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CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)

Showing 1 - 29 of 29 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cytology and Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cell Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Cytogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Cytometry     Hybrid Journal  
Cytogenetic and Genome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cytokine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cytokine : X     Open Access  
Cytology and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cytometry Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cytoskeleton     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cytotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Diagnostic Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Egyptian Journal of Genetics And Cytology     Open Access  
European Journal of Histochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Folia Cryptogamica Estonica     Open Access  
Histochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cytology & Histology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Histotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Histology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the History of Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Single Cell Biology     Open Access  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cytology and Genetics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.161
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1934-9440 - ISSN (Online) 0095-4527
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Adaptation of Phytopathogenic Fungi to Quantitative Host Resistance: In
           Vitro Selection for Greater Aggressiveness in Fusarium Head Blight Species
           on Wheat

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      Abstract: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a global significant threat to crop production in small grains such as wheat. Till recently, we still lack empirical data on the selective effects of wheat quantitative resistance on aggressiveness changes in diverse FHB pathogens which may lead to potential resistance erosion because of the difficulty of conducting such studies under field conditions. Four FHB causative agents were used to study the evolution of aggressiveness using in vitro serial passage assays on susceptible “S” and moderately resistant “MR” wheat cultivars. These pathogens were previously tested and were found to be highly aggressive in vitro. Differences due to the selective impact of a cultivar among non-selected and selected isolates were measured for traits contributing to parasitic (latent period (LP) and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC)) and saprophytic (growth rate) fitness. The pathogen populations evolved faster on “MR” cultivars than “S” cultivars. Selected isolates were significantly more aggressive than non-selected isolates for LP and AUDPC, while no increase in aggressiveness was found on potato dextrose agar, indicating that the evolution of aggressiveness in FHB agents is associated with the presence of wheat plants with contrasted resistance levels. Selected isolates from “MR” cultivars were more aggressive than selected isolates from “S” cultivars, as they had a shorter LP (48.8%) and a higher level of AUDPC (18.4%). These results provide the first direct evidence that FHB pathogens adapt to wheat by increasing aggressiveness, suggesting a risk of directional selection and possible erosion of FHB resistance, an essential element for the development of durable management strategies for resistant wheat cultivars to FHB infection.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • SMAD4 Gene Analysis in Patients with Early Onset Colorectal Cancer: A
           Pilot Study

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      Abstract: In colorectal cancer (CRC), inactivation of SMAD4 occurs early in the disease development and SMAD4 represents one of key driver genes in progression and metastasis. Loss of SMAD4 protein expression is a relatively common feature of sporadic colorectal cancers, and it was observed to be even more frequent in tumors of patients with early onset disease and also more frequent in microsatellite stable tumors. Pathogenic variants in the SMAD4 gene are usually missense or nonsense mutations, and they are more frequent in the C-terminal domain. The aim of this study was to perform genetic analysis of SMAD4 C-terminal domain in colorectal cancer patients with early onset disease and microsatellite stable tumors. This pilot study was conducted with a purpose of investigating if such genetic screening strategy would be useful for diagnostic purposes in this specific subgroup of CRC patients. The study was conducted in a selected set of DNA samples extracted from the tumors of CRC patients who had less than 50 years at the time of diagnosis. Genetic analysis of C-terminal domain has encompassed analysis of exons 9, 10, 11 and 12 of the SMAD4 gene by PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Among the twenty analyzed tumor DNAs, one sample was found to harbor a SMAD4 variant: NC_000018.9:g.48591918C > T; (NM005359.5: c.1081C > T; Arg361Cys). The variant was discovered in exon 9, affecting the codon 361, which represents a mutational hot spot within the SMAD4 gene. This variant was discovered in homozygous state in the tumor of a 47 yr old female with T3 stage carcinoma of the right colon. Considering the incidence and functional consequences of SMAD4 exon 9 variants, the screening of this region could be a useful low cost strategy for the genetic analysis of colorectal tumors from patients with early onset disease, as well as for susceptibility testing.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Hydrogen Sulfide Participation in the Formation of Wheat Seedlings’ Heat
           Resistance Under the Action of Hardening Temperature

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      Abstract: The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a signaling mediator-gasotransmitter in the thermoresistance of plant cells remains poorly understood. The participation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide in heat resistance formation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by short-term exposure to high temperatures was studied. After a 1-min exposure to a temperature of 42°C in roots of wheat seedlings, a transient increase in hydrogen sulfide with a maximum of 1.5 h after heating was observed. At the same time, 24 h after exposure to high temperature, the H2S content in roots decreased to the level of control. The effect of increasing the content of hydrogen sulfide caused by the action of the hardening temperature did not manifest under the treatment of seedlings with scavenger hypotaurine and the inhibitor of L-cysteine desulfhydrase sodium pyruvate. The hardening heating of seedlings caused a rapid increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the roots and a gradual increase in the activity of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase. The maximum effect of changing the activity of these antioxidant enzymes was observed 24 h after exposure to the hardening temperature. The treatment of seedlings with hypotaurine and sodium pyruvate before hardening heating eliminated the effect of increasing the activity of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase but hardly affected SOD activity. Damaging heating (45°C, 10 min) of seedlings caused an increase in the content of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products in root cells and the subsequent death of a significant part of the seedlings. The preliminary hardening heating significantly increased the heat resistance, decreasing the LPO intensity and the level of seedling death. At the same time, their treatment with the hydrogen sulfide scavenger hypotaurine and the inhibitor of L-cysteine desulfhydrase sodium pyruvate largely neutralized the development of heat resistance caused by hardening heating. A conclusion was made about the role of hydrogen sulfide as a signaling mediator in the regulation of the antioxidant system and the development of seedlings' heat resistance under the action of a hardening temperature.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Detection of Chromosomal Aneuploidies in Human Blastomeres Using FISH
           Increases the Success of IVF by Improving the Chances of Embryo Progress
           to Delivery

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      Abstract: The efficiency of PGT-A have been studied in patients with previous IVF failure, recurrent pregnancy loss, idiopathic infertility and infertility due to other causes. More than 50% of all embryos produced in four experimental and one control groups were found to be aneuploid. Aneuploidies of autosomes 15 and 18 and of both sex chromosomes were the ones most frequently observed. Most aneuploidies were detected in patients with previous IVF failure and idiopathic infertility. After selecting euploid embryos for transfer, high clinical pregnancy rates were achieved in all study groups. In at least 30% of patients in each study group, IVF treatment coupled with PGT-A resulted in live birth. The highest live birth rate was observed in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and previous IVF failure, thus clearly demonstrating the benefits of offering PGT-A as part of treatment for various types of infertility.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • 4-Hydroxycoumarin Effects on Both Cellular and Genetic Characteristics of
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

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      Abstract: 4-Hydroxycoumarin is an aromatic substance which is metabolized in liver and used as a therapeutic agent for various diseases. We aimed to determine the impact of 4-Hydroxycoumarin on HepG2 cells according to their viability, proliferation, adhesion and gene expression of cellular behavior parameters. Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of 4-Hydroxycoumarin was detected on HepG2 cells. After determining the optimal time and concentration, the effect of 4-Hydroxycoumarin on viability, proliferation and adhesion of HepG2 cells were observed. Gene expressions of Ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and piR-823 expression were determined by using Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction. IC50 value of 4-Hydroxycoumarin on HepG2 cells was 5 μM at the 48 h (p < 0.001). 5 μM at the 48 h of 4-Hydroxycoumarin caused to decrease of proliferation (p < 0.001) and viability of HepG2 cells (p < 0.001). Viability rate were supported by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Adhesion of cells increased on 4-Hydroxycoumarin treated cells compared to control (p < 0.001). While Ki-67 gene expression of 4-Hydroxycoumarin treated group decreased (p < 0.001); upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9 and piR-823 expressions were determined in 4-Hydroxycoumarin treated group (p < 0.001). According to the cellular and genetic perspective, 4-Hydroxycoumarin might be useful to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. High adhesion and proliferation are the main characteristics of HepG2 cells, 4-Hydroxycoumarin treatment caused to lose these functions. The genetic markers of these characteristics also supported the same result. These are first findings about the effect of 4-Hydroxycoumarin on piR-823 and genes which are key features of cellular survival mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Characterization and Phylogeny Analysis of Azerbaijan Tea (Camellia
           sinensis L.) Genotypes by Molecular Markers

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      Abstract: The tea is one of the most important products in the southern region of Azerbaijan Republic, and plays an essential role in the region’s economy. Assessing and describing genetic diversity in crop plants is a crucial first step toward their improvement. In this study the tea genotypes belonged southern region of Azerbaijan was studied using 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA in order to estimate their genetic diversity and to identify the relationships among their genotypes. The RAPD primers generated 132 amplification products and 113 of which were polymorphic. The polymorphic banding patterns with the number of amplified fragments varied from 4 (OPA-19) to 19 (OPAB-18). Percent polymorphism ranged from 50 to 95% with an average of 83.94%. The genetic similarity among the genotypes tested ranged 0.445 to 0.819 with an average of 0.512. The cluster analysis based on UPGMA and Jaccard similarity index revealed 5 main clusters for the RAPD data and the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) supported the clustering result. According to our results, there is a relatively high genetic distance across tea genotypes in the southern of Azerbaijan Republic. Furthermore, it could be inferred that RAPD markers are suitable tools for the evaluation of genetic diversity and relationships within Camellia sinensis.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Gamma Rays Induced Cytomictic Variations in Pollen Mother Cells of Cumin
           (Cuminum cyminum) L.

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      Abstract: Cytomixis is an enigmatic cytological phenomenon found between proximately situated PMCs reported in Cuminum cyminum L. The transmigration of chromatin material between two adjacent meiocytes was observed at various exposure rate of gamma radiation viz., 100, 125, 150 and 175 Gy in GC-4 variety of cumin. The microsporogenesis study of gamma treated sets reveals intercellular migration through various channels or direct fusion. In the present study, the cytomixis was more frequently noticed at meiosis I as compared to later stage i.e., meiosis II. The rate of recurrence of cytomixis shows gradual increment along with the increasing dose rate of gamma rays. As consequences of cytomixis various aberrant post meiotic products were recorded at later phase of cell cycle. Moreover, in addition to cytomixis other chromosomal abnormalities were also recorded which leads to reduction in pollen fertility. Syncytes were observed at low frequency but have high evolutionary significance as they produce gametes with higher ploidy level. The production of gametes with unbalanced chromosomes can be further exploited in breeding techniques as they are potent variation inducer.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Expression of the Cftr, Nfkb1, and Ocln Genes during Restoration of Skin
           Integrity

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      Abstract: The expression level of the Cftr and Ocln genes was shown to decrease against an increase in the Nfkb1 gene expression level during the healing of both planar full-thickness excisional and purulonecrotic skin wounds in rats. The restoration of the Ocln gene expression could be mediated by an increase in the Cftr gene expression level, due to a decrease in the mRNA level of the Nfkb1 gene. With the application of melanin under the same conditions, the Cftr and Ocln expression more quickly approached the relative values of the control group of rats in the absence of the Nfkb1 gene overexpression during the restoration of skin integrity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Improving Salt Tolerance in Trifolium alexandrinum L. through
           Interspecific Hybridization, Polyploidization and Induced Variations

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      Abstract: Soil salinity significantly affects crop productivity throughout the world. Improving intrinsic salt tolerance of the plants may effectively improve productivity. In vitro evaluation is an effective and quick method allowing utilization of inter and intra genotypic variation in a controlled environment. Trifolium alexandrinum is one of the most important winter season annual fodder crop in India and Mediterranean region. Diverse T. alexandrinum genotypes were evaluated in vitro for salt tolerance. Intra and inter genotypic variability was observed for response to varying levels of salt stress at different growth stages. Germination was adversely affected with increasing salt stress among genotypes, however, three genotypes EC 318954, ISH 34/41, ISH 34/8Y showed 75–80% germination even at 0.75% salt level. High seedling mortality was observed at higher salinity levels except EC 318954 which showed low mortality at 0.50 and 0.75% salinity. Seedlings with normal root growth ranged from 5 to 80% at 0.25 and 0.5% salinity. Based on average Salinity Susceptibility Index (SSI) the ISH progenies were most tolerant (SSI = 0.895) for germination as well as radicle and pumule length, number of leaves and plant weight (SSI = 0.91). ISH progenies, tetraploids, Fahli ecotype and multifoliate showed better tolerance. The study confirmed successful transfer of salinity tolerance from T. apertum to T. alexandrinum. The petiole and hypocotyl explants at moderate salinity and petiole explants at high salinity responded well for in vitro callusing. Calli developed at 0.75% salinity can be a source of developing tolerant lines through natural cell line selection. Embryo culture response of Mescavi genotypes was better than Fahli and Saidi genotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Role of Nitric Oxide in the Arabidopsis thaliana Response to Simulated
           Microgravity and the Involvement of Autophagy in This Process

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      Abstract: The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the response of plants to simulated microgravity has been studied. It was found that treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds with NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), stimulating changes in root growth parameters, leads to increased plant resistance to clinostating. After treatment of seeds with SNP, the content of endogenous NO in control plants on the sixth day of cultivation increased by 1.5 times, and it increased by 1.8 times in clinostated seed. The content of endogenous NO gradually decreased on days 9–12, which may indicate the adaptation of plants to the clinostating conditions. Using a specific DAF-FM DA fluorescent probe, an increase in NO fluorescence was found in epidermal cells of root apexes and root hairs in clinostated plants, indicating the accumulation of endogenous NO in these root tissues under stress. On the sixth day of cultivation under clinostat conditions compared with control plants, there was an increase in the accumulation of autophagosomes in the epidermal cells of the transitional zone of the root with the following decrease in this indicator on days 9–12. Seed treatment with cPTIO (NO scavenger) slightly inhibited seedling growth, and this effect was enhanced under clinostating, including a significant increase in the accumulation of autophagosomes in epidermal cells. Thus, the data obtained indicate that the regulation of endogenous NO content is an important component of intracellular signaling mechanisms that are involved in the response of plant cells to simulated microgravity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Polymorphisms of Genes Associated with Intracellular Signaling Pathways in
           Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study was to determine nucleotide sequence changes in the genes associated with the activation of intracellular signaling molecules and the risk of autoimmune dysregulation in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). High-throughput panel-exome next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed using the high-throughput Illumina HiSeq system (United States) in 36 children diagnosed with JIA. Nucleotide sequence changes were detected in the CASP10, CASP8, IL7R, IL10RA, IL12RB1, IL21R, MYD88, NFKB2, STAT5B, JAK3, IRAK4, and UNC13D genes in 13 (36.11%) patients, including seven (53.8%) children with nucleotide sequence changes associated with autoinflammatory syndromes (NOD2, NLRP12, MEFV, ADA2, and PSTPIP1). The seven HLA-B27-positive (53.8%) patients had changes in autoimmunity genes, whereas only two (8.6%) children had no changes in these genes, which showed associativity between HLA and the group of selected genes (OR = 12.25 (MukvichCI 1.99–75.19)). Thus, the risk loci were identified in 36.11% of patients with the JIA phenotype in the CASP10, CASP8, IL7R, IL10RA, IL12RB1, IL21R, MYD88, NFKB2, STAT5B, JAK3, IRAK4, and UNC13D genes associated with the activation of intracellular signaling molecules and the initiation of autoimmune dysregulation. The patients with JIA with nucleotide sequence changes in the autoimmunity genes developed mutations in the autoinflammatory genes significantly more frequently, which demonstrated a possibility for developing a combined overlapping autoimmune–autoinflammatory phenotype in definite individuals. The study confirms the significance of variative changes in the NFkB and JAK/STAT genes of intracellular signaling pathways for the onset of JIA, which may be informative for the development of future therapeutic strategies as well as for the personalization of therapeutic decisions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle Fibers and Regulation of Myosatellitocytes
           Metabolism

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      Abstract: Skeletal muscles are heterogeneous tissue containing different types of muscle fibers. Their distribution depends on heredity, type of exercise, sex, age, and muscle type. In addition, stem cells (myosatellitocytes) are found in large amounts in the muscle tissue. Myosatellitocytes are the main material for regeneration of microtears of muscle fibers always occuring during intensive physical exercises. Myosatellitocytes are capable of long-term storage in an inactive “dormant” state, but they can be rapidly activated to provide an efficient repair of damaged muscle fibers. The metabolism of myosatellitocytes and myoblasts and their migration into the damaged area are regulated by a complex system of cytokines and transcription factors, the activity of which depends on many factors. Microtears initiating the development of the inflammatory process and activation of myosatellitocytes is a determining factor. The study into molecular mechanisms of the relationship between inflammatory processes in muscle tissue and changes in myosatellitocyte metabolism is of fundamental importance and is necessary for the selection of efficient methods for muscle tissue recovery.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Peculiarities of Nucleus–Nucleolus Indicators of Seed Progeny in Mother
           Stankevich Pine trees (Pinus brutia var. stankewiczii Sukacz.) Different
           in Levels of Heterozygosity

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      Abstract: Nucleus–nucleolus characteristics of Pinus brutia var. stankewiczii Sukacz. seeds were analyzed under conditions of the marginal part of the area and recreational load. Interpopulation polymorphism in the number of nucleoli and their size was detected in the cells of P. brutia var. stankewiczii seedlings from the southeastern coast of Crimea. For a population experiencing recreational load, an increase in the average area of nucleoli in the nucleus and a decrease in nucleus–nucleolus ratio was noted, which indicates an increase in the functional activity of the genetic apparatus of the cells in response to the effect of adverse conditions. A change in nucleus–nucleolus indicators depending on the level of heterozygosity of mother trees was demonstrated. An increase in the size of nucleoli was found for low-heterozygous plants. The identified trends indicate the complex nature of the changes in the cells of P. brutia var. stankewiczii seed progeny.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3103/S0095452722020074
       
  • Innovative Approaches to Genome Editing in Chickens

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      Abstract: Abstract Obtaining productive animals, including chickens, with specified characteristics is a promising area of modern animal husbandry. The most relevant traits for chickens are increased meat and egg productivity, resistance to infectious diseases, products with reduced allergenicity, and the production of integrated transgenic proteins. The rapidly developing methods of molecular genetics, such as genome editing, allow for solving these problems. In birds, unlike mammals, access to the unicellular zygote—when editing the genome is most effective—is difficult due to the special structure of the reproductive system. As a result, innovative methods have been developed for genetic engineering of birds, the most common of which is the use of primordial germ cells (PGC), precursors of poultry reproductive cells. This review provides a brief description and discussion of modern methods of editing the chicken genome using endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and the system of clustered short palindromic repeats CRISPR/Cas9. Particular attention is paid to methods of gene editing in birds using primordial germ cells (PGC). Various strategies for the delivery of guide RNA (gRNA) and Cas9 protein into poultry cells based on the use of plasmid vectors, an alternative method of delivery of genetic constructs using spermatozoa (STAGE), the RNP method, which consists in direct delivery of gRNA and Cas9 protein in the form of a complex ribonucleoproteins, and the RNP method based on the use of nanobubbles were considered.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3103/S0095452722020037
       
  • Melatonin Improves Left Ventricular Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rats

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      Abstract: Abstract There is increasing awareness that efficient and regular mitochondrial dynamics improvement cardiac function and affects the quality of life. Melatonin is a main pineal gland hormones and ameliorates mitochondrial dynamics in many cardiac disorders. For that purpose, we administrated melatonin to healthy rats all day long in order to investigate change in left ventricle mitochondrial dynamics both in the end of the nighttime and daytime. Twenty male Wistar rats (3–4 months age) were randomly assigned into Control (C; n = 10) and Melatonin groups (MEL; 10 mg/kg melatonin added drinking water, n = 10). On the 5th day of the study, 5 rats from the groups were randomly selected and euthanized at 08:00 AM and the remaining 5 rats were euthanized at 20:00 PM from each groups and samples of left ventricle (LV) tissue were harvested. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that melatonin acts preventive role on mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy through the DRP1/FIS1 and BNIP3/NIX axis, respectively. Additionally, melatonin administration significantly reduced P21 activation, induced cell cycle arrest, P27, finally regulated caspase-depended mitochondrial apoptosis signals in a time dependent manner. Our results suggest that melatonin may emerge as a therapeutic candidate to protect the bioenergetic dynamics of mitochondria in hearth.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3103/S0095452722020116
       
  • Effect of Implantation of a Fibrin Matrix Associated with Neonatal Brain
           Cells on the Course of an Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

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      Abstract: Abstract The effect of immediate implantation of a fibrin matrix associated with allogeneic neonatal rat brain cells on their motor function recovery after a spinal cord injury (SCI) was studied. The cohorts of animals selected for the study were represented by white adult outbred rats (approximately 260 g each, 4 or 5 months old). The SCI simulation was based on a left-side hemisection of the spinal cord at the level of approximately T13–L1 segments. The rehabilitation treatment included immediate transplantation of a human fibrin matrix associated with neonatal rat brain cells (NBCs) (n = 9) into the injury area. The reference groups were represented by animals with isolated traumatic (Tr) SCIs (n = 7) and those with implantation of a human acellular fibrin (Fb) matrix (n = 6) into the injury area. The motor activity was assessed in the paretic hindlimb on the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale; spasticity was evaluated on the Ashworth scale; and the pathohistological examination of longitudinal spinal cord sections sampled in the remote posttraumatic period was performed using the silver impregnation staining method. The fibrin matrix promotes viability, growth, and differentiation in the incorporated neonatal rat brain cells. Starting from the second or third week after the implantation into the injury epicenter, the motor function in the paretic limb corresponded to approximately 11 points in the Fb and NBC groups and to approximately six points in the Tr group on the BBB locomotor scale. No significant differences in the locomotor function of the paretic limb were recorded throughout the entire experiment between the NBC and Fb groups nor between the Fb and Tr groups. Significant differences between the NBC and Tr groups were recorded from the second, fourth, and eighth week, as well as the third and fifth months, post injury. A significant prevalence in the level of spasticity in the Tr group over the NBC and Fb groups was recorded, respectively, from the sixth and the seventh week after the injury. An immediate implantation of the fibrin matrix in complex with allogeneic neonatal brain cells or without the latter causes a significant positive effect on the motor function recovery after a lacerative SCI.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3103/S0095452722020086
       
  • Distribution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Alleles Ppd-D1a, Ppd-B1a, and
           Ppd-B1c in Winter Common Wheat Cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of Various
           Origin

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      Abstract: Diagnostic molecular markers were used to identify the genotypes by Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 genes of 232 winter common wheat cultivars from different countries, including 161 from Ukraine. Among the studied cultivars, the most common was the Ppd-D1a allele (81%), ranging from 10% in the United States cultivars to 92% in the cultivars from Ukraine. The pedigree analysis showed that Bezosta 1, Red River 68, and Zlatna Dolina cultivars were donors of the Ppd-D1a gene in Ukrainian common wheat cultivars. Almost all cultivars created in Ukraine from 1970s to the present day have been carriers of the Ppd-D1a. The frequency of the Ppd-B1a and Ppd-B1c alleles in the total sampling was negligible: only 3 and 5%, respectively. Locus Ppd-A1 did not have allele variations; thus, all 232 genotypes were the carriers of the recessive allele Ppd-A1. In general, six different Ppd-1 genotypes were detected in the cultivars. Two (Russia) or three (the European Union, the United States, Ukraine) Ppd-1 genotypes were found in the cultivars from most countries. Four Ppd-1 genotypes were found only in Japanese cultivars, the sampling of which was quite small. A higher frequency (75%) was found only for the genotypes, dominant by the Ppd-D1a allele, ranging from 10% (the United States) to 89% (Ukraine). The frequency of all other monogenic or digenic dominant genotypes-carriers of the Ppd-1 genes was rather low (from 1 to 4%). The monogenic Ppd-B1a dominant genotype was observed only in three cultivars from the United States, and monogenic dominant genotype Ppd-B1c was revealed in the Japanese cultivar Norin 1 and the Triple Dirk C line from Australia. The genotype from the Ppd-D1a Ppd-B1a allele combination was identified in three cultivars from Japan and the Kyrgyz cultivar Erythrospermum 80, and Ppd-D1a Ppd-B1c were identified in single cultivars from Italy, Serbia, Japan, and five cultivars from Ukraine. There was a significant increase in the share of Ppd-D1a allele carriers and a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of genotypes with three recessive Ppd-1 genes in Ukrainian and Russian cultivars as compared with European and the United States cultivars.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3103/S0095452722020049
       
  • Neuroregenerative “Bystander”-Effects of Conditioned Media from
           Adipose Tissue-Derived Fibroblast-Like Cells in Vitro

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      Abstract: Abstract A promising direction in the development of new technologies for the treatment of the central nervous system diseases is the use of different types of stem cells, in particular, mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells (MMSCs) and neurogenic stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). An alternative to direct cell transplantation may be the use of their conditioned media (CM) as a source of secretome and a key component of the mechanism of realization of their potential. Currently, in clinical trials using cell therapy in CNS pathology, the adipose tissue, bone marrow, umbilical cord and cord blood are most commonly used as a source for isolation of the MMSCs or mononuclear cells of the stromal-vascular fraction, and as a source of the NSCs/NPCs the lines of immortalized neurogenic cells isolated from structures of the brain or spinal cord of the human embryo are used. In experimental conditions, in particular in rodents, one of the most available sources of allogenic progenitor cells of the mesenchymal type is adipose tissue, and fetal brain is accessible source of neurogenic cells. The aim was to study the neuroregenerative effects of conditioned media from rat adipose tissue-derived fibroblast-like cells and fetal neurogenic cells in vitro. Methods. CM from 24 h cultures of rat adipose tissue-derived fibroblast-like cells (ad-FLCs) and fetal neurogenic cells (NCs, E14) were examined by electrophoresis in 10% polyacrylamide gel. On 5–7 day in 2D cultures of rat neural cells (E14) the “scratch assay” was performed and nutrient medium DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (standard culture conditions, control) or 0.10 mg/mL (by amount of protein) ad-FLCs CM or NCs CM were added. Microscopic and morphometric studies were performed during 4-day cultivation. Results. After mechanical transection in the culture of neural cells under standard conditions from the 1 to the 3 day there were processes of endogenous regeneration, which decreased to the 4 day. The addition of ad-FLCs CM or NCs CM contributed to a significant increase in the degree and duration of endogenous regeneration processes in neural cell culture. Exposure to ad-FLCs CM increased to the 4 day in the scratch area the number of migrated cells (7 times) and the density of cell processes (12.5 times); exposure to NCs CM increased the number of migrated cells (3.5 times), the distance of cell migration (1.4 times), the density of cell processes (13 times). The length of the overgrown section of the scratch area increased after exposure to ad-FLCs CM in 1.7 times, NCs CM—3 times, reaching respectively 23.7 and 43.5% of the total length of the transection zone. 10 protein fractions were detected in the ad-FLCs CM: predominant 12, 15, 23, 30, 80 kDa and minor—28, 35, 55, 65, 75 kDa; in NCs CM—9 fractions: prevailing 15, 23, 30, 35 kDa and minor—37, 40, 46, 67, 80 kDa. Conclusions. CM from 24 h cultures of rat ad-FLCs or NCs (E14) stimulate endogenous regeneration processes in rat brain cell culture with mechanical monolayer transection. The affecting factors of neuroregenerative “bystander” effects of rat ad-FLCs or NCs are secreted biologically active proteins—components of the CM predominant and minor protein fractions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3103/S0095452722020098
       
  • De Novo Reporting of B Chromosomes with Their Bewildermentic Responses in
           Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk

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      Abstract: It is a matter of great serendipity that while studying cytogenetics of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. we reported B chromosome. It is the maiden study regarding the reporting of B chromosomes in this plant species as per our knowledge. During the meiotic study of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk maximum three B chromosomes were reported in Bhringraj. The study deals with the effect of B chromosomes on A chromosome chiasma frequency, chiasma distribution and pollen fertility in Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Results suggest that B chromosome enhances the chiasma frequency, and also increases variations in carrier and non- carrier pollen mother cells (PMCs). Moderate reduction in fertility of carrier plants, in contrast to non-carriers could also recorded. With regard to earlier investigations, the possible mechanism of action of B-chromosomes has been discussed. Aside from their intrinsic enigmatic properties B-chromosomes might be useful experiment tool to study the wider issues of genome organization and evolution in plants and make them insightful.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3103/S0095452722020050
       
  • Polyamines: Involvement in Cellular Signaling and Plant Adaptation to the
           Effect of Abiotic Stressors

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      Abstract: Polyamines (PA) are aliphatic amines found in all cells, including plant cells. Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are the most common PA in higher plants. PA are localized in cell walls, vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the nucleus. Under adverse conditions, the content of PA in plant tissues increases significantly. These compounds are considered to be typical stress metabolites. They are involved in the stabilization of biomacromolecules and membrane structures. At the same time, in recent years, the functions of PA under stress conditions are considered in the context of their involvement in the processes of cellular signaling. The review presents current information on the synthesis and catabolism of PA. The processes of formation of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as one of the key signaling molecules, from PA are considered. A possible synthesis of nitric oxide during the oxidative degradation of PA is discussed. The information about the effect of PA on calcium homeostasis of plant cells and involvement of PA in the regulation of ionic (including calcium) channels are provided. A gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide is considered as one of the mediators in the implementation of the effects of PA. The work summarizes information about the role of PA in the maintenance of redox balance in plant cells, their involvement in the regulation of the expression of stress protein genes, the state of the stomatal apparatus, and other processes related to the adaptation to adverse environmental factors.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3103/S0095452722020062
       
 
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