Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2656 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (235 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (237 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1316 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (426 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (112 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (237 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 241 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access  
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Agregat     Open Access  
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Transport Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
ce/papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cement     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Civil Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal  
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 279)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access  
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Construindo     Open Access  
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access  
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access  
Enfoque UTE     Open Access  
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Eurasian Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Soil Science     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
HBRC Journal     Open Access  
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal Of Civil Engineering Education     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inersia, Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access  
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 122)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J-ENSITEC : Journal Of Engineering and Sustainable Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JACEE (Journal of Advanced Civil and Environmental Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Materials Application     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hydrology X     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mechanical, Civil and Industrial Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Road and Traffic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Soft Computing in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Integrity and Maintenance     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
LHB Hydroscience Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lithosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Material Design & Processing Communications     Hybrid Journal  
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Media Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Modelling in Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Nordic Concrete Research     Open Access  
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access  
Open Civil Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Waste Management Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PADURAKSA : Jurnal Teknik Sipil Universitas Warmadewa     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pipeline & Gas Journal     Partially Free  
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Procedia Structural Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Structural Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.599
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 48  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1369-4332 - ISSN (Online) 2048-4011
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Typical advances of artificial intelligence in civil engineering

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yang Xu, Wenliang Qian, Na Li, Hui Li
      Pages: 3405 - 3424
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Volume 25, Issue 16, Page 3405-3424, December 2022.
      Artificial intelligence (AI) provides advanced mathematical frameworks and algorithms for further innovation and vitality of classical civil engineering (CE). Plenty of complex, time-consuming, and laborious workloads of design, construction, and inspection can be enhanced and upgraded by emerging AI techniques. In addition, many unsolved issues and unknown laws in the field of CE can be addressed and discovered by physical machine learning via merging the data paradigm with physical laws. Intelligent science and technology in CE profoundly promote the current level of informatization, digitalization, autonomation, and intellectualization. To this end, this paper provides a systematic review and summarizes the state-of-the-art progress of AI in CE for the entire life cycle of civil structures and infrastructure, including intelligent architectural design, intelligent structural health diagnosis, intelligent disaster prevention and reduction. A series of examples for intelligent architectural art shape design, structural topology optimization, computer-vision-based structural damage recognition, correlation-pattern-based structural condition assessment, machine-learning-enhanced reliability analysis, vision-based earthquake disaster evaluation, and dense displacement monitoring of structures under wind and earthquake, are given. Finally, the prospects of intelligent science and technology in future CE are discussed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-03T11:24:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221127340
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 16 (2022)
       
  • Experimental study on local bond-slip constitutive model between steel and
           steel fiber reinforced concrete structure of circular cross-section

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      Authors: Kai Wu, Huiming Zheng, Yukai Zhou, Shiyuan Qian, Fangzhou Guo
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The interface slip between shape steel and concrete is one of the biggest problems in numerical simulation of composite structures, this paper aims to investigate interfacial bond-slip behavior between steel and steel fiber reinforced concrete. For this purpose, a series of push-out tests on 15 circular section specimens which were designed and fabricated with different steel fiber ratio, interface embedded length and concrete cover thickness have been done. Experimental results show that average bond strength versus free end slip curves of each specimen is similar, and then a basic average bond strength-free end slip constitutive model was proposed in this paper. Meanwhile, considering the distribution regularities of steel strains, local bond strength and relative slip along the interface embedded length at different load levels were obtained through the mechanical derivation, the results show that the maximum local bond strength was located near the free end, and the local bond strength away from free end tended to be steady. Based on the basic average bond strength-free end slip constitutive model, two position functions were proposed to describe the local bond-slip constitutive model considering the variation of positions. Two position functions are of great significance for further research on SSFRC non-linear properties by FEM.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-21T05:36:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221082727
       
  • Mechanical evaluation on BFRP laminated bamboo lumber columns under
           eccentric compression

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      Authors: Bingyu Jian, Haitao Li, Ke Zhou, Mahmud Ashraf, Zhenhua Xiong, Xiaoyan Zheng
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Bamboo has been studied and utilized quite significantly in recent years because of its advantages such as short growth period, good appearance, environmental protection and superior mechanical properties. Bamboo is processed into profiles to address inherent issues with size limitation and self-defects and use of BFRP can enhance the mechanical properties of bamboo for widespread application. In this paper, the mechanical properties of BFRP strengthened chamfered laminated bamboo lumber (LBL) columns with four eccentricity e0 of 30 mm, 60 mm, 90 mm, and 120 mm were tested. The strengthening effect of BFRP on the performance of LBL columns subjected to eccentric loading was compared with the specimens without any reinforcement. Several analytical models to capture the mechanical performance of BFRP reinforced LBL columns with different eccentricities have been proposed in the current study.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T03:25:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221138312
       
  • Strain-path-dependent stress–strain model for ultrahigh-performance
           concrete columns constrained by stirrups

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      Authors: Yafeng Chang, Junping Shi, Xiaoshan Cao, Yongliang Qiu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The incorporation of steel fibers improves the microscopic ductility of ultrahigh-performance concrete (UHPC) materials, and their macroscopic ductility can also be improved by the restraining effect of composite stirrups. Two defects can be found in the stress–strain model of UHPC restrained by stirrups based on the design-oriented method: the restraint coefficient of the stirrup is the effective restraint coefficient at the peak state of the specimen, while the variation in the restraint stress of the stirrup with the axial–hoop strain relationship (strain path) is ignored. In this study, a strain-path-dependent stress–strain model for UHPC constrained by stirrups and fibers is proposed through a database with 10 sets of test results on UHPC columns, which alleviates the shortcomings of the design-oriented model. (1) On the basis of the axial–hoop strain relationship curve in the test results, an axial–hoop strain model of UHPC restrained by stirrups is established. (2) The variation in the restraint stress of the stirrup with strain path is considered. (3) On the basis of the stress–strain model of actively constrained concrete, an iterative method of subsections is adopted, and a UHPC stress–strain model restrained by stirrup based on strain path is established. Results show that the established axial–hoop strain equation can better predict the hoop strain of UHPC restrained by stirrups and steel fibers, the calculated value of peak stress of UHPC constrained by stirrups based on strain path is in good agreement with the test results, and the outcomes of the path-dependent stress–strain model are in better agreement with the experimental results than those of the design-oriented stress–strain model.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-15T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221119872
       
  • Study on axial compression bearing capacity of in-sulated sandwich
           concrete wall with embedded columns

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      Authors: Wentao Qiao, Wenyu Tian, Jiaxu Yuan, Dong Wang, Jiawei Yuan, Lijun Meng
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An insulated sandwich concrete wall with embedded columns (ISCW-EC) is proposed by introducing horizontal reinforcements and cold formed steel embedded columns to the traditional insulated sandwich concrete wall. Axial compression load tests were performed on two full-scale specimens with different horizontal reinforcement spacings to investigate the failure mode of ISCW-EC. The failure patterns of both specimens are the same: splitting cracks present at the bottom of specimen and local buckling occurs at the bottom of the embedded column. The test results show that the specimen with smaller horizontal reinforcement spacing has smaller cracking load, lower secant stiffness, lower ductility and higher compression bearing capacity. Based on the test results, refined finite element models were established to perform a multi-parameter analysis in which the influences of horizontal reinforcement spacing, embedded column spacing, concrete strength and steel wire diameter are studied. The multi-parameter analysis results show that the increase of concrete strength and wire diameter improve the axial compression bearing capacity while the increase of the horizontal reinforcement spacing and embedded column spacing reduce it. Finally, the calculation formula of axial compression capacity of ISCW-EC is put forward based on both test and finite element analysis results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-14T03:22:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221133201
       
  • Mechanical performance of high-strength steel tube confined self-stressing
           concrete short columns

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      Authors: Xiao-Long Zhu, Yu-Zhou Zheng, Li Chen, Xin Liu, Heng-Bo Xiang, Qin Fang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, eleven high-strength steel tube confined self-stressing concrete (HSTCSC) short columns were tested to study their strengthening mechanism and axial compression performance. The effects of different material strengths, cross-section types, and hollow ratios on the axial mechanical properties of the HSTCSC short columns were investigated using the finite element analysis method. Experimental results highlighted that the HSTCSC short columns presented the waist drum-type failure mode significantly, with a higher axial load-bearing capacity and deformation performance, and possess a large safety reserve. It was also found that the axial compression property of the HSTCSC short column could be improved significantly due to the joint action of the micro-expansion of the self-stressing concrete and the hoop constraint of the high-strength steel tube. Moreover, the circular cross-section HSTCSC short columns were found to result in better mechanical performance after yielding of the high-strength steel tubes, especially entering the strengthening section. Under the condition of equal steel content ratio and cross-section area, the single-layer circular HSTCSC short columns were found to have the largest load-bearing capacities after yielding the high-strength steel tubes, followed by the double-layer circular HSTCSC short columns, and then the double-layer square HSTCSC short columns. The hollow rate of the cross-section could also decrease the load-bearing capacity of the HSTCSC short column with both circular and square sections, although increasing the hollow rate could save material and reduce the weight of the structure. The finite element analysis results showed that the proposed finite element model could be employed to simulate the compressive behavior of HSTCSC short columns with high calculation accuracy.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T05:27:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221135893
       
  • Study on bending properties of coir fiber magnesium phosphate cement
           immersed in water

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      Authors: Mingyu Huang, Liwen Zhang, Shimin Wang, Junping Zhang, Xiangyun Huang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC), possessing the characteristics of fast setting and early strength, but has the disadvantages of poor toughness and easy cracking. Our previous studies found that these shortcomings could be improved by adding coir fiber (CF). In practical projects, chances are that CF-MPC might work in watery environment like rainy day. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of water on the properties of CF-MPC. This paper was then committed to investigate the effect of water immersion on the bending performance of CF-MPC. A three-point bending test was employed to capture the flexural strength, flexural stiffness, and toughness of MPC with different CF contents cured in air and water respectively. The results demonstrated that CF-MPC cured in water and in air displayed a similar failure mode. Specimens’ failure mode varied from brittle failure to ductile failure with CF content increasing. Moreover, the first and second peak loads of specimen load-displacement curves gradually decreased as the water curing time increased. The flexural strength dropped, different from the performances observed in specimens cured in air. But when CF content was smaller than 3%, this flexural property deterioration of specimens in water was relieved as CF content increases.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-03T08:03:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221135898
       
  • Energy dissipation estimation of steel slit shear panel dampers with
           tapered links considering the effect of out-of-plane buckling

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      Authors: Shang Chen, Liusheng He, Ming Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The steel slit shear panel (SSSP) with tapered links is one type of efficient energy-dissipating devices, with tapered shape of the links accommodating the bending moment demand when subjected to lateral shear deformation. To dissipate the maximum amount of seismic energy, full plasticity is expected to be developed. However, out-of-plane buckling, which is almost inevitable for thin plates, significantly reduces its energy dissipation capacity. This work aims to quantify the amount of energy dissipation of SSSPs with tapered links considering the effect of out-of-plane buckling. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests on five SSSP specimens with different design parameters are conducted, based on which the refined numerical model is built and validated. In estimating the energy dissipation, the effect of out-of-plane buckling needs to be considered. Otherwise, the estimated energy dissipation can be as much as over two times the tested value. To consider the effect of out-of-plane buckling, the index of average pinching parameter is adopted. A new method is derived for estimating the energy dissipation of SSSPs with considering the effect of out-of-plane buckling, feasibility of which is validated using the obtained test results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T08:13:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221135895
       
  • Improving the shear design of steel-bar reinforced ultra high performance
           fibre reinforced concrete beams using mesoscale modelling

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      Authors: Yuming Zhang, Zhenjun Yang, Hui Zhang, Neil Tsang, Xiaoxian Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the failure mechanisms of steel-bar reinforced ultra high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) beams is crucial to improving their design but challenging because of the contrast between beam size and fibre size. We develop a 2D mesoscale finite element model with the fibres explicitly resolved to bridge this gap by simulating the damaging and fracturing processes of the beams. To make fibre distribution in the model mechanically representative, we propose a method to project the fibres from 3D to 2D. The continuum damaged plasticity model is used as the constitutive law for the UHPC matrix, and the zero-thickness cohesive elements with softening constitutive law are used to model the nonlinear bond-slip behaviour of the fibre- and bar-matrix interfaces. The models are validated against experimental data obtained from 3 and 4-point loading tests by comparing the simulated and measured fracturing processes, crack patterns and the load-displacement curves. The validated models are then used to analyse the sensitivity of the shear strength of the beams to fibre content, shear span-to-depth ratio, as well as shear and longitudinal reinforcement ratios in the beam, from which a shear strength equation is proposed to improve the design of reinforced UHPFRC beams. The improvement of the new equation over the AFGC equation is demonstrated against experimental data measured from 32 beams with various material properties.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T08:12:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221137174
       
  • Fracture simulation of welded RHS X-joints using GTN damage model

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      Authors: Rui Yan, Haohui Xin, Kristo Mela, Hagar El Bamby, Milan Veljkovic
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A welded rectangular hollow section (RHS) X-joint exposed to tension loading has three typical fracture-related failure modes: Punching shear failure (PSF), Brace failure (BF), and Chord side wall failure (CSWF). Prediction of these failure modes by finite element (FE) simulations requires modelling of the material damage. An appropriate damage model accurately predicts the behaviour of the fracture zone and provides the necessary information to improve design rules for welded high-strength steel (HSS) RHS X-joints based on parametric studies using validated model. In this paper, the parameters of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model are calibrated for the base material (BM) and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of butt-welded cold-formed RHS connections, no fracture appeared in the weld. A computational homogenisation analysis is carried out using representative volume element (RVE) models to calibrate the pressure-dependent yield surface parameters of the GTN damage model, considering the different combinations of the accumulated initial hardening strain and the void volume fraction (VVF) due to a varying stress triaxiality. The critical and final VVFs are calibrated against tensile coupon tests. Finally, the GTN damage models calibrated for BM and HAZ are used in the fracture simulation of nine welded cold-formed RHS X-joints in monotonic tension. The FE model successfully predicts the experimental load-displacement relationships and fractured zone, indicating the calibrated GTN models could effectively be used in parametric study of welded cold-formed RHS X-joints. Finally, possible improvements to the used FE model are outlined for future studies.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T09:01:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221137175
       
  • Scour diagnosis index based on cross-correlation analysis of bridge
           dynamic response under vehicle braking

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      Authors: Zhenhao Zhang, Yan Li, Yichen Zhong, Xueqi Lin
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Several innovative scour diagnostic indexes are proposed based on the cross-correlation analysis for bridge dynamic response excited by vehicle braking. Firstly, a vehicle-bridge coupled vibration model considering vehicle braking is established and its accuracy is verified by a field loading test. Secondly, the fixed shape characteristic of cross-correlation function amplitude vector of the braking-induced dynamic response is theoretically deduced and verified numerically with a continuous girder bridge example considering various test parameters, which is the basic for scour diagnosis. Further, two scour diagnostic indexes are proposed, one is the cross-correlation function amplitude change rate vector, which is used to identify the scour location with a threshold of 2%, and the other is the transversal cross-correlation function amplitude change rate vector, which is used to identify the scour uniformity. The good applicability and accuracy of proposed indexes for different scour states is verified by numerical simulation for above bridge example. The proposed diagnostic indexes are very sensitive to foundation scour and have strong error tolerance for test parameters. The dynamic response required for scour diagnosis can be obtained with regular bridge loading test.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T02:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221135894
       
  • Experimental and simulation study on blast loads of cylindrical Shells

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      Authors: Wuchen Wei, Dianshuang Zheng, Di Yang, Hongchi Guo, Fei Yin, Xudong Zhi
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Public buildings that house large populations are easy targets for terrorist attacks, the primary issue of architectural blast-resistant design is how to get blast loads on the surface of structures, and the shapes of blast waves and buildings both have important effects on it. In this paper, experiments and numerical simulations were carried out on blast loads on the surface of the cylindrical shell. blast loads, detonation products, and blast waves were well recorded and simulated, blast loads at the edge of cylindrical shells were attenuated by about 75%, and vortex rings were accidentally photographed nearby. blast loads are much affected by the location of the detonation point, charge shape, and charge size. The original shape of structures rather than deformation determines the distribution of blast loads, the air viscosity also needs to be scaled when using a scaled model to test blast loads. Experimental and simulation methods can offer a reference for building a standard database of blast loads.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T01:55:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221135896
       
  • Bolt-loosening detection using vision technique based on a gray gradient
           enhancement method

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      Authors: Jun Luo, Jie Zhao, Yi Sun, Xinpeng Liu, Zhitao Yan
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The bolt-loosening detection method using vision-based technique is summarized and a new gray gradient enhancement method is proposed to improve the stability of the nut edge detection and bolt-loosening detection. The Influence of the thresholds in Canny edge detector is studied and a new gray gradient enhancement method is proposed to enhance the gray gradient at the pixels on the outer boundary of the nut. Meanwhile, the suggestion on the high threshold value in Canny edge detector is given and can be used to reduce the subjectivity of parameter determination in Canny detector and the interference of uninterested edge lines. The proposed method is verified using a bolt connection in laboratory. The results show that the proposed method can effectively highlight the outer boundary of the nut and improve the stability of the nut edge detection and bolt-loosening detection.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T12:36:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221122950
       
  • Nonlinear dynamic analysis of galloping of a single iced conductor with
           four degrees of freedom based on curved beam theory

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      Authors: Yan Han, Zihang Zhang, Chunguang Li, Guogang Sheng, C.S. Cai
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the nonlinear strain-displacement relationship of spatial curved beam theory, a finite element model for galloping analysis of iced transmission lines is established, which involves three translational degrees of freedom (DOF) and one rotational degree of freedom for each node. Considering the aerodynamic nonlinearity and the geometric nonlinearity of large amplitude motions of the iced transmission line, the nonlinear dynamic finite element equation is presented by using the virtual work principle. The equation is transformed into the sub-space according to the mode superposition method and a time integration algorithm is also performed in the sub-space. Then, the element independence and modal convergence are researched. Finally, the influence of aerodynamic forces on structural frequency is analyzed. The numerical results show that aerodynamic forces will greatly affect the torsional frequency of the transmission line, which accurately reflects the dynamic characteristics of transmission lines. Furthermore, the galloping calculation of the transmission line has reliable accuracy by using 4-DOF (per node) elements for the iced conductor. On the other hand, the model can predict the actual galloping response of the transmission line, which is convenient for the implementation of subsequent control design.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-15T07:37:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221131720
       
  • Research on the flexural behavior of a novel inter-module connection with
           a bolt and shear key fitting for modular steel buildings

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      Authors: Hong-Lei Chen, Ke Cao, Chen Chen, Guo-Qiang Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Modular steel buildings (MSBs) can meet the needs of building industrialization and have been developed in many countries. The inter-module connection is crucial to the overall performance of MSBs. An inter-module connection with bolt and shear key fitting was proposed in this paper, which is convenient for the on-site erection of the steel modules. The flexural performance of the connection was studied. Static tests were carried out to study the contribution of the key load-bearing components to the flexural performance of the novel connection. A finite element model was then proposed and verified, by which a parametric analysis to study the effects of the key components was conducted. It is found that the parameters significantly affecting the flexural performance of the connection include the diameter of the bolt and the thickness of the bottom plate. The results also showed that the contribution of the shear key to the flexural performance of the connection could be ignored. The flexural performance of multi-module connection was studied, and the results revealed that the multi-module connection can be designed as multiple two-module connections. Formulas for calculating the flexural capacity and rotational stiffness of the connection were finally proposed and verified.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-14T04:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221133605
       
  • Precast bridge piers: Construction techniques, structural systems, and
           seismic response

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      Authors: Mohamed FM Fahmy, Amr MA Moussa, Zhishen Wu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this paper is to make a comprehensive evaluation of existing works on precast bridge piers, considering several aspects including construction techniques, structural systems, and seismic response. The general classification of the construction techniques refers to five different construction systems, which can be fully precast (post-tensioned system, pre-tensioned system, non-prestressed system) or partially precast techniques (post-tensioned system, non-prestressed system). The details of columns, column-footing connection, and column-beam connection are carefully studied to provide a unified classification of the existing construction techniques. According to the available experimental research, the failure modes and seismic resisting mechanisms of the classified construction techniques are fully addressed. In the light of a new proposed mechanical model, the seismic response of 50 experimentally tested precast bridge piers (covering the five construction techniques) is evaluated to ensure the required resiliency under anticipated seismic hazards. The evaluation of the seismic response of the studied systems indicated that the fully precast post-tensioned system is a promising construction technique, which can ensure the resilience performance of bridge piers. Finally, performance levels of the five construction systems were extracted in view of the possibility to realize robust, redundant, and recoverable structure systems that can be a motivation for application in the construction of modern sustainable cities.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T04:34:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221133596
       
  • Shear strengthening of RC beams with NSM FRP. II: Assessment of strength
           models

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      Authors: Y. Ke, S.S. Zhang, M. J. Jedrzejko, D. Fernando, X. F. Nie
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The application of near-surface mounted (NSM) fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) for shear strengthening of RC beams has attracted abundant research in the past few decades, and a number of strength models for predicting the contribution of NSM FRPs to the shear capacity of strengthened beam have been proposed. In the first of these two companion papers, a total of 12 strength models of NSM FRP shear strengthened RC beams collected from the existing literature have been comprehensively reviewed, while the present paper aims to provide an objective assessment of these models. To this end, the experimental results of 196 RC beams strengthened in shear with NSM FRP bars/strips are collected from the existing literature, as the database for the assessment. The comparisons between the experimental results and predictions by these strength models reveal that the existing strength models all fail to give accurate predictions. The reasons for the inaccurate predictions of these models are also analyzed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-06T05:36:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221125830
       
  • Circular tube-in-tube dampers for seismic resilience of structures

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      Authors: Neda Fazlalipour, Habib Saeed Monir, Saeed Eyvazinejad Firouzsalari
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new brace-type slit damper, called ‘Circular Tube-in-Tube Damper (C-TTD), comprises two solid steel cylinders and one circular cross-section tube equipped with slotted holes, is proposed for seismic resilience of structures. In the proposed damper, a system of bolts was used to connect up various components of the damper, allowing inspection and replacement of the damaged components without any requirement for the replacement of the entire damper. Nonlinear finite element analyses using ABAQUS were carried out to verify the experimental results and to investigate the effect of damper geometric properties on the yield load capacity of the C-TTD dampers. The seismic performance characteristics of 4-storey, 8-storey, and 15-storey steel structures equipped with C-TTD dampers were determined by nonlinear time history analyses using three different earthquake excitations. The results indicated that when the structures were equipped with C-TTD dampers, the inter storey drift decreased in the range of 8%–55%, the base shear load decreased in the range of 27%–35%, and the input energy decreased in the range of 70%–80%, depending on the number of storeys and the earthquake type, compared to the counterpart structures without the damper.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T07:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221131152
       
  • Experimental and FE analysis of composite RC beams with encased pultruded
           GFRP I-beam under static loads

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      Authors: Teghreed H Ibrahim, Abbas A Allawi, Ayman El-Zohairy
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Encasing glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) beam with reinforced concrete (RC) improves stability, prevents buckling of the web, and enhances the fire resistance efficiency. This paper provides experimental and numerical investigations on the flexural performance of RC specimens composite with encased pultruded GFRP I-sections. The effect of using shear studs to improve the composite interaction between the GFRP beam and concrete was explored. Three specimens were tested under three-point loading. The deformations, strains in the GFRP beams, and slippages between the GFRP beams and concrete were recorded. The embedded GFRP beam enhanced the peak loads by 65% and 51% for the composite specimens with and without shear connectors, respectively. Moreover, a non-linear Finite Element (FE) model was developed and validated by the experimental results to conduct a parametric study. The peak loads of the composite specimen without shear studs increased by 14% and 31% and of the composite specimen with shear studs increased by 20% and 32% for the compressive strength of 35 MPa and 45 MPa, respectively.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T07:21:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221130795
       
  • Experimental investigation on the bond performance of sea sand coral
           concrete with FRP bar reinforcement for marine environments

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      Authors: Li Sun, Cha Wang, Chunwei Zhang, Zeyu Yang, Chuang Li, Pizhong Qiao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The world is rich in marine resources, and the use of seawater, sea sand and coral instead of fresh water, river sand and gravel can solve problems such as the scarcity of traditional materials for marine engineering construction. Additionally, fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have demonstrated excellent corrosion resistance performance, which can effectively solve the problem of the corrosion of steel in harsh marine environments. To study the bond performance between FRP bars and sea sand coral concrete (SSCC), 72 specimens of direct Pull-out were designed, and relevant tests were carried out to explore the effects of fibre types, bar diameters, bond lengths and SSCC strength grades. The results show that the bond strength between carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars and SSCC was higher than that of basalt fibre-reinforced polymer (BFRP) bars and glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. The splitting damage pattern occurred in most of the specimens; the bond strength between FRP bars and SSCC decreased with increasing diameter and bond length of FRP bars but increased with increasing SSCC strength grade. As a result, by fitting the bond-slip curves obtained from the tests, the bond-slip constitutive relationship between FRP bars and SSCC specimens was obtained, which clearly and precisely represents the bond failure process of SSCC with FRP bar reinforcement.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T09:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221131153
       
  • Shear strengthening of RC beams with NSM FRP. I: Review of strength models

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      Authors: M.J. Jedrzejko, S.S. Zhang, Y. Ke, D. Fernando, X.F. Nie
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Near-surface mounted (NSM) fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) technique is known as a promising alternative to the externally bonded (EB) FRP technique for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) members, on account of its many advantages such as high bond efficiency with concrete and good durability. Shear strengthening of RC beams by near-surface mounting the FRP bars/strips into the concrete cover on beam sides is one of the most prevalent applications of NSM FRP. Abundant experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the behaviour of NSM FRP shear strengthened beams, and many strength models for predicting the contribution of NSM FRPs to the shear capacity of the beam have been proposed. The present paper presents a comprehensive review of these strength models, in which all the models collected from the existing literature are first classified into three categories based on their used approach and then summarized and discussed. This paper not only aims to bring a deep understanding of the existing strength models for NSM FRP shear strengthened RC beams, but also provides a background and basis for the assessment of these models by using the newly-generated experimental database in the companion paper.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T11:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221125832
       
  • Harnessing a direct scan-to-modeling approach for structural mechanics

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      Authors: Shuzhen Yang, Devin K Harris
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To ensure the safety and reliability operation of infrastructures, accurate and rapid condition assessment of in-service infrastructures is extremely imperative. Image technologies and techniques, as a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tool, have created new opportunities to achieve this. It is able to resolve sub-millimeter details including surface flaws and defects, providing a foundation for quantitatively linking observable features to operational performance. This linkage is possible when the quantified feature is directly integrated into tools suitable for describing mechanical response, such as the finite element method. However, the workflow associated with this integration is indirect and presents challenges. This work creates a pathway for a direct scan-to-model strategy suitable for translating condition data derived from a 3D laser scanning system into a computation model capable of describing the mechanical response of the component. The geometric characterization capabilities of the proposed approach and the influence of scan resolution on the geometric characterization are explored. Results of this study provide the foundation of a computational framework for establishing the fundamental link between visually observable geometric changes and the numerical models that engineers use to understand the performance of engineered systems.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T09:15:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221129894
       
  • Experimental and numerical studies on the hot spot stress calculation
           method for welded CHS X-joints stiffened by internal ring stiffeners

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      Authors: Yu Chen, Feng Zhou, Wei Wang, Xuecheng Xia, Tianyi Ying, Guiping Yue
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Ring stiffeners are usually used to enhance the strengths of welded hollow section joints, which may change the magnitude and distribution of hot spot stress around intersections related to the fatigue life of the joints. Up to date, there is no relevant research on the hot spot stress and its calculation method for welded CHS X-joints with internal ring stiffeners in combined load cases, causing a lack of confidence in the fatigue design process. Experimental tests including two types of load cases are firstly carried out to provide a reference for the finite element (FE) modeling. FE analysis is conducted to investigate the influence of internal ring stiffeners on hot spot stress, covering a variety of numbers, thicknesses and spacing of internal ring stiffeners. The hot spot stress calculation method is developed. A fatigue test is subsequently conducted. It is shown that the hot spot stress near the intersection region of the ring stiffeners and tubes is relatively large in addition to those at the crowns and saddles. The locations of interest include both traditional locations and intersection locations of ring stiffener contours and tube contours. Setting ring stiffeners can averagely reduce the hot spot stress ranges by 23.6% in chord and 27.8% in brace, respectively. The extended hot spot stress calculation method is verified for the fatigue design of welded CHS X-joints with ring stiffeners. In the subsequent fatigue test, fatigue failure is found at the intersection locations. A dynamic effect is also observed which is related to the change in load eccentricity. The fatigue strength curve specified in CIDECT design guide No.8 could also be applicable to predict the fatigue life of the welded CHS X-joint with ring stiffeners.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T01:56:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221128848
       
  • Moving model experimental analysis of the slipstream produced by a
           simplistic square-back high-speed train

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      Authors: Simin Zou, Xuhui He, Hanfeng Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      High-speed trains (HSTs) are being buffeted by accelerating running speed, and with that comes the aerodynamic issues. The slipstream is related to the train aerodynamic characteristics and of importance to the safety of surrounding people and structures. In this study, the ensemble-averaged and instantaneous characteristics of the slipstream of a simplistic high-speed train model with a square-back were experimentally investigated using a novel moving model rig. The present investigation indicates that the double-line substructure causes obvious asymmetry in the slipstream even at locations apart from the bridge surface with a large distance. The square-back of the HST attenuates its slipstream significantly relative to that with a streamlined tail. Besides, the decaying rate of the slipstream is higher in the wake of a square-back HST. The presents results suggest that the trailing vortices downstream of the square-back HST are substantially suppressed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T01:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221127771
       
  • A load-slip model for stud connector in steel-concrete composite
           structures

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      Authors: Li Song, Siqi Fang, Chenxing Cui, Zhiwu Yu, Zhichao Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new theoretical calculation method for the load-slip curve and the shear stiffness of the stud based on Winkler’s elastic foundation beam theory and deflection differential equation of the stud is proposed. Different stress characteristics of the elastic and plastic zones of the concrete are considered in the proposed method. The accuracy of the theoretical calculation method is validated by the test results. Moreover, the effect of concrete strength, stud diameter, and yield strength on the stud load-slip curve is analyzed. The results show that the proposed model can effectively reflect the change process of the load-slip curve of the test specimen stud connector. The stud diameter, stud yield strength, and concrete strength affect the peak slip, shear stiffness, and shear capacity of stud shear connectors. With an increase in stud diameter, the peak slip, shear stiffness, and shear bearing capacity of the stud are all increased. An increase in the yield strength of the stud increases its elastic slip, peak slip, and shear capacity. Lastly, with an increase in concrete strength, the elastic slip and peak slip of the stud both decrease, whereas the shear stiffness and shear bearing capacity are increased.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T10:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221128849
       
  • Experimental and analytical study on eccentric compressive behavior of
           concrete columns strengthened with high-strength reinforcement of HRB600

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      Authors: Xiangyong Ni, Cheng Yuan, Yizhu Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the influence of initial eccentricity, volume stirrup ratio, and the strength of longitudinal reinforcement and stirrup on the eccentric compressive performance of concrete columns strengthened with HRB600-high-strength-reinforcement. Ten concrete columns are tested under eccentric compression. The compressive mechanism evaluates and compares the failure characteristics, load-deformation curve, reinforcement strain, and eccentric compression performance. As part of the numerical study, the finite element modeling of OpenSees is used to predict the response of HRB600 specimens under eccentric compressive loading, and parametric analysis is subsequently conducted. The research findings illustrate that HRB600 longitudinal reinforcement can yield in tension and compression with large eccentricity when approaching the ultimate bearing capacity state. After normal strength longitudinal reinforcement is supplanted, the reinforcement amount is saved. Lastly, semi-empirical models have been proposed to predict the compressive performance of concrete columns with high-strength reinforcement.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-22T11:38:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221125828
       
  • An experimental study of the shear behavior of joints in precast concrete
           columns

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      Authors: Bo Wu, Zhikai Wei
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The shear behavior of joints in precast concrete columns with a new type of column-to-column connection was investigated in this research. Shear tests were performed with 12 precast concrete columns. The influences of the shear key width (0, 70 mm, 100 mm), the diameter of the reinforcement across the joint (0, 16 mm) and the axial compression load ratio (0.3, 0.4, 0.5) on the shear performance of the joint were studied. An expression to give the prediction of the shear capacity of such joints is proposed. The data show that: (1) shear keys have a huge influence on the shear capacity of precast column joints, but the increment of shear capacity due to such influence is limited over a range of shear key widths from 70 to 100 mm; (2) when the axial compression load ratio does not exceed 0.5, a joint’s shear capacity enhances gradually with the load ratio; (3) the expression developed in these experiments outperforms those recommended by four widely-used codes in giving the prediction of the shear capacity of column-to-column connections with shear keys, reinforcement across the joint and grouting.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-22T03:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221128457
       
  • Flexural behaviour analysis of wet joint of precast bridge deck with UHPC
           functional gradient

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      Authors: Kai Wang, Liujun Guo, Jinyu Wang, Shimei Hu, Guoqing Yu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To optimize the wet joint structure of a precast bridge deck and make effective use of ultrahigh-performance concrete (UHPC), five specimens of the prefabricated UHPC functional gradient wet joint plate (UFGWJP) and one normal concrete prefabricated wet joint plate were tested by four-point bending, and their failure modes, bearing capacity, deformation performance, and strain distribution were analysed. The results show that the failure mode of all joint plates was bending failure, and the initial cracking position was basically at the interface between the joint and the precast slab. The excellent mechanical properties of UHPC enhance the bonding performance between the joint and the precast plate interface and significantly improve the cracking load. With an increase in the thickness ratio of UHPC and the flexural toughness ratio of UHPC/normal concrete (NC), the bearing capacity and deformation performance of the joint plate gradually increase. Furthermore, the wet joint of a prefabricated bridge deck with a functional gradient can be designed and fabricated, and the structural optimization of the prefabricated bridge deck wet joints is proven successful by tests.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-22T02:52:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221127768
       
  • Assessment on seismic performance of circular concrete-filled thin-walled
           steel tube columns

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      Authors: Xuanding Wang, Pan Gao, Jiepeng Liu, Qiaorong Zhao, Huimin Xu, Wei Wei, Xian-Tie Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) with circular section is a very efficient composite component bearing vertical loads, which takes advantage of the synergy of steel tube and concrete to fully develop the strengths of both materials. To promote the application of circular CFST columns in multi-story buildings or medium-span bridge piers with improved economic efficiency, circular CFSTs using thin-walled steel tubes were studied in this paper. 8 specimens were designed and tested to assess their seismic performance under constant axial compression and cyclic lateral loads. The key test parameters include axial compression ratio, diameter-to-thickness ratio of steel tube, as well as stiffening scheme. The effectiveness of two steel plate stiffeners (longitudinal stiffener, binding stiffener) at the potential plastic hinges of thin-walled circular CFST columns was verified and discussed. Although all specimens failed in a manner characterized by significant local buckling of steel tubes, they still performed a relatively ductile behavior with the ductility coefficients generally exceeding 4.0, and the ultimate drift ratios exceeding 1/40. The steel plate stiffeners did not achieve the expected enhancement in strength and ductility, due to the premature fracture in the steel tube which may be caused by the damage in the welding heat-affected zone. Based on the test results, a numerical model and a simplified hysteretic model were established to predict the seismic responses of the thin-walled circular CFST columns.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T01:14:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221128847
       
  • Practical optimal design method for multi-outrigger building structures
           under inter-story drift constraints

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      Authors: Fei-fei Sun, Ru-jun Yu, Rui-zi Jia
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes a practical optimal design method (PODM) for high-rise multi-outrigger structures subjected to inter-story drift constraints based on the optimality criteria method. The problem is solved through two-step calculations, which avoids time-consuming iterations owing to internal-force redistribution caused by member-section modifications, multiple inter-story drift constraints and multiple outriggers. Three parameters, namely the target virtual strain energy density (VSED), section-correction factor, and structural magnification factor, are established to relate the member-section sizes to the structural inter-story drift. The influence of internal-force redistribution is considered by adjusting the target VSED and section-correction factor based on the first trial calculation results to ensure precision. The multiple local inter-story drift constraints are converted to the unforced inter-story drift constraint, whereas the optimal design problem of the structures with multiple outriggers is solved by transforming it into the optimal design problem of the key module with the strictest demand by introducing the most critical constraint criteria. Finally, the effectiveness and accuracy of the PODM are validated using a 56-story structure and 50-story seven-bay framework.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T05:53:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221127341
       
  • An experimental study on the behavior of interlocking masonry blocks
           manufactured using 3D printed mold

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      Authors: Vahid Baneshi, Seyed Mehdi Dehghan, Reza Hassanli
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Masonry structure built with mortarless interlocking blocks effectively reduces the construction time and costs and also improves the quality of construction. However, due to the vast variety in the construction methods and geometry of these blocks, their behavior has not been fully understood. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to understand the in-plane and out-of-plane behavior of interlocking mortarless masonry. Four types of interlocking blocks (namely trapezoidal-shaped, Lego-shaped, cross-shaped, and checkered-shaped blocks) as well as one simple control block with the same size as the interlocking blocks were considered. Innovative 3D printed molds were designed and manufactured to construct the designed interlocking blocks with different shapes. Masonry units were then assembled with and without adhesive paste and were subjected to six different tests including compressive, diagonal shear, in-plane and out-of-plane shear tests, as well as flexural tests in parallel and perpendicular to the bed joints directions. The results were compared in terms of the general behavior, crack pattern, failure mode, and ultimate strength. According to the results, in the flexural test perpendicular to the bed joints and diagonal shear tests, the trapezoidal-shaped and Lego-shaped blocks had the highest strength because of their side shear keys. In the flexural test in parallel to the bed joints, the cross-shaped block had the highest strength due to its highest total locked area. In the in-plane and out-of-plane shear tests, the cross- and checkered-shaped blocks respectively had the best performance due to their high inter-block contact area and out-of-plane effective contact area. This research provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of shapes on the behavior of interlocking blocks under different loading conditions. The outcome of this study helps designers to identify the most suitable interlocking shape based on the critical type of loading that masonry needs to be designed for.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T04:58:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221126595
       
  • Numerical study on the influence of in-plane damage on the out-of-plane
           seismic performance of masonry infill walls with opening in reinforced
           concrete frames

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      Authors: Maohua Zhang, Junnan Ding, Lue Pang, Kang Ding
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The reinforced concrete (RC) frames with masonry infill walls are always subject to in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OOP) interaction under earthquakes, and IP damage will affect OOP seismic performance. In order to study IP and OOP interaction of the masonry infill walls with opening in RC frames, we establish a finite element model of RC frame with solid and opening infill walls based on existing tests. We simulated the influence of opening rate and opening aspect ratio on IP and OOP interaction of RC frames with masonry infill walls. The results show that IP damage significantly reduces the OOP stiffness of the RC frames with masonry infill walls; The IP storey drift between 0.5%–2%, the OOP stiffness is reduced by 58.3%–73.7%; Under the same IP damage, the OOP bearing capacity and stiffness of RC frames with masonry infill wall in a larger opening rate has greater degradation level and faster degradation rate; For a given opening rate, the opening with an aspect ratio that closer of infill wall has the least influence on the IP and OOP interaction. Finally, based on the simulation results, a two-parameter exponential equation is found to describe the relationship between the OOP bearing capacity reduction, IP storey drift and the wall opening rate.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T02:41:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221126593
       
  • Experimental investigation and numerical analysis of precast reinforced
           concrete shear walls with shoe bolt connections

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      Authors: Xun Chong, Meng Zhao, Jun-Qi Huang, Qing Jiang, Hao-Ran Li, Yu-Long Feng
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An innovative shoe bolt connection for precast concrete (PC) structures that features resilience is proposed in this study. In this connection, a steel washer plate that could be easily replaced after an earthquake serves as the “fuse” element, and the bolt passing through the horizontal joints serves as the self-centring element. To validate the reliability of the proposed connection, quasi-static tests were conducted on two PC shear wall specimens. One specimen was designed with a conventional wall shoe bolt connection (S-1). The other specimen was designed with the proposed connection (S-2). The crack pattern, failure mode, hysteresis curve, skeleton curve, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the specimens were studied. Furthermore, finite element (FE) analysis was conducted to reproduce the test and facilitate an in-depth understanding on the mechanism of the specimens. The test and analysis results indicated that S-1 exhibited brittle failure, while the failure of S-2 was governed by concrete crushing and fuse plate yielding and reflected a remarkable self-centring capacity; only minor shear slips of the horizontal joints occurred, even for the specimen S-1 with a smaller axial load ratio, indicating that the joints had enough shear resistance; the proposed three-dimensional FE model could predict the skeleton curve and the failure mode of the specimens with acceptable accuracy; for the specimen with proposed connection, the failure mode was significantly influenced by the thickness of the fuse plate.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T06:41:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221126379
       
  • Modelling of extreme uniform temperature for high-speed railway bridge
           piers using maximum entropy and field monitoring

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      Authors: Gonglian Dai, Fen Wang, Y. Frank Chen, Hao Ge, Huiming Rao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the atmospheric temperature and solar radiation, the effects of temperature variation in bridge structures should be considered. Such variation induces notable deformations and movements, jeopardizing the safety of bridges and high-speed trains operations. However, the temperature action is a random process and its distribution is difficult to determine. The existing methods for analyzing structural temperatures are insufficient to meet the precision requirement. Therefore, the accurate prediction of extreme structural temperatures relates to the accurate evaluation on the bridge safety. This paper proposes a robust and accurate model for predicting the extreme structural temperature of a bridge. A field experiment, spanning over 2 years, was carried out on a high-speed railway bridge; and the long-term (56-years) atmospheric temperature data was adopted. Probabilistic models for the structural temperature were established using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model and the Generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) model; and the predictions on the uniform structural temperature (Tu) with 50 and 100 years return periods are presented. Additionally, the performance between the MaxEnt model and the GPD model is compared, based on the estimates with different return levels. The results show that the MaxEnt model is more stable and is significantly robust to the variation of sample sizes; and indicates that the MaxEnt model reduces the uncertainty of outcomes and avoids the high risk of bias. The MaxEnt model has a great potential to the applications of the extreme value analysis with small sample size. It offers a wider applicability and helps solve practical problems.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T08:03:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221124618
       
  • Influence lines-based model updating of suspension bridges considering
           boundary conditions

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      Authors: Shi-Wei Lin, Yan-Liang Du, Ting-Hua Yi, Dong-Hui Yang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The boundary conditions of the main girder are complicated for suspension bridges. And they have a significant impact on the static and dynamic response of the structure. This study proposes a model updating method based on influence lines considering boundary conditions. First, rotational and translational spring elements are used to simulate the boundary conditions of the main girder. Then, rotational spring stiffness is estimated by constructing a sensitive objective function based on the influence lines. Translational spring stiffness is estimated by constructing a sensitive objective function based on the temperature-induced displacements at both ends of the girder. To improve calculation efficiency, a Gaussian process model is used instead of the finite element model (FEM). The estimation of boundary conditions is expressed as an optimization whose main goal is to iteratively estimate the boundary conditions to minimize the objective functions. After the boundary conditions are determined, the influence lines-based model updating is carried out by using the adaptive metamodel global optimization method. To validate the proposed method, a long-span suspension bridge is taken as a case study. The results show that the boundary conditions of the main girder have been successfully estimated. The accuracy of the model updating is improved after the boundary conditions are considered. The updated FEM with accurate boundary conditions can be a benchmark model for bridge damage identification or condition assessment.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T05:17:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221126374
       
  • Axial behavior of precast segmental hollow bridge columns confined by
           grouted steel tubes

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      Authors: Tao Zhou, Xian Li, Zhanguo Ma, Rong Su
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To avoid the problems of the conventional precast segmental bridge columns (PSBCs) such as the concrete crushing at column ends, joint openings between segments, and torsional deformation under seismic attacks, a novel type of precast segmental bridge column confined by a grouted steel tube (TPSBC) was proposed, and herein the axial compressive behavior of the TPSBCs was investigated by testing of 14 specimens. The main parameters of the tested specimens included the diameter-thickness ratios of the steel tubes, the number of the precast segments, reinforcement arrangements in the precast hollow segments, initial prestress levels, sandwich concrete strengths, and loading forms. The effects of the parameters on the failure modes, loading bearing capacity, ductility, and steel strain development of the specimens were evaluated. The test results indicate that the proposed TPSBCs with proper configurations exhibited desirable compressive behavior with significantly improved load bearing capacity and deformability compared with the PSBCs. Based on the analysis of the confinement effects, analytical models were developed for predicting the axial bearing capacity of the TPSBCs under the different loading forms.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T05:13:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221125829
       
  • Experimental investigation on seismic behaviors of precast concrete shear
           walls with sleeve grouting defects

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      Authors: Jun Yang, Tong Guo, Wei Wang, Ruizhao Zhu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The grouted sleeve connector is one of the most widely used connections in precast concrete shear wall structures. Due to the technology limit of the assembly workers, the sleeve grouting often has defects, which could significantly weaken their practical performance. Only considering the effect of defects on the bearing capacity of the sleeve connector cannot simulate the effect of defects in actual engineering. To this end, an experiment was carried out to investigate the seismic performance of precast concrete shear walls with sleeve grouting defects. Four full-scale precast concrete shear walls with different defect levels of insufficient grouting were designed and tested under cyclic loads. The development of concrete cracking, failure mode, hysteresis features, load-bearing capacity, stiffness degradation, structural ductility and energy-dissipation capacity are analyzed to reveal the influence of the sleeve grouting defects on precast concrete shear walls. The test results indicated that with the increase of the defect level, the opening gap between the bottom of the wall and the top of the foundation beam widened, and the failure mode changed from tensile fracture of reinforcing steel bar to anchorage failure of the tensile reinforcement on the defective side. Meanwhile, as the level of grouting defects increased, the bearing capacity decreased, and the specimen failed prematurely. The effect of the grouting defects on cracking load was minor, while they had a significant influence on the yield bearing capacity, peak bearing capacity and ultimate bearing capacity. The experimental results also indicated that the grouting defects caused the weakening of the stiffness, ductility and energy dissipation of the precast concrete shear walls. The presented work could be used for defect prevention and evaluation of precast concrete shear walls with sleeve grouting defects.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T02:56:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221123662
       
  • Torsional strengthening using carbon fiber reinforced polymer of
           reinforced concrete beams subject to combined bending, shear and torsion

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      Authors: Xi Chen, Zhuolin Wang, Xiangmin Li, Yubing Leng, Kent A Harries, Qingfeng Xu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The results of an experimental investigation of six large scale rectangular reinforced concrete (RC) beams subject to different ratios of combined bending, shear, and torsion strengthened with externally-bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) U-wraps are presented. All beams exhibited torsion-dominated behaviour. The presence of discrete CFRP U-wrap strips controlled the cracks well and the resulting torsional cracks were observed to be oriented at about 50°. Regardless of loading ratio, strengthened beams exhibited a 70% increase in torsional capacity. Before cracking, torsion to flexure ratio had a small effect on the flexural and torsional stiffness indicating that twist and deflection have a small counteracting effect on each other. Existing beam capacities were assessed using ACI 318-19 and GB 50010-2010 while CFRP strengthening was assessed based on fib Bulletin 14. Main findings are as follows: the ACI 318-19-predicted torsional capacity was conservative while GB 50010-2010 appeared to result in better capacity-prediction of unstrengthened RC beams. Even though load capacities derived from GB 50010-2010 are consistent with torsion-dominated behaviour, neither standard-based approach addresses the complete interaction of internal forces which is necessary to determine existing in situ strength for FRP strengthening applications. The fib Bulletin 14 approach to FRP strengthening for torsion was extrapolated to U-wraps and shown to overestimate the strengthening effect of the CFRP system applied. Critically, the assumed angle of inclination of torsional cracking was increased by the presence of the U-wraps, reducing the efficacy of the CFRP application.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-06T04:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221124624
       
  • Study on the shear behavior of inter-module connection with a bolt and
           shear key fitting for modular steel buildings

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      Authors: Hong-Lei Chen, Cao Ke, Chen Chen, Guo-Qiang Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the advantages of high integration, modular steel buildings have recently received extensive attention and research. The connection between modules (inter-module connection) plays an important role in ensuring the safety and integrity of modular steel buildings. However, most of the existing inter-module connections have problems such as insufficient construction space, difficulty in disassembly, lack of design specifications, etc. An innovative inter-module connection with bolt and shear key fitting was proposed. The connection separates the horizontal load-bearing component and the vertical load-bearing component, which greatly reduces the difficulty of analysis and design. The structure of the connection is convenient for construction and insensitive to installation errors. The structure and advantages of the connection were introduced in this paper, and the shear performance of the connection was studied by the monotonic static test. A finite element model verified with the experiment was proposed to simulate the shear performance of the connection. The influence of errors in fabrication on the performance of the connection was studied using the finite element model, and connection’s operating status in a modular frame was analyzed. Thus the allowance for the clearance between the shear key and slot was obtained. Based on the experimental and numerical study results, a formula was proposed to predict the shear capacity of the connection for the practical design of inter-module connection in modular steel buildings.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T07:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221122547
       
  • Equivalent linearization and parameter optimization of
           isochronous-pendulum tuned mass damper

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      Authors: Chen Huang, Linsheng Huo, Hongnan Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The isochronous-pendulum tuned mass damper (IPTMD) with curved supports was proposed to eliminate the loss of vibration control performance induced by large swing angles in our previous study. However, the nonlinearity caused by the IPTMD leads to difficulty in its parameter optimization. To overcome this issue, an approach based on the equivalent linearization method (ELM) and genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed in this paper to facilitate the optimal design of the IPTMD. First, based on the pseudo excitation method, the nonlinear IPTMD system is equivalent to a linear one using the ELM. The numerical results demonstrate that the equivalent linearization model of the IPTMD is fairly precise to approximate the original nonlinear IPTMD. Then the optimal design based on the H∞ norm and GA is performed to compute the design parameters of the IPTMD, which can minimize the peak response of the main structure. Additionally, to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the optimal parameters are applied to compute the dynamic response of a tall building installed with the IPTMD under different earthquakes. The numerical results reveal that the optimized IPTMD can reduce the displacement of the tall building effectively.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T09:32:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221120698
       
  • A feasibility study on piezoelectric energy harvesting from the
           operational vibration of a highway bridge

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      Authors: María Infantes, Rafael Castro-Triguero, Rafael R Sola-Guirado, David Bullejos, Michael I Friswell
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Vibration-based energy harvesting represents a clean power technology that can be of interest for application in civil engineering structures. This study focuses on energy harvesting using cantilever piezoelectric devices excited by operational and ambient bridge vibration. The optimal design and analysis of energy harvesters is usually performed using the mean and standard deviation of a response quantity of interest (i.e. voltage) under broadband Gaussian white noise excitation. In this paper, a novel holistic approach to the problem is proposed through the statistics of the voltage of piezoelectric energy harvesters under real measured bridge vibration base excitation. A new semi-analytic expression of the expected power is developed. The solution is based on the closed-form of the frequency response function between the harvester output voltage and the base excitation, and the experimentally measured spectral density of the latter. A study on the influence of the electromechanical coupling of the problem equations is first conducted. Then, a sensitivity analysis of the piezoelectric energy harvester parameters is performed. The critical analysis is developed through a case study of the measured long-term vibrations of a bowstring-arch highway bridge. Both operational and ambient vibration records are considered in the feasibility study. The results show the potential of the semi-analytic expression to evaluate the harvested power of piezoelectric harvesters under operational structural vibration. This is a promising approach to confidently develop future analyses on the power requirements of wireless sensor networks for SHM.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T07:45:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221120129
       
  • Effect of size on the eccentric compression performance of damaged square
           RC columns strengthened with CFRP: An experimental study

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      Authors: Jianhui Si, Kai Li, Zhaobao Zeng, Zewei Liu, Jiannan Hu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to experimentally analyze the effect of size on the eccentric compression performance of damaged square Reinforced concrete (RC) columns reinforced with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) in a bid to improve the rationality of the design of CFRP-reinforced large concrete members. In the experiment, 18 square RC columns with proportional sizes were prepared, and the principle of the proportional changes in the size was strictly controlled. The effects of the size, eccentricity, pre-damage, and number of CFRP layers were considered in the experiment, and the bearing capacity, lateral deflection, rebar strain, CFRP strain, and failure modes of RC columns of different sizes before and after the reinforcement were studied. The experimental results showed that the CFRP reinforcement could improve the bearing capacity and deformability of damaged square RC columns under small eccentric compression; however, the reinforcement effect gradually decreased with increasing size. When the cross-sectional dimensions were 100, 200, and 300 mm, the bearing capacity increased by 26.17%, 17.27%, and 12.98%, respectively, and the ductility coefficient increased by 104%, 44.80%, and 35.20%, respectively.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-28T11:35:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221123661
       
  • Multi-objective optimization of a sandwich structure with a hybrid
           composite grid core

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      Authors: Alireza Kermani, Amir Ehsani
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated two multi-objective optimization problems of a hybrid composite grid core sandwich structure, aiming at maximizing the critical buckling load while minimizing the structural weight or the costs of raw materials. The sandwich structure had a core with a composite isogrid pattern covered by two composite skins, and design variables included the space between core ribs, the core rotation angle, and the dimensions and materials of ribs. The stiffeners of the core were considered with I and box cross sections to investigate the cross section effect of ribs. The results showed that materials with high density and low mechanical properties are not suitable for reducing cost and weight. Geometrically, the use of cross-section and box has a significant effect on the buckling load capacity of the structure. Although two different criteria have been used to design the structure, the end results are almost the same. Moreover, the First-order Shear Deformation Plate Theory and the Ritz method were utilized to obtain the buckling load. Finally, the optimal alternative was found among the existing ones using the continuous genetic algorithm approach.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-28T02:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221120852
       
  • A variable stiffness energy dissipation device for drift control of steel
           frames

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      Authors: Tie Zheng, Eric M Lui
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A novel variable stiffness energy dissipation device is conceptualized and numerically studied in this paper. The proposed device is a passive device that consists of an array of helical springs arranged in the form of a series of von Mises trusses anchored between two tubes. Under an external excitation, the tubes move relative to each other and energy is dissipated when the von Mises trusses undergo snap-through and snap-back actions. After presenting the theoretical underpinning of this device, its behavior is programmed using C++ and incorporated into the framework of an open-source software OpenSees. Non-linear time history analyses are then performed on several shear, moment resisting and braced frames to demonstrate the effectiveness of the device in dissipating energy and reducing structural deformations. The results show that the proposed device is capable of reducing both the peak and residual displacements of shear and moment frames, and preventing brace buckling of braced frames under three different levels of earthquake severity.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-28T01:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221122535
       
  • Experimental study and reliability-based analyses on the bond performance
           of high-strength and corrosion-resistant rebar in concrete

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      Authors: Bin Huang, Qing-rui Yue, Xiao-gang Liu, Si-bo Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the influence of concrete strength, diameter, cover thickness, anchorage length, and stirrups ratio on the bonding performance of the HSCR rebar in concrete are experimentally investigated. A nonlinear FE model for simulating the bond performance between HSCR and concrete is established and validated, and the influencing parameters are parametrically investigated. Moreover, the applicability of the ultimate bond strength model for HSCR-concrete is comparatively discussed, and a new model is proposed and validated to give relatively accurate prediction. Based on the proposed model, the anchorage reliability analysis is conducted, the influencing parameters as well as their variation on the reliability of bond strength are discussed, and the reliable anchorage length is recommended.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T07:07:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221122948
       
  • Study of the design and flexural performance of an innovative Fiber
           Reinforced Polymer/steel-concrete composite beam

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      Authors: Yunyu Li, Jing Chen, Shuyan Shi, Longyong Hu, Xun Xu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A novel FRP/steel-concrete composite beam consisting of concrete slab and innovative hybrid FRP/steel hollow box shell takes full advantage of inherent and complementary properties of FRP, steel and concrete. To facilitate the practical application of this novel FRP/steel-concrete composite beam, preliminary design concepts were offered while analytical equations were derived to evaluate the flexural performance of the composite beam based on analysis of typical failure modes. Three FRP/steel-concrete composite beams with different steel volume fraction had been devised by the proposed design method, and four-point bending tests were conducted to investigate the failure mode, ultimate flexural capacity, deflection and interface slip. The practical composite beams exhibited satisfying structural behavior during the tests, while a fairly good agreement with the experimental results and the estimated values confirmed the reliability and feasibility of the preliminary design method.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-20T05:43:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221119880
       
  • Using end buckles to improve debonding resistance in FRP-bonded precracked
           RC beams

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      Authors: Chao-Yang Zhou, Heng-Yi Chen, Yi Wang, Xue-Jun He
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The strengthening effect of reinforced concrete (RC) members externally bonded (EB) with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates is significantly affected by interfacial debonding failure. To improve the connection between FRP sheets and concrete, a novel type of anchor device for FRP sheets called buckle was proposed in this study. This device can effectively lock the end of the sheet using a patented method of wrapping. In addition to conventional external bonding, bolts were installed on the buckles to form hybrid anchored (HA) FRP sheet. To verify the effectiveness of this new method, a precracked RC beam was prepared in comparison with two undamaged beams strengthened with EB or HA FRP sheets. As observed, end buckles can limit the development of cracks regardless of initial cracking. Despite the occurrence of intermediate debonding due to initial cracks, both the ultimate capacity and failure ductility were significantly improved. Owing to the end buckles, the debonding resistance was excellent, and the initial cracking of the beam hardly affected the strengthening effect. In addition, existing formulas were used to calculate the lower limit of the ultimate load of the specimen strengthened with HA FRP, which was still higher than that of the specimen strengthened by EB FRP. Therefore, the results confirmed that the debonding resistance was greatly enhanced due to the locking of the FRP sheet via end buckles, and the proposed method is useful to guarantee the strengthening effect.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T08:09:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221119878
       
  • Influence of swirl ratio and radial Reynolds number on wind
           characteristics of multi-vortex tornadoes

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      Authors: Yi Zhao, Guirong Yan, Ruoqiang Feng, Houjun Kang, Zhongdong Duan
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, systematic numerical simulations are conducted to investigate how swirl ratio and radial Reynolds number affect the wind characteristics of multi-vortex tornadoes. By properly controlling boundary conditions, multi-vortex tornadoes are produced in a cylindrical computational domain. Six cases with different swirl ratios are studied to examine the influence of swirl ratio, while five cases with different radial Reynolds number are studied to investigate the influence of radial Reynolds number. To facilitate the characterization, the core size and rotational speed of subvortices, as well as the relative distance between the subvortex and the core radius of the main vortex, are defined. The results demonstrate that the increase in swirl ratio leads to the increase in the number of subvortices. For the overall vortex, the increase in swirl ratio decreases the maximum tangential velocity but increases the core radius of the overall flow. For subvortices, for the case where four subvortices are produced, the increase in swirl ratio increases the core size of subvortices but decreases the rotational speed of subvortices. While the increase in radial Reynolds number does not change the number of subvortices produced, it decreases the core size of subvortices, but increases the rotational speed of each subvortex.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T12:54:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221119867
       
  • Charpy impact properties of uni-directional carbon fiber-reinforced
           polymer tendons with protective layers

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      Authors: Yawei Fang, Zhi Fang, Yu Xiang, Lixin Feng, Xuhong Zhou
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The present study explored potential forms of impact protection for carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) tendons. Charpy impact tests were performed on CFRP rods and strands under protections of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly-ethylen (PE). In the experimental program, the impact damage pattern and absorbed energy of CFRP tendons with and without external protection were obtained. The results show that the energy absorption capacity of CFRP tendons was improved under the protection of surface layers; and PE layers exhibited the highest protection effectiveness among all protection forms in terms of the increased absorbed energy and caused additional structural weight. Besides, two empirical expressions were established to quantify the relationship between the thickness of PE layers and the energy absorption capacity of the protected CFRP tendons, which may provide a simple tool to estimate the thickness of the layer required for the protection of a specific CFRP tendon in practical applications.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T12:30:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221119876
       
  • Damage-based strength reduction factor spectra of structures subjected to
           bidirectional ground motions

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      Authors: Feng Wang, HN Li, CQ Zhang, YZ Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The current research on the damage-based strength reduction factor has been completely based on the inelastic single-degree-of-freedom systems that are more suitable for two-dimensional analyses. Therefore, it is necessary to construct damage-based strength reduction factor spectra for systems subjected to bidirectional ground motions. In this study, an inelastic single-mass bi-degree-of-freedom (SMBDOF) system subjected to the orthogonal bidirectional ground motions with the hysteretic property of two-dimensional yield-surface plasticity function is presented, and the x-component of the system is used to construct the damage-based strength reduction factor spectra of the system (Rb spectra). The Park-Ang damage model is used to determine the constant damage index of the Rb spectra. In addition, 178 ground motion records for site classes C, D, and E are considered as ground excitations of the SMBDOF system to construct the mean Rb spectra with the format of Rb-D-T for a given ductility capacity and Rb-μu-T for a given damage level. The Rb spectra of the SMBDOF system is compared with the corresponding R spectra of the SDOF system. Statistical analysis considering different values of the natural period, ductility capacity, damage index, period ratio, and site condition is conducted. Analysis results show that the coupling of two-component responses of an inelastic system could increase the strength demand of the system in certain cases; the trend of the Rb spectra presented in this study is approximately consistent for different site classes, but the spectral values have the characteristic of site conditions. Therefore, the influence of the period ratio should be considered because a large period difference between two components of the SMBDOF system could aggravate seismic damage in certain situations. Based on the statistical analysis, the expression of Rb spectra curves with a period ratio γ = 1 is derived using the regression analysis, and the correction expression is obtained considering the influence of the period ratio on the Rb spectra. Then, the construction procedure of the Rb spectra is introduced. The predicted Rb spectra obtained by the proposed procedure is compared with the actual mean spectra, and comparison results indicate a good match.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T06:30:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221119866
       
  • Effective range of base isolation design parameters to improve structural
           performance under far and near-fault earthquakes

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      Authors: Ataallah Sadeghi Movahhed, Amir Shirkhani, Saeid Zardari, Ehsan Noroozinejad Farsangi, Arash Karimi Pour
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Triple Friction Pendulum Isolators (TFPIs) have been widely used to enhance the seismic capacity of structures in the recent decade. This study intends to measure the effect of different Ground Motion (GM) sets, including Far-Fault (FF) and Near-Fault (NF) records, on the seismic response of the Triple Friction Pendulum (TFP) isolated structures. For this aim, different Engineering Demand Parameters (EDP), including Inter-story Drift Ratio (IDR), absolute floor acceleration, base shear, residual displacement, and damage energy are measured using numerous Nonlinear Time History (NTH) analyses. A three-dimensional mid-rise special moment resisting frames (SMFs) steel building isolated with TFPIs has been designed as per ASCE 7-16. In addition, the separate and simultaneous effect of raising the damping ([math]) and the period ([math]) of the base isolation system on the seismic responses of the superstructure are measured to assess the structural performance and estimate the damage energy. The [math] and the [math] are amplified up to 30% and 4.5 times of the superstructure period in incremental steps, respectively. The results show that the damage energy of the superstructure in the Initial Design Parameters' Values (IDPVs) of the isolator under NF records with Forward-Directivity pulses (NF-FD-GMs) is more significant than damping energy, while an inverse trend has occurred for other GM sets. Increasing the IDPVs up to a certain level reduces most EDPs and consequently causes an improvement in the seismic performance of the superstructure. The novel developed empirical relationships can be utilized as useful tools to predict IDRs and the damage states of the superstructure. The variations of the EDPs with respect to simultaneous or separate increasing the IDPVs are also reported for different GM sets.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T03:57:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221119870
       
  • Numerical study on impact resistance of rubberised concrete roadside
           barrier

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      Authors: Lei Pan, Hong Hao, Jian Cui, Thong M Pham
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      As an environmentally-friendly material, rubberised concrete has attracted a lot of attentions and researches in recent years. However, because of the addition of rubber crumbs, the strength and modulus of rubberised concrete are low as compared to normal concrete, which limit the wide applications of this material in construction of load-bearing structures. Considering the good deformation and impact resistance ability of rubberised concrete, many researchers have suggested that rubberised concrete material could be used to construct roadside barriers, but the research on rubberised concrete barrier subjected to vehicle collision is very limited. This paper studies the feasibility of application of this green material to make roadside barriers to resist vehicle impact. Numerical models of F-type barriers with A-grade and SS-grade made of rubberised concrete and normal concrete are established. The validities of the numerical models are verified by laboratory impact tests available in literature. The collision of the vehicle with the normal concrete barrier and the rubberised concrete barrier are simulated by the verified numerical models. The results show that the rubberised concrete barrier not only meets the safety requirements for roadside barriers, but also reduces the impact force acting on the vehicle and hence reduces the vehicle damage and risk of the drivers and passengers as compared with the normal concrete barrier. The results demonstrate the great application potentials of this green material for constructing roadside barriers and structures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-14T12:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221120130
       
  • Wind loads characteristics of irregular shaped high-rise buildings

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      Authors: Yong-gui Li, Peng Liu, Yi Li, Jia-hui Yan, Jia Quan
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Many irregular shaped high-rise buildings have been built for graceful demand of architecture or better amenity and ventilation in the world. In this study, a benchmark rectangular high-rise building model and six high-rise building models with various irregular shapes, including two T-shaped, two U-shaped, H-shaped and X-shaped, are tested in a boundary wind tunnel to investigate their wind loads characteristics. The coefficients, power spectral density and cross-correlation of base moments as well as local wind forces are analyzed and discussed in details. Based on the wind tunnel test results, it is founded that the effect of U-shape and H-shape on wind loads is negligible. The along-wind mean base moment coefficient of X-shaped model is increased by 10.0% in 90° wind direction. The wind force characteristics of T-shaped models are quite different from the benchmark model in many cases. The mean base moment coefficient of T-shaped 2 model is reduced by 18.6% in 0° wind direction. Larger mean lift forces and torques of T-shaped models are appeared and there is a certain correlation between along-wind and across-wind local wind forces in 90° wind direction.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-08-12T09:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221120700
       
  • Guest Editorial

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      Authors: Xiaodong Ji, Yongle Li, Yong Xia
      First page: 3213
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T03:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221134767
       
  • Design of temporary, conditional, general and highly influential buildings
           for tropical cyclones and severe local storms

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      Authors: Yukio Tamura, Qingshan Yang, Yu Wang
      First page: 3215
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper first discusses the causes of damage to buildings and structures due to various types of winds including daily winds and some extremely strong winds. Regarding devastating wind-induced disasters due to tropical cyclones (TC), the importance of combined effects of wind and water hazards is emphasized. It also points out human errors hidden in damage scenarios, especially for large buildings. The importance of cladding/component design, the significance of debris impacts, and the effects of sudden changes in internal pressures are also emphasized. The design principles for buildings and structures are also examined, and the crucial differences among building performances against TCs and severe local storms such as tornadoes and downbursts are discussed. Design load levels for temporary buildings including scaffoldings and construction offices and for conditional buildings and structures including cranes, movable roofs and so on are also discussed. Next, design issues of tornado effects on highly important and highly influential buildings such as nuclear power plants are discussed. Finally, to cope with the future increasing trend of wind-related disasters, the importance of decarbonization and full-scale storm simulators are emphasized.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T06:03:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221135905
       
  • Influence of biaxial interaction of hysteretic restoring base forces on
           wind-induced inelastic response of base-isolated tall buildings

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      Authors: Jingying Tian, Xinzhong Chen
      First page: 3235
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study addresses the influence of biaxial interaction of hysteretic restoring forces of base isolation system on wind-induced response of base-isolated tall buildings. Both buildings with and without eccentricity in center of resistance are considered. Response history analysis is carried out to characterize the coupled responses of a square-shaped base-isolated tall building. A comprehensive parameter study is presented which covers a wide range of yielding level, response ratio and correlation of alongwind and crosswind base displacements. The results demonstrate that the biaxial interaction leads to increase in low-frequency component and decrease in resonant component of lower inelastic base displacement. However, the increase of low-frequency component of base displacement does not affect the upper building response relative to base isolation system. As a result, the upper building response is reduced by the influence of biaxial interaction. The biaxal interaction also results in fast growth of time-varying mean alongwind base displacement. The increase of low-frequency component can be significant when the yielding level of higher response is significant and two translational base displacements are quite different in magnitude. The correlation of two translational base displacements enhances the influence of biaxial interaction. For the base-isolated building with eccentricity, the alongwind and crosswind base responses are closer in magnitudes thus are less influenced by the biaxial interaction.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T07:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221130794
       
  • Full bridge analysis of nonlinear vortex-induced vibration considering
           incomplete span-wise correlation of vortex-induced force

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      Authors: Le-Dong Zhu, Xiao-Liang Meng, Zhongxu Tan, Qing Zhu
      First page: 3255
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Responses of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of long-span bridges are commonly measured at first via wind tunnel tests of sectional model and then converted to the prototype ones of the corresponding full bridges by some approximate formulae. In this paper, a time-domain full bridge analysis method was presented for predicting nonlinear VIV responses mode-by-mode based on a polynomial type of nonlinear mathematical model of vortex-induced force (VIF) on bridge deck cross section. In this method, the motion-dependant self-excited force (SEF) components of VIF were regarded as fully correlated span-wise in the case of smooth flow, while the motion-independent harmonic pure vortex-shedding force (PVSF) component of VIF was regarded as incompletely correlated along the bridge span. To take into account the incomplete span-wise correlation of PVSF, an equivalent generalized PVSF including the effect of the incomplete span-wise correlation of PVSF was defined by using a span-wise correlation coefficient of PVSF which could be obtained through a sectional model wind tunnel test of simultaneous pressure measurement. As an application example, the VIV responses of 12 vertical modes of a steel box deck cable stayed bridge with a main span of 688 m were analysed, and were compared with those converted with two approximate converting formulae, respectively, based on Scanlan’s linear and nonlinear mathematical model of VIF. It is found that the influence of the incomplete span-wise correlation of PVSF on the bridge VIV response is very small and can then be ignored.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221135899
       
  • Nonlinear dynamic response of sea-crossing bridges to 3D correlated wind
           and wave loads

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      Authors: Chen Fang, Yongle Li, You-Lin Xu
      First page: 3268
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Long span sea-crossing bridges are often slender and sensitive to wind and wave loads. Nonlinear dynamic response analysis of the bridges under three-dimensional (3D) correlated wind and wave loads is performed in this study in consideration of both geometric and aerodynamic nonlinearities. An optimized C-vine copula is first used to construct a 3D joint probability distribution and environmental contour of mean wind speed, significant wave height and peak wave period. Multi-point fluctuating wind loads with Davenport coherence function and random wave loads with pile group effect are then determined using wind and wave spectra respectively. The nonlinear wind-wave-bridge system considering geometric and aerodynamic nonlinearities is solved by the Newmark-β method with the 3D correlated wind and wave parameters as an input. The proposed approach is finally applied to a real sea-crossing cable-stayed bridge with the measured wind and wave data. The results show that the nonlinear response of the bridge is higher than its linear response with the same input. The bridge response is significantly reduced if the 3D correlated wind and wave loads other than conventional uncorrelated wind and wave loads are considered.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T07:06:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221129895
       
  • Direct estimation of evolutionary power spectral density of nonstationary
           winds: A unified formulation

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      Authors: Liang Hu, Ahsan Kareem
      First page: 3284
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Estimating the evolutionary power spectral density (EPSD) of non-stationary winds (e.g., tropical storms and downbursts) is necessary to predict the response of structures under such extreme winds. Following the review of the existing direct estimation methods of EPSD, this paper offers a two-step unified formulation, i.e., raw estimation and associated error reduction. The raw estimation is expressed in terms of a time-frequency transform with a general kernel function. It is shown that if the kernel function is described by a time-frequency analysis tool such as the short-time Fourier transform, the wavelet transform, and the S-transform, the generalized raw EPSD estimation becomes a particular case of the existing methods. The unified estimation method presented here can be viewed as a filter bank with adjustable time and frequency resolution. The analysis of error in the raw estimation is carried out on the bias and random errors accounting for the approximation in both the time and frequency domains. Various techniques for reducing such errors are then summarized and recast in the unified formulation, including series expansion, short-time window smoothing, and multi-tapering. Based on the unified perspective, a discussion and some prospects of EPSD estimating are provided.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-22T08:49:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221133207
       
  • Condition assessment of seismically isolated multi-span highway bridge
           bearings using recorded and simulated seismic responses

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      Authors: Xu Yunsong, Dionysius M Siringoringo, Yozo Fujino
      First page: 3299
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes a study on the responses analyses of a seismically isolated multi-span highway bridge recorded during the 2011 Great East Japan (Tohoku) earthquake and assessment of isolation bearing condition based on the responses. During the earthquake, lateral pounding and locking between the side-stoppers and the upper steel plate of the isolation bearings were observed of several piers. Finite element model was employed to analyze the problem and scenarios of locked bearing on the piers were simulated. The study also presents a wavelet-based technique to detect the presence and location of locked bearing. Instantaneous frequency of continuous wavelet transform of girder and piers accelerations were employed to evaluate isolation bearing condition by identifying the occurrence of high-frequency filtering effect. Afterwards, bearing condition was characterized via statistical clustering technique. Accuracy and efficacy of the technique were verified in simulations using three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge. Results of simulations demonstrate that wavelet-based features can effectively characterize isolation bearings condition directly from seismic responses of girder and piers.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T11:00:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221133195
       
  • Analytical study on the effects of flexural rigidity and negative
           stiffness in the optimal tuning of inerter-based damper for cable
           vibration mitigation

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      Authors: Xiang Shi, Junchi Ma, Lanchang Xing, Jin-Yang Li, Songye Zhu
      First page: 3316
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The control performances of inerter-based dampers on stay cables, usually governed by relevant damper parameters (such as inertance, stiffness, and damping coefficients), are sensitive to parameter variation around the optimal range. Further given these inerter-based dampers amplify the vibration amplitude at the damper location, the effects of cable’s flexural rigidity, which is often ignored in previous studies, are examined in this study. The results suggest an approximate 10% increase in all three design parameters (i.e., inertance, stiffness, and damping coefficients) is required to achieve optimal control compared with the case ignoring the flexural rigidity. In addition, the potential combination of inerter-based dampers with negative stiffness elements is also discussed in this study, which offers a more flexible layout and enhances multi-mode cable vibration control performance. Consequently, the tuning procedures are updated, and the revised optimal tuning formulas taking account of both the cable’s flexural rigidity and the introduction of negative stiffness are presented in this paper.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T01:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221133203
       
  • Response control of a transmission tower-line system under wind
           excitations by electromagnetic inertial mass dampers

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      Authors: Xinxin Song, Yanzhou Chen, Chen Bo, Jingbo Wu
      First page: 3334
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Structural vibration of transmission tower-line systems under wind excitations may induce damage and even destruction of the overall system. The control of transmission towers is conducted in the past decades by dynamic absorbers and dampers. Recently, a new type of passive control device, namely electromagnetic inertial mass dampers (EIMD), has been proposed and applied in structural vibration control However, the EIMD has not yet been systematically investigated in the vibration control of power transmission towers. In this regard, the vibration control of wind-disturbed transmission towers using EIMDs is conducted. The analytical model of a real tower-line system is established in line with the Hamilton principles. The response control approach using EIMDs is proposed and the control performance of different methods is compared in both the time and frequency domain. Detailed parametric studies are carried out to examine the effects of electromagnetic damping, inertial mass, and wind load intensity on EIMD performance. The assessment of the system energy responses without and with control is also conducted. The made observations demonstrate that the application of EIMDs can significantly reduce the structural dynamic responses under wind loading and the control performance of the EIMDs is quite robust and versatile under different wind load intensities.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-27T04:46:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221135897
       
  • Robustness of a tuned viscous mass damper (TVMD) controlled system

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      Authors: Yuhao Cheng, Xiaodong Ji
      First page: 3349
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A tuned viscous mass damper (TVMD) is a novel type of vibration absorber which exhibits outstanding vibration control performance. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the robustness of a TVMD for the vibration control of a typical single degree of freedom (SDOF) structural system. To that end, a new eddy-current TVMD (EC-TVMD) was developed as a representative TVMD device. The TVMD-controlled SDOF system was investigated using a series of shaking table tests. The influence of variations in stiffness of the primary structure and TVMD damping (including damping amplitude and damping nonlinearity) was assessed. The variation in TVMD damping exerted a smaller influence on control performance than the variation in primary structure stiffness. The robustness of TVMD control was enhanced by increasing the inertance-to-mass ratio. Parametric analyses using a numerical model further confirmed the experimental observations, and indicated that a TVMD exhibits improved robustness compared with a conventional tuned mass damper (TMD) which is sensitive to the detuning effect. The vibration control mechanism and robustness characteristics of the TVMD were further revealed by a Kelvin-Voigt model. Finally, the influence of damping nonlinearity was verified by the nonlinear time history analysis of a finite element model of the test structure. The results indicate that damping nonlinearity has limited influence on the control of a TVMD with nonlinear damping as long as this TVMD has the same peak displacement amplification ratio as the optimal linear design.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T11:24:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221133209
       
  • Stay cable vibration mitigation: A review

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      Authors: Limin Sun, Lin Chen, Hongwei Huang
      First page: 3368
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Stay cables in cable-stayed bridges are subjected to various types of dynamic excitation mechanisms under environmental loads. The excited vibrations can have a large amplitude because of low vibration frequencies and small inherent damping of cables. As cables become longer (the longest cables are around 600 m in cable-stayed bridges with a main span of 1000 m), more modes are vulnerable to wind and rain-wind induced vibrations, posing challenges to vibration mitigation. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advances in stay cable vibration mitigation, including theoretical modeling of cable damping system and techniques for enhancing multimode damping. Recent results on cable damping measurements, understanding of cable vibrations, and relevant aerodynamic countermeasures are also recalled. The reflections can provide guidance for cable vibration control design of cable-supported bridges and for the maintenance/upgrade of cable vibration mitigation system of existing bridges.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-14T09:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221132316
       
  • Performance-based post-earthquake building evaluations using computer
           vision-derived damage observations

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      Authors: Nathaniel M Levine, Yasutaka Narazaki, Billie F Spencer
      First page: 3425
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      After a major earthquake, rapid community recovery is conditional on ensuring buildings are safe to reoccupy. Prior studies have developed statistical and machine learning-based classifiers to characterize a building’s collapse capacity to resist an aftershock given mainshock responses of the building. However, for rapid safety assessment, such a method must be coupled with an automated inspection methodology to collect damage information. Furthermore, probabilistic models of expected building performance must be updated based on the distribution of observed damage. This paper presents a method for rapidly assessing the safety of a building by incorporating damage that has been identified and localized using unmanned aerial vehicle images of the building. Probabilistic models of earthquake demands on exterior components are directly updated using observed damage and Bayes’ Theorem. Updated demand models on interior components are then inferred using a machine learning-based surrogate for the analysis model. Both sets of updated models are used to determine if the building is safe to occupy. Results show that predictions of building demands are improved when considering the observed damage. When combined with automated image collection and processing, the proposed methodology will enable rapid, automated safety assessment of earthquake-affected buildings.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T12:58:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221119883
       
  • LSTM approach for condition assessment of suspension bridges based on
           time-series deflection and temperature data

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      Authors: Chengwei Wang, Farhad Ansari, Bo Wu, Shuangjiang Li, Maurizio Morgese, Jianting Zhou
      First page: 3450
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Deflection data provides important information about the mechanical characteristics and structural health condition of bridges. The study presented here pertains to development of a deep learning based approach for structural health monitoring by employing the bridge deflections. The method presented herein uses the long short-term memory (LSTM) framework in detecting the state of damage by tracking the feature changes of time-series deflection and temperature data. Deflection and temperature data of Chongqing Egongyan Rail Transit Suspension Bridge was employed over a period of 15 months to develop the proposed method. The concept of square error index (SE) is introduced as an assessment tool for estimation of the bridge damage level. Results from the present study indicated that the statistical characteristics of SE index are proportional to the level of damage, and are only sensitive to abnormal changes in deflection. Structural health monitoring data over the period of 15 months indicated that the proposed approach has the capability to detect cable damages as low as 0.5%.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T08:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221133604
       
  • A design-oriented method for response prediction of light-weight timber
           floors under bouncing excitation

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      Authors: Haoqi Wang, Dongjun Zeng, Yao Cheng, Pengcheng Wang, Jun Chen
      First page: 3464
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Owing to the light weight and high fundamental frequency, timber floors exhibit impulse-like responses under human-induced excitation, which is different with the resonance-like responses for heavy concrete structures. The vibration serviceability of timber floors thus needs to be considered in a different manner. Many design codes for timber structures have required that the static displacement or dynamic response under human excitation should be limited within a threshold for the purpose of serviceability, while failing to provide appropriate method for predicting structural responses considering various affecting factors. Inspired by the idea of response spectrum, this paper proposed a design-oriented method for the peak acceleration prediction of high-frequency floors under human bouncing excitation. The prediction can be obtained for any desired confidence level. Statistical analysis shows that the acceleration responses are mostly dependent on structural fundamental frequency, structural damping ratio, and excitation frequency, which are considered in the proposed mathematical model. The application procedure and the experimental assessment of the proposed model are provided, showing the decent applicability of the proposed method.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T01:49:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221133598
       
  • Fully automated modal tracking for long-span high-speed railway bridges

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      Authors: Xiao-Mei Yang, Hongnan Li, Ting-Hua Yi, Chun-Xu Qu, Hua Liu
      First page: 3475
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Modal parameters are inherent structural characteristics that are valuable for model updating, condition assessment, and early warning of bridges. Operational modal tracking technology has been a popular research topic in bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) because of its output-only advantage; that is, only the vibration responses of the bridge are necessary for modal identification. The real-time objective of bridge SHM requires operational modal tracking to be fully automated. Because the loads acting on long-span high-speed railway bridges are various, the modal identification methods should be changed according to the excitation characteristics; otherwise, the results may be incorrect. However, there is no unified framework for simultaneously tracking the modal evolution of a bridge under different excitations. In this study, modal tracking strategies based on ambient loads, train loads and immediately a train moving past the bridge were developed to identify the operational modal parameters of the bridge. In addition, a unified tracking framework was established to automatically switch among the three-stage modal-tracking strategies, which utilizes the real-time positioning of the axle loads. Furthermore, the computational efficiency of the tracking strategies and the obstacles of operational modal analysis were analyzed to provide a reference for mode-based SHM of bridges, and the essential parameters in the tracking algorithms were suggested. The three-stage modal-tracking methods were validated through long-term monitoring data of a long-span high-speed railway bridge. The results indicated that the best tracking results were generated from free-vibration data, while the modal-tracking under ambient loads had best timeliness.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T10:36:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221130792
       
  • Temperature behaviors of an arch bridge through integration of field
           monitoring and unified numerical simulation

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      Authors: Qi Xia, Wang-lin Wu, Fu-nian Li, Xiao-qing Zhou, You-lin Xu, Yong Xia
      First page: 3492
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Varying temperature may cause a non-uniform temperature distribution of a bridge and lead to excessive movement and stresses of the structure. Traditional thermal analyses of bridges adopt a divide-and-conquer approach, which conducts a simplified 2D or local 3D heat-transfer analysis and then a global 3D structural analysis by inputting the calculated temperature into another bridge model. This process requires considerable manual intervention and is inefficient and may lead to inaccurate results. This study develops a unified approach of heat-transfer and structural analyses for the first time to calculate the temperature distribution and the associated responses of an entire structure by integrating the field monitoring data. The arch footbridge at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University is used as a testbed, and a detailed finite element model (FEM) of the bridge is established. The measured air temperature and solar radiation are used as the thermal boundary conditions. The hemisphere technique is adopted to calculate the view factor between different surfaces of the bridge, which are then used to obtain the solar radiation on all external surfaces in different instants on different dates. The 3D global hear-transfer analysis is conducted to obtain the temperature distribution of the entire bridge. The calculated temperature data of the bridge are then automatically input into the same FEM of the bridge to calculate the temperature-induced bridge responses via the structural analysis. The heat-transfer analysis and structural analysis share the same FEM while using different element types. Therefore, the manual intervention is avoided. The calculated and monitored temperature data and responses show a good agreement. The developed new unified approach enables an automatic and efficient analysis of thermal behaviors of bridges. This approach can be extended to other types of bridges.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2022-10-07T11:35:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13694332221130797
       
 
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