Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3174 journals)
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CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)

Showing 1 - 29 of 29 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cytology and Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cell Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Cytogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Cytometry     Hybrid Journal  
Cytogenetic and Genome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cytokine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cytokine : X     Open Access  
Cytology and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cytometry Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cytoskeleton     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cytotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Diagnostic Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Egyptian Journal of Genetics And Cytology     Open Access  
European Journal of Histochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Folia Cryptogamica Estonica     Open Access  
Histochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cytology & Histology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Histotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Histology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the History of Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Single Cell Biology     Open Access  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.044
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-119X - ISSN (Online) 0948-6143
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Nestin and osteocrin mRNA increases in human semitendinosus myotendinous
           junction 7 days after a single bout of eccentric exercise

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      Abstract: Abstract The myotendinous junction (MTJ), a specialized interface for force transmission between muscle and tendon, has a unique transcriptional activity and is highly susceptible to muscle strain injury. Eccentric exercise training is known to reduce this risk of injury, but knowledge of the influence of exercise on the MTJ at the molecular and cellular levels is limited. In this study, 30 subjects were randomized to a single bout of eccentric exercise 1 week prior to tissue sampling (exercised) or no exercise (control). Samples were collected from the semitendinosus as part of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and divided into fractions containing muscle, MTJ and tendon, respectively. The concentrations of macrophages and satellite cells were counted, and the expression of genes previously known to be active at the MTJ were analyzed by real-time–quantitative PCR. An effect of the single bout of exercise was found on the expression of nestin (NES) and osteocrin (OSTN) mRNA in the MTJ and tendon fractions. Genes earlier identified at the MTJ (COL22A1, POSTN, ADAMTS8, MNS1, NCAM1) were confirmed to be expressed at a significantly higher level in the MTJ compared to muscle and tendon but were unaffected by exercise. In the exercise group a higher concentration of macrophages, but not of satellite cells, was seen in muscle close to the MTJ. The expression of NES and OSTN was higher in human semitendinosus MTJ 1 week after a single session of heavy eccentric exercise. Based on these results, NES and OSTN could have a part in explaining how the MTJ adapts to eccentric exercise.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Placenta-specific lncRNA 1600012P17Rik is expressed in spongiotrophoblast
           and glycogen trophoblast cells of mouse placenta

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      Abstract: Abstract A few long noncoding RNAs (long ncRNAs, lncRNAs) exhibit trophoblast cell type-specific expression patterns and functional roles in mouse placenta. However, the cell- and stage-specific expression patterns and functions of most placenta-derived lncRNAs remain unclear. In this study, we explored mouse placenta-associated lncRNAs using a combined bioinformatic and experimental approach. We used the FANTOM5 database to survey lncRNA expression in mouse placenta and found that 1600012P17Rik (MGI: 1919275, designated P17Rik), a long intergenic ncRNA, was the most highly expressed lncRNA at gestational day 17. Polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that P17Rik was exclusively expressed in placenta and not in any of the adult organs examined in this study. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that it was highly expressed in spongiotrophoblast cells and to a lesser extent in glycogen trophoblast cells, including migratory glycogen trophoblast cells invading the decidua. Moreover, we found that it is a polyadenylated lncRNA localized mainly to the cytoplasm of these trophoblast cells. As these trophoblast cells also expressed the neighboring protein-coding gene, pappalysin 2 (Pappa2), we investigated the effects of P17Rik on Pappa2 expression using Pappa2-expressing MC3T3-E1 cells and found that P17Rik transfection increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of Pappa2. These results indicate that mouse placenta-specific lncRNA P17Rik modulates the expression of the neighboring protein-coding gene Pappa2 in spongiotrophoblast and glycogen trophoblast cells of mouse placenta during late gestation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial injury are critical
           molecular drivers of AlCl3-induced testicular and epididymal distortion
           and dysfunction: protective role of taurine

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      Abstract: Abstract Aluminum, the third most plentiful metal in the Earth’s crust, has potential for human exposure and harm. Oxidative stress plays an essential role in producing male infertility by inducing defects in sperm functions. We aimed to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial injury in the pathogenesis of aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced testicular and epididymal damage at the histological, biochemical, and molecular levels, and to assess the potential protective role of taurine. Forty-eight adult male albino rats were separated into four groups (12 in each): negative control, positive control, AlCl3, and AlCl3 plus taurine groups. Testes and epididymis were dissected. Histological and immunohistochemical (Bax and vimentin) studies were carried out. Gene expression of vimentin, PCNA, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax, and XBP1 were investigated via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), besides estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Light and electron microscopic examinations of the testes and epididymis revealed pathological changes emphasizing both mitochondrial injury and ER stress in the AlCl3 group. Taurine-treated rats showed a noticeable improvement in the testicular and epididymal ultrastructure. Moreover, they exhibited increased gene expression of vimentin, Bcl-2, and PNCA accompanied by decreased CHOP, Bax, and XBP1 gene expression. In conclusion, male reproductive impairment is a significant hazard associated with AlCl3 exposure. Both ER stress and mitochondrial impairment are critical mechanisms of the deterioration in the testes and epididymis induced by AlCl3, but taurine can amend this.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Expression of the histone lysine methyltransferases SETD1B, SETDB1, SETD2,
           and CFP1 exhibits significant changes in the oocytes and granulosa cells
           of aged mouse ovaries

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      Abstract: Abstract Histone methylation is one of the main epigenetic mechanisms by which methyl groups are dynamically added to the lysine and arginine residues of histone tails in nucleosomes. This process is catalyzed by specific histone methyltransferase enzymes. Methylation of these residues promotes gene expression regulation through chromatin remodeling. Functional analysis and knockout studies have revealed that the histone lysine methyltransferases SETD1B, SETDB1, SETD2, and CFP1 play key roles in establishing the methylation marks required for proper oocyte maturation and follicle development. As oocyte quality and follicle numbers progressively decrease with advancing maternal age, investigating their expression patterns in the ovaries at different reproductive periods may elucidate the fertility loss occurring during ovarian aging. The aim of our study was to determine the spatiotemporal distributions and relative expression levels of the Setd1b, Setdb1, Setd2, and Cxxc1 (encoding the CFP1 protein) genes in the postnatal mouse ovaries from prepuberty to late aged periods. For this purpose, five groups based on their reproductive periods and histological structures were created: prepuberty (3 weeks old; n = 6), puberty (7 weeks old; n = 7), postpuberty (18 weeks old; n = 7), early aged (52 weeks old; n = 7), and late aged (60 weeks old; n = 7). We found that Setd1b, Setdb1, Setd2, and Cxxc1 mRNA levels showed significant changes among postnatal ovary groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, SETD1B, SETDB1, SETD2, and CFP1 proteins exhibited different subcellular localizations in the ovarian cells, including oocytes, granulosa cells, stromal and germinal epithelial cells. In general, their levels in the follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells as well as in the germinal epithelial and stromal cells significantly decreased in the aged groups when compared the other groups (P < 0.05). These decreases were concordant with the reduced numbers of the follicles at different stages and the luteal structures in the aged groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that altered expression of the histone methyltransferase genes in the ovarian cells may be associated with female fertility loss in advancing maternal age.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • A novel method for histological examination of hair follicles

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      Abstract: Abstract Intact and healthy hair follicles are important for hair growth after hair follicle transplantation. However, effective and practical evaluation methods for the quality of hair follicles are currently lacking. In the present study, we developed a novel fast staining method for histological examination of hair follicles. The whisker follicles from mice were used to explore the staining protocols, and the final protocol for the evaluation of human hair follicles was derived from animal experiments. After extraction, human hair follicles or mouse whisker follicles were permeabilized with 0.3% Triton X-100. Subsequently, hair follicles were processed by either hematoxylin or alkaline phosphatase staining. The integrity and growth state, including the status of hair follicle stem cells and blood vessels of the extracted hair follicles, were clearly identified under a light microscope. Unhealthy hair follicles from donors or hair follicles broken during extraction were easily revealed by this method. Importantly, it took less than half an hour to obtain images of an individual hair follicle. This method is simple and practical for evaluating the quality and status of hair follicles, providing a fast-screening procedure for hair follicle transplantation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Astroglial and oligodendroglial markers in the cuprizone animal model for
           de- and remyelination

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      Abstract: Abstract Myelin loss with consecutive axon degeneration and impaired remyelination are the underlying causes of progressive disease in patients with multiple sclerosis. Astrocytes are suggested to play a major role in these processes. The unmasking of distinct astrocyte identities in health and disease would help to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms in which astrocytes are involved. However, the number of specific astrocyte markers is limited. Therefore, we performed immunohistochemical studies and analyzed various markers including GFAP, vimentin, S100B, ALDH1L1, and LCN2 during de- and remyelination using the toxic murine cuprizone animal model. Applying this animal model, we were able to confirm overlapping expression of vimentin and GFAP and highlighted the potential of ALDH1L1 as a pan-astrocytic marker, in agreement with previous data. Only a small population of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the corpus callosum highly up-regulated LCN2 at the peak of demyelination and S100B expression was found in a subset of oligodendroglia as well, thus S100B turned out to have a limited use as a particular astroglial marker. Additionally, numerous GFAP-positive astrocytes in the lateral corpus callosum did not express S100B, further strengthening findings of heterogeneity in the astrocytic population. In conclusion, our results acknowledged that GFAP, vimentin, LCN2, and ALDH1L1 serve as reliable marker to identify activated astrocytes during cuprizone-induced de- and remyelination. Moreover, there were clear regional and temporal differences in protein and mRNA expression levels and patterns of the studied markers, generally between gray and white matter structures.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Paneth cell maturation is related to epigenetic modification during
           neonatal–weaning transition

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      Abstract: Abstract Paneth cells are antimicrobial peptide-secreting epithelial cells located at the bottom of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkühn. The crypts begin to form around postnatal day 7 (P7) mice, and Paneth cells usually appear within the first 2 weeks. Paneth cell dysfunction has been reported to correlate with Crohn’s disease-like inflammation, showing narrow crypts or loss of crypt architecture in mice. The morphology of dysfunctional Paneth cells is similar to that of Paneth/goblet intermediate cells. However, it remains unclear whether the formation of the crypt is related to the maturation of Paneth cells. In this study, we investigated the histological changes including epigenetic modification in the mouse ileum postnatally and assessed the effect of the methyltransferase inhibitor on epithelium development using an organoid culture. The morphological and functional maturation of Paneth cells occurred in the first 2 weeks and was accompanied by histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation, although significant differences in DNA methylation or other histone H3 trimethylation were not observed. Inhibition of H3K27 trimethylation in mouse ileal organoids suppressed crypt formation and Paneth cell maturation, until around P10. Overall, our findings show that post-transcriptional modification of histones, particularly H3K27 trimethylation, leads to the structural and functional maturation of Paneth cells during postnatal development.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • The Golgi complex: An organelle that determines urothelial cell biology in
           health and disease

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      Abstract: Abstract The Golgi complex undergoes considerable structural remodeling during differentiation of urothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. It is known that in a healthy bladder the differentiation from the basal to the superficial cell layer leads to the formation of the tightest barrier in our body, i.e., the blood–urine barrier. In this process, urothelial cells start expressing tight junctional proteins, apical membrane lipids, surface glycans, and integral membrane proteins, the uroplakins (UPs). The latter are the most abundant membrane proteins in the apical plasma membrane of differentiated superficial urothelial cells (UCs) and, in addition to well-developed tight junctions, contribute to the permeability barrier by their structural organization and by hindering endocytosis from the apical plasma membrane. By studying the transport of UPs, we were able to demonstrate their differentiation-dependent effect on the Golgi architecture. Although fragmentation of the Golgi complex is known to be associated with mitosis and apoptosis, we found that the process of Golgi fragmentation is required for delivery of certain specific urothelial differentiation cargoes to the plasma membrane as well as for cell–cell communication. In this review, we will discuss the currently known contribution of the Golgi complex to the formation of the blood–urine barrier in normal UCs and how it may be involved in the loss of the blood–urine barrier in cancer. Some open questions related to the Golgi complex in the urothelium will be highlighted.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
       
  • Landmark-based retrieval of inflamed skin vessels enabled by 3D
           correlative intravital light and volume electron microscopy

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      Abstract: Abstract The nanometer spatial resolution of electron microscopy imaging remains an advantage over light microscopy, but the restricted field of view that can be inspected and the inability to visualize dynamic cellular events are definitely drawbacks of standard transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Several methods have been developed to overcome these limitations, mainly by correlating the light microscopical image to the electron microscope with correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) techniques. Since there is more than one method to obtain the region of interest (ROI), the workflow must be adjusted according to the research question and biological material addressed. Here, we describe in detail the development of a three-dimensional CLEM workflow for mouse skin tissue exposed to an inflammation stimulus and imaged by intravital microscopy (IVM) before fixation. Our aim is to relocate a distinct vessel in the electron microscope, addressing a complex biological question: how do cells interact with each other and the surrounding environment at the ultrastructural level' Retracing the area over several preparation steps did not involve any specific automated instruments but was entirely led by anatomical and artificially introduced landmarks, including blood vessel architecture and carbon-coated grids. Successful retrieval of the ROI by electron microscopy depended on particularly high precision during sample manipulation and extensive documentation. Further modification of the TEM sample preparation protocol for mouse skin tissue even rendered the specimen suitable for serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM).
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
       
  • In focus in HCB

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      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Improved osteogenic differentiation by extremely low electromagnetic field
           exposure: possible application for bone engineering

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      Abstract: Abstract Human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (hPDLSCs) are a promising cell type model for regenerative medicine applications due to their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and non-tumorigenic potentials. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) are reported to affect biological properties such as cell proliferation and differentiation and modulate gene expression profile. In this study, we investigated the effects of an intermittent ELF-EMF exposure (6 h/day) for the standard differentiation period (28 days) and for 10 days in hPDLSCs in the presence or not of osteogenic differentiation medium (OM). We evaluated cell proliferation, de novo calcium deposition and osteogenic differentiation marker expression in sham and ELF-EMF-exposed cells. After ELF-EMF exposure, compared with sham-exposed, an increase in cell proliferation rate (p < 0.001) and de novo calcium deposition (p < 0.001) was observed after 10 days of exposure. Real-time PCR and Western blot results showed that COL1A1 and RUNX-2 gene expression and COL1A1, RUNX-2 and OPN protein expression were upregulated respectively in the cells exposed to ELF-EMF exposure along with or without OM for 10 days. Altogether, these results suggested that the promotion of osteogenic differentiation is more efficient in ELF-EMF-exposed hPDLSCs. Moreover, our analyses indicated that there is an early induction of hPDLSC differentiation after ELF-EMF application.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Evaluation of classifications of the monopodial bronchopulmonary
           vasculature using clustering methods

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      Abstract: Abstract Mammalian pulmonary arteries divide multiple times before reaching the vast capillary network of the alveoli. Morphological analyses of the arterial branches can be challenging because more proximal branches are likely biologically distinct from more peripheral parts. Thus, it is useful to group the arterial branches into groups of coherent biology. While the generational approach of dichotomous branching is straightforward, the grouping of arterial branches in the asymmetrically branching monopodial lung is less clear. Several established classification methods return highly dissimilar groupings when employed on the same organ. Here, we established a workflow allowing the quantification of grouping results for the monopodial lung and tested various methods to group the branches of the arterial tree into coherent groups. A mouse lung was imaged by synchrotron x-ray microcomputed tomography, and the arteries were digitally segmented. The arterial tree was divided into its individual segments, morphological properties were assessed from corresponding light microscopic scans, and different grouping methods were employed, such as (fractal) generation or (Strahler) order. The results were ranked by the morphological similarity within and dissimilarity between the resulting groups. Additionally, a method from the mathematical field of cluster analysis was employed for creating a reference classification. In conclusion, there were significant differences in method performance. The Strahler order was significantly superior to the generation system commonly used to classify human lung structure. Furthermore, a clustering approach indicated more precise ways to classify the monopodial lung vasculature exist.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Enhanced oxidative phosphorylation of IgG plasma cells can contribute to
           hypoxia in the mucosa of active ulcerative colitis

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      Abstract: Abstract Mucosal hypoxia is detected in the mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC), however the mechanism and the cause of hypoxia is not fully understood, while a dense infiltration of plasma cells is observed in the inflamed mucosa of UC. When differentiating from a B cell to a plasma cell, the energy metabolism dramatically shifts from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, which results in a large amount of oxygen consumption of the plasma cell. We hypothesized that the plasma cell infiltration into the inflamed mucosa contributes to the mucosal hypoxia in UC in part. We examined the association between mucosal hypoxia and plasma cell infiltration in UC. More IgG plasma cells (but not IgA plasma cells) were distributed, and the nuclear and cell sizes were enlarged in hypoxic mucosa compared to normoxic mucosa in UC. Oxidative phosphorylation signature genes of these IgG plasma cells were markedly upregulated compared to those of other lymphoid cells infiltrating the lamina propria of inflamed mucosa of UC. Enlarged IgG plasma cells, which increase in number in the inflamed mucosa of UC, can be related to the hypoxic state of the inflamed mucosa of UC.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
       
  • Modeling and simulation of diffusion and reaction processes during the
           staining of tissue sections on slides

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      Abstract: Abstract Histological slides are an important tool in the diagnosis of tumors as well as of other diseases that affect cell shapes and distributions. Until now, the research concerning an optimal staining time has been mainly done empirically. In experimental investigations, it is often not possible to stain an already-stained slide with another stain to receive further information. To overcome these challenges, in the present paper a continuum-based model was developed for conducting a virtual (re-)staining of a scanned histological slide. This model is capable of simulating the staining of cell nuclei with the dye hematoxylin (C.I. 75,290). The transport and binding of the dye are modeled (i) along with the resulting RGB intensities (ii). For (i), a coupled diffusion–reaction equation is used and for (ii) Beer–Lambert’s law. For the spatial discretization an approach based on the finite element method (FEM) is used and for the time discretization a finite difference method (FDM). For the validation of the proposed model, frozen sections from human liver biopsies stained with hemalum were used. The staining times were varied so that the development of the staining intensity could be observed over time. The results show that the model is capable of predicting the staining process. The model can therefore be used to perform a virtual (re-)staining of a histological sample. This allows a change of the staining parameters without the need of acquiring an additional sample. The virtual standardization of the staining is the first step towards universal cross-site comparability of histological slides.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
       
  • S100A1 expression characterizes terminally differentiated superficial
           cells in the urothelium of the murine bladder and ureter

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      Abstract: Abstract The urothelium is a stratified epithelium that lines the inner surface of the components of the urinary drainage system. It is composed of a layer of basal cells, one or several layers of intermediate cells, and a layer of large luminal superficial or umbrella cells. In the mouse, only a small set of markers is available that allows easy molecular distinction of these urothelial cell types. Here, we analyzed expression of S100A1, a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, in the urothelium of the two major organs of the murine urinary tract, the ureter and the bladder. Using RNA in situ hybridization analysis, we found exclusive expression of S100a1 mRNA in luminal cells of the ureter from embryonic day (E)17.5 onwards and of the bladder from E15.5 to adulthood. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that expression of S100A1 protein is confined to terminally differentiated superficial cells of both the ureter and bladder where it localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm. We conclude that S100A1 is a suitable marker for mature superficial cells in the urothelial lining of the drainage system of the developing and mature mouse.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Interaction of crown ethers with the ABCG2 transporter and their
           implication for multidrug resistance reversal

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      Abstract: Abstract Overexpression of ABC transporters, such as ABCB1 and ABCG2, plays an important role in mediating multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer. This feature is also attributed to a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), having enhanced tumourigenic potential. ABCG2 is specifically associated with the CSC phenotype, making it a valuable target for eliminating aggressive and resistant cells. Several natural and synthetic ionophores have been discovered as CSC-selective drugs that may also have MDR-reversing ability, whereas their interaction with ABCG2 has not yet been explored. We previously reported the biological activities, including ABCB1 inhibition, of a group of adamantane-substituted diaza-18-crown-6 (DAC) compounds that possess ionophore capabilities. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of ABCG2-inhibitory activity of DAC compounds and the natural ionophores salinomycin, monensin and nigericin. We used a series of functional assays, including real-time microscopic analysis of ABCG2-mediated fluorescent substrate transport in cells, and docking studies to provide comparative aspects for the transporter–compound interactions and their role in restoring chemosensitivity. We found that natural ionophores did not inhibit ABCG2, suggesting that their CSC selectivity is likely mediated by other mechanisms. In contrast, DACs with amide linkage in the side arms demonstrated noteworthy ABCG2-inhibitory activity, with DAC-3Amide proving to be the most potent. This compound induced conformational changes of the transporter and likely binds to both Cavity 1 and the NBD–TMD interface. DAC-3Amide reversed ABCG2-mediated MDR in model cells, without affecting ABCG2 expression or localization. These results pave the way for the development of new crown ether compounds with improved ABCG2-inhibitory properties.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Early unhealthy eating habits underlie morpho-functional changes in the
           liver and adipose tissue in male rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Early-life consumption of high-fat and sugar-rich foods is recognized as a major contributor for the onset of metabolic dysfunction and its related disorders, including diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The lifelong impact of early unhealthy eating habits that start at younger ages remains unclear. Therefore, to better understand the effects of diet, it is essential to evaluate the structural and functional changes induced in metabolic organs and potential mechanisms underlying those changes. To investigate the long-term effects of eating habits, young male rats were exposed to high-sugar and high-energy diets. After 14 weeks, body composition was assessed, and histopathological changes were analyzed in the liver and adipose tissue. Serum biochemical parameters were also determined. Expression of inflammatory markers in the liver was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed that serum levels of glucose, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and lipid profile were increased in rats red high-sugar and high-energy diets. Histopathological alterations were observed, including abnormal hepatocyte organization and lipid droplet accumulation in the liver, and abnormal structure of adipocytes. In both unhealthy diet groups, hepatic expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and E-selectin were increased, as well as a biomarker of oxidative stress. Together, our data demonstrated that unhealthy diets induced functional and structural changes in the metabolic organs, suggesting that proinflammatory and oxidative stress mechanisms trigger the hepatic alterations and metabolic dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Localization of aquaglyceroporins in human and murine white adipose tissue

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      Abstract: Abstract The glycerol channel AQP7 facilitates glycerol efflux from adipose tissue (AT), and AQP7 deficiency has been suggested to promote obesity. However, the release of glycerol from AT is not fully blocked in AQP7-deficient mice, which suggests that either alternative glycerol channels are present in AT or significant simple diffusion of glycerol occurs. Previous investigations of the expression of other aquaglyceroporins (AQP3, AQP9, AQP10) than AQP7 in AT are contradictory. Therefore, we here aim at determining the cellular localization of AQP3 and AQP9 in addition to AQP7 in human and mouse AT using well-characterized antibodies for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoblotting as well as available single-cell transcriptomic data from human and mouse AT. We confirm that AQP7 is expressed in endothelial cells and adipocytes in human AT and find ex vivo evidence for interaction between AQP7 and perilipin-1 in adipocytes. In addition, labeling for AQP7 in human AT also includes CD68-positive cells. No labeling for AQP3 or AQP9 was identified in endothelial cells or adipocytes in human or mouse AT using IHC. Instead, in human AT, AQP3 was predominantly found in erythrocytes, whereas AQP9 expression was observed in a small number of CD15-positive cells. The transcriptomic data revealed that AQP3 mRNA was found in a low number of cells in most of the identified cell clusters, whereas AQP9 mRNA was found in myeloid cell clusters as well as in clusters likely representing mesothelial progenitor cells. No AQP10 mRNA was identified in human AT. In conclusion, the presented results do not suggest a functional overlap between AQP3/AQP9/AQP10 and AQP7 in human or mouse white AT.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • A joint alignment and reconstruction algorithm for electron tomography to
           visualize in-depth cell-to-cell interactions

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      Abstract: Abstract Electron tomography allows one to obtain 3D reconstructions visualizing a tissue’s ultrastructure from a series of 2D projection images. An inherent problem with this imaging technique is that its projection images contain unwanted shifts, which must be corrected for to achieve reliable reconstructions. Commonly, the projection images are aligned with each other by means of fiducial markers prior to the reconstruction procedure. In this work, we propose a joint alignment and reconstruction algorithm that iteratively solves for both the unknown reconstruction and the unintentional shift and does not require any fiducial markers. We evaluate the approach first on synthetic phantom data where the focus is not only on the reconstruction quality but more importantly on the shift correction. Subsequently, we apply the algorithm to healthy C57BL/6J mice and then compare it with non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, with the aim of visualizing the attack of immune cells on pancreatic beta cells within type 1 diabetic mice at a more profound level through 3D analysis. We empirically demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to compute the shift with a remaining error at only the sub-pixel level and yields high-quality reconstructions for the limited-angle inverse problem. By decreasing labour and material costs, the algorithm facilitates further research directed towards investigating the immune system’s attacks in pancreata of NOD mice for numerous samples at different stages of type 1 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Correction to: Quantitative evaluation of spermatogenesis by fluorescent
           histochemistry

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      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
 
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