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CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)

Showing 1 - 29 of 29 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cytology and Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cell Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Cytogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Cytometry     Hybrid Journal  
Cytogenetic and Genome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cytokine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cytokine : X     Open Access  
Cytology and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cytometry Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cytoskeleton     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cytotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Diagnostic Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Egyptian Journal of Genetics And Cytology     Open Access  
European Journal of Histochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Folia Cryptogamica Estonica     Open Access  
Histochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cytology & Histology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Histotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Histology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of the History of Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Single Cell Biology     Open Access  
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.206
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1617-6278 - ISSN (Online) 0939-6314
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Plant macrofossils as indicators of vegetation and climate change in the
           Northern Black Forest of Germany during the last millennium - with focus
           on the Little Ice Age

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      Abstract: Abstract In order to better understand the potential effects of climatic change on forest cover during and after the Little Ice Age (ad 1550 to 1880), a high-elevation cirque Lake (Wildsee am Ruhestein) was cored and analysed using continuous plant macrofossil analysis, supplemented by standard pollen analysis. The plant macrofossil record provides local information for climate changes not clearly seen in regional pollen records for the Northern Black Forest. Abundant deposition of white fir (Abies alba) needles is restricted to the Little Ice Age, suggesting reaction to climatic cooling. Human impacts, particularly forest clearing, are well documented historically during the past millennium, but discrete peaks in needle flux are only recorded at Wildsee once Little Ice Age cooling begins. The first needle flux event at 39–42 cm depth has a median modelled age of ad 1650, at the start of the Maunder Minimum, recognized as a particularly cold interval. Also of climatic significance is the flux of 19 immature Abies needles recovered from the 30–33 cm layer, dated around ad 1720. This finding is interpreted as clear evidence of severe spring frosts during the Little Ice Age, discrete events that are well-recorded in historical observations. Pollen analysis also supports cooling, beginning at a depth of 54 cm, modelled at ad 1560 during the beginning of the Little Ice Age. A decline in oak (Quercus) pollen begins around ad 1560 at the start of pollen zone IV, which also includes the lowest total pollen accumulation rates seen, suggesting a climatic influence. The significant forest dieback (Waldsterben) events that were observed during the late 1970 and 1980 s could not be identified in our pollen and macrofossil data. The combined approach of using pollen and detailed macrofossil analysis provides a better reconstruction of forest history than either technique in isolation, and the combination is potentially important for management of protected areas such as the Black Forest National Park.
      PubDate: 2022-08-13
       
  • Archaeobotanical evidence and ethnobotanical interpretation of plants used
           as coffin pillow fillings in burials in Poland (17th-18/19th centuries)

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this article is the study of the botanical material in the fillings of 54 coffin pillows from Catholic and Protestant burials dated to the 17th-18/19th centuries, collected during the investigation of 15 church crypts in different regions of Poland, and consideration of the role of the plants used for this purpose. In a large part of the dataset, a comprehensive picture of the botanical composition of the pillow fills has been obtained through the parallel studies of plant macroremains and pollen. Advantages and pitfalls in the use of pollen analysis on these specific remains are discussed. The results show that a large number of taxa were used in pillow fillings. The choice of plants was mostly dictated by their aromatic, insect repellent and preservative properties as well as their symbolic meanings, but the morphology and other physical properties of plants used in the fillings was also of importance. In some cases, the use of plants from bouquets which had been blessed in specific Catholic church ceremonies is suggested. The possible season of burial according to the botanical composition of the pillows is discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
       
  • The potential of phytolith analysis to reveal grave goods: the case study
           of the Viking-age equestrian burial of Fregerslev II

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      Abstract: Abstract Non-woody plant remains are known from burial contexts in North–western Europe, but get overlooked when preservation is suboptimal. While phytolith analysis has demonstrated its value regarding the detection of vegetative grave goods, systematic application of this method to graves in European archaeology is, however, scarce. This paper concerns the examination of the elite Viking-Age equestrian burial at Fregerslev II, where phytolith analysis, combined with pollen analysis, revealed the presence of two types of plant material in the grave. The phytolith analysis of Fregerslev II included the investigation of chaff located close to a horse bridle, the chaff being both detected in the field and during investigation of a block sample by means of stereomicroscopy, and systematic examination of other parts of the grave to interpret this find. Elongate dendritic chaff phytoliths were subjected to systematic morphological and morphometric analysis and subsequent statistical analysis. The application of both methods simultaneously to large numbers of phytoliths is unique. Comparison of the various samples showed that the chaff represents a concentration of oat, which is most likely common oat, with minor admixture of barley, interpreted as horse fodder, while bedding consisting of hay or straw was presented elsewhere on the bottom of the grave. The finds are placed in a wider context and methodological implications of the two identification methods applied to the chaff concentration are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Legacies of past human activities on one of the largest old-growth forests
           in the south-east European mountains

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      Abstract: Abstract The Dinaric Mountains are a region considered as a hotspot for late-successional montane mixed Abies alba-Fagus sylvatica-Picea abies old-growth forests. This is likely due to historical deforestation levels being presumably lower than in other European regions. This paper provides new insights into the long-term vegetation dynamics and possible legacies of past human activities in old-growth forests in the montane zone of the Dinaric Mountains. Our extensive ground survey and the detailed land-cover types map show that the mixed A. alba-F. sylvatica old-growth forest with sparse P. abies is surrounded by almost pure F. sylvatica stands at Biogradska Gora. The well-dated stand-scale palaeoecological records (pollen, spores, stomata, macrofossils, macroscopic charcoal, and magnetic susceptibility) show that land use (cereal crop cultivation, cattle herding, and fire) during the Middle Ages caused a reduction of the A. alba and P. abies-dominated forest. After a major land abandonment around the Black Death pandemic (mid-14th century) and weaker land-use phases, F. sylvatica-dominated stands developed in the more accessible areas surrounding the old-growth forest. The legacy of past land uses is still visible as the almost pure F. sylvatica stands show less old-growth characteristics than other European beech-dominated old-growth forests. Markedly in contrast to decreasing tree cover elsewhere in the region, tree cover increased several centuries before the formal protection of the forest (1878 ce). These results support the view that historical land-use pressures played an important role for the small extent and the continuity of disturbance-sensitive A. alba and P. abies-dominated old-growth forest stands.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Food, farming and trade on the Danube frontier: plant remains from Roman
           Aelia Mursa (Osijek, Croatia)

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      Abstract: Abstract Archaeobotanical investigations at the Roman town of Aelia Mursa, located near the Danube frontier in modern day Croatia, have revealed an extraordinary assemblage of food remains from a series of pits dated to the early 2nd century ad. The site yielded a wide array of economically important food remains, including staples such as Hordeum (barley), Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet), Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), Secale cereale (rye), Lens culinaris (lentil) and Vicia faba (broad bean). We also found a range of fruits, nuts, herbs and vegetables, such as Daucus carota (carrot), Cichorium intybus (chicory), Allium sativum (garlic), Ficus carica (fig), Vitis vinifera (grape) and Olea europaea (olive). Further, we found clearly identifiable remains of eggshell, fish bones and scales, unidentifiable fruit flesh and porridge or bread remains, as well as possible animal dung. The site provides important evidence of exotic foods including Piper nigrum (pepper), Oryza sp. (rice) and Punica granatum (pomegranate). This diverse and unique assemblage provides a tantalising insight into the character of food, farming and trade of the people living on the frontier of the Roman Empire.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Prehistoric firewood gathering on the northeast Tibetan plateau:
           environmental and cultural determinism

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      Abstract: Abstract The history of forager subsistence strategies on the Tibetan plateau during the middle Holocene has been studied extensively, with valuable results from archaeozoology and archaeobotany being produced in recent years. However, changes to the resources collected by the foragers and the factors that influence them have rarely been discussed. Here we examine the differences and factors influencing charcoal identification and analysis results from both hand picking and flotation recovery methods at the Zongri site, revealing more accurately the use of firewood by the foragers and its relationship with climate change and the agricultural population. Our results show that there is a clear deficiency in tree taxa arising from hand picking, perhaps related to the quantity of charcoal collected and identified. The Zongri people mainly used nearby trees and shrubs, including Picea (spruce), Populus (poplar) and Hippophae (sea buckthorn). The material collected was dominated by green (living) wood, which might have been influenced by the farming culture in the adjacent area. The increasing use of Picea may be attributed to the selective collection of wood by the Zongri foragers, and not caused by climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Modelling the potential ecological niche of domesticated buckwheat in
           China: archaeological evidence, environmental constraints and climate
           change

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      Abstract: Abstract We present a species distribution model (SDM) of Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat) in China using present distribution data and estimates for the past based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Our model estimates the potential area suitable for buckwheat cultivation over the last 8,000 years, with northeast China consistently showing the highest suitability, providing insights on the discrepancy between the location of the earliest archaeobotanical records in the area and its origins in southwest China based on biogeographic and genetic data. The model suggests little to no variation over time in the spatial extent of the potential area suitable for buckwheat cultivation. In the northern parts of China, the limits of the ecological niche largely fall within the borders of the study area, while to the west it never extends into the main Tibetan plateau, explaining the lack of fossil evidence from Central Asia. In the southwest, the niche overlaps with the borders of modern China, which supports this direction as a viable route of westward dispersal. The comparison between the prediction from the model and sites with archaeobotanical evidence for Fagopyrum indicates that the environmental niche it occupied remained stable over time. This may contrast with a dispersal pattern characterised by continuous adaptations to new environments facilitated by human activity, which may be suggested for other major and minor crops.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • 14,500 years of vegetation and land use history in the upper continental
           montane zone at Lac de Champex (Valais, Switzerland)

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      Abstract: Abstract Forests in the upper continental montane zone are important ecotones between lowland and subalpine forest ecosystems. A thorough understanding of the past vegetation dynamics at mid elevation is crucial to assess past and future altitudinal range shifts of tree species in response to climate change. Lake sediments from Lac de Champex (1,467 m a.s.l.), a small lake in the Canton Valais in the Central Swiss Alps were analysed to reconstruct the vegetation, land use and fire history for the last 14,500 years, using pollen, macrofossils, non-pollen palynomorphs and charcoal. The record indicates that the tree line had already reached the Champex area during the Allerød (14,000 cal bp) but dropped below the lake’s catchment during the Younger Dryas cooling (12,750–11,550 cal bp). Reforestation started again with Betula and Pinus sylvestris in the Early Holocene at 11,500 cal bp in response to rapid climate warming. Temperate tree species (Ulmus, Tilia, Quercus, Acer) may have reached the altitude of the lake during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (ca. 10,000–5,000 cal bp). Mixed forests with mesophilous Abies alba were dominant between 7,500 and 5,000 cal bp. The mass expansions of Picea abies after 5,000 cal bp and Alnus viridis thickets after 4,500 cal bp were directly linked to increasing human disturbance. High values of coprophilous Sporormiella fungal spores and cereal pollen suggest pastoral and arable farming at the site from the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age onwards (5,000 cal bp). Our data imply that vegetation at intermediate elevation was less affected by human activities than at higher or lower elevations but that these areas served as important stations between the permanent settlements in the valleys and the seasonally occupied alpine huts at higher elevations. We argue that future climate warming will lead to drastic reorganizations of mountain ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • The vegetation and land use histories of two farms in Iceland: settlement,
           monasticism, and tenancy

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      Abstract: Abstract Palaeoecological research in Iceland has rarely considered the environmental consequences of landlord-tenant relations and has only recently begun to investigate the impact of medieval monasticism on Icelandic environment and society. Through the medium of two tenant farm sites, this investigation seeks to discern whether or not monastic landlords were influencing resource exploitation and the land management practices of their tenants. In particular, sedimentary and phyto-social contexts were examined and set within a chronological and palaeoecological framework from the late 9th century down to the 16th century. How this relates to medieval European monasticism is also considered while the prevailing influences of climate and volcanism are acknowledged. Palaeoecological data shed light upon the process of occupation at the two farms during the settlement period, with resources and land use trajectories already well-established by the time they were acquired by monastic institutions. This suggests that the tenant farms investigated were largely unaffected ecologically by absorption into a manorial system overseen by monasticism. This could be a consequence of prevailing environmental contexts that inhibited the development of alternative agricultural strategies, or simply that a different emphasis with regard to resource exploitation was paramount.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Food and agriculture in Slavonia, Croatia, during the Late Middle Ages:
           the archaeobotanical evidence

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the results from archaeobotanical remains collected from ten medieval settlements and fort sites in the region of present-day Slavonia, Croatia. From the 12th century ad, Slavonia was part of the Kingdom of Hungary, although the region benefited from a certain amount of autonomy. Examining the archaeobotanical data from this period shows a diverse agricultural system, where crop fields, gardens, orchards, pastures and woodlands were all used to produce a range of cereals, fruits, nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as fibre plants. The dataset is dominated by cereal remains, especially Triticum aestivum/durum (free-threshing wheat), Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet) and Secale cereale (rye). Vitis vinifera (grape pips) were the most common fruit recovered, which corresponds with the presence of vineyards and international trade in wine noted in the literature by the late Middle Ages. Also of significance was the recovery of Cannabis sativa (hemp) and Linum usitatissimum (flax), which suggest local cultivation, possibly for linen and hemp fibres, for oil or for medicinal purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • In memoriam Prof. em. Dr. Hans-Jürgen Beug, 18th January 1932 to 5th
           March 2022

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      PubDate: 2022-07-17
       
  • Microbotanical signatures of kreb: differentiating inflorescence
           phytoliths from northern African wild grasses

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      Abstract: Abstract Throughout northern Africa, evidence for an intensification of wild grass gathering is reflected in Holocene archaeological contexts. However, both the recovery of macrobotanical assemblages and the specificity of their taxonomic classification are heavily influenced by food processing and post-depositional conditions. In contrast, inflorescence phytoliths provide high levels of taxonomic specificity and preserve well in most archaeological contexts. This study analyses the in situ morphology of inflorescence phytoliths from modern specimens of nine wild C4 grass species commonly observed in ethnographic studies and recovered in seed assemblages from archaeological contexts across northern Africa. Morphological differences in Interdigitate phytoliths within the fertile florets of six Paniceae species enabled differentiation between them. The morphological parameters established in this study provide an additional resource for archaeological and palaeoecological analyses using phytoliths, which demonstrates the effectiveness of applying this method to African wild grass species.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
       
  • The history of Abies pinsapo during the Holocene in southern Spain, based
           on pedoanthracological analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this research is to reconstruct the ancient distribution area of Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Spanish fir) in the Serranía de Ronda region, southern Spain, during the Holocene. The main method was pedoanthracological analysis, the study of non-archaeological charcoal found in natural soils. In this research a total of 37 soil excavations were done in several mountain ranges with potentially favourable places for firs to have grown in the past. Specific sites and places such as hillsides, endorheic basins (with no outflow), sinkholes, summits and mountain passes were selected on the basis of evidence from a range of different sources including ancient documents, pollen studies and species distribution models. The soil samples collected from these sites were prepared in the laboratory and the charcoal was identified and radiocarbon dated. Statistical and cartographic analyses were also done. The study revealed evidence of past populations of Abies sp. in places where it is no longer found today. A total of 47 different chronologies were obtained from these sites with ages ranging between 9,931 cal bp and 78 cal bp. In addition, the wide variations in the charcoal values enabled us to make an initial estimate of the importance of ancient forest fires in different places in the Serranía de Ronda. When this information has been considered with all the other available data sources, it will be an essential resource for the efficient management of relict fir woods in southern Spain.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00334-021-00855-w
       
  • Variability and preservation biases in the archaeobotanical record of
           Eleusine coracana (finger millet): evidence from Iron Age Kenya

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      Abstract: Abstract Eleusine coracana (finger millet) is a nutritious and easily storable grain that can be grown in unfavourable environments and is important to the food security of millions of farmers in Africa and South Asia. Despite its importance and promise as a sustainable crop for smallholders in the Global South, its history remains poorly understood. Eleusine coracana has only rarely been recovered from archaeological sites in the region of Africa where it was domesticated and never in quantities large enough to study its evolution under cultivation. Here we report on a large assemblage of Iron Age (ca. 900–700 cal bp) E. coracana grains recovered from Kakapel rock shelter in western Kenya. We also carried out carbonization experiments on modern grains in order to directly compare these archaeological specimens to extant landraces. We found that finger millet is only well preserved when carbonized at temperatures lower than 220 °C, which may contribute to its scarcity in the archaeological record. Eleusine coracana shrinks but does not significantly change shape when carbonized. When corrected for the effects of carbonization, the E. coracana grown by Iron Age farmers at Kakapel was smaller grained than modern landraces, but is nonetheless identifiable as domesticated on the basis of grain shape and surface texture. A comparison with other Iron Age E. coracana reveals considerable variation in the grain size of landraces cultivated during this era. This is the largest quantitative morphometric analysis of E. coracana grains ever conducted, and provides a basis for the interpretation of other archaeological populations. This assemblage is also the first evidence for E. coracana cultivation in western Kenya, a biodiversity hotspot for landraces of this crop today.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00334-021-00853-y
       
  • Understanding crop processing and its social meaning in the Xinzhai period
           (1850–1750 cal bce): a case study on the Xinzhai site, China

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      Abstract: Abstract Although the Xinzhai period (1850–1750 cal bce) has been widely regarded as a critical time for the development of urbanization in China, little is known about the labour and social organization of the time. In this paper, archaeobotanical assemblages have been used to explore evidence of crop processing and they have provided further insights into the organization of labour and society at the Xinzhai site on the Central Plain of China. This is the first case study linking agricultural activities and social organization in the Xinzhai period. By discussing macro-botanical and phytolith results together, we conclude that the hulled cereals Setaria italica (foxtail millet), Panicum miliaceum (common or broomcorn millet) and Oryza sativa (rice), and the free-threshing pulse Glycine max (soybean) were all partly processed before storage to reduce labour demand in the harvest period. Since these summer-sown crops are all harvested in autumn, the practice of partial processing might imply that less labour was needed before storage. Thus, the labour for crop processing appears to have been organized on the basis of small production units such as households. This pattern is different from the communal bulk processing of crops before storage by the contemporary inhabitants of Dongzhao. Different patterns of social organization in various settlements in the Xinzhai period can thus be suggested. This conclusion contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the social development of communities living on the Central Plain and indicates that a steady increase in social complexity was very likely in the period before urbanization.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00334-021-00851-0
       
  • NPP-ID: Non-Pollen Palynomorph Image Database as a research and
           educational platform

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      Abstract: Abstract Non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) form a large group of biological objects found in palynological slides besides pollen grains. This includes various remains of algae and fungi, shells, resting stages and eggs of invertebrates, among others. Publications of NPP-types started in the 1970s with studies of BvG and colleagues, and large numbers of new types continue to be published every year. For an overview of this diverse world of “extra fossils”, we created the Non-Pollen Palynomorph Image Database (NPP-ID) to gather NPP knowledge, structured by acronyms and known taxonomy to assist identification and palaeoecological interpretation (https://nonpollenpalynomorphs.tsu.ru/). An integral part is a database of illustrations, descriptions and ecological background of NPPs. While numerical data are routinely stored in open access repositories, the NPP-ID enables the definitions, identification and interpretation of the NPP taxa to be shared. The NPP-ID operates as an open research project aiming to provide open access to descriptions and illustrations of NPPs. However, due to publication rights, access to some original images is restricted and registration by users is required. We encourage palynologists to contribute to the further growth of the database by uploading their own microphotographs or drawings under an open access license. Contributors will be acknowledged by co-authorship in publications on updates of the NPP-ID.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00334-021-00849-8
       
  • Changes in vegetation and human-environment interactions during the
           Holocene in the Lake Pueyrredón area (Southern Patagonia)

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper reconstructs the vegetation history of the Lake Pueyrredón area during the Holocene and contextualizes the use of space and resources by hunter-gatherer groups according to palaeoenvironmental evolution. The pollen analysis of the Los Flamencos lake sequence is presented and integrated with local archaeological pollen data. Early Holocene vegetation consisted of a dwarf-shrub-grass steppe associated with cold conditions. From 7,600 cal bp a shrub vegetation with forest patches is inferred, suggesting a high moisture availability and possibly involving an eastwards displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone boundary. Human occupation, previously interrupted by the Hudson volcano eruption, and use of space is evident in this period. Between 6,600 and 5,400 cal bp an environmental change to drier conditions suggests a heterogeneous shrub steppe and the higher availability of floristic resources possibly used by hunter-gatherer groups. The predominance of shrub steppe with dwarf shrubs from 5,400 cal bp indicates more arid than current conditions, which correlates with a higher human-environment interaction related to changes in the lake configuration allowing new north–south circulation roads and vice versa, and major floristic resources availability. A decrease in dwarf-shrubs indicates a slight increase in moisture availability since 3,550 cal bp, suggesting a weakening of the westerly winds. The results indicate local and regional changes in vegetation linked mainly to moisture availability and Southern Westerly Winds fluctuations. The integration of pollen, archaeological and palaeogeographic information available and its comparison with other fossil records studied in Patagonia complement palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and explain the changes in a regional palaeoenvironmental framework.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00334-021-00854-x
       
  • Vegetation dynamics and their response to Holocene climate change derived
           from multi-proxy records from Wangdongyang peat bog in southeast China

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      Abstract: Abstract The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) significantly influences the precipitation and vegetation dynamics in that region. Previous studies have assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics of the EASM, however vegetation responses to Holocene climate change and their driving mechanisms are yet to be understood. In this study, our multi-proxy records from southeast China are used to better understand Holocene climate change and its effects on vegetation. These records reveal a warm and wet climate from ca. 8.0 to 2.0 ka cal bp, followed by a cooler and drier climate since ca. 2.0 ka cal bp. The extent of evergreen broadleaved forest decreased significantly after 2.0 ka cal bp, which was in response to the cooler and drier climate in this period. During the Mid Holocene, solar radiation was probably the dominant factor controlling climate variability. A higher frequency of the El Niño event and increased CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, along with a rapid southward movement of the inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), resulted in the weakening of the EASM since the Late Holocene. An even cooler and drier climate was identified for ca. 7.5–7.2 ka cal bp, and this abrupt cooling event occurred earlier in southeastern than in northern China. There was a reduction in forest cover in response to this rapid climate change. Decreased solar radiation and the influx of meltwater into the North Atlantic were the probable causes of this event.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00334-021-00852-z
       
  • Hellenistic agricultural economies at Ashkelon, Southern Levant

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      Abstract: Abstract Agricultural economies of the Hellenistic era (323–30 bce) are poorly understood from primary plant and animal remains despite the extent of sites and rich historical records dating to this period. Here we present archaeobotanical remains from Hellenistic Ashkelon, an urban centre on the Mediterranean coast of the southern Levant, in comparison with a survey of the extant literature on Hellenistic archaeobotany across the eastern Mediterranean. Agricultural systems at Ashkelon focused on the cultivation of cereals, pulses, grapes, and figs, as did those of many other Hellenistic sites. We identify Triticum dicoccum (emmer) as a core component of agriculture at Ashkelon, a new finding for the period. Re-examination of other published Hellenistic assemblages from the southern Levant additionally suggests that T. dicoccum cultivation has been underappreciated to date and may have been regionally widespread, a legacy of Ptolemaic Egyptian control of the region in the early Hellenistic. A spatial and diachronic analysis of archaeobotanical remains in conjunction with the archaeological evidence at Ashkelon indicates a shift in practices of domestic food preparation towards increasing commercialization of food preparation. Further detailed archaeobotanical study of other Hellenistic cities is needed to establish whether this trend extends beyond Ashkelon during the period.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00334-021-00850-1
       
  • Correction to: Tracking the history of grapevine cultivation in Georgia by
           combining geometric morphometrics and ancient DNA

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      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00334-022-00872-3
       
 
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