, Zhenhua Deng, Yuemin Yue, Kelin Wang, Huiyu Liu, Chunhua Zhang, Xiangkun Qi
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The vegetation is known to be sensitive to both climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. However, the relationship between changes in vegetation and climate is unclear in karst regions. The nonlinear characteristics of vegetation change and its possible relationships with driving factors in the karst region of southwest China are revealed, using methods of Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition, Mann-Kendall, and Partial Least Squares Regression. The results show that: (1) vegetation changes demonstrate an increasing trend with an abrupt change in 2002. Multiple time scales of 3, 6, 10, and 25-year are observed in vegetation variations, dominated by long-term trend and the short time scale of 3-year with variance contributions of 58.10% and 28.63%. (2) The relationship of climate indexes with vegetation changes shows r2 = 0.78 (p < 0.01) based on the reconstruction of characteristic scales, indicating significant great relationship. In space, the area percentage with relationship of climate to vegetation is more than 50%, and the impact is much greater after the abrupt change of vegetation in 2002 (r2 are 0.24–0.91 and 0.42–0.99, respectively). In addition, the correlation between vegetation change and ecological engineering is 0.15 (p < 0.01). The results indicate that climate change is the main impact factor of vegetation change, ecological engineering has positive influences in improving vegetation condition, and methods of scales decomposition and abrupt detection could reveal some hidden information for better understanding ecosystems in karst regions.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-30T03:11:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211066252
       
  • Coastal development in southwestern Bangladesh: understanding the
           interplay between storms and sea level rise

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      Authors: Md. Masidul Haque, Manoj Kumer Ghosh, Koichi Hoyanagi
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Sea-level rise and sediment supply have influenced coastal morphology and sedimentation on Bangladesh’s southwestern Ganges‐Brahmaputra‐Meghna (GBM) delta coast. Satellite images and geological core from the Haringhata coastal region were analyzed to explain the morphological changes and to understand the influences on deposits. The results derived from satellite images indicate that the southern coastline experienced a retreat that ranges between 2.3 and 2.9 km. In contrast, the eastern and western coastline advanced. The erosion and accretion ratio was 0.29 from 1977 to 1989, while the ratio was higher 2.90–4.77 from 1989 to 2020. Two sedimentary facies were identified using 130 cm thick successions. A parallel to wavy laminated bluish gray mud facies of deeper part was deposited in a marine-influenced environment. A planar to hummocky cross stratified, gray to grayish white silty sand facies of storm overwash deposits overlies the mud facies with sharp contacts. Unimodal to bimodal grain distributions of sandy sediments suggest two sources: sand derived from the beach and mud carried by adjacent tidal rivers and resuspended offshore sediment. Coastline dynamics and sedimentation of the area were influenced by inequality of accommodation and sediment supply ratio in the river mouth. This occurs due to sea-level rise and deficit in upstream water and sediment discharge. Morphological change along the southwestern GBM delta coast was not only caused by wave energy, but also by rising sea levels which shifted sediment accommodation space landward.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T10:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211046189
       
  • Interbasin water transfer in a changing world: A new conceptual model

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      Authors: Edward Rollason, Pammi Sinha, Louise J Bracken
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Water scarcity is a global issue, affecting in excess of four billion people. Interbasin Water Transfer (IBWT) is an established method for increasing water supply by transferring excess water from one catchment to another, water-scarce catchment. The implementation of IBWT peaked in the 1980s and was accompanied by a robust academic debate of its impacts. A recent resurgence in the popularity of IBWT, and particularly the promotion of mega-scale schemes, warrants revisiting this technology. This paper provides an updated review, building on previously published work, but also incorporates learning from schemes developed since the 1980s. We examine the spatial and temporal distribution of schemes and their drivers, review the arguments for and against the implementation of IBWT schemes and examine conceptual models for assessing IBWT schemes. Our analysis suggests that IBWT is growing in popularity as a supply-side solution for water scarcity and is likely to represent a key tool for water managers into the future. However, we argue that IBWT cannot continue to be delivered through current approaches, which prioritise water-centric policies and practices at the expense of social and environmental concerns. We critically examine the Socio-Ecological Systems and Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus models as new conceptual models for conceptualising and assessing IBWT. We conclude that neither model offers a comprehensive solution. Instead, we propose an enhanced WEF model (eWEF) to facilitate a more holistic assessment of how these mega-scale engineering interventions are integrated into water management strategies. The proposed model will help water managers, decision-makers, IBWT funders and communities create more sustainable IBWT schemes.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T09:08:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211065004
       
  • A new formula for predicting movable bed roughness coefficient in the
           Middle Yangtze River

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      Authors: Xin Liu, Junqiang Xia, Meirong Zhou, Shanshan Deng, Zhiwei Li
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Computing movable bed roughness plays an important role in the modeling of flood routing and bed deformation, and the magnitude of movable bed roughness is closely associated with complex bedform configurations that change with the sand wave motion. The motion of sand wave is dependent on the incoming flow and sediment conditions and channel boundary. After the operation of the Three Gorges Project, the flow and sediment regime changed remarkably in the Middle Yangtze River (MYR), followed by significant channel adjustments. A dramatic decrease in sediment concentration caused continuous channel degradation and significant variations in cross-sectional profiles of the MYR. These adjustments in the channel boundary influence the motion of sand wave, which can further affect the magnitude of movable bed roughness. A new formula for predicting the movable bed roughness coefficient is developed, which can be expressed by a power function of both Froude number and relative water depth. The proposed formula was first calibrated using 1266 datasets of measurements at five hydrometric stations in the MYR during 2001–2012. A back-calculation process shows that the roughness coefficients calculated by the proposed formula agree well with the observations, with the determination coefficient being equal to 0.88. The proposed formula was further verified using 651 datasets of measurements at these hydrometric stations during 2013–2017. Furthermore, four common roughness formulas selected from the literature were tested for comparison. The results indicate that the calculation accuracy of the proposed formula is significantly higher than that of the previous formulas, and the Manning roughness coefficients predicted by the proposed formula have the errors less than ±30% for 96% of the datasets. Therefore, the new bed roughness predictor proposed in this study can accurately calculate the roughness coefficients straightforwardly without iterative solution and graphical interpolation, and the parameters required in the roughness predictor are easily obtained from the hydrometric observations.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T07:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211066277
       
  • An inverse relationship between moisture and grazing intensity in an arid
           mountain-basin system

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      Authors: Jun Zhang, Xiao-zhong Huang, Jia-le Wang, Richard HW Bradshaw, Tao Wang, Li-xiong Xiang, De-rui Luo, Zong-li Wang, Fa-hu Chen
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Precipitation has been suggested as a crucial influencing factor in the primary productivity in arid and semi-arid regions, yet how moisture fluctuation in an arid mountain-basin system of the north Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau has affected human activities is poorly understood. Here, we reconstruct the variations of grazing intensity in high elevations and regional humidity based on independent and high-resolution records of Sporormiella-type coprophilous fungal spores and pollen grains in the same well-dated sediment core from Lake Tian’E in the western Qilian Mountains over the past 3500 years. We find that stronger grazing activity was associated with low regional effective moisture, and propose that the drier regional climate pushed people and their livestock into the mountainous areas. A notable exception was a reduction of human and grazing activities in arid region with high mountains during 380–580 CE caused by centennial-length dry and cold conditions. In addition, it is also noteworthy that intensified grazing activity occurred during 580–720 CE and after ∼1920 CE, corresponding to a warmer and wetter climate and diverse subsistence strategies with social developments in the lowlands of the Hexi Corridor. Our findings potentially provide a historical reference for understanding how ancient people adapted to the climate change in arid region with high mountains.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T01:09:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211060000
       
  • Comparative study of multiple heat indices in revisiting summer heat
           across China based on meteorological observations

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      Authors: Yao Feng, Hong Wang, Wenbin Liu, Fubao Sun, Huijuan Cui
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Multiple indices have been created to measure hot conditions that may cause discomfort, stress even death to humans. However, distinctions among these indices and their performance in measuring heat remain undisclosed. We conduct a comparative study of multiple heat indices and revisit the spatiotemporal changes in summer heat across China. The maximum temperature-based index, more sensitive to average and maximum temperatures, suggests a larger increasing trend (0.42°C/10a) in heat intensity than those average temperature-based ones which are more sensitive to minimum temperature. The absolute threshold-based heat-day indices are not so applicable as the relative ones in measuring the increasing heat days over the Tibetan Plateau. During 1960–2018, significant (p < 0.05) increasing trends in heat intensity (0.11–0.42°C/10a) and heat day (0.63–2.67 days/10a) are revealed with a jump-like increase after the mid-1990s at the country level. Stronger heat intensity occurs over the southeast and north China with larger increasing trends over the Tibetan Plateau and northwest China. Northern China with larger increasing heat intensity and days should take effective measures of adaptation to reduce suffering from the summer heat. Given differences among multiple indices and the performance over different regions, a rational selection of heat index considering the research subject of interest and regional climatology is highly recommended.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-27T01:39:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211057193
       
  • Coastal erosion in sandy beaches along a tectonically active coast: The
           Chile study case

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      Authors: Carolina Martínez, Patricio Winckler Grez, Roberto Agredano Martín, César Esparza Acuña, Iván Torres, Manuel Contreras-López
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Coastal erosion in 45 sandy beaches covering nearly 2000 km along the tectonically active Chilean coast is assessed during the last four decades. The historical analysis is based on the assessment of decadal changes of the shoreline position extracted from topographic surveys, aerial photographs, satellite images and survey maps using the DSAS software. Results show that 80% of the sites presented erosion rates (>−0.2 m/y), 7% beaches accreted (>0.2 m/y) while 13% remained stable. Eroded beaches include headland bay beaches, embayed and pocket beaches. A discussion on the possible causes explaining these results is conducted. While changes in offshore wave climate are spatially smooth within the region, relative mean sea level changes are highly variable and modulated by tectonic activity; the reduction of the sediment supply explains erosion rates in few cases.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-24T07:39:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211057194
       
  • Fitting limit lines (envelope curves) to spreads of geoenvironmental data

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      Authors: Paul A Carling, Philip Jonathan, Teng Su
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Geoscientists frequently are interested in defining the overall trend in x-y data clouds using techniques such as least-squares regression. Yet often the sample data exhibits considerable spread of y-values for given x-values, which is itself of interest. In some cases, the data may exhibit a distinct visual upper (or lower) ‘limit’ to a broad spread of y-values for a given x-value, defined by a marked reduction in concentration of y-values. As a function of x-value, the locus of this ‘limit’ defines a ‘limit line’, with no (or few) points lying above (or below) it. Despite numerous examples of such situations in geoscience, there has been little consideration within the general geoenvironmental literature of methods used to define limit lines (sometimes termed ‘envelope curves’ when they enclose all data of interest). In this work, methods to fit limit lines are reviewed. Many commonly applied methods are ad-hoc and statistically not well founded, often because the data sample available is small and noisy. Other methods are considered which correspond to specific statistical models offering more objective and reproducible estimation. The strengths and weaknesses of methods are considered by application to real geoscience data sets. Wider adoption of statistical models would enhance confidence in the utility of fitted limits and promote statistical developments in limit fitting methodologies which are likely to be transformative in the interpretation of limits. Supplements, a spreadsheet and references to software are provided for ready application by geoscientists.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-24T02:02:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211059995
       
  • Unoccupied aerial vehicle-assisted monitoring of benthic vegetation in the
           coastal zone enhances the quality of ecological data

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      Authors: Niels Svane, Troels Lange, Sara Egemose, Oliver Dalby, Aris Thomasberger, Mogens R Flindt
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional monitoring (e.g., in-water based surveys) of eelgrass meadows and perennial macroalgae in coastal areas is time and labor intensive, requires extensive equipment, and the collected data has a low temporal resolution. Further, divers and Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) have a low spatial extent that cover small fractions of full systems. The inherent heterogeneity of eelgrass meadows and macroalgae assemblages in these coastal systems makes interpolation and extrapolation of observations complicated and, as such, methods to collect data on larger spatial scales whilst retaining high spatial resolution is required to guide management. Recently, the utilization of Unoccupied Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has gained popularity in ecological sciences due to their ability to rapidly collect large amounts of area-based and georeferenced data, making it possible to monitor the spatial extent and status of SAV communities with limited equipment requirements compared to ROVs or diver surveys. This paper is focused on the increased value provided by UAV-based, data collection (visual/Red Green Blue imagery) and Object Based Image Analysis for gaining an improved understanding of eelgrass recovery. It is demonstrated that delineation and classification of two species of SAV (Fucus vesiculosus and Zostera marina) is possible; with an error matrix indicating 86–92% accuracy. Classified maps also highlighted the increasing biomass and areal coverage of F. vesiculosus as a potential stressor to eelgrass meadows. Further, authors derive a statistically significant conversion of percentage cover to biomass (R2 = 0.96 for Fucus vesiculosus, R2 = 0.89 for Zostera marina total biomass, and R2 = 0.94 for AGB alone, p < 0.001). Results here provide an example of mapping cover and biomass of SAV and provide a tool to undertake spatio-temporal analyses to enhance the understanding of eelgrass ecosystem dynamics.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-08T10:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211052005
       
  • A conceptual beachhead: “Beaches and dunes of human-altered coasts” by
           Karl F. Nordstrom (1994)

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      Authors: Eli D Lazarus
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Approaching 30 years since its publication in Progress in Physical Geography, Nordstrom’s work from 1994 reads like an uncannily current synopsis of grand challenges in interdisciplinary coastal science. The article is a playbook of testable hypotheses for emerging and future empirical coastal research.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-08T02:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211054679
       
  • Why can China maintain a high crop diversity' A spatial-temporal
           dynamic analysis

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      Authors: Zhenhuan Liu, Guoping Tang, Yi Zhou, Jing Sun, Wenbin Wu, Peng Yang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Crop diversity is crucial for producing more food and nutrition in the crowded planet and achieving agricultural sustainable development, and thus it is a hot topic in shaping policies aimed at ensuring food security. Many studies have revealed that enhanced crop diversity can benefit crop productivity. However, research on how to maintain a relatively high crop diversity at regional and national scales remains limited. This study attempts to examine the underlying mechanisms of crop diversity changes in China and eventually answer why China can maintain a high crop diversity from the spatial-temporal perspective. To achieve this end, the county level crop area dataset for the period of 1980–2014 was compiled and used to quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of crop diversity in China. The result reveals that the China’s crop diversity trended upward over past 35 years, evidenced by more than 7 major crops at national level and 4 major crops at county level having undergone massive planting process to maintain a high crop diversity. Spatially, the crop diversity increased in more than two-thirds of the counties, and its hotspots moved gradually to the south-west mountainous area. The natural factor of slope and the social factor of population density contributed to shape the crop diversity pattern in global effects. In contrast, the irrigation degree, elevation of cropland, mean annual temperature and precipitation affected the spatially non-stationary distribution of crop diversity at the local level. On the whole, the maintenance of a higher crop diversity in China not only was limited by natural conditions, but also subject to adopt the multi-cropping systems strategic choice for the country to agricultural conditions. We argued that crop diversity can be an indicator to draw agricultural zoning, and increasing crop diversity should be recognized as a policy tool to implement agricultural sustainable development strategy.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-07T10:05:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211055850
       
  • Timescale-dependent responses of hydrological changes from global closed
           basins since the last glacial maximum

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      Authors: Xinzhong Zhang, Yu Li, Qin Han, Yuxin Zhang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Water shortage has plagued the social development and human well-being of global closed basins. However, the hydroclimate research on different time scales in these regions remains inadequate at a global scale. In this paper, the hydrological responses from global closed basins to millennial-scale and centennial-scale cold/warm events since the Last Glacial Maximum were explored. Closed-basin lake records indicate that the westerlies-dominated closed basins are generally wetter during cold events than the corresponding warm ones on the millennial and centennial scales. In contrast, the monsoon-influenced closed basins prevail wetter climates during warm events. According to the hydroclimate simulations, precipitation seasonality plays a significant role in causing above spatial–temporal patterns. There is more winter rainfall in westerlies-dominated closed basins during cold events in the Last Glacial Maximum and Little Ice Age and more summer rainfall in monsoon-influenced closed basins during warm events in the mid-Holocene and Medieval Climate Anomaly. Under modern and future global warming, the hydroclimate changes in global closed basins show more regional differentiation, resulting in wetter mid-latitude Asian and low-latitude African closed basins but drier southwest North American and Australian closed basins.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-07T09:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211051939
       
  • Modelling differential geomorphic effectiveness in neighbouring upland
           catchments: implications for sediment and flood risk management in a
           wetter world

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      Authors: David J Milan
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In July 2007 an intense summer storm resulted in significant activation of the sediment system in the Thinhope Burn, UK. Catchment- and reach-scale morphodynamic modelling is used to investigate the geomorphic work undertaken by Thinhope Burn; comparing this with the more subdued responses shown by its neighbours. Total sediment efflux for Thinhope Burn over the 10 yr period 1998-2007 was 18, 801 m3 four times that of the larger Knar Burn catchment and fifty-four times that of the smaller Glendue Burn catchment. For a discharge of 60 m3s-1, equivalent to the July 2007 Thinhope flood, sediment efflux was 575 m3, 76 m3, and 67 m3 for Thinhope, Glendue and Knar Burns respectively. It is clear that Thinhope Burn undertook significantly more geomorphic work compared to its neighbours. Analysis of the population of shear stress for reach-scale simulations on Thinhope Burn highlighted that the final three simulations (flood peaks of 60, 90, 236 m3s-1) all produced very similar distributions, with no marked increase in the modal shear stress (∼250 Nm-2). This possibly suggests that flows>60 m3s-1 are not able to exert significantly greater energy on the channel boundary, indicating that flows in the region of 60 m3s-1 attain ‘peak’ geomorphic work. It is argued that factors such as strength resistance of the key sediment sources (e.g. paleoberms perched on terraces), structural resistance to flood waves imposed by valley form resistance, location sensitivity and transmission resistance, may all offer explanations for increased geomorphic effectiveness compared with its neighbours. With the expectation of greater rainfall totals in the winter and more extreme summer events in upland areas of the UK, it is clear that attention needs to focus upon the implications of this upon the morphological stability of these areas not least to aid future sustainable flood risk management.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T07:20:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211045514
       
  • Projected climate change impacts on tropical life zones in Costa Rica

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      Authors: Christian Birkel, Joni Dehaspe, Andrés Chavarría-Palma, Nelson Venegas-Cordero, Rene Capell, Ana María Durán-Quesada
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Efforts to protect tropical ecosystems aim at implementing biological corridors across the national territory of Costa Rica. However, potential near-future climate change challenges the effectiveness of such conservation measures. For this purpose, we developed near-future climate change scenarios at high spatial resolution using open-access global data from the Copernicus Climate Data Store (CDS). These projections resulted from downscaling (to a 1km2 national grid) and quantile-mapping bias-correction of the Essential Climate Variables Global Circulation Model (ECV_GCM) ensemble mean from the CDS using a moderate Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). Projections were evaluated with limited local station data and applied to generate future ecosystem indicators (Holdridge Life Zones, HLZs). We show significantly increasing temperatures of 2.6°C with a spatial variability of ± 0.4°C for Costa Rica until 2040 with local differences (higher temperatures projected for the southern Costa Rican Caribbean). The future mean annual precipitation showed slightly wetter conditions (120 ± 43 mm/year) and most prominently in the Costa Rican Caribbean and south Pacific, but no significant drying in the north of Costa Rica by 2040. The bias-corrected climate data were aggregated to decadal and 30-year average (1971–2040) life zone ecosystem indicators that could potentially show ecosystem shifts. Changes in the life zones are most likely due to warmer temperatures and to a lesser extent caused by projected wetter conditions. Shifts are more likely to occur at higher elevations with a potential loss of the sub-tropical rainforest ecosystem. The projections support diminishing tropical dry forests and slightly increasing tropical rain and wet forests in the biological corridors of the driest and wettest regions, respectively. A countrywide spatial uniformity of dominating tropical moist forests (increase from 24% to 49%) at the expense of other HLZs was projected by 2040.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T05:17:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211047046
       
  • River science and flood risk management policy in England

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      Authors: Malcolm Newson, John Lewin, Paul Raven
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      We review the role of science in shaping river flood risk management policy in England, highlighting the relatively recent influence of fluvial geomorphology, river ecology, climate change and ecosystem services in evidence-based decision-making. These disciplines, together with an historical perspective, catchment-scale delivery, integrated land and water management planning, and adaptive management are crucial in managing future flood risk. A central tenet of previous land drainage policy was a professional (and public) mindset about flood ‘prevention’ solutions for river flooding. As a direct consequence, more than 8,500 km of rivers were ‘improved’ by mechanical dredging during the 1930s to 1980s; habitats were destroyed, but flooding continued. A more enlightened, long-term approach has since evolved in response to environmental imperatives and lessons learnt from several major floods during the last two ‘flood-rich’ decades. River science, local knowledge and land management incentives allow more natural processes to be restored in river catchments. The natural capital and ecosystem service benefits of river systems are now better understood and quantified, whereas the importance of sediment transport is fully recognised, with sources and sinks treated more holistically than in the past. Evaluating the outcomes of innovative runoff and river management techniques from both physical and socioeconomic perspectives will determine the success of a catchment-based approach. We highlight some of the uncertainties, nuances and assumptions associated with recent initiatives such as Natural Flood Management, Citizen Science and Flood Action Groups. Further integration between policy, strategic planning and local delivery is needed to anticipate and respond to climate and catchment land use changes. River science will play a crucial part in identifying the most effective way of improving flood management and in a way that helps to deliver the recovery of nature. It will inform adaptive management to cope with climate change.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-16T06:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211036384
       
  • Spatial assessment of flow and benefit of tropical cyclone hazard
           mitigation service

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      Authors: Mingyue Zhao, Jian Peng, Hua Zheng, Gretchen C. Daily, Yuanxin Liu, Jiansheng Wu, Yanglin Wang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Ecosystems are employed to effectively protect people and communities in coastal areas from tropical cyclone (TC) hazards. Although a spatially explicit TC hazard mitigation service (TCHMS) is essential for devising adaptation strategy and resilience policy, the process and delivery of this program are unclear. We improved a capacity–exposure–demand conceptual framework using Guangdong Province, China, as a case study area, and spatial analysis was employed to assess the ecosystem service. Under this framework, we assessed “capacity” as the natural potential protection against TC hazards, “exposure” as the need for services, and “demand” as the estimated necessity of protecting coastal populations and economic interests. The analysis results were then used to map the TCHMS flow and benefit gap. The results showed that 21.6% of the whole province had low capacity, 25.3% had high exposure, and 19.3% had high demand. A significantly negative correlation was present between the TCHMS capacity and exposure, and a positive correlation was shown between the exposure and demand. In particular, the TCHMS flow and benefit were sufficient in inland areas but were severely deficient in coastal megacities. In Guangdong Province, the Pearl River Delta, and Chaoshan (CS), 3.3%, 4.0%, and 15.3% of the areas showed high demand–low capacity–high exposure patterns, respectively. Our findings will deepen the scientific understanding of the degree of protection a given ecosystem will provide to communities and infrastructures exposed to TC hazards and will thus provide scientific support for coastal ecosystem planning and management.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-08-19T09:56:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211037643
       
  • The spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the relationship between PM2.5
           

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      Authors: Zhaoyang Li, Miaomiao Xie, Huihui Wang, Bin Chen, Rongrong Wu, Yan Chen
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Air pollution and the urban heat island (UHI) effect are two serious problems in many cities and have become increasingly serious with accelerated urbanization. The relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the UHI effect has become a research topic of major interest to help avoid the vicious cycle of the UHI effect and air pollution, but recent studies still focus on correlation analysis, lacking attention to the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of their relationship. Combining remote sensing and in situ data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the interaction between the UHI effect and PM2.5 in Beijing over four seasons by using a coupling coordination degree model, and the characteristics of spatiotemporal heterogeneity were analyzed from both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects. The modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were selected as the indices from a biophysical perspective. Urban functional areas derived from points of interest (POIs) were used to represent the area’s socioeconomic background. The results showed that the relationship between PM2.5 and the UHI effect has spatiotemporal heterogeneity. The areas exhibiting high degrees of coupling coordination were most widely distributed in spring, and the highest degree of coupling coordination appeared in summer. The four seasons of high coupling coordination areas occurred over four seasons, covering more than 58.3% of Beijing’s area, mainly concentrated in business-related functional areas. Areas where the positive interaction between the UHI effect and air pollution was weak tended to have a higher proportion of vegetation. The results of this work are of theoretical and management value for mitigating the threat of rapid urbanization to human health.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-08-04T09:14:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211033209
       
  • Producing climate boundary maps using GIS interface model designed with
           Python

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      Authors: Tugba Memisoglu Baykal, H. Ebru Colak
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Climate and its effects need to be examined within a more planned and comprehensive framework to prevent the unfavorable impact of climate change. Thus, climate effects on the ecosystem can be identified by determining the geographical boundaries of different climate types. The Köppen, Trewartha, Thornthwaite, Erinc, Aydeniz, De Martonne, and De Martonne–Gottman methods are used in the classification of climates. These methods enable the regional differences of climate types to be determined and their changes over the years to be examined. A number of studies examining climate classes have produced graphic findings and maps. The absence of new approaches has resulted in climate classifications still being carried out via manual studies. However, a program for identifying and representing these methods in a convenient, fast, and automated way could facilitate the completion of analyses in a shorter time. The programming languages developed in recent years have made it easy to design interface models that can perform analyses faster and easier than prolonged manual methods. In this study, a climate boundary determination interface model, designed using the Python programming language, was developed for use in the ArcGIS 10.6 program to determine geographical climate boundaries automatically. The provinces of Artvin, Ordu, Rize, Trabzon, Giresun, Bayburt, and Samsun (Turkey) were chosen as the study area to test the interface model. The resulting interface model design is expected to: (1) address the dimensions of climate change in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change studies; (2) identify the climate changes in our country as an objective of the National Climate Change Strategy; and (3) determine the land-use changes caused by climate boundaries and examine the ownership dimension of the adaptation process in the declaration published by the International Geodesy Federation in 2014.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-08-02T10:04:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211033223
       
  • Formation and evolution of mountainous aeolian sediments in the northern
           Tibet Plateau and their links to the Asian winter monsoon and westerlies
           since the Last Glacial Maximum

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      Authors: Simin Peng, Yu li, Hebin Liu, Qin Han, Xinzhong Zhang, Zhuowen Feng, Dawei Chen, Wangting Ye, Yuxin Zhang
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The production, transport, and deposition of dust has profound impacts and feedbacks on the regional and global environments. In parallel, the Tibet Plateau (TP) plays an important role in East Asian and global climate systems. Previous studies have shown that the dust can reach the plateau by long-distance transport from the westerlies and by short-distance transport from regional weathering. Here we present three new datasets in the Qilian Mountains of the northern TP, including two mountainous aeolian sedimentary sequences and a surface sample dataset. Proxies include grain size, magnetic susceptibility, mineral composition, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen. Data from surface samples indicate spatial gradient effects in altitude (from low to high) and latitude (from north to south), suggesting dust transport from the Gobi Desert to the plateau. The synthetic analysis of two aeolian sedimentary sequences and paleoclimate simulation data reveals that the northern TP can be a dust transport channel controlled mainly by the Asian winter monsoon and less influenced by the westerlies.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T10:09:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211033294
       
  • The Lasting Legacy of Hazard and Choice Perception in Flood Plain
           Management by Robert Kates

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      Authors: Lisa M DeChano-Cook
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This Classics Revisited/From the Archives paper summarizes the 1962 publication of Robert Kates regarding perceptions of the flooding hazard in LaFollette, Tennessee, and five other cities that were used for comparison. The influence of this work on improvements in flood hazards since 1962 are discussed, as well as suggestions as to how this work will continue to influence flood hazard management and mitigation.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-07-27T09:42:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211035064
       
  • Global assessment of wind erosion based on a spatially distributed RWEQ
           model

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      Authors: Guocheng Yang, Ranhao Sun, Yongcai Jing, Muqi Xiong, Jialei Li, Liding Chen
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Wind erosion is a global environmental problem and affects the sustainable use of land soil. The current efforts in wind erosion modeling mainly focus on local scales, yet very few studies have attempted to quantify the soil losses by wind on a large scale. Here, we proposed a distributed version of the revised wind erosion equation model (DRWEQ) to assess the spatial and temporal variations of wind erosion globally. The DRWEQ model used meteorological, soil, topographic, and remote sensing data to simulate global wind erosion from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that (a) the areas of wind erosion in Africa and Asia accounted for approximately 62% of the global wind erosion area but accounted for 91% of the global total soil loss; (b) global wind erosion showed a decreasing tendency during the research period – the wind erosion with a trend of intensification occupied 40.62% of the global wind erosion area while about 59.38% of the global wind erosion area showed a weakening trend; and (c) the monthly dynamics of the wind erosion were closely correlated with the combined effects of weather factors and vegetation coverage. The soil loss rates were lower in summer and reached the peak from January to April. The method presented in this study was developed based on the tradeoff of accuracy and availability of global data, and has the potential for predicting wind erosion from regional to global scales.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T11:11:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211030608
       
  • A modern perspective on Meinecke’s 1929 assessment of tourist
           impacts on redwoods

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      Authors: Ross H Martin, Joshua B Hodge, Clayton J Whitesides
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      E.P. Meinecke, a noted plant pathologist and staunch supporter of conservation, authored an influential article about the impacts of tourism on redwood trees. In the Effect of Excessive Tourist Travel on the California Redwood Parks, published in 1929, Meinecke found that soil compaction by tourists had a negative impact on tree roots and his recommendations for amelioration were both logical and laced with philosophical ideals. We revisit that report with a modern perspective by reviewing his findings and suggestions, and by comparing his ideas with modern research and tourism management practices. One of Meinecke’s greatest concerns was the advent of the automobile and its ability to bring more people to redwood groves. We take that concern to the next logical step and discuss potential impacts of climate change on redwood trees.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-07-13T09:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211029900
       
  • Combined use of environmental and spectral variables with vegetation
           archives for large-scale modeling of grassland habitats

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      Authors: Sébastien Rapinel, Léa Panhelleux, Arnault Lalanne, Laurence Hubert-Moy
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Grassland habitats provide many ecosystem services but are threatened by agricultural intensification and urbanization. While the lack of accurate and comprehensive inventories at the national scale makes them difficult to manage, advances in spatial modeling using open remote sensing data and open-source software, as well as the increasing use of ecological archives, provide new perspectives for mapping natural habitats. In this context, this study evaluated the contribution of spectral and environmental variables to discriminate and then map grassland habitats throughout France. To this end, 92 spectral variables derived from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer data, 19 bioclimatic variables derived from WorldClim data, 4 topographic variables derived from the European Union Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and 8 soil variables derived from SoilGrids data were combined at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Reference plots that characterized 6 and 21 grassland ecosystems at European Nature Information System (EUNIS) levels 2 (broad habitats) and 3 (habitats), respectively, were collected from vegetation archives. We first performed descriptive analysis that included habitat description, ordination, and pairwise separability. We then performed predictive analysis of grassland habitats using a cross-validated random forest model that included a spatial constraint. While environmental and spectral variables characterized most grassland habitats well and consistently, some confusion occurred between habitats with similar abiotic conditions. The main grassland habitat types were correctly mapped at EUNIS level 2 (F1 score = 0.68), but not at EUNIS level 3 (F1 score = 0.52). In addition, the two variables that contributed most to the model were the near-infrared spectral band in spring and the minimum temperature of the coldest month. The model’s prediction at EUNIS level 2 for mainland France provides the map of grassland habitats at a new spatial scale.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T09:35:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211023689
       
  • Mainstreaming natural flood management: A proposed research framework
           derived from a critical evaluation of current knowledge

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      Authors: Nicola Ellis, Karen Anderson, Richard Brazier
      First page: 819
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Natural flood management (NFM), or working with natural processes, is a growing flood risk management method in the UK, Europe and worldwide. However, unlike the current dominant technical flood management, it lacks an established evidence base of flood risk parameters. This lack of evidence base can limit the uptake of NFM as a flood management method. This paper critically evaluates examples of NFM and wider relevant literature in order to identify NFM knowledge gaps and suggest how to overcome these. The UK is used as a microcosm of different environments for diverse examples. The sections include: land cover, land management, landscape interactions and trade-offs, evaluating the wider benefits of NFM and, finally, scaling from plot to catchment. This concludes in a suggested framework for a new approach to NFM research, which encompasses spatial scales, interactions and trade-offs of NFM and consistency of reporting results. Widening the NFM empirical evidence base should be seen as an opportunity for a new approach to flood research through exploring new habitats and new flood resilience methods.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T10:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309133321997299
       
  • Sediment yield over glacial cycles: A conceptual model

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      Authors: Gilles Antoniazza, Stuart N Lane
      First page: 842
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The temporal variability in sediment export yield from glaciers over a timescale of multiple glacial cycles (e.g. 1 × 102 − 1 × 106 years) is of interest for a wide range of applications in glaciology, sedimentology, geomorphology, climatology and environmental engineering. However, the time required for the products of glacial erosion to be transferred through glaciated catchments and the extent to which glacially-conditioned sediment can be transiently stored within them are still poorly constrained and a matter of debate within the community. We propose a conceptual model of the variability in sediment exported from glaciers over multiple glacial cycles based on a literature review. Sediment yield is likely to be highly variable through a glacial cycle, notably between phases of glacier advance, retreat and re-advance due to changes in ice velocity and erosion rates, ice and meltwater transport capacity, and in glacially-conditioned sediment accessibility at the bed. Typically, early phases of glacier retreat and re-advance are expected to lead to the highest increase in sediment yield due to the ease with which the products of bedrock erosion can be accessed and reworked. In contrast, later phases of glacial (re)advance, once glacially-conditioned sedimentary sources become exhausted, may be characterized by intermediate rates of sediment export yield maintained through bedrock erosion. The latest phases of deglaciation, once glacially-conditioned sedimentary sources are either exhausted, stabilized or disconnected from active processes of sediment transfer, are likely to have the lowest rate of export. The conceptual model proposed in this paper fills a gap in the literature by developing a continuous pattern of sediment yield rate variability over the course of multiple glacial cycles, with wider implications for future research. However, its systematic applicability to various glacier settings and glaciations needs more field and modeling data to validate it.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T10:52:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0309133321997292
       
  • Spatial and seasonal patterns of rainfall erosivity in the Lake Kivu
           region: Insights from a meteorological observatory network

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      Authors: R.M. Bagalwa, C. Chartin, S. Baumgartner, S. Mercier, M. Syauswa, V.C. Samba, M.T. Zabona, K. Karume, N.L. Cizungu, M. Barthel, S. Doetterl, J. Six, P. Boeckx, K. Van Oost
      First page: 866
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the Lake Kivu region, water erosion is the main driver for soil degradation, but observational data to quantify the extent and to assess the spatial-temporal dynamics of the controlling factors are hardly available. In particular, high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall data are essential as precipitation is the driving force of soil erosion. In this study, we evaluated to what extent high temporal resolution data from the TAHMO network (with poor spatial and long-term coverage) can be combined with low temporal resolution data (with a high spatial density covering long periods of time) to improve rainfall erosivity assessments. To this end, 5 minute rainfall data from TAHMO stations in the Lake Kivu region, representing ca. 37 observation-years, were analyzed. The analysis of the TAHMO data showed that rainfall erosivity was mainly controlled by rainfall amount and elevation and that this relation was different for the dry and wet season. By combining high and low temporal resolution databases and a set of spatial covariates, an environmental regression approach (GAM) was used to assess the spatiotemporal patterns of rainfall erosivity for the whole region. A validation procedure showed relatively good predictions for most months (R2 between 0.50 and 0.80), while the model was less performant for the wettest (April) and two driest months (July and August) (R2 between 0.24 and 0.38). The predicted annual erosivity was highly variable with a range between 2000 and 9000 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 and showed a pronounced east–west gradient which is strongly influenced by local topography. This study showed that the combination of high and low temporal resolution rainfall data and spatial prediction models can be used to improve the assessments of monthly and annual rainfall erosivity patterns that are grounded in locally calibrated and validated data.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-03-18T09:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211001793
       
  • Investigation of sedimentary records of Hurricane Irma in sinkholes, Big
           Pine Key, Florida

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      Authors: Youzhu Wang, Philip Van Beynen, Ping Wang, Gregg Brooks, Gregory Herbert, Robert Tykot
      First page: 885
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Few paleotempestological studies have focused on coastal sinkholes, a common feature in Florida, which can receive and preserve storm overwash sediments. The major goal of this research is to improve our understanding of the characteristic signatures of storm sediments in sinkholes thereby determining reliability of these environments as proxies for hurricanes. Hurricane Irma as a category 5 storm provides an excellent case study for characterizing storm deposits in sinkholes on Big Pine Key. We cored at four sinkholes along a 350 m transect normal to the shoreline. Core sediments were characterized using physical description, short-lived radioisotope dating, sediment grain size analysis, loss-on-ignition, microfossil analysis, and x-ray fluorescence elemental analysis. We found that Irma deposits had higher abundances of marine foraminifera, less total organic matter and elevated Si/Al and Ca/Ti ratios, compared to pre- or post-Irma sediments. In addition, there was a thinning of the storm sediments along the inland transect. Consequently, we propose that sinkholes, particularly those that are closer to the shoreline, can provide reliable sites for paleotempestology studies.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T09:38:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211017764
       
  • Enhancing physical geography schools outreach: Insights from co-production
           and storytelling narratives

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      Authors: Kathryn Adamson, Timothy Lane, Kris De Meyer, Matthew Carney, Leonora Oppenheim, Sina Panitz, Hannah Price, Emma Smith, Gregory Watson
      First page: 907
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Global environmental change is one of the most pressing issues facing future generations. Equipping schoolchildren with a clear understanding of physical geography is therefore a key educational priority. Effectively engaging schoolchildren with complex scientific ideas can be challenging, but with the appropriate tools, scientists can play a valuable role in developing meaningful science communication experiences. Climate Explorers addressed these issues by forging a collaboration between physical geography and social science academics, and 320 UK school students and their teachers in seven primary (elementary) schools. Using insights from co-production techniques and storytelling, the project aimed to 1) produce new open access, online climate science education resources, and 2) test co-production and storytelling approaches to physical geography science engagement. Our findings demonstrated that school children responded especially well to working with ‘real life’ scientists, where meaningful and memorable educational interactions were forged through the use of narratives, personal experiences and tailored language. Here we summarise our approach, and provide templates that can be readily applied by scientists working across the physical geography spectrum anywhere in the world. The flexibility of the templates means that they can be adapted and developed for a range of formats, from small-scale community workshops to national-scale educational initiatives, for delivery both in-person or online. We hope that our approach will provide a springboard to transform and enhance physical geography science communication more broadly.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T09:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211017698
       
  • Remote sensing of the mountain cryosphere: Current capabilities and future
           opportunities for research

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      Authors: Liam S Taylor, Duncan J Quincey, Mark W Smith, Celia A Baumhoer, Malcolm McMillan, Damien T Mansell
      First page: 931
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Remote sensing technologies are integral to monitoring the mountain cryosphere in a warming world. Satellite missions and field-based platforms have transformed understanding of the processes driving changes in mountain glacier dynamics, snow cover, lake evolution, and the associated emergence of hazards (e.g. avalanches, floods, landslides). Sensors and platforms are becoming more bespoke, with innovation being driven by the commercial sector, and image repositories are more frequently open access, leading to the democratisation of data analysis and interpretation. Cloud computing, artificial intelligence, and machine learning are rapidly transforming our ability to handle this exponential increase in data. This review therefore provides a timely opportunity to synthesise current capabilities in remote sensing of the mountain cryosphere. Scientific and commercial applications were critically examined, recognising the technologies that have most advanced the discipline. Low-cost sensors can also be deployed in the field, using microprocessors and telecommunications equipment to connect mountain glaciers to stakeholders for real-time monitoring. The potential for novel automated pipelines that can process vast volumes of data is also discussed, from reimagining historical aerial imagery to produce elevation models, to automatically delineating glacier boundaries. Finally, the applications of these emerging techniques that will benefit scientific research avenues and real-world societal programmes are discussed.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T08:57:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211023690
       
  • On the emerging global relevance of atmospheric rivers and impacts on
           landscapes and water resources

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      Authors: Craig A Ramseyer, Natalie Teale
      First page: 965
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This progress report discusses the lineage of atmospheric rivers (ARs) research, focusing on the transformation of the topic from an important regional atmospheric feature along the U.S. West Coast to a globally relevant driver of extreme hydrometeorological events. As the AR literature has advanced, so has the regional expanse covered, initially expanding into the Central U.S. and Europe. Recently, new, emerging regions are being explored in the AR literature such as the high latitudes, New Zealand, China, North Africa, and the Middle East. The literature on the impact of AR-driven hydrometeorological events on land surface processes (e.g., landslides and avalanches) and water resources is also rapidly developing. This progress report seeks to expose the broader physical geography discipline to the global relevance of ARs and promote new applied research frontiers at the intersection of ARs and those processes studied by physical geographers.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-24T07:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211058893
       
  • Four decades of understanding Martian geomorphology: Revisiting Baker’s
           ‘The geomorphology of Mars’

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      Authors: Anshuman Bhardwaj, Lydia Sam, Saeideh Gharehchahi
      First page: 979
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Our understanding of the Martian atmosphere, terrain and subsurface has continuously evolved over the past couple of decades as a result of a number of successful orbiter and rover missions. This prompts a need to revisit the first holistic review of Martian geomorphology, based on images from the Viking orbiters, by Victor R. Baker in 1981. Several of the interpretations and recommendations based on remote sensing in Baker’s paper are as valid today as they were four decades ago. With an unprecedented focus on Mars exploration in the coming decades, it is important to revisit the advances and prospects in Martian geomorphology research.
      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-06-29T09:15:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211026215
       
  • Book Review: River planet: Rivers from deep time to the modern crisis

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      Authors: Michael A Chadwick
      First page: 990
      Abstract: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-18T06:13:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03091333211062797
       
 
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