Subjects -> EDUCATION (Total: 2346 journals)
    - ADULT EDUCATION (24 journals)
    - COLLEGE AND ALUMNI (10 journals)
    - E-LEARNING (38 journals)
    - EDUCATION (1996 journals)
    - HIGHER EDUCATION (140 journals)
    - ONLINE EDUCATION (42 journals)
    - SCHOOL ORGANIZATION (14 journals)

EDUCATION (1996 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 857 Journals sorted alphabetically
Educació i Història : Revista d'Història de l'Educació     Open Access  
Educacion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educación y Educadores     Open Access  
Educación y Humanismo     Open Access  
Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad     Open Access  
Educar     Open Access  
Educare : International Journal for Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educate~     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Educating Young Children: Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Education + Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Education 3-13     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Education and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Education and Information Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Education and Linguistics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Education and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Education and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Education and Treatment of Children     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Education and Urban Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Education as Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Education Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Éducation et francophonie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Éducation et socialisation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Finance and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Education for Primary Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Éducation francophone en milieu minoritaire     Open Access  
Education in the Health Professions     Open Access  
Education in the Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education in the Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Inquiry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Education Next     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Education Policy Analysis Archives     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Education Reform Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Éducation relative à l'environnement     Open Access  
Education Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Education Review // Reseñas Educativas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Education, Citizenship and Social Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Education, Knowledge and Economy: A journal for education and social enterprise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Education, Research and Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Educational Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Educational Administration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Educational and Developmental Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Educational and Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Educational Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Educational Considerations     Open Access  
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Educational Gerontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Educational Guidance and Counseling Development Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Educational Leader (Pemimpin Pendidikan)     Open Access  
Educational Management Administration & Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Educational Media International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Educational Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Educational Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Educational Practice and Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Educational Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Reflective Practices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118)
Educational Research for Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Educational Research Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117)
Educational Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Educational Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Educational Studies : A Journal of the American Educational Studies Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 45)
Educationis     Open Access  
Educator     Open Access  
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Edufisika : Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika     Open Access  
Edukacyjna Analiza Transakcyjna     Open Access  
Edukasi     Open Access  
Edukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Edukasi Journal     Open Access  
EduLite : Journal of English Education, Literature and Culture     Open Access  
Edumatica : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
EduMatSains     Open Access  
Edunomic Jurnal Pendidikan Ekonomi     Open Access  
edureligia : Pendidikan Agama Islam i     Open Access  
EduSol     Open Access  
Edutech     Open Access  
Eesti Haridusteaduste Ajakiri. Estonian Journal of Education     Open Access  
Effective Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EĞİTİM VE BİLİM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ejovoc (Electronic Journal of Vocational Colleges)     Open Access  
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
Eklektika : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Administrasi Pendidikan     Open Access  
El Guiniguada. Revista de investigaciones y experiencias en Ciencias de la Educación     Open Access  
El-Hikmah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electronic Journal of Education Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology / Revista Electrónica de Investigación Psicoeducativa y Psicopedagógica     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Elementary School Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Elementary School Journal PGSD FIP UNIMED     Open Access  
ELT Forum : Journal of English Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
ELT Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ELT Worldwide     Open Access  
ELT-Lectura     Open Access  
Eltin Journal : Journal of English Language Teaching in Indonesia     Open Access  
Em Teia : Revista de Educação Matemática e Tecnológica Iberoamericana     Open Access  
Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
En Blanco y Negro     Open Access  
En Líneas Generales     Open Access  
Encounters in Theory and History of Education     Open Access  
Encuentro Educacional     Open Access  
Encuentros     Open Access  
Encuentros : Revista de Ciencias Humanas, Teoría Social y Pensamiento Crítico     Open Access  
Encuentros Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Engaged Scholar Journal : Community-Engaged Research, Teaching, and Learning     Open Access  
English Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
English for Specific Purposes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
English Franca : Academic Journal of English Language and Education     Open Access  
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
English Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
English Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
English Teaching: Practice & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Englisia Journal     Open Access  
Enlace Universitario     Open Access  
Enletawa Journal     Open Access  
Enrollment Management Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ensaio Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação     Open Access  
Ensaio Pesquisa em Educação em Ciências     Open Access  
Ensayos : Revista de la Facultad de Educación de Albacete     Open Access  
Ensayos Pedagógicos     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Ensino em Perspectivas     Open Access  
Entramados : educación y sociedad     Open Access  
Entrelinhas     Open Access  
Entrepreneurship Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy (EE&P)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Equity & Excellence in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Erciyes Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Erwachsenenbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Escuela Abierta     Partially Free  
Espacio, Tiempo y Educación     Open Access  
Espacios en Blanco : Revista de educación     Open Access  
Estudios Pedagogicos (Valdivia)     Open Access  
Estudios sobre Educación     Open Access  
Estudos Históricos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ETD - Educação Temática Digital     Open Access  
Eternal (English, Teaching, Learning & Research Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethics and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Éthique en éducation et en formation : Les Dossiers du GREE     Open Access  
Ethnography and Education: New for 2006     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Euclid     Open Access  
European Early Childhood Education Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
European Educational Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
European Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning - EURODL     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Journal of Psychology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Special Needs Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
European Physical Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Evaluation & Research in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Evolution : Education and Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Exceptionality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Extensão em Ação     Open Access  
Extensio : Revista Eletrônica de Extensão     Open Access  
Facets     Open Access  
FAISCA. Revista de Altas Capacidades     Open Access  
Fawawi : English Education Journal     Open Access  
FEM : Revista de la Fundación Educación Médica     Open Access  
Feminist Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Filosofia e Educação     Open Access  
Filozofia Publiczna i Edukacja Demokratyczna     Open Access  
Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access  
FIRE : Forum of International Research in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
First Opinions-Second Reactions (FOSR)     Open Access  
Florea : Jurnal Biologi dan Pembelajarannya     Open Access  
Florida Journal of Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Focus on Exceptional Children     Open Access  
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Fokus Konseling     Open Access  
Form@re - Open Journal per la formazione in rete     Open Access  
Formação Docente : Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Educação     Open Access  
Foro de Educación     Open Access  
Foro de Profesores de E/LE     Open Access  
FORUM     Open Access  
Forum Oświatowe     Open Access  
Frontiers in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontline     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Frontline Learning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frühe Bildung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2227-7102
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 287: A Weight and Meta-Analysis on the
           Academic Achievement of High School Students

    • Authors: Catarina Nunes, Tiago Oliveira, Fernando de Oliveira Santini, Mauro Castelli, Frederico Cruz-Jesus
      First page: 287
      Abstract: Understanding the determinants of academic achievement (AA) is crucial for virtually every stakeholder interested in personal development and individual and societal wellbeing. Extensive research in several areas, such as education, economics, or psychology, has addressed this topic, identifying a vast number of determinants that impact high school students’ AA. In this work, we perform a meta-analysis, including a weight analysis of 49 quantitative studies that investigate this topic, exploring the best predictors of high school students’ academic success. We also explore moderation effects. Our results show that academic self-efficacy and socioeconomic status are the best predictors of AA, and they are statistically significant. Other statistically significant predictors, albeit less common in the analyses, are mastery avoidance, motivation, sleep habits, and work avoidance. Implications for theory and practice and directions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050287
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 288: Engineering Student Experiences of
           Group Work

    • Authors: Amin Reza Rajabzadeh, Jennifer Long, Guneet Saini, Melec Zeadin
      First page: 288
      Abstract: Soft skills are a crucial component for success in today’s workplace as employers increasingly value work that is collaborative and encompasses diverse perspectives. Despite this, most engineering programs fail to explicitly teach students transferable skills, including the best practices of group work. This research sought to explore how undergraduate experiences of group work change over time. This research also investigated what reflecting on cooperative education (co-op) experiences tells us about teaching group work in academic settings. Despite frequently noting the influence of group work in developing their communication skills and brainstorming ideas over time, students become somewhat more frustrated over time with their experiences of group work, mainly due to conflicting personalities and ideas among team members and/or a “slacker” student. However, our findings also show that students become more confident working in teams over time, as upper-year students were more likely to assume a leadership role and self-reported higher past performance as a group member. This study offers insights into the changing group work experiences of undergraduate engineering students as they progress through coursework and engage in experiential learning and work-integrated learning opportunities, such as co-op placements. The findings of this study can inform educators on how to best incorporate methods for teaching transferable soft skills.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050288
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 289: Development of the Perception of
           Achievement of Complex Thinking: A Disciplinary Approach in a Latin
           American Student Population

    • Authors: José Carlos Vázquez-Parra, Isolda Margarita Castillo-Martínez, María Soledad Ramírez-Montoya, Antonio Millán
      First page: 289
      Abstract: This paper aims to identify whether there are statistically significant differences in the level of perceived achievement of complex thinking competence in a population of Latin American students from different disciplines. The intention is to corroborate or question the academic literature that categorizes certain types of thinking (systemic, scientific, and critical) as characteristic elements of some disciplines. Methodologically, the validated eComplexity instrument was applied to a sample of 370 undergraduate students from a Mexican university. The results showed that the highest means for systems thinking can be found in the disciplines of Engineering, Business, and Humanities, while the highest means for critical thinking can be found among architecture students. However, statistically, the results showed no significant differences upon an overall comparison of all disciplines. In conclusion, the findings of this study prove to be valuable for educational institutions seeking to develop complex thinking in their students, demonstrating that the disciplinary area is not a limiting factor in developing a perception of achievement in a particular competence and its sub-competences.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050289
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 290: Exploration of Relationships
           between Students’ Science Identities and Achievement Emotions in

    • Authors: Mihwa Park
      First page: 290
      Abstract: Many studies have found relationships between students’ achievement emotions and their performance as well as between students’ science identities and their performance. However, little is known about how students’ achievement emotions are related to their science identities. This study explored the relationship between achievement emotions and science identities in an inquiry-based physics class. In order to do so, we adapted the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Mathematics by replacing all references to mathematics with physics and selected items from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) survey. The adapted instruments were implemented with students in an inquiry-based physics class. The results showed that, overall, students’ self-perceptions as science persons were low, especially as chemistry or physics persons. Students also had negative emotions overall about physics. The results showed that students’ anxiety levels were significantly increased in a test-related situation compared to class-related and learning-related situations. In terms of the relationships between their science identity and their achievement emotions, students’ self-identification and their perceptions about their parents/relatives/friends’ views about them as physics persons were significantly related to their achievement emotions in physics. We also found that tests triggered great anxiety for students regardless of their pride in and enjoyment of physics.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050290
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 291: The Cultural Element in the
           Adaptation of a Test: Proposals and Reflections on Internal and External

    • Authors: Ana Isabel Ponce Gea, Francisca José Serrano Pastor
      First page: 291
      Abstract: In the framework of instrumental research, the adaptation of tests has been increasing. The aim of this paper is to explain the procedures followed for the adaptation of a test with a construct of a cultural nature to another context, reflecting on the difficulties and limitations related to its equivalence and validity. For this purpose, we start from the Test on the Construction of Historical Knowledge, originally designed for a Spanish context and targeted at elementary school students, in order to design and validate its Portuguese version. The process of “emic-etic” adaptation, in which the technical, semantic, conceptual, and metric equivalence of a test is sought, was carried out through group translation with post-translation empirical processes (expert judgement, a pilot study, and external criteria). It highlighted some issues closely linked to internal and external cultural factors. On one hand was the predominance of analytical-rational processes in the adaptation process, with an essential deep reflection on the construct and the meanings intimately linked to the context. On the other hand, were the difficulties of empirical procedures due to the qualitative nature of the construct. This led us to reflect on the possibility of minimizing the “emic” aspects in eminently cultural constructs without renouncing reliable and valid results with respect to the construct.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050291
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 292: The Impact and Evaluation of the
           COVID-19 Pandemic on the Teaching of Biology from the Perspective of
           Slovak School Teachers

    • Authors: Ramona Babosová, Alexandra Bartková, Vladimír Langraf, Mária Vondráková, Anna Sandanusová
      First page: 292
      Abstract: The closing of schools due to COVID-19 was a critical incident that should have caused a rethinking of education in our country. Among the many changes that this crisis has brought, one is fully remote teaching. Our research focuses on a comparison of the changes between on-site and remote forms of biology teaching, the opinions and feelings of teaching staff across all the institutional levels, and their opinions regarding the usage of online teaching tools in the future. The research shows that teachers have used both time-tested teaching aids and modern technology to generate an environment that would be as close to on-site teaching as possible. Similarly, the teachers with longer teaching experience had felt a greater degree of stress during the remote teaching period. Teachers of primary and tertiary schools agree that they can imagine having a combined form of education in the future but that the practical classes of biology must be completed on-site. On the other hand, most secondary school teachers want to preserve only the on-site form of teaching. Our study provides information on the current state of coping with the pandemic situation in Slovakia from teachers’ perspectives.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050292
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 293: Do Resident Archetypes Influence
           the Functioning of Programs of Assessment'

    • Authors: Jessica V. Rich, Warren J. Cheung, Lara Cooke, Anna Oswald, Stephen Gauthier, Andrew K. Hall
      First page: 293
      Abstract: While most case studies consider how programs of assessment may influence residents’ achievement, we engaged in a qualitative, multiple case study to model how resident engagement and performance can reciprocally influence the program of assessment. We conducted virtual focus groups with program leaders from four residency training programs from different disciplines (internal medicine, emergency medicine, neurology, and rheumatology) and institutions. We facilitated discussion with live screen-sharing to (1) improve upon a previously-derived model of programmatic assessment and (2) explore how different resident archetypes (sample profiles) may influence their program of assessment. Participants agreed that differences in resident engagement and performance can influence their programs of assessment in some (mal)adaptive ways. For residents who are disengaged and weakly performing (of which there are a few), significantly more time is spent to make sense of problematic evidence, arrive at a decision, and generate recommendations. Whereas for residents who are engaged and performing strongly (the vast majority), significantly less effort is thought to be spent on discussion and formalized recommendations. These findings motivate us to fulfill the potential of programmatic assessment by more intentionally and strategically challenging those who are engaged and strongly performing, and by anticipating ways that weakly performing residents may strain existing processes.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050293
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 294: STEM and HASS Disciplines in
           Architectural Education: Readiness of FAD-STU Bachelor Students for

    • Authors: Tomáš Hubinský, Ján Legény, Robert Špaček
      First page: 294
      Abstract: Since the beginning of this century, STEM education has become increasingly important in preserving prosperity and economic competitiveness. Architecture has its own specific attributes. It overarches the STEM and HASS disciplines, and it should be perceived as a cultural phenomenon rather than as a field of study. The main objective of this article is to highlight the methodology based on the statistical method evaluating the correlation rate between the Bachelor’s student performance (SP) in design studio courses and STEM and HASS categories, represented by particular subjects of various areas of study. The relationship between the admission examination procedure and the academic performance of graduates in the DESIGN category was also analyzed. Although the level of knowledge and skills required based on the study results within the curricula was more significant in the HASS category, the direct correlation between subjects in the STEM category, especially engineering, and the quality of the design studio¢s outputs as the main and fundamental part of the creative architectural work, was also confirmed. The authors of the article found that STEM knowledge and STEM skills do not reach the required level and, therefore, the emphasis should be placed on changing curricula, balancing the ratio of STEM and HASS categories, adjusting the credits assigned to STEM subjects, or reviewing the classification system.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050294
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 295: Reflecting Culturally Responsive
           and Communicative Teaching (CRCT) through Partnership Commitment

    • Authors: Zainal Berlian, Miftachul Huda
      First page: 295
      Abstract: The strategic approach to enhance cultural skills is aligned with social feeling and sense of belonging as an important element to underlie the interaction pathway with others’ diverse backgrounds. Such an approach of teaching model could be transformed and prepared to encourage ability to communicate and relate to others from diverse backgrounds. The following phase of sufficient integration amongst cognitive, social and emotional substance is reflect in the culturally responsive and communicative teaching (CRCT). This mode is an important element to advance the diverse students amidst an increasingly complex and pluralistic society. This paper is aimed at examining CRCT by having a critical look into the partnership commitment amongst interracial teachers’ daily school interaction. Data collection was conducted with 10 interracial teachers with a focus on the approach of how their partnership commitment is reflected and practiced in their daily school interaction. Thematic analysis was employed to obtain the main points of data to give insight into the multicultural school society. The findings reveal that an understanding of CRCT articulated into partnership engagement commitment has a core of three main points. These are: expanding self-awareness on cultural identity; enhancing culturally mediated emotion of social situations; and developing instructional practice for cultural sensitivity. The implication for students’ experiential learning in the multicultural classroom was also discussed. The contribution of this paper can be exerted among those involved in the education sectors. These include students, educators, principals, learning facilitators, researchers, educational technologist, instructional designers and practitioners. This is also included among the researchers who are interested in exploring, understanding and developing discerning perspectives on diversity and diverse learners in 21st century education. This study is expected to contribute by giving solving skills with the strategic approach articulated into a particular guideline to give a clear understanding in responding the multicultural classroom in the interracial school society context. This study is considered to elaborate the good feedback on the importance of CRCT in responding to emerging trends on the facades of diversity among diverse learners.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050295
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 296: Education for Sustainable
           Development: How Seminar Design and Time Structure of Teacher Professional
           Development Affect Students’ Motivation and Creativity

    • Authors: Cathérine Conradty, Franz X. Bogner
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Teachers need to adapt teaching styles to the goals of modern education. The Starwalker project has developed an approach for strengthening students’ self-efficacy and has provided professional development (PD) to teachers. The present study measured the effectiveness of PD indirectly by changes in students’ motivation and creativity as indicators. Two PD designs with the same time budget were examined: (1) a traditional lecture with a single feedback session; (2) repeated supervision sessions. Students completed questionnaires on school motivation, self-reported creativity and personality measures at the beginning and end of the school year. Four classes each were selected for both treatments and a control group (N = 281; Mean-Age = 10.82). At baseline, with no difference, the second PD design showed a significant increase in motivation and creativity, while the first PD design showed no differences compared to the control group. Spearman’s correlations of personality with motivation and creativity confirmed the presumed role of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, while Grade Motivation and Flow were independent of personality. Structural equation modelling (SEM) confirmed the importance of creativity for motivation. The study proves that PD can be evaluated indirectly through its effects on students and confirms the Starwalker approach. Frequent brief interventions are recommended for attitude change.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050296
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 297: Exploring (Collaborative)
           Generation and Exploitation of Multiple Choice Questions: Likes as Quality
           Proxy Metric

    • Authors: Heinrich Söbke
      First page: 297
      Abstract: Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are an established medium of formal educational contexts. The collaborative generation of MCQs by students follows the perspectives of constructionist and situated learning and is an activity that fosters learning processes. The MCQs generated are—besides the learning processes—further outcomes of collaborative generation processes. Quality MCQs are a valuable resource, so that collaboratively generated quality MCQs might also be exploited in further educational scenarios. However, the quality MCQs first need to be identified from the corpus of all generated MCQs. This article investigates whether Likes distributed by students when answering MCQs are viable as a metric for identifying quality MCQs. Additionally, this study explores whether the process of collaboratively generating MCQs and using the quality MCQs generated in commercial quiz apps is achievable without additional extrinsic motivators. Accordingly, this article describes the results of a two-stage field study. The first stage investigates whether quality MCQs may be identified through collaborative inputs. For this purpose, the Reading Game (RG), a gamified, web-based software aiming at collaborative MCQ generation, is employed as a semester-accompanying learning activity in a bachelor course in Urban Water Management. The reliability of a proxy metric for quality calculated from the ratio of Likes received and appearances in quizzes is compared to the quality estimations of domain experts for selected MCQs. The selection comprised the ten best and the ten worst rated MCQs. Each of the MCQs is rated regarding five dimensions. The results support the assumption that the RG-given quality metric allows identification of well-designed MCQs. In the second stage, MCQs created by RG are provided in a commercial quiz app (QuizUp) in a voluntary educational scenario. Despite the prevailing pressure to learn, neither the motivational effects of RG nor of the app are found in this study to be sufficient for encouraging students to voluntarily use them on a regular basis. Besides confirming that quality MCQs may be generated by collaborative software, it is to be stated that in the collaborative generation of MCQs, Likes may serve as a proxy metric for the quality of the MCQs generated.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050297
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 298: Self-Concept, Prosocial School
           Behaviors, Well-Being, and Academic Skills in Elementary School Students:
           A Whole-Child Perspective

    • Authors: Carina Wikman, Mara Westling Allodi, Laura Anne Ferrer-Wreder
      First page: 298
      Abstract: Whole-child development focuses on supporting not only academic but also social emotional skills. This cross-sectional study’s aim was to examine the associations between the child-rated self-concept and well-being, teacher-rated prosocial school behaviors, and academic skills (as measured by child performance tasks) and to examine if there were group differences by gender for these constructs. The sample was 143 s grade students (M age = 8 years old). The results indicate that self-concept correlated highly with well-being and moderately with prosocial behaviors, while academic skills correlated moderately with prosocial behaviors. The results also show that the boys had lower average prosocial behavior (teacher-rated) and self-concept (child-rated) ratings relative to the girls. The findings indicate that prosocial behavior, well-being, and self-concept can be measured in psychometrically sound and practically meaningful ways in Swedish elementary schools. Because many of the socioemotional and behavioral constructs were correlated with academic skills, these constructs could be important targets for early academic support interventions inspired by a whole-child approach.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050298
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 299: Do Radishes and Carrots Grow in a
           Bunch' Students’ Knowledge about the Growth of Food Plants and
           Their Ideas of a School Garden Design

    • Authors: Felix Hellinger, Dorothee Benkowitz, Petra Lindemann-Matthies
      First page: 299
      Abstract: School gardens can be places of biodiversity and suitable learning environments for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). In particular, vegetable patches where students can make their own experiences in food growing are very apt to connect local acting and global thinking, which is one of the main concerns of ESD. Working in a school garden could be a chance to overcome the lack of perception and knowledge about plants and their life cycles, which is described as “plant blindness”. Concerning the impact of school gardening, studies often investigate teachers’ perspectives only. Therefore, in our study, we focused on students. Participants were mainly fifth and sixth graders in middle and grammar school (mean age 12.3 years, n = 2107). With a paper-pencil test, we investigated their knowledge about the growth of 10 selected crop plants and asked them to rate school garden design elements referring to their importance and suitability for taking over responsibility for nature. In addition, we asked for character traits necessary for a successful school gardener. The results showed that about 40% of the students are convinced that carrots and radishes grow in bunches underground, and nearly 50% thought kohlrabi is growing underground as well. Girls performed better than boys. Increasing age and experience in gardening had a positive effect on the answers. In the students’ opinion, fruit trees, birdhouses, and vegetable patches are the most important elements in school gardens. The liking of nature and patience were highly scored skills for successful school gardening. The influence of experiences in gardening on the answers showed the important role that school gardening could play to gain hands-on knowledge about plant growth and thus offer quality education for every student. This would not only contribute to the reduction of plant blindness but answer the requests of ESD and the goals postulated in the Agenda 2030.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050299
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 300: Play-Based Physics Learning in

    • Authors: Nathalie Glauser-Abou Ismail, Angelika Pahl, Reinhard Tschiesner
      First page: 300
      Abstract: This article highlights the importance of play as a learning approach in early physics education. It demonstrates the concept of an innovative didactic method that combines children’s free play with physics learning in kindergarten. This play-based learning approach enables children to experience and recognize physical laws in a self-directed, action-oriented, and playful manner. The article provides concrete insights into how kindergarten teachers can stimulate physics-related learning moments, starting from free-play situations. Moreover, it points out the teacher’s crucial role in creating suitable play environments, providing feedback in play, and facilitating shared thinking after play. The article is based on the didactic development project “je-desto”, which aims to promote play-based science learning in kindergarten by familiarizing kindergarten teachers with this promising didactic approach. Accordingly, this article provides kindergarten teachers and experts in subject didactics an answer to what play-based physics learning can look in practice.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050300
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 301: Educating Informal Educators

    • Authors: Pam Alldred, Frances Howard
      First page: 301
      Abstract: As Youth and Community Work courses in Higher Education dwindle across the UK, following years of austerity and cuts to Youth Services, the diverse pedagogies of informal education are more needed than ever [...]
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050301
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 302: Students Tele-All: Self-Efficacy
           and Self-Reflection as Measures of Student Success in Telepractice

    • Authors: Amanda Worek, Kathryn K. Sabo, Emily Z. Eddy, Laura Plummer, Jane Baldwin, Patricia A. Reidy, Mary W. Hildebrand, Mary Riotte, John Wong
      First page: 302
      Abstract: (1) Background: With an increasing demand for telepractice services, the need for telepractice education is more important than ever. In addition to learning how to deliver these services, certain clinical and technological skills learned through telepractice apply more broadly to in-person care. Evaluating students’ abilities to master these skills is necessary to ensure clinical skill competence. (2) Methods: We utilized self-efficacy ratings and self-reflections to determine student growth after hands-on telepractice training among nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology students. (3) Results: Students across disciplines demonstrated growth in all measured skill areas and reported overall increased confidence. Students with less prior telepractice experience reported greater increased confidence in seven measured competency areas than students with more prior telepractice experience. The number of completed sessions at the end of student placements was correlated with increased confidence for one measured skill area. Regardless of whether or not students had prior experience when starting their placement, as the number of telepractice sessions completed increased, thus did students’ confidence levels. The results of this study support telepractice as a viable clinical education tool for student growth and the use of self-efficacy and self-reflection as valuable tools for monitoring the effectiveness of telepractice clinical learning activities.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050302
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 303: School Gardens: Initial Training
           of Future Primary School Teachers and Analysis of Proposals

    • Authors: José Orenes Cárceles, Gabriel Enrique Ayuso Fernández, Manuel Fernández-Díaz, José María Egea Fernández
      First page: 303
      Abstract: This paper describes a training proposal for future teachers in the design, management, and use of school gardens as an educational resource. During the 2020/2021 academic year, future teachers in the 4th grade of Primary Education (last year of the University Degree) received theoretical-practical classes to develop teaching-learning activities in the area of Sciences that they implemented in a Primary school. This training proposal and the research activities designed and implemented in the school garden by future teachers were analysed using three criteria: curricular contents covered, competency richness and structure and content. From the training programme implemented, we highlight an increase in the motivation of students towards learning to use this resource; because it is learned “in situ” in the school garden, it is possible to carry out outdoor work, sharing natural resources through cooperative work and improving relationships. Regarding the design of activities proposed by the future teachers, there is a predominance of the use of observation and classification processes and a deficit of other scientific competences, which implies the need for greater specific initial training on school gardens.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050303
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 304: Respecting the Voices of
           Individuals from Marginalised Communities in Research—“Who Is
           Listening and Who Isn’t'”

    • Authors: Michael Shevlin, Richard Rose
      First page: 304
      Abstract: Internationally, Governments have signed up to the principles of ensuring that they support the development of greater equity and inclusion in education [...]
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050304
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 305: Exploring the Features of
           Educational Robotics and STEM Research in Primary Education: A Systematic
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Sokratis Tselegkaridis, Theodosios Sapounidis
      First page: 305
      Abstract: STEM education programs with educational robotics are frequently used in formal or informal education, with participants ranging from kindergarten children up to university students. The widespread implementation of these programs in schools and the growing interest of researchers in the field has led several authors/researchers to review and summarize the characteristics of STEM research. However, the literature on the features of STEM research in primary education (kindergarten and primary school) is limited. Therefore, this article is a systematic literature review that tries to enrich the STEM agenda by answering the questions: (a) which study designs are commonly used in STEM interventions, (b) what the characteristics of the sample are (number/age of the students), (c) which equipment and user interfaces (tangible/graphical) are used, and (d) what are the characteristics of the studies (duration, intervention objectives, activities) and how studies’ data were recorded. For this review, 36 out of 337 articles were analyzed and emerged from eight databases, three search-keywords and six exclusion criteria. The examination of the reviewed articles showed, inter alia, that non-experimental design is usually used, that in half of the cases written evaluations are used and the sample size is almost equal between girls and boys. Finally, long-term research is restricted, therefore it is not safe to generalize the findings of these studies.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050305
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 306: An Exploratory Study of
           Mobile-Based Scenarios for Foreign Language Teaching in Early Childhood

    • Authors: Markos Konstantakis, Aggeliki Lykiardopoulou, Electra Lykiardopoulou, Georgia Tasiouli, George Heliades
      First page: 306
      Abstract: In today’s world, the ability to communicate in a foreign language is more highly prized than ever by prospective employers, which results in more options and possibilities for students, both academically and professionally. As a result of this tendency and the need for new communication methods, language instructors are driven to include cutting-edge language teaching approaches, resources, and materials in their classroom instruction, such as using ICT, or information, communication and ubiquitous technologies. In this paper, we introduce learning scenarios based on two mobile learning apps that facilitate language learning through interesting, interactive settings in a more personalized way based on children’s age. The writers’ emphasis will be on demonstrating interactive activities devised in their classrooms and on providing examples of student work in two languages, English and Spanish. Through this paper, we examine a range of educational tools and determine that Mondly Kids and Language Drops-Kahoot are the best acceptable teaching materials. On the basis of this assumption, we created three distinct groups of students, and the outcomes from the assessment technique show that mobile language learning enhances children’s experiences and increases their willingness to learn a new language. Additionally, students can use mobile applications to improve their speaking abilities and critical thinking skills throughout a language learning session.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050306
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 307: Fabrication of Maize-Based
           Nanoparticles at Home: A Research-Based Learning Activity

    • Authors: Mario Moisés Alvarez, Lilia del Carmen Flores-Cruz, Sara Cristina Pedroza-González, Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago
      First page: 307
      Abstract: Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field that promises to reshape many spheres of our lives. One core activity in nanotechnology is the synthesis of nanoparticles. Here, we introduce a research-based activity centered on the use of zein, the main constitutive protein in maize, as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles. In the context of the contingency imposed by COVID-19, this experimental activity was designed to be independent of a central laboratory. Therefore, it was enabled by a portable heating do-it-yourself (DIY) device that the students assembled in their own home. We describe the implementation of this activity as part of a graduate-level seminar series, and share our observations. We assessed the students’ knowledge on seven topics related to nanotechnology, do-it-yourself devices, and protein synthesis. The students appeared to perceive that their degree of knowledge had advanced (on average) in all the learning topics; the students stated that their degree of knowledge in the topics of assembly of devices and protein structure had advanced the most. The results of this assessment suggest that this simple, hands-on, research-based activity effectively engaged students in a learning process that allowed them to integrate knowledge while exercising their experimental skills. In addition, we show that these types of activities are suitable for implementation even in circumstances of restricted access to laboratory facilities, such as the ones recently experienced during the pandemic.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050307
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 308: MOOCs Design: A Conceptual
           Framework for Continuous Teacher Training in Portugal

    • Authors: Carolina Amado, Nuno Dorotea, Ana Pedro, João Piedade
      First page: 308
      Abstract: This paper aims to present a conceptual framework for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) design with regard to continuous teacher training, where a mixed methodology research approach was used. This methodology was structured in two consecutive phases: The first phase adopted a sequential exploratory strategy, where a scoping literature review approach was applied, and analysis content techniques were used to map and analyze the key dimensions in the design of MOOCs. The second phase was based on the concurrent triangulation strategy, where the quantitative data were extracted from 103 questionnaires and the qualitative data were obtained from two mini focus group interviews, which contributed to the development of the framework. Based on the data collected in phase 2, we proposed a framework which is structured in three main dimensions and ten subdimensions: (i) Resources—Human and Technological infrastructure; (ii) Design—Course overview, Target learners, Pedagogical approaches, Goals, Learning materials, content and activities and Assessment activities; and (iii) Organization and monitoring—Accreditation and Data monitoring and evaluation. This paper contributes to the actual state of the art in MOOCs design given the inexistence of frameworks for such courses in the specific case of continuous teacher training, and it shows the importance of accreditation recognition by the Portuguese entities.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050308
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 309: Learning Objects in the
           Educational Context: The Perspective of Teachers in the Azores

    • Authors: Ana Isabel Santos, Ana C. Costa, Andrea Z. Botelho, Manuela I. Parente, José Cascalho, Diana Freitas, André Behr, Ana Rodrigues, Armando B. Mendes
      First page: 309
      Abstract: This paper seeks to identify the pedagogical resources used by kindergarten, primary and secondary teachers in Azores Islands. Additionally, an investigation will be made into how these resources are mobilized in teachers’ pedagogical practice, with the aim of understanding to what extent digital resources, particularly learning objects, are present in schools. For this purpose, a study was developed, which included a questionnaire survey conducted online, and sent to teachers in 2021/22. A total of 426 answers allowed us to conclude that the use of pedagogical resources is still far from the current and emerging need to mobilize digital resources, particularly learning objects, as a tool to enhance meaningful learning.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050309
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 310: Analysis of Entrepreneurial
           Education—Study of the Configuration of the Entrepreneurial Identity
           through the Acquisition of Crucial Transversal Competences for Future
           University Students

    • Authors: Macarena Donoso-González, Inmaculada Pedraza-Navarro, Leonardo Palferro-Fernández
      First page: 310
      Abstract: Faced with the continuous changes that today’s society presents, educational policies place entrepreneurial education and, therefore, the promotion of the entrepreneurial spirit, as the axis on which to articulate effective responses for the current socio-educational context. The need to train students in key aspects that will enable them to face the main difficulties that future labor and social future bring is the focus of attention of the educational environment. In this sense, we set out to find out how entrepreneurial education affects the identity formation of pre-university students in the Spanish context through the pedagogical and environmental factors present in an entrepreneurial education programme. The methodology used is based on qualitative research, which under an interpretative approach, has been assisted by quantitative and evaluative research on educational programmes, in order to try to respond to research objectives. The findings of this research lead us to consider entrepreneurial education in the pre-university environment as effective for the configuration of entrepreneurial identity in students, which facilitates an encouraging future for university students participating in these programmes, who will present an improved entrepreneurial identity that enables them to face forthcoming social, economic and labor reconfigurations.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050310
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 311: Language-in-Education Policy of
           Kazakhstan: Post-Pandemic Technology Enhances Language Learning

    • Authors: Dinara Tlepbergen, Assel Akzhigitova, Anastassia Zabrodskaja
      First page: 311
      Abstract: In the current times of rapid technological progress, the development of quality education and encouragement of educated youth are extremely important. For this reason, a number of state projects and programs were developed in the education system of modern Kazakhstan. This paper is devoted to the problems of multilingual education and emergency remote learning in this country. The primary objectives were to examine the language competence and preferences of undergraduates and to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on remote language learning. Here, we present the survey and interview results of non-linguistic specialty students regarding their language preferences in various spheres, as well as the difficulties encountered during distance learning.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050311
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 312: Socioeconomic Variations in the
           Frequency of Parent Number Talk: A Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Eric Dearing, Beth Casey, Pamela E. Davis-Kean, Sarah Eason, Elizabeth Gunderson, Susan C. Levine, Elida V. Laski, Melissa Libertus, Linxi Lu, Caitlin McPherran Lombardi, Ariadne Nelson, Geetha Ramani, María Inés Susperreguy
      First page: 312
      Abstract: Using data from 12 studies, we meta-analyze correlations between parent number talk during interactions with their young children (mean sample age ranging from 22 to 79 months) and two aspects of family socioeconomics, parent education, and family income. Potential variations in correlation sizes as a function of study characteristics were explored. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the amount of number talk in parent-child interactions and both parent education and family income (i.e., r = 0.12 for education and 0.14 for income). Exploratory moderator analyses provided some preliminary evidence that child age, as well as the average level of and variability in socioeconomic status, may moderate effect sizes. The implications of these findings are discussed with special attention to interpreting the practical importance of the effect sizes in light of family strengths and debate surrounding “word gaps”.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050312
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 313: Elementary School Children’s
           Home Learning Environments: Mathematics, Reading, Science, and Written

    • Authors: Susan Sonnenschein, Hatice Gursoy, Michele Stites
      First page: 313
      Abstract: It is well accepted that the home learning environment impacts school performance; however, much of the previous research has focused on preschool children. This exploratory study used an online, Qualtrics survey to ask parents (N = 177) of elementary students about the home learning environment. Our research questions addressed (1) the amount of time children spend on mathematics, reading, written language, and science at home, and differences by subject and/or grade; (2) parental beliefs about the importance of engaging in home learning activities in each of the four subjects; (3) parental confidence in supporting each of the four academic subjects; (4) parental and child enjoyment of the four academic subjects; and (5) who (parents, child, or teacher) initiated home learning activities in the different subject areas. The results indicated that elementary school-age children were engaged in reading, mathematics, science, and written language activities at home; however, the most time was spent on reading activities. Parents reported viewing engagement and assistance with academically related activities at home as important; however, they were more confident assisting with reading and written language than mathematics or science. Strong associations were noted between parental enjoyment of a subject and their confidence in assisting their child. Overall, teachers initiated more activities for older children and were more likely to initiate mathematics activities. When children initiated an activity, it was typically reading related.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050313
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 314: Predicting Math Performance of
           Middle Eastern Students: The Role of Dispositions

    • Authors: Maura A. E. Pilotti, Hanadi M. Abdelsalam, Farheen Anjum, Ibtisam Daqqa, Imad Muhi, Raja M. Latif, Sumiya Nasir, Talal A. Al-Ameen
      First page: 314
      Abstract: The present research examines the contribution of individual differences in chronotype and self-efficacy to the math performance of male and female students in STEM and no-STEM majors. Questionnaires assessing the selected individual differences were distributed to students of Middle Eastern descent enrolled in math courses of the general education curriculum. Summative assessment indices were used to measure performance comprehensively across the entire semester (course grades) and as a one-time occurrence (final test grades). The contribution of morningness and self-efficacy to both course and test performance of STEM students was sensitive to the interaction of gender and major. Instead, neither factor contributed to no-STEM students’ course and test performance. These findings were used to plan improvements in the instruction and advising of students in STEM majors, thereby complying with a key tenet of action research.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050314
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 315: Education after the Pandemic: What
           We Have (Not) Learned about Learning

    • Authors: Michael Kerres, Josef Buchner
      First page: 315
      Abstract: During the pandemic, educational technologies have become an essential tool to provide education at a distance. The paper outlines basic assumptions of research on the effects of the pandemic on education and points out methodological flaws when these effects are directly related to the pandemic or to effects of educational technology on learning. Studies cannot be easily aggregated and must consider the institutional, national and cultural conditions of how the educational system reacted to the pandemic. The article discusses how the experiences during the pandemic will shape the future discussion of education after the pandemic. With regard to the use of digital technology, the future seems widely open and will largely depend on the interpretation and re-construction of these experiences during the pandemic by the actors in the field. Two contradictory visions for the role of educational technology in education after the pandemic seem possible: a pre- vs. post-digital view that imply fundamentally different perspectives for the future of education. A pre-digital re-construction implies a return “back to normal”, whereas a post-digital view tries to utilize the experiences of the pandemic for a consequential reform of education.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050315
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 316: Smart Automotive

    • Authors: Luis A. Curiel-Ramirez, Rolando Bautista-Montesano, Renato Galluzzi, Javier Izquierdo-Reyes, Ricardo A. Ramírez-Mendoza, Rogelio Bustamante-Bello
      First page: 316
      Abstract: Automotive engineering is an area of great value and development. Lately, it has evolved rapidly because of autonomous vehicles. The development of smart mobility will be crucial in the coming years. Related research and companies related to intelligent transportation require trained and capable engineers. It is essential to generate an updated and specialized academic program that provides state-of-the-art technologies and related areas with smart mobility. This paper presents a novel two-year graduate academic program focused on smart electromobility. Programs around the globe were analyzed to find opportunity areas related to autonomous and electric vehicles, and smart mobility. Multi- and transdisciplinary courses were designed, according to the findings, on areas related to computer science, mechanical and electric engineering, law, marketing, and public policy. The proposed program fulfills the needs of a graduate student who will later work in a smart electromobility environment. The program offers a balanced curriculum that includes technical, business and social courses. Virtual and physical labs are proposed to develop a high-quality educational experience. This proposal can be used as a model for upcoming and related programs in other universities.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050316
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 317: A Mixed Methods Study of How UK HE
           STEM Students Were Motivated to Switch Their Cameras on throughout Their
           Task-Focused Online Group Work Meetings

    • Authors: J. M. P. V. K. Jayasundara, Theo Gilbert, Saskia Kersten, Li Meng
      First page: 317
      Abstract: HE’s pandemic-driven shift to online platforms has increased social and learning disconnection amongst students. In online group work/teamwork, many are reluctant to switch on their cameras to be more present to others. Compassion in group work/teamwork is defined as noticing, not normalizing, one’s own and/or others’ distress or disadvantaging and taking wise action to prevent or reduce this. This notion of compassion is being assessed in the HE sector using filmed task-focused in-class group work meetings to identify levels of both inclusivity and criticality around the team. This study investigates the use and outcomes of using the compassionate communications strategies (that were developed in and for the offline classroom) in online team meetings. In this mixed-methods study, two groups of four international STEM students, each from a sample of five UK universities, were video-recorded in task-focused group work meetings (TGMs) before and after an online interactive 90-min training session (‘the intervention’) on the Cognitive Skills of Compassionate Communications (CSCC) in teams. A comparison of the (pre and post CSCC intervention) quantitative and qualitative data results indicated, post-intervention, a significant increase in students’ screen gaze attentiveness to each other, and reasons why students’ motivation to switch on their cameras had changed.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050317
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 318: Connecting Students’
           Interests to a Learning Context: The Case of Ecosystem Services in STEM

    • Authors: Elena A. Mikhailova, Christopher J. Post, Grayson L. Younts, Mark A. Schlautman
      First page: 318
      Abstract: Interest in a subject matter is a powerful motivation in education. Prior knowledge of students’ interests can be helpful in teaching the concept of ecosystem services (ES) and disservices (ED), which is increasingly being used in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, including soil science. Study objectives were to evaluate prior students’ soil science-related interests and use them to expand the learning context of a laboratory exercise on soil reaction (pH) with ES/ED in an online introductory soil science course (FNR 2040: Soil Information Systems) taught at Clemson University. Students from multiple fields of study (environmental and natural resources, forestry, and wildlife biology) completed the laboratory exercise in Fall 2021. This exercise on soil regulating and provisioning ES/ED included a sequence of reusable learning objects (RLOs), which are self-contained online modules frequently used for e-learning. Laboratory activities included calculating the liming replacement cost of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and avoided social cost of carbon (SC-CO2) from soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks in the assigned soil. The laboratory exercise was effective in increasing the familiarity with the concept of ES/ED (+39.4 increase in “extremely familiar” category) and the concept of SIC (+44.7 increase in “moderately familiar” category). The graded online quiz consisted of 9 questions and was taken by 55 students with an average score of 7.0 (out of 9). A post-assessment survey found that the laboratory was an effective way to learn about soil pH, SIC, and their ES/ED. Detailed student comments showed learning enjoyment (e.g., calculations, good experience), the value of multimedia (e.g., video, PowerPoint), the learning flexibility (e.g., separate parts), content applicability (e.g., economic values of services), and constructive criticism (e.g., clearer instructions, lots of information). A word cloud based on comments by the students about their soil ES laboratory exercise experience indicated the most common words submitted by students to describe their experience, such as “soil”, “calculations”, “enjoyed”, “learning”, and “values”, among others. Applied recommendations are proposed to develop future exercises based on the alignment of students’ interests, STEM subject matter, and ES/ED applications.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050318
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 319: Regional Disparities in National
           Education: Origins, Governance, and Consequences (Special Issue)

    • Authors: Rita Nikolai, Irene Kriesi, Regula Julia Leemann
      First page: 319
      Abstract: Research about regional disparities in education within nation-states and their consequences for equity and inequality has a long tradition in education sciences [...]
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050319
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 320: The Effect of Kindergarten
           Classroom Interaction Quality on Executive Function Development among 5-
           to 7-Year-Old Children

    • Authors: Daria Bukhalenkova, Aleksander Veraksa, Apollinaria Chursina
      First page: 320
      Abstract: The present research addresses the impact of preschool classroom interaction quality on executive function development. CLASS methodology was used to assess the quality of teacher–child interaction in kindergarten groups; “Inhibition”, “Memory for Designs”, and “Sentences Repetition” subtests from the NEPSY-II (memory for designs, sentences repetition, inhibition) and Dimensional Change Card Sort were used for the evaluation of executive functions. Repeated measures were performed to assess the children’s progress, based on the quality of the educational environment in their group. The total sample consisted of 447 children (48.5% boys and 51.5% girls). ANOVA and linear regression analysis demonstrated that children’s progress in executive function development varies for low- and high-quality classrooms. Furthermore, different predictive potential of CLASS domains was shown for the development of executive function components in preschool children.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050320
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 321: Higher Education Students’
           Perception of the E-Portfolio as a Tool for Improving Their Employability:
           Weaknesses and Strengths

    • Authors: Elba Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Sonia García-Segura, María Ángeles Olivares-García, Elena González-Alfaya
      First page: 321
      Abstract: This study analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the professional e-portfolio as a tool for preparing students in higher education to enter the labor market. It also examines students’ level of planning to enter professional employment, and the help that they receive with this task from the university. The research is quantitative and observes the students’ opinions before and after they create their own professional e-portfolio, as a case study. We used the analysis of means to determine the trend in the aspects analyzed over time, and the Student’s t-test and Cohen’s d to determine the effect size. We also performed correlation analysis between the different categories and subcategories proposed. The results show that the e-portfolio is a tool with strengths for labor market entry, while also revealing the weaknesses that students find in it. At the very least, the e-portfolio was useful to the students in planning their entry into the workforce. The correlations show high levels among the strengths but not among the weaknesses analyzed.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050321
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 322: Can We Teach Non-Cognitive
           Outcomes' A Quasi-Experimental Study of Philosophy for Children

    • Authors: Nadia Siddiqui, Stephen Gorard, Beng Huat See
      First page: 322
      Abstract: Non-cognitive learning taking place at school helps form dispositions that can be as important as cognitive outcomes in terms of lifelong relevance. There are diverse interventions and school-based programmes targeting non-cognitive skills, but the evidence of their impact is, so far, unclear. To help increase the evidence bases, we conducted a quasi-experimental study involving 486 pupils in 18 primary schools in North Yorkshire, England, wherein 11 schools participated in Philosophy for Children (P4C), and 7 schools formed a control group that received lessons as normal. At the baseline, the two groups were not equivalent, which means the results need to be treated with appropriate caution. Pupils who received the P4C intervention scored higher on all attitudes and views than they had at the start and improved more than comparator pupils in terms of empathy and fairness. However, they were behind the comparator group in terms of teamwork and democracy, and there was little difference in terms of their self-reported ability to communicate with others. In general, the P4C approach was found to be feasible, and was generally liked by teachers and pupils. Teachers reported improvements in pupil conduct and confidence in P4C sessions and in other learning activities. The indications are that non-cognitive skills are potentially malleable and might be improved through a dialogic approach, such as P4C.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050322
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 323: Rural Children’s Perceptions
           of Parental Involvement in Their Education in Pakistan

    • Authors: Qazi Waqas Ahmed, Anna Rönkä, Satu Perälä-Littunen
      First page: 323
      Abstract: Drawing from focus group discussions, this study reports 40 school-aged children’s (12–14 years, boys and girls) perceptions of parental involvement in the context of a developing country with a collectivist culture. The results indicate that despite parental interference, adherence to local customs, poverty, and illiteracy, children felt encouraged by their parents through strategies that reinforced their motivation to continue their education. Extended families’ educated members can also compensate for parents being unable to support their children in learning. The study highlights the role of the socio-cultural context in understanding parental involvement.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050323
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 324: Migration Potential of Students
           and Development of Human Capital

    • Authors: Anna Shutaleva, Nikita Martyushev, Alexey Starostin, Ali Salgiriev, Olga Vlasova, Anna Grinek, Zhanna Nikonova, Irina Savchenko
      First page: 324
      Abstract: Studying student migration trends is a significant task in studying human capital development as one of the leading factors in sustainable socio-economic development. The migration potential of students impacts the opportunities and prospects for sustainable development. The study of factors influencing the migration behavior of students acquires special significance in this article. The interpersonal competencies of the population impact its migration potential. Migration processes impact the differentiation of regions in terms of human capital. This article is based on theoretical and practical research on human capital, its formation, development, and migration as a factor in human capital development. The practical part of the study presents an analysis of data obtained from a sociological study of the factors that determine internal and international migration. An anonymous sociological survey of students in Ekaterinburg, Kursk, and Tomsk (Russia) was conducted in several stages. The first stage was implemented in October and December 2020 (N = 958). The second stage was implemented in October and November 2021 (N = 960). This study allows for tracing how the COVID-19 pandemic affects the migration potential of students and their desire for a satisfactory career path.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050324
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 325: Helping Learners Become Their Own
           Teachers: The Beneficial Impact of Trained Concept-Mapping-Strategy Use on
           Metacognitive Regulation in Learning

    • Authors: Virginia Deborah Elaine Welter, Lukas Bernhard Becker, Jörg Großschedl
      First page: 325
      Abstract: Several empirical studies have shown that, during COVID-19-caused distance learning, many learners were struggling to realize the extent of self-regulated learning activities that were required to ensure the ongoing learning progress. Due to the significance of self-regulated learning regarding students’ learning success, the construct of metacognition also gained in importance, since corresponding skills are closely related to successful self-direction in learning. In our study, we focused on the learning strategy of concept mapping (CM), which is (1) directly related to beneficial effects on learning and retention performance, as well as (2) considered to cause constructive side-effects regarding metacognitive skills and, thus, self-regulated learning. To grasp CM’s full potential in terms of improving cognition-related learning performance, however, appropriate training of this learning strategy seems to be required. This raised the question of whether and to what extent appropriate CM training is also necessary to improve the metacognitive skills of our participants (N = 73 university students of different majors) in terms of the accuracy of their judgments of learning (JOLs). Although we were able to show, in a previous study, that the CM-training intensity did not affect the absolute level of these JOLs, the results of our current study show that there is, nevertheless, a significant effect in terms of the JOLs’ accuracy when considering their relationships to objective learning performance. Thus, CM training intensity affects the competence of metacognitive monitoring. In addition, we found that scaffolding- and feedback-including training conditions tend to counteract systematic misjudgments regarding the domain of conceptual knowledge, in particular. Practical implications and recommendations that can be derived from these results are discussed.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050325
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 326: Academic Advising in Civil
           Engineering: Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Model

    • Authors: Jennifer Keenahan, Miguel Casero, Sarah Cotterill, Fiachra O’Loughlin, John O’Sullivan, Shane Donohue, Daniel McCrum, Arturo Gonzalez, Páraic Carroll, Patrick Purcell
      First page: 326
      Abstract: A project to formalise and expand Academic Advising has been implemented at the UCD Civil Engineering School. The goals of this project were twofold: on the one hand, it aimed at training faculty members in Academic Advising roles and providing them with the necessary resources. On the other hand, the project sought to expand student interaction, in particular by engaging students informally in order to build a rapport between them and the academic advisors that we expect will bring long term benefits. The resulting model combines elements of both the prescriptive, e.g., formal training, informative talks on key topics, and developmental approaches, e.g., coffee mornings for students and faculty members. The evaluation of the project was carried out through questionnaires and focus groups. It highlighted very positive feedback from the students, who find these new lines of communication with the academic staff to be useful and productive.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050326
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 327: Quality Teaching: Finding the
           Factors That Foster Student Performance in Junior High School Classrooms

    • Authors: Vasiliki Polymeropoulou, Angeliki Lazaridou
      First page: 327
      Abstract: In this study, we examined the characteristics of secondary school teachers that are effective at promoting student performance. Using a multilevel analysis design, we examined teachers’ instruction using the effective factors in the Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness (D.M.E.E.). The research involved 21 teachers and 697 students. Written tests in Modern Greek were administered to the student sample at both the beginning and the end of the school year 2016–2017. An observer assessed teacher factors through three different instruments, and a student questionnaire was also used to evaluate teacher effectiveness. The data showed the effects that teachers in the sample had on the learning development of their students and highlighted effective teaching skills and weaknesses. Implications for practice to promote teacher effectiveness are drawn.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050327
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 328: Illustration of a Software-Aided
           Content Analysis Methodology Applied to Educational Research

    • Authors: Maria Gkevrou, Dimitrios Stamovlasis
      First page: 328
      Abstract: This paper presents a software-aided methodology for content analysis by implementing the Leximancer software package, which can convert plain texts into conceptual networks that show how the prevalent concepts are linked with each other. The generated concept maps are associative networks of meaning related to the topics elaborated in the analyzed documents and reflect the creators’ core mental representations. The applicability of Leximancer is demonstrated in an education research context, probing university students’ epistemological beliefs, where a qualitative semantic analysis could be applied by inspecting and interpreting the portrayed relationships among concepts. In addition, concept-map-generating matrices, ensuing from the previous step, are introduced to another specialized software, Gephi, and further network analysis is performed using quantitative measures of centrality, such as degree, betweenness and closeness. Besides illustrating the method of this semantic analysis of textual data and deliberating the advances of digital innovations, the paper discusses theoretical issues underpinning the network analysis, which are related to the complexity theory framework, while building bridges between qualitative and quantitative traditional approaches in educational research.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050328
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 329: Why Do Students Prefer Augmented
           Reality: A Mixed-Method Study on Preschool Teacher Students’
           Perceptions on Self-Assessment AR Quizzes in Science Education

    • Authors: Angelos Sofianidis
      First page: 329
      Abstract: Students’ perceptions on AR applications have gained researchers’ interest in the field of ICT-enhanced teaching and learning, especially in recent years. The current study investigates students’ perceptions concerning their learning and immersive experiences gained using AR quizzes with formative self-assessment purposes in a science education university course during one semester. The research followed the mixed-method approach, and the data were collected sequentially by questionnaires and focus group discussions. A descriptive statistical analysis and a thematic analysis were conducted, respectively. Fifty-one (51) students participated in the quantitative data collection procedure and ten (10) of them participated in the focus groups. The results indicate that students are in favor of AR quizzes which justify their stance based on the learning gains and the immersive experiences. AR was underlined to play a significant role by creating an engaging environment of immersion. The findings support the positive stances of students over the combination of AR and formative self-assessment and highlight the role of immersion supported by AR technologies. Additionally, based on the relatively long period of application, the findings create doubts concerning the influence of the novelty effect on students’ positive stances toward AR.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050329
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 330: Variations among Next Generation
           Science Standards and Other NRC Framework-Based Science Standards:
           Differences in Layout, Typography, and What Teachers Notice

    • Authors: Eugene Judson
      First page: 330
      Abstract: Science standards across 44 states in the United States are often assumed to be equivalent because they are all based on the National Research Council’s (NRC) Framework for K-12 Science Education. Twenty of those states adopted the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which is based on the NRC Framework, and the 24 other states developed their own NRC Framework-based science standards. In this article, two related studies are described that focused on assessing this homogeneity assumption. In the first study, a comparative document analysis categorized the variety of ways performance expectations are presented. Analysis also focused on relative placement of information related to performance expectations and components of three-dimensional learning. To assess how variations affect teacher noticing, in the second study nearly 300 elementary school teachers viewed, in random order, seemingly similar fourth-grade standards from three states. Comparisons focused on teachers’ noticing of student objectives, elements that stood out, and teachers’ rationales regarding their noticing. Though both studies underscored that all NRC Framework-based science standards do integrate NRC Framework tenets, findings counter the assumption that NRC Framework-based science standards are necessarily equivalent to each other or to NGSS.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050330
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 331: Global Trends in the Research on
           Early Childhood Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Bibliometric

    • Authors: Jiahong Su, Davy Tsz Kit Ng, Weipeng Yang, Hui Li
      First page: 331
      Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, schools and preschools worldwide have been suspended, causing many challenges for students, parents, and teachers. Through home-schooling, preschool children struggle to accept new (online) learning modes. Teachers need to acquire digital skills quickly to deliver online teaching, while parents need to take on the role of a tutor at home to facilitate their children’s learning. This study aims to gauge the global trends in the research on early childhood education (ECE) during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly considering the need for a swift response to the impact of the pandemic. We employed the bibliometric approach to studying ECE studies during the pandemic by identifying the countries of most-cited publications, most-cited categories of studies, and research methodologies used in the eligible studies (N = 507). Analysis reveals that technology integration in ECE has grown fast to timely facilitate online teaching and resolve varied challenges such as parental stress, a lack of resources, and the quality of education in this field. Based on the bibliometric approach, we highlighted research focusing on key themes such as online learning and teaching, physical activity, stress and mental health, and families in early childhood. This study offers a global perspective on ECE research during the pandemic and provides researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with future directions.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050331
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 332: Validation of the Questionnaire on
           Reading Preferences and Habits of Primary School Pupils at Risk of Social

    • Authors: Ramos-Navas-Parejo, Cáceres-Reche, Marín-Marín, Victoria-Maldonado
      First page: 332
      Abstract: The acquisition of the habit of reading is a fundamental issue for primary school pupils, as it contributes to the integral education of the person and, in some cases, may be essential for pupils to remain in the educational system and to escape social exclusion. In order to carry out research on reading promotion in socially disadvantaged contexts, it is necessary to have an appropriate instrument for these profiles. The aim of this work was to adapt and validate a questionnaire on reading habits and preferences that is suitable for pupils in the first cycle of primary education who are at risk of social exclusion. To this end, a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodology was used to analyse the content validity and the construct validity, which obtained, as a result, a high correlation between the variables, an appropriate factor analysis, a high overall reliability of the instrument and, in general, an adequate model to correctly explain the data of the proposed structure. We concluded by obtaining a 22-item questionnaire that is divided into five factors and that will be appropriate for determining the reading habits and tastes of disadvantaged pupils, as well as the influence of families and schools in the task of encouraging reading.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050332
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 333: A Systematic Multiple Studies
           Review of Low-Income, First-Generation, and Underrepresented, STEM-Degree
           Support Programs: Emerging Evidence-Based Models and Recommendations

    • Authors: Jill Pearson, Lisa A. Giacumo, Arvin Farid, Mojtaba Sadegh
      First page: 333
      Abstract: The dramatic lack of diversity within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) higher-education graduates is a serious issue facing the future of the STEM workforce. Colleges and universities are attempting to fix this disparity through targeted intervention programs aimed at increasing the persistence and retention of low-income, first-generation, and underrepresented (UR) students in STEM. A comprehensive synthesis of adopted strategies and analysis of their effectiveness is lacking. We conducted a systematic multiple-studies review, considering 31 empirical articles published between 2005 and 2020 that shared the outcomes of intentional intervention programs in place across the United States. We uncovered essential characteristics of successful programs and highlighted the top 10 critical program components to consider. These can be used to guide the development and execution of future programs’ support systems and interventions. This is a relatively new area of research, with most programs just in the earliest stages of implementation. It is essential to continue to follow the data on the outcomes of these programs, particularly their longitudinal impacts on the diversification of the STEM workforce, to be able to implement effective evidence-based practices.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050333
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 334: Impact of COVID-19 on eLearning in
           the Earth Observation and Geomatics Sector at University Level

    • Authors: Clémence Dubois, Anastasiia Vynohradova, Anna Svet, Robert Eckardt, Martyna Stelmaszczuk-Górska, Christiane Schmullius
      First page: 334
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has a high impact on education at many different levels. In this study, the focus is set on the impact of digital teaching and learning at universities in the field of Earth observation during the COVID-19 pandemic situation. In particular, the use of different digital elements and interaction forms for specific course types is investigated, and their acceptance by both lecturers and students is evaluated. Based on two distinct student and lecturer surveys, the use of specific digital elements and interaction forms is suggested for the different course types, e.g., academic courses could be either performed asynchronously using screencast or synchronously using web meetings, whereas practical tutorials should be performed synchronously with active participation of the students facilitated via web meeting, in order to better assess the student’s progress and difficulties. Additionally, we discuss how further digital elements, such as quizzes, live pools, and chat functions, could be integrated in future hybrid educational designs, mixing face-to-face and online education in order to foster interaction and enhance the educational experience.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050334
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 335: Using Digital Tools to Teach Soft
           Skill-Oriented Subjects to University Students during the COVID-19

    • Authors: Alexandr Volkov, Yury Rishko, Yury Kostyukhin, Elena Sidorova, Diana Boboshko, Darya Savinova, Veronika Ershova
      First page: 335
      Abstract: Radical changes in education occurred in 2020 during the pandemic. The need to fully switch to a distance-learning mode required rethinking the approaches to the organization of the learning process. Despite the fact that Russian universities were already using digital learning tools quite extensively at the beginning of the pandemic—those were seen as auxiliary, supporting tools. Within a short period, online learning made it necessary to design educational programs from a digital-technologies viewpoint, as traditional teaching methods had lost some of their functionality in the distance-learning mode. First of all, the changes affected the disciplines focused on the formation of soft skills, such as communication skills, group interaction, and managing people. Another problem of digitalization of all aspects of our lives is the huge amount of readily available information. In this regard, developing the students’ systemic thinking and augmenting their ability to find and properly use information became an important alternative to acquisition of factual knowledge. This article summarizes the experience of the educational process at one of the leading Russian universities, National University of Science and Technology (NUST) “MISIS” during the COVID-19 pandemic based on the analysis of the degree of application of digital tools in online and hybrid learning. In this article, we present the description of methodology approaches to the use of digital tools for soft skill development, using the example of teaching specific disciplines “Systems Thinking and Theory of Constraints” and “Life Cycle of Corporations and Change Management” in the master’s program in Corporate Finance taught at NUST “MISIS”.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050335
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 336: Entrepreneurship Education: A
           Systematic Literature Review and Identification of an Existing Gap in the

    • Authors: Francisco Banha, Luís Serra Coelho, Adão Flores
      First page: 336
      Abstract: Having identified the need to conduct research on the intersection between entrepreneurship education (EE) and public policies, we carried out a systematic literature review on decision-making processes regarding the implementation of education for entrepreneurship programs in schools and the introduction of this topic in the policy-making process. This SLR followed every process inherent to its well-established protocol. The research undertaken confirmed that the understanding of decision processes associated with the implementation of EE programs is not only a “missing link” in the discussions about the way in which countries manage situations related to EE, but also a gap in academic knowledge. Indeed, the SLR process included only nine articles in the final review (obtained through a methodology based on an algorithm)—which is a clear sign that further scientific research around this specific topic is needed. The articles included in the final review suggest that: (i) entrepreneurship is fundamental to the progress and evolution of countries and their regions, (ii) there is evidence that EE is central to a more entrepreneurial youth, and (iii) the successful implementation of recommendations from regulatory institutions is based on political commitment and implementation capacities.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050336
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 337: How do Facilitating Conditions
           Influence Student-to-Student Interaction within an Online Learning
           Platform' A New Typology of the Serial Mediation Model

    • Authors: Tai Ming Wut, Stephanie Wing Lee, Jing (Bill) Xu
      First page: 337
      Abstract: This study investigates factors affecting university student-to-student interaction within online learning platforms. A new model was proposed based on the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The single-stage cluster-sampling method was employed, and 113 university students in Hong Kong were respondents. It was found that Information Quality, Social Influence, and Facilitating Conditions affect students’ intention to interact with each other. A quasi-full mediation model was established of the mechanism from Facilitating Conditions to students’ interaction behavior. The direct effect of Facilitating Conditions on students’ interaction and the effect of System Quality on the intention of student interaction were not significant. A fast network, computing facilities, and mobile-friendly software are possible candidates of the virtual environment conditions affecting the intention of student-interaction behavior within online learning platforms.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050337
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 338: An Experimental Study on the
           Effectiveness of Students’ Learning in Scientific Courses through
           Constructive Alignment—A Case Study from an MIS Course

    • Authors: Hongfeng Zhang, Shaodan Su, Yumeng Zeng, Johnny F. I. Lam
      First page: 338
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore students’ effectiveness in scientific courses that have adopted the framework of constructive alignment. The researchers conducted an experimental study in the education sector to compare two different teaching models—traditional and following constructive alignment—and used statistical tools to analyse differences in students’ learning effectiveness. The course “Management Information System” (MIS) was specifically chosen to investigate how constructive alignment initiatives used in the course influenced students’ learning effectiveness. Two groups of students were selected as the control group and the experimental group, respectively. In the experimental group, the intended learning outcomes, teaching and learning activities, and assessment tasks were always aligned by the instructor. The learning effectiveness of the two groups was evaluated by the Course Experience Questionnaire Survey and academic grades. After this study, it was found that significant improvement—in terms of students’ learning experience scores and academic grades—was seen in the experimental group compared with the control group. This study has further verified that implementing a constructive alignment template can significantly improve students’ learning effectiveness in scientific courses, hence providing theoretical and practical references for teaching and learning in scientific courses.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050338
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 339: Mongolian Pre-Service English
           Teachers’ Voices about Their Teaching Practicum Experiences

    • Authors: Daariimaa Marav
      First page: 339
      Abstract: Despite the growing uptake of the English language by Mongolian youth and policy initiatives at the governmental level that have emphasized English education, there is very limited internationally available discussion and research on English language teacher education in Mongolia. Thus, the paper aims to examine teaching practicum experiences of pre-service English teachers in Mongolian secondary school settings and explore what challenges they face. Eleven pre-service English teachers, who completed their 12-week teaching practicum in secondary schools in Ulaanbaatar, participated in this study by writing personal narratives on their teaching practicum experiences. The findings indicate that the participants struggled in their teaching contexts due to the lack of mentoring by public school mentor teachers, insufficient university-school partnerships, and classroom-level constraints caused by the mismatch between what they had learned at university and the realities faced in school classrooms. It is recommended to develop a comprehensive teacher development program to improve the quality of both in-service and pre-service English teachers, and to reduce educational inequality associated with access to quality English language education. Furthermore, incorporating social justice education into English teacher preparation programs is important to help future teachers become more critical, reflexive, and transformative.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050339
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 340: Positive Creativity and the
           Intentions, Discretion, Problem Finding, and Divergent Thinking That
           Support It Can Be Encouraged in the Classroom

    • Authors: Mark A. Runco
      First page: 340
      Abstract: This article begins by presenting a definition of positive creativity. This definition is based in part on the standard view of creativity, which points to originality and effectiveness. A brief discussion of the distinction between benevolent creativity and malevolent creativity indicates that intentions should also be required of positive creativity. Intentions may seem like difficult things to monitor in the classroom, but several useful methods are described herein. The suggestions that are offered here to support positive creativity involve divergent thinking and decision making. The most novel claim in this article is that positive creativity may involve not just problem solving but also problem finding. A second important claim is that educators must be prepared to take the good with the bad. More specifically, when creativity is encouraged, students are likely to think in truly divergent directions, which means they may offer negative as well as positive ideas. Educators should be prepared for ideas that they themselves do not understand. Practical suggestions are offered, including the recommendation that educators should encourage careful decision-making about what constitutes a worthwhile problem (as well as how to solve such problems in a creative fashion). Quite a few instances of malevolence take the form of pseudo-problems. These must be recognized as such and attention must be directed instead to the significant problems that do plague society, such as the climate crisis, the protection of voting rights, and racial discrimination. Positive creativity is needed now more than ever before.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050340
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 341: Dependence of Socio-Emotional
           Competence Expression on Gender and Grade for K5–K12 Students

    • Authors: Tomas Butvilas, Remigijus Bubnys, Jordi Colomer, Dolors Cañabate
      First page: 341
      Abstract: Socio-emotional education is referred to as the missing part that links academic knowledge to successes in school, family, community, workplace, and life. Socio-emotional education, in conjunction with academic instruction, aims to lay the groundwork for a sound moral education. This manuscript is aimed at proving that socio-emotional education may improve children’s mental health. In total, 1322 students (of grades K5–K12) participated in this study back in October 2020. A statistically validated and partially modified questionnaire according to The Limbic Performance Indicators™ (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92, p < 0.000) was used to assess general education school students’ social–emotional competencies. The study uses an abbreviated version of the questionnaire adapted by the Lithuanian Association of Social Emotional Education, which has been adapted with the consent of the selected age group. As a result, this study explores how to determine general education school students’ knowledge and skills in socio-emotional education while also identifying the best pedagogical approaches to addressing socio-emotional education. According to research findings, students that participated in the study displayed more personal values, respect for others, internal balance, collaboration, emotional perception of others, or basic emotional needs. Personal values, respect for others, emotional perception of others, internal balance, support, and basic emotional needs were estimated to be greater in the target group of girls than in the target group of boys.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050341
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 342: The Silent Path towards Medical
           Apartheid within STEM Education: An Evolving National Pedagogy of Poverty
           through the Absenting of STEM-Based Play in Early Childhood

    • Authors: Tofel-Grehl, MacDonald, Searle
      First page: 342
      Abstract: STEM is notoriously uninviting to wide swaths of the population [1–4]. [...]
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050342
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 343: Work-Related Well-Being Profiles
           among Health Education Teachers

    • Authors: Satu Laitinen
      First page: 343
      Abstract: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the well-being of Finnish health education teachers (n = 108) by examining the latent profiles of work burnout and work engagement by using a person-centered approach. Additionally, this study explored to what extent different job and personal resources (social support, pedagogical self-efficacy, and social belonging) and job demands (work overload) are associated with teachers’ belonging to the work-related well-being profiles. The Job Demands-Resources model was used as the theoretical framework for this study. The study found that three different work-related well-being profiles could be identified among health education teachers: those who were engaged (45%), those who were already experiencing burnout (43%), and those at risk of burnout (12%). The more demands the teachers experienced, the likelier they were to belong to the burnout profile. Experiences of pedagogical self-efficacy, social belonging, and social support increased the probability of belonging to the engaged profile group. Determining job and personal resources and job demands might be beneficial for health education teacher well-being.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050343
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 344: Active Blended Learning
           Engineering Students: A Case Study

    • Authors: Valery Vodovozov, Zoja Raud, Eduard Petlenkov
      First page: 344
      Abstract: An ongoing technological, economic, and societal change forces a new understanding of engineering and modifies the requirements for higher engineering education. Consequently, an educational approach based on the combination of blended learning and active learning promises great prospects for the enhancement of the knowledge and skills acquisition thanks to the flexibility it opens up. In this research, an attitude to study is first ever analysed from the standpoint of students enrolled in three various degree levels, namely, a Bachelor of Science program, a Master of Science program, and a new EuroTeQ program. The strengths and weaknesses of the blended and active learning combination are evaluated from didactic and methodological sides. It shows a fundamentally different approach to learning from students belonging to various degree programs. Most of the bachelor degree learners volunteered to participate in active learning, although a significant proportion of them was unable to succeed. In contrast, the learning of master students looks more circumspect and selective; they devote less time to study, but spend it more wisely, being more highly responsible for the outcomes than bachelors. The EuroTeQ participants did not push on many active learning activities, but demonstrated quite high motivation in quizzes, labs, and online consultations. As a result, the outcomes of the first academic year satisfied mainly the most strong of the EuroTeQ students.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050344
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 345: Novel Mixed Reality Use Cases for
           Pilot Training

    • Authors: Harald Schaffernak, Birgit Moesl, Wolfgang Vorraber, Michael Holy, Eva-Maria Herzog, Robert Novak, Ioana Victoria Koglbauer
      First page: 345
      Abstract: This study explored novel mixed reality (MR) use cases for pilot training using a mix of methods rooted in the general innovation theory of dynamic capabilities. The aim was to identify areas of improvement for various aspects of the flight training based on MR, in a socially and economically sustainable manner. Multiple surveys and workshops have been conducted with flight instructors, administrative staff, pilots and student pilots. The main result of this study is a systematic identification of the three most promising MR use cases: interactive theory training, cockpit procedure, and outside check training. These results are important because they inform the development of technical didactic tools for pilot training. The applicability of MR technologies to accommodate diverse user needs and preferences is addressed, while also considering aspects of economical sustainability.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050345
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 346: Walking through Algebraic Thinking
           with Theme-Based (Mobile) Math Trails

    • Authors: Ana Barbosa, Isabel Vale, Simone Jablonski, Matthias Ludwig
      First page: 346
      Abstract: Tasks are a key resource in the process of teaching and learning mathematics, which is why task design continues to be one of the main research issues in mathematics education. Different settings can influence the principles underlying the formulation of tasks, and so does the outdoor context. Specifically, a math trail can be a privileged context, known to promote positive attitudes and additional engagement for the learning of mathematics, confronting students with a sequence of real-life tasks, related to a particular mathematical theme. Recently, mobile devices and apps, i.e., MathCityMap, have been recognized as an important resource to facilitate the extension of the classroom to the outdoors. The study reported in this paper intends to identify the principles of design for mobile theme-based math trails (TBT) that result in rich learning experiences in early algebraic thinking. A designed-based research is used, through a qualitative approach, to develop and refine design principles for TBT about Sequences and Patterns. The iterative approach is described by cycles with the intervention of the researchers, pre-service and in-service teachers and students of the targeted school levels. The results are discussed taking into account previous research and data collected along the cycles, conducing to the development of general design principles for TBT tasks.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050346
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 347: Impact of an Active Learning
           Methodology on Students’ Emotions and Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards
           the Learning of Chemical Reactions—The Case of Secondary Education

    • Authors: Maria Antonia Dávila-Acedo, Jesús Sánchez-Martín, Diego Airado-Rodríguez, Florentina Cañada-Cañada
      First page: 347
      Abstract: The main goal of this article was to analyse the impact of the implementation of an active methodology, namely inquiry-based learning, on the emotions experienced by students and their self-efficacy beliefs toward the curricular content in relation to chemical reactions. A sample of 56 students at the third level of compulsory secondary education (K-9) was considered. It was found that the use of an active methodology had on the one hand, a statistically significant effect on the promotion of positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions and on the other hand a positive effect on the improvement of students’ self-efficacy beliefs towards learning the curricular content related to chemical reactions. The implementation of practical activities in the classroom might lead to better learning of scientific content; at least, the results presented in the current article point in that direction.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050347
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 348: Mixed Methods in Analysis of
           Aggressiveness and Attractiveness: Understanding PE Class Social Networks
           with Content Analysis

    • Authors: Maria Litsa, Alexandra Bekiari
      First page: 348
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to detect and analyze the relationship between verbal aggressiveness and interpersonal attractiveness using four secondary-school PE classes in central Greece (88 nodes). Content analysis of open-ended questions, social network analysis, Spearman test and PCA have been implemented. Main results: scientific and social attractiveness are interrelated with a subsequent emergence of power structures and negatively related to verbal aggressiveness. Targets of verbal aggressiveness receive aggressiveness consisting of hurt, irony, rudeness and threat. The general grade and students’ tendency for distinction are positively related to attractiveness and negatively related to verbal aggressiveness. Types of targets of interpersonal attractiveness are proposed (“the untargeted powerful” and “the targeted powerful”).
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050348
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 349: Barriers and Facilitators to
           Toddlers’ Physical Activity during the COVID-19 Pandemic, as
           Perceived by Teachers, Principals and Parents: A Challenge for the Early
           Childhood Educational Environments

    • Authors: Herminia Vega-Perona, María del Mar Bernabé-Villodre, Yolanda Cabrera García-Ochoa, Vladimir E. Martínez-Bello
      First page: 349
      Abstract: The aim of our study was to explore the barriers and facilitators that teachers, principals, and parents face when adapting to COVID-19 pandemic scenario in terms of promoting toddlers’ physical activity (PA). Thirty-four (20 teachers and principals, and 14 parents) semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted from October 2020 to March 2021. The socioecological model has enabled the identification of barriers and facilitators, some of which are related to the pandemic and others which are not. The main results suggest that upon reopening the ECEC institutions, regarding environmental barriers, educators mentioned the impact on the use of space, and parents, the modification of daily activities generated by COVID-19. However, educators also considered that the presence of suitable spaces in the school for practicing PA was a facilitator. At the intra- and interpersonal level, facilitators of PA that were unrelated to the pandemic included, for parents, the predisposition of children to be physically active and their own function as role models, and for educators, the curricular practices themselves. At an environmental level, the risk of danger in the traditional classroom plus bad weather were considered barriers by educators, while parents mentioned difficulties accessing outdoor space and the poor suitability of indoor spaces. Our results suggest the simultaneous analysis of the perceptions of different actors in the educational environments offers a broad vision of the ecological alternatives for offering children opportunities for PA in these difficult times.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050349
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 350: Responsive Teaching and the
           Instructional Reasoning of Expert Elementary Mathematics Teachers

    • Authors: Denise Lindstrom, Sarah Selmer
      First page: 350
      Abstract: This study examines instructional reasoning in an approximation of practice that simulates a teacher sitting down after class to examine students’ written work. The participants were prompted to attend to, interpret, and decide how to respond to student thinkin g contained in a piece of written work. Our purpose was to capture the additional cognitive work that teachers engage in. Using qualitative content analysis, we identified the most frequent types of instructional reasoning used by expert teachers just prior to engaging in a responsive deciding action about how to respond. We used the results of our analysis to present three illustrative cases of responsive instructional reasoning.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050350
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 351: Self-Reported Flow in Online
           Learning Environments for Teacher Education: A Quasi-Experimental Study
           Using a Counterbalanced Design

    • Authors: Lionel Alvarez, Romaine Carrupt, Catherine Audrin, Philippe Gay
      First page: 351
      Abstract: Digitization in teacher education is currently being promoted, but the choice between face-to-face instruction and online learning environments remains challenging. Previous studies have documented ambivalent results regarding personal preference and academic achievement, and experimental investigations into attention comparing learning in these two settings are largely lacking. In this context, the present study adopts a counterbalanced design to compare different dimensions of student experience of flow in face-to-face settings and online learning environments. Two groups of students in teacher-training programs (n = 37) completed an EduFlow questionnaire at the end of the same interactive courses in the two different settings. The results indicate globally lower attention and engagement in the online environment, suggesting that in-person instruction induces better cognitive absorption, greater time transformation, and a stronger autotelic experience. While the findings represent a contribution to the discussion on how to best design online education, more research is needed to identify the specific mechanisms regarding attention and motivation that can impact flow in these two environments.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050351
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 352: Play, Problem-Solving, STEM
           Conceptions, and Efficacy in STEM: An Introduction to the STEM in Early
           Childhood Education Special Issue

    • Authors: Beth L. MacDonald, Colby Tofel-Grehl, Kristin A. Searle
      First page: 352
      Abstract: This Special Issue of Education Sciences focuses on STEM in Early Childhood Education [...]
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050352
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 353: A Theory-Led Evaluation of a
           Scalable Intervention to Promote Evidence-Based, Research-Informed
           Practice in Schools to Address Attainment Gaps

    • Authors: Riikka Hofmann, Sonia Ilie
      First page: 353
      Abstract: Evidence-based practice is a salient solution that has been presented to address the persistent educational attainment gap linked to economic disadvantage. However, most schools do not engage with research, and we know little about facilitating school-led research use at scale. Linking different approaches to studying educational effectiveness, equity and change, and drawing on cultural-historical activity theory, this study develops intermediate theory about the mechanisms influencing institutions’ success in using research. In the context of the Opportunity Area Programme, supporting place-based interventions in the UK’s most socio-economically disadvantaged regions, we conducted a theory-led evaluation of the Evidence-Based Practice Fund (EBPF), aimed at supporting school-led research engagement to improve learning outcomes. We analysed the documentation of 83 EBPF projects, 8 focus groups, and a school survey. We demonstrate that enabling schools to address locally identified needs motivates research engagement but formulating these as stimulus for change requires scaffolding. Schools were keen but needed re-translation to use research to address those challenges. Low-key school-to-school support was found adequate. Leadership support and collaboration were significant but require relational expertise and professional learning to be effective. This study demonstrates that the use of research by schools at scale is possible and can transform a school’s agency in developing their own practice to improve equity.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050353
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 354: Equity, Justice, and Quality
           during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period: Considerations on Learning and
           Scholarly Performance in Brazilian Schools

    • Authors: Ana Dias, Annibal Scavarda, Augusto Reis, Haydee Silveira, Ana Scavarda
      First page: 354
      Abstract: Due to the imperative need for change in habits caused by the COVID-19 pandemic that has plagued the world, this exploratory study plans to analyze the directions taken in teaching activities in public and private schools of the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and their consequences for learning and scholarly performance concerning elementary and middle schools. In this way, this study verifies through an email questionnaire if there was equality, justice, and quality in teaching methods during the COVID-19 pandemic. The descriptive analysis was carried out based on statistical calculations of quantitative and qualitative variables with various tests, whenever necessary, such as the chi-square, and when inconclusive, Fischer’s exact test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk, non-parametric Mann–Whitney (when the comparison between two independent groups was mandatory), ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Friedman test. The results show that teachers tried to interact with students to overcome the problems faced during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Additionally, the study showed that there were differences in scholarly and learning performance, equality, and quality in the types of schools analyzed. This paper will help to fill the literature gap on the subject and will boost ongoing discussion on the inclusion of sustainable concepts in education.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050354
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 355: Bridging Theory and Practice Using
           Facebook: A Case Study

    • Authors: Eduardo Bastida-Escamilla, Milton Carlos Elias-Espinosa, Froylan Franco-Herrera, Mario Covarrubias-Rodríguez
      First page: 355
      Abstract: In the past few years, Facebook has been increasingly studied for academic purposes due to its potential benefits to undergraduate education. Problems commonly found in university education include the lack of course engagement and the gap between theory and practice. This research contributes to the literature by investigating the impact of incorporating a non-mandatory Facebook group on learning outcomes. The analysis was done using a Taguchi method design, conducted with three two-level controlled factors (term, Facebook, and teacher). Results indicated that the students who participated in Facebook groups were more engaged with the course and applied theoretical knowledge to real-life problems better than students who learned under traditional instructional designs. Moreover, the use of Facebook groups led to better evaluation of teachers by the students. Furthermore, the student academic impact (knowledge and competence) was higher even though this complementary activity was not included in the course grade. We concluded that Facebook groups are excellent support tools that boost student engagement and their understanding of theoretical concepts and applying them in practice.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12050355
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 256: Determining the Learning Profile
           of Engineering Projects Students from Their Characteristic Motivational

    • Authors: Manuel Botejara-Antúnez, Gonzalo Sánchez-Barroso, Jaime González-Domínguez, Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo
      First page: 256
      Abstract: Engineering courses usually have a low success rate, and students that take them often consider them difficult and show little motivation towards them. In this context, it is essential to obtain information about the profile of the students so that the teaching can be adapted to their perceived needs and motivations as well to provide support to them. This descriptive-exploratory research study was carried out to determine the learning profile of engineering project students through their motivational profile based on five grouping variables (gender, type of high school of origin, access studies, specialty, repeater). The instrument used was a consolidated motivational assessment questionnaire consisting of items in a series of seven basic scales aligned and grouped together into three motivational dimensions (MAPE-3). As a result, a student profile was observed that was dominated by the dimension of motivation towards the task and characterized by a mixed reflective-practical learning profile based on analytical and predominantly practical individuals.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040256
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 257: Exploring How a University
           Mathematics Teacher’s Digital Relational Competence Can Be
           Manifested: A Micro-Analytical Study

    • Authors: Cecilia Segerby
      First page: 257
      Abstract: In recent years, daily practice at universities all over the world has involved online teaching due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Teaching online requires knowledge of new ways to engage with the students, but limited research concerning pedagogical aspects of online formats has been conducted to examine this further. Research shows that the teacher–student relationship is a critical factor in a student’s development and learning in both traditional and online teaching. Limited research has examined teacher–student relationships in online teaching at universities further. In the present pilot study, a university mathematics teacher’s digital relational competence is examined and visualized by using Halliday’s Systematic Function Linguistics to explore what is said, the verbal language, and Burgoon and Hobbler’s framework to visualize how it is said, i.e., the nonverbal language. Data were collected in autumn 2020 and involved a seminar with ten pre-service special educators in mathematics in Sweden; approximately 3 h of video-recorded material was collected. The result shows that the teacher’s verbal language, such as the choice of questions, personal pronouns, and being personal, but also her nonverbal language, involving gestures, facial expressions, and paralanguage, are essential when building supportive teacher–student relationships in mathematics.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040257
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 258: Supporting the Development of
           Pre-Service Primary Teachers PCK and CK through a STEM Program

    • Authors: Marisa Correia, Mónica Baptista
      First page: 258
      Abstract: STEM (Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics) education has received great attention in recent years not only for promoting interest and learning in these areas but also for encouraging children and young people to pursue careers in them. This research explored the effects of a STEM program in developing the primary pre-service teachers’ Content Knowledge (CK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) about sound. A qualitative and interpretative study analyzed the impact of a STEM program on the CK and PCK of 18 pre-service primary teachers that were attending a master’s degree program in a Portuguese higher education institution. The data was collected from their lesson plans, field notes, a focus group interview, and participants assignments throughout the STEM activities carried out. Findings revealed several scientific misconceptions and weaknesses in the participants’ PCK. Nevertheless, there was a clear positive impact on pre-service teachers’ CK and PCK, specifically regarding the principles underlying STEM integration that was proposed in the conceptual framework.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040258
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 259: Connecting Higher Education to the
           Labour Market: The Experience of Service Learning in a Portuguese

    • Authors: Sofia Castanheira Pais, Teresa Silva Dias, Deyse Benício
      First page: 259
      Abstract: The mission of higher education institutions (HEI) includes fostering conditions that enable student participation, and a commitment to their professional success. Pedagogical strategies which combine learning that goes beyond the university and involves a service-learning (SL) course carried out in the context of a pedagogical innovation programme of the University of Porto were examined. This examination included interviews with teachers, a focus group discussion with students and the analysis of logbooks and final reports to realize the potential of SL for improving employability. The results put into perspective the weaknesses and potentialities of SL courses at HEI and show that when academic learning is integrated with community experience, students gain both personal/social and academic skills. They also develop leadership and communication skills and critical awareness on the one hand and time and resources management and the ability to adapt and respond to challenges of the real world on the other, all seen as beneficial for the transition into the labour market.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040259
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 260: Participatory Research and the
           Ethics of Anonymisation

    • Authors: Thomas Godfrey-Faussett
      First page: 260
      Abstract: Research in the UK is increasingly regulated by ethics review committees (RECs) which require researchers to seek ethics approval before commencing research. These RECs routinely expect researchers to anonymise data as part of standard ethical research practice. However, the anonymisation of data may sit in tension with participatory approaches to research which prioritise shared ownership of the research. In particular, the need to make decisions relating to ethics prior to the start of research makes it difficult for researchers to meaningfully share decision-making power with their participants—a fundamental principle of participatory approaches. This paper uses a participatory research study as a case study to explore this tension. In the study, the decision to anonymise data was made as part of the ethics approval process. However, over the course of the study, the researcher questioned whether this was the correct decision for this study. In order to afford researchers the flexibility required to involve participants in decision making, this paper argues for a dialogic and situational approach to ethics regulation. Allowing researchers to delay key decisions would mean that researchers could involve participants in the decision-making process rather than purely informing them of the results of decisions made on their behalf.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040260
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 261: COVID-19 Pandemic: The Impact of
           the Social Media Technology on Higher Education

    • Authors: Christos Papademetriou, Sofia Anastasiadou, George Konteos, Stylianos Papalexandris
      First page: 261
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic led universities to transform the traditional teaching methodologies into distance education. Therefore, social media has become progressively prominent as teaching and learning resources in universities. Several studies have been conducted for the development of social media as a learning tool. However, there is limited empirical evidence supporting this claim. The present study bridges the gap in the literature concerning the value of the use of social media in higher education. This research seeks to examine the impact of the use of social media in (a) enhancing teaching and learning in universities, (b) motivating and supporting students and (c) developing community connection. A qualitative methodology was adopted. Specifically, in-depth interviews were conducted to assess the effectiveness of social media on students learning in higher education. The results showed that the use of social media by higher educational institutions positively impacts the educational process by (a) promoting teaching and learning, (b) motivating students to be active participants, and (c) establishing connections in the university community. Some obstacles in the teaching and learning process were also identified. Future areas of research are proposed.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040261
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 262: An Examination of Practice-Based
           Virtual Simulations and Pre-Service Mathematics Teaching Efficacy and
           Outcome Expectancy

    • Authors: Trina J. Davis, Zahira Merchant, Oi-Man Kwok
      First page: 262
      Abstract: Authentic practice in pedagogical approaches is essential for preparing teachers to design effective learning experiences that foster student engagement during this digital era. There is an opportunity to explore novel and effective designs of virtual experiences that may augment or better prepare preservice teachers for field placements in physical classrooms. We proffer that virtual classroom simulations can and should be further explored and leveraged, now more than ever. In this paper, we examined a model of the impact of perceptual variables on instructional effectiveness that can enhance teaching efficacy and outcome expectancy when preservice teachers engage in practice teaching experiences in a virtual classroom simulation. The relationships between perceptual variables (presence, instructional time, and engagement) and teaching efficacy and outcome expectancy, as they relate to instructional effectiveness, were analyzed using the structural equation modeling approach. The results supported all of the hypothesized relationships. For example, presence and instructional time strongly and positively influenced engagement. Engagement was strongly related to instructional effectiveness. Instructional effectiveness was strongly and positively related to teaching self-efficacy, as well as outcome expectancy. The results support that virtual world classroom simulations can be an effective space for practice teaching for prospective mathematics teachers. Furthermore, this study provides insights for teacher educators, developers, and instructional designers interested in designing and utilizing practice-based simulations.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040262
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 263: Young Children’s Ideas about
           Heat Transfer Phenomena

    • Authors: Angelika Pahl, Hans U. Fuchs, Federico Corni
      First page: 263
      Abstract: In this article, we present kindergarten children’s ideas about thermal phenomena before any educational intervention took place. In order to capture and account for the heterogeneity of the kindergarten group in this study, first teachers observed children’s exploration behavior, task orientation, science interest, and language comprehension in everyday kindergarten life using a structured observation form. Then, 24 children aged between 3.8 and 6.0 years were interviewed individually about three situations focusing upon water temperature and its changes. The results show that interest in science and language comprehension are significantly related to children’s understanding of thermal phenomena, while task orientation and exploratory behavior are not. In general, the kindergarten children did not yet use the word “heat” in their descriptions and explanations but were more or less able to describe the water temperature and its changes in a differentiated way.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040263
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 264: Responsible Reading:
           Children’s Literature and Social Justice

    • Authors: Alyson Simpson, Teresa Mary Cremin
      First page: 264
      Abstract: In high accountability cultures, primary phase literacy education tends to focus on improving children’s test scores. Driven by each country’s performance in international league tables, this results in narrow, predominantly skills-based programmes designed to address attainment gaps. While scores may have been enhanced in recent years, there is little evidence that policy directives have positioned literacy in the lives of learners in ways that have become meaningful for them or been transferred into ways of thinking that promote social equity. Indeed, teaching practices that exacerbate the challenges for those young people who are already disadvantaged by circumstance have become more prevalent. Teachers, therefore, have an ethical responsibility to redress this through their teaching. This paper argues that literature is core to more equitable literacy development. As not all reading practices are equal, developing literacy education for a more socially just society needs to challenge the dominant pedagogic hegemony. Literature has the potential to spark the kind of mindful disruption necessary to shift standardised paradigms of thought, so literacy education should have children’s literature at its heart. By examining the value of literature through a set of complementary lenses, this paper seeks to reveal its affordances in young people’s lives. Then, through commentary taken from a pair of vignettes drawn from professional learning contexts, we illuminate shifts in teacher perception gained through scaffolded introduction to reading literary texts. The insights teachers gained reveal reconceptualisation of reading and the role of literature in primary education. This has the potential to redirect their future classroom practice. Consequently, we propose that for teachers to be adept at improving literacy outcomes through productive adoption and use of literary texts, they need: an aesthetic appreciation and knowledge of children’s literature; personal experience with reading such literature as social practice; and pedagogic insight into how to use literature to teach literacy and develop volitional readers. We call this knowledge set the additive trio, noting that no ‘step’ or understanding is sufficient on its own, and that together they can enable the development of Reading Teachers who work with literature to advance the social justice agenda.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040264
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 265: Transversal Competences and

    • Authors: Miguel A. Santos Rego, Daniel Sáez-Gambín, José Luis González-Geraldo, David García-Romero
      First page: 265
      Abstract: We are living in times of great transformations within the field of education and the labor market. These changes are connected and have to do with an expanded knowledge society, whose implications reach the levels of employability in times of uncertainty. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study is to perform a theoretical analysis and an empirical approach to the influence that transversal competences (soft skills) may have on the degree of employability of university students. We have identified some of those competences and we have tested them with a sample of 83 employers and 1249 students using a Likert scale. Our results show the interest of employers in the mastery of transversal competences and inequalities in terms of students’ perception thereof. We did not find any significant differences between students starting their degree and those who were about to complete it. However, we did find differences between the students who participated in experiential activities and those who did not, in favor of the former. Due to the importance of experiential learning in our results, we dedicate our discussion to theoretically exploring whether the pedagogical approach of Service-Learning (SL) might contribute to a better connection between transversal competences and employability.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040265
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 266: Assessing Students’
           Mathematical Knowledge with Fuzzy Logic

    • Authors: Daniel Doz, Darjo Felda, Mara Cotič
      First page: 266
      Abstract: Assessing student mathematical knowledge is an important factor in the mathematics learning process because students obtain important feedback to improve their knowledge and learning. Despite the importance of student assessment, several researchers have shown that student grades comprise noncognitive and metacognitive factors and teachers’ prejudices and beliefs. One method to obtain a more objective view of student mathematical knowledge is through standardized assessments. In this paper, we analyze two methods of assessing student mathematical knowledge by considering their written and oral grades and achievements on the Italian National Assessment of Knowledge (INVALSI). The final grade was produced using the fuzzy logic inference system. It was tested on a sample of 2279 Grade 13 Italian high school students, who had both an oral and written grade in mathematics and who took the INVALSI assessment in the school year 2020–2021. Both tested fuzzy-logic-based assessment methods lowered the mean grades.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040266
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 267: Competency-Based Education as
           Curriculum and Assessment for Integrative Learning

    • Authors: Kayla M. Marcotte, Larry D. Gruppen
      First page: 267
      Abstract: Integrative learning and competency-based education are both evolving as major themes in education. Integrative learning emphasizes that knowledge from different domains and contexts are brought together to enhance the learner’s experience. The emphasis on integrated learning has sparked the development of integrative curriculum, which methodically brings knowledge and skills together in ways that reinforce learning. Competency-based medical education (CBME) is an educational method that assumes integrative learning by relying on defined competencies for learners to master during their education. CBME is an illustration of both integrated learning and integrated curricula. In CBME, learners progress through their program by demonstrating acquisition of competencies, which are often integrative statements in themselves. In integrative learning, the question of how to assess a learner’s progress through their program remains a challenge. Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) are one tool utilized to assess learning in CBME. EPAs are defined, observable tasks that learners should be able to demonstrate upon entering their profession. Understanding EPAs and how they are used in CBME may provide a framework for assessing integrative learning in diverse educational contexts.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040267
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 268: Twice-Exceptional Children and
           Their Challenges in Dealing with Normality

    • Authors: Roya Klingner
      First page: 268
      Abstract: This article defines the term twice-exceptional as being gifted (highly able) and having challenges with learning or physical disabilities. The focus is on understanding these children, who are brilliant in one way but at the same time in some situations are at risk. The biggest challenges they face are misunderstanding and misdiagnosis. This article will assist those involved in the life and education of twice-exceptional children to help light the way towards better understanding them, focusing on their strengths and supporting them individually to change their life in an optimal direction. One million of our nation’s most promising, innovative thinkers—children who learn differently, not “deficiently”—constitute a neglected national resource.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040268
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 269: Assisted Discovery Based Learning
           of the Electric Force with Scaffolding for Novice Students

    • Authors: Osvaldo Aquines Gutiérrez, Ross K. Galloway, Ayax Santos, Humberto Martínez-Huerta, Héctor González
      First page: 269
      Abstract: Despite being one of the pillars of physics and a well-known subject, the electric force is sometimes not immediately evident to students. Discovery-based learning has proven to be very effective in science education; nevertheless, it can become stressful for students if they don’t have the necessary scaffolding and training to construct knowledge by themselves. In this work, examples of obstacles to students were the absence of the necessary background knowledge, distractions in multimedia environments, and that some students prefer regular instruction in order not to be left alone in the face of active learning dynamics. Therefore, we designed and implemented an assisted active learning sequence that includes moderated intervention from two different lecturers on an Electricity and Magnetism course at a private university in Mexico to compare the normalized learning changes with a standard directed lecture. The primary objective of the active learning sequence was to introduce students to the discovery of the electric force via a simulated experiment using a web-based physics simulation, Newtondreams. By comparing normalized learning changes between four groups, two control, and two experimental groups, we show that students in the experimental groups performed significantly better than the control groups (⟨c⟩ = 0.469 and 0.435 for the experimental groups, and ⟨c⟩ = 0.08 and 0.077 for the control groups). We performed a Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test to examine the normalized gains between the groups. Observed p-values show that there is significant difference between experimental and control groups: CG1 vs. EG1 (p = 0.00109), CG2 vs. EG2 (p = 0.00079). On the contrary there are no observed significance on the effect of the instructor CG1 vs. CG2 (p = 1), EG1 vs. EG2 (p = 1). Then, that active learning is more effective than regular instruction. Studying the concentration factors we also found that active learning develop better comprehension that regular instruction lecture. At the end of the experiments, we performed student interviews that also showed they felt less stressed and more involved when using the assisted active learning sequence, making the learning experience more amenable when the instructor changes their role from presenter to a guide.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040269
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 270: Effects of Japanese Special Moras
           Education Using Evernote

    • Authors: Hyun-jin Lee, Min-seok Kang, Hee-ju Kwon
      First page: 270
      Abstract: In this study, we designed a class model using the Evernote application for the pronunciation learning of special moras, and applied it to a class to verify the learner’s recognition of special moras and the effectiveness of pronunciation duration. This study consisted of 30 students who took an intermediate Japanese language class, which started in the first semester of 2019, and Japanese literature majors who had not yet been in Japan for more than 6 months. We conducted special mora pre- and post-tests and surveyed them. Positive results were obtained based on the research question of whether the application affects the self-awareness of special moras, which represented a significant academic achievement in terms of pronunciation duration. In addition, it was observed that learning using Evernote enabled a significant change in lecture satisfaction through one-to-one feedback work with learners. Although the research results were limited by the small size of the group, it was possible to suggest a method of special moras learning using Evernote, and it is believed that it will help in-class learning in the future.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040270
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 271: A Schema-Based Instructional
           Design Model for Self-Paced Learning Environments

    • Authors: Eulho Jung, Rachel Lim, Dongho Kim
      First page: 271
      Abstract: Although research on schema has been widely investigated for the past decades, little research has addressed the development of a systematic instructional design theory using schema principles and processes. This study proposes a systematic schema-based instructional design model, including general and schema analysis, schema-based design, and development processes and techniques for evaluating a learner’s acquired schema. By synthesizing empirical studies, this study comprehensively reviews literature on schema and foundational principles for learning. The goal of the study is to enrich the knowledge base of schema-based instructional design for different learning environments. Thus, the study is concluded by a discussion on how to utilize a schema-based instructional design for self-paced learning environments with additional implications and further recommendations.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040271
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 272: Preservice Teachers’ Online
           Self-Regulated Learning: Does Digital Readiness Matter'

    • Authors: Katharina Fuchs, Lisa Pösse, Svenja Bedenlier, Michaela Gläser-Zikuda, Rudolf Kammerl, Bärbel Kopp, Albert Ziegler, Marion Händel
      First page: 272
      Abstract: (1) Background: Teaching in today’s schools asks teachers to foster self-regulated learning and digital competences in children and young people. In order to do so, teachers first need to acquire and use these competences themselves. (2) Methods: Based on a mixed-methods approach, the study investigates self-regulated learning in online courses of N = 129 preservice teachers at a German university. (3) Results and conclusions: Perceiving their digital readiness as generally high, preservice teachers appear to not overly self-regulate their learning in the online environment. Finally, preservice teachers’ digital readiness was related only weakly to their online self-regulated learning. A discussion is offered which shows teacher education as a broader phenomenon and implies the need for professional development for teacher educators. Additionally, it is argued to link research on self-regulated learning more closely to research on online learning environments in teacher education.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040272
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 273: Embedding a Coaching Culture into
           Programmatic Assessment

    • Authors: Svetlana Michelle King, Lambert W. T. Schuwirth, Johanna H. Jordaan
      First page: 273
      Abstract: Educational change in higher education is challenging and complex, requiring engagement with a multitude of perspectives and contextual factors. In this paper, we present a case study based on our experiences of enacting a fundamental educational change in a medical program; namely, the steps taken in the transition to programmatic assessment. Specifically, we reflect on the successes and failures in embedding a coaching culture into programmatic assessment. To do this, we refer to the principles of programmatic assessment as they apply to this case and conclude with some key lessons that we have learnt from engaging in this change process. Fostering a culture of programmatic assessment that supports learners to thrive through coaching has required compromise and adaptability, particularly in light of the changes to teaching and learning necessitated by the global pandemic. We continue to inculcate this culture and enact the principles of programmatic assessment with a focus on continuous quality improvement.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040273
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 274: A Novel, Modular Robot for
           Educational Robotics Developed Using Action Research Evaluated on
           Technology Acceptance Model

    • Authors: Avraam Chatzopoulos, Michail Kalogiannakis, Stamatis Papadakis, Michail Papoutsidakis
      First page: 274
      Abstract: This research evaluates a novel, modular, open-source, and low-cost educational robotic platform in Educational Robotics and STEM Education. It is the sequel of an action research cycle on which the development of this robot is based. The impetus for the need to develop this came from the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative research data collected during an educational robotics event with significant participation of students in Athens, which showed an intense interest in students in participating in educational robotics activities, but—at the same time—recorded their low involvement due to the high cost of educational robots and robotic platforms. Based on the research’s findings, this robot was designed to suit the whole educational community; its specifications came from its members’ needs and the processing and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data. This paper presents an evaluation of the robot using the Technology Acceptance Model. The robot was exposed to 116 undergraduate students attending a pedagogical university department to evaluate its handling according to the model’s factors. Research results were promising and showed a high degree of acceptance of the robot by these students and future teachers, providing the impetus for further research.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040274
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 275: Educational Gardens and Climate
           Change Education: An Analysis of Spanish Preservice Teachers’

    • Authors: Diego Corrochano, Enzo Ferrari, María Antonia López-Luengo, Vanessa Ortega-Quevedo
      First page: 275
      Abstract: Educational gardens are powerful outdoor learning environments to address the subject of climate change and foster climate action. Using an online questionnaire, this study examines the influence of the main sociodemographic and academic factors, and the role of connectedness to nature, on the perception of educational gardens as contexts of climate change education (CCE) among Spanish preservice teachers (PSTs). The sample consisted of 889 PSTs enrolled in 9 university campuses of Spain. The statistical analyses performed evidenced that women are more likely to use educational gardens than men and that there is a progressive decrease in the positive perception of PSTs about the usefulness of gardens for CCE as the educational level at which they are being trained increases. Statistics also revealed that the variable connectedness to nature and the rating of the importance of educational gardens in CCE are not significantly related. Nevertheless, the Mann–Whitney U test indicated that PSTs who scored higher on connection to nature wished to broaden their knowledge of sustainable agriculture and, thus, connectedness to nature could be considered a predictor of environmental attitudes, each influencing the other. Based on these findings, recommendations for PSTs’ training in the CCE context are provided.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040275
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 276: Models as Epistemic Artifacts for
           Scientific Reasoning in Science Education Research

    • Authors: Marvin Rost, Tarja Knuuttila
      First page: 276
      Abstract: Models are at the core of scientific reasoning and science education. They are especially crucial in scientific and educational contexts where the primary objects of study are unobservables. While empirical science education researchers apply philosophical arguments in their discussions of models and modeling, we in turn look at exemplary empirical studies through the lense of philosophy of science. The studied cases tend to identify modeling with representation, while simultaneously approaching models as tools. We argue that such a dual approach is inconsistent, and suggest considering models as epistemic artifacts instead. The artifactual approach offers many epistemic benefits. The access to unobservable target systems becomes less mysterious when models are not approached as more or less accurate representations, but rather as tools constructed to answer theoretical and empirical questions. Such a question-oriented approach contributes to a more consistent theoretical understanding of modeling and interpretation of the results of empirical research.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040276
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 277: Employability within an Education
           for Sustainability Framework: The Ocean i3 Case Study

    • Authors: Olatz Zinkunegi-Goitia, Itziar Rekalde-Rodríguez
      First page: 277
      Abstract: The Council of the European Union recalls that higher education plays a fundamental role in shaping the future of Europe. Therefore, curricula are required to take into account the competences demanded by the job market so that future workers can effectively undertake their professional activities and form part of an active, responsible, ecological, sustainable, and resilient society. Ocean i3 is a cross-border project with the aim of achieving sustainability in the oceans by training students to become environmentally concerned and responsible professionals. This study explores the perception of students and teachers regarding their participation in Ocean i3 and their understanding of employability. A qualitative methodological approach has been used, based on a case study in which semi-structured interviews have been carried out and the Elevator Pitch presentation technique has been applied. Nine students and four teachers from the University of the Basque Country and the University of Bordeaux have been interviewed. The results highlight the importance of the participants’ first contact with the project, the need to be explicit regarding competences that favour employability during the development of the experience, and the need to increase and reinforce internships at social entities located in the territory. It is concluded that the project should focus more explicitly on the concept of employability to raise students’ awareness of the impact that their current participation in Ocean i3 can have on their professional future and insertion in the workplace.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040277
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 278: An Analysis of Student Anxiety
           Affecting on Online Learning on Conceptual Applications in Physics:
           Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Learning

    • Authors: Parinda Phanphech, Tanes Tanitteerapan, Narong Mungkung, Somchai Arunrungrusmi, Charathip Chunkul, Apidat Songruk, Toshifumi Yuji, Hiroyuki Kinoshita
      First page: 278
      Abstract: This study examines the impact of students’ anxiety, due to online learning, in different learning environments: a synchronous (Zoom) and asynchronous learning environment (YouTube) to compare students’ conceptual understanding of electric circuits. Multiple linear regression and factor analyses were conducted to examine the factor of students’ anxiety and conceptual understanding. A sample of 99 vocational students participated in the study, including YouTube (n = 49) and Zoom (n = 50) groups. The DIRECT was used to diagnose test for conceptual understanding in the electric circuits, and OTAI was used to assess anxiety in online learning test. The OTAI consists of three factors: psychological, physiological, and online. The results showed that students’ anxiety, in some factors, affected their conceptual understanding of the electric circuits in both groups. However, there was a significant increase in conceptual understanding in both treatment groups. Although the students’ conceptual understanding had a slight increase, online learning has to improve to reduce the anxiety of learners.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040278
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 279: Fostering Teamwork through Design
           Thinking: Evidence from a Multi-Actor Perspective

    • Authors: Sharon Guaman-Quintanilla, Patricia Everaert, Katherine Chiluiza, Martin Valcke
      First page: 279
      Abstract: This study examines the effects of a design thinking intervention on first-year students’ teamwork skills from a multi-actor perspective. A design thinking course was evaluated throughout a semester. Six-hundred-and-forty university students participated, guided by twenty-six facilitators. The students received in-class training and worked in multi-disciplinary teams to develop a solution for a real-life problem. In this quasi-experimental study, data were collected twice: in the middle (t1), and at the end (t2) of the course. Each time, students were rated by their teammates, themselves, and the course facilitator, using a rubric to map teamwork skills. The results show a significant improvement in teamwork skills, as consistently observed in the three ratings. The results also show a significant effect of sex on the improvement over time. Female students showed more considerable progress than male students. This study addresses researchers’ demands regarding the lack of robust evidence to assess the impact of design thinking in higher education settings. Furthermore, building on the data from a large sample size and an intervention designed in a replicable way, this study contributes to the available empirical evidence that helps one to adopt and implement design thinking in universities to develop essential skills, such as teamwork.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040279
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 280: Teachers’ Global Perceptions
           and Views, Practices and Needs in Multicultural Settings

    • Authors: Zoe Karanikola, Glykeria Katsiouli, Nektaria Palaiologou
      First page: 280
      Abstract: Multiculturalism and globalization are common traits of western societies, and affect the way people interact and communicate. In such a context, this study comes to investigate teachers’ perceptions, practices and needs towards global and intercultural competences. This study was designed and implemented in order to shed light on major issues which are associated with the context of global competences as an umbrella term, which arose during the researchers’ participation at an Erasmus plus European project. The research took place at the region of Attica and thirteen teachers (N = 13) of reception classes—Zones of Educational Priority (ZEP)—participated in the interview. A qualitative case study followed, focusing on a specific geographic region, and the semi-structured interview tool was used. The findings of the research indicate that educators do not feel certain about the differences between global and intercultural competences. However, they consider that these competences are of great importance and they recognize the contribution of schools to their development. Regarding their practices, they mostly refer to the dialogue and discussion techniques, the role playing, and the project-based teaching. Finally, participants consider that they are not sufficiently prepared to teach global and intercultural competences. Thus, participation in relevant training programs is important.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040280
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 281: Design, Development, and
           Evaluation of a Virtual Reality Serious Game for School Fire Preparedness

    • Authors: Stylianos Mystakidis, Jeries Besharat, George Papantzikos, Athanasios Christopoulos, Chrysostomos Stylios, Spiros Agorgianitis, Dimitrios Tselentis
      First page: 281
      Abstract: Immersive virtual reality (VR) is a technology that can be effective for procedural skills training through game-based simulations such as serious games. The current study describes the instructional design, development, and evaluation of the FSCHOOL fire preparedness serious game in a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE-VR) for elementary school teachers. The main game mechanics include a storytelling scenario, enhanced realism, freedom of movement, levels, and points corresponding to the learning mechanics of instruction, action, simulation, discovery, repetition, and imitation. The game was developed in Unity 3D with the help of the Fire Dynamics Simulator and a script to emulate and visualize fire propagation. The game featured three levels to respond to school fire safety regulations and was evaluated by elementary school teachers (N = 33) in Greece. A comparative quantitative study was conducted with experimental and control groups. The results indicate that the VR serious game is appropriate for training, providing challenge, enjoyment, and mastery.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040281
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 282: Exploring Relationships between
           Professional Development and Teachers’ Enactments of Project-Based

    • Authors: JeanMarie Farrow, Sarah Kavanagh, Preeti Samudra
      First page: 282
      Abstract: This paper examines whether teachers’ prior professional development (PD) in Project-Based Learning (PBL) significantly related to teachers’ enactments of PBL practices within the classroom. Teachers (N = 40) were recruited based on their commitment to enacting PBL in their classrooms. Teachers were surveyed regarding the extent to which they had experienced prior PD in PBL and asked to submit two videos of their classroom instruction. Videos were coded according to teachers’ quality enactment of PBL practices during instruction. Results suggest that teachers who had prior PD in PBL enacted more structure-driven PBL practices (e.g., setting up and managing projects) and incorporated more collaboration practices. However, for other purpose-driven practices of PBL (e.g., supporting student choice, supporting students to make personal connections), teachers with prior PD were no different from teachers without prior PD. The results suggest that teachers may need more intensive and fine-grained, practice-based PD in purpose-driven PBL practices.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040282
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 283: Attitudes, Behavior and Relations
           in the Early School Years

    • Authors: Geert Driessen
      First page: 283
      Abstract: In the early school years, the emphasis is more and more on cognitive output factors. Non-cognitive development is receiving less attention than before, though such factors are important determinants of academic success. This study aims at answering two questions: (1) How do young children perform on a number of non-cognitive characteristics, more specifically, attitudes, behavior, and relationships' (2) Are there any differences with regard to those characteristics according to the pupils’ social and ethnic/immigrant background' To answer the questions, data from the Dutch large-scale cohort study COOL5-18 were analyzed. The main sample included nearly 6500 grade 2 pupils (6-year-olds). Teachers answered questions about their pupils’ attitudes, behavior, and relationships. One- and two-way analyses of variance were employed, and effect sizes were computed. The results showed that the teachers rated their pupil’s work attitude as lower than their behavior and popularity. They were more positive regarding their relationship with the pupils. More important was that there were differences according to the pupils’ social and ethnic/immigrant backgrounds: ethnic minority/immigrant pupils scored less positive on all non-cognitive characteristics than native Dutch pupils, and the higher the parental educational level, the more favorable their children performed on the non-cognitive characteristics. These findings are discussed and possible solutions are presented.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040283
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 284: Analysis of the Autism Spectrum
           Disorder (ASD) Knowledge of Cuban Teachers in Primary Schools and

    • Authors: Osvaldo Hernández-González, Rosario Spencer-Contreras, Pilar Sanz-Cervera, Raúl Tárraga-Mínguez
      First page: 284
      Abstract: Teachers’ knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plays a key role in the successful inclusion of children with ASD in regular schools. The objective of this study was to analyze Cuban teachers’ knowledge of ASD of at inclusive primary schools and preschools and to compare it with the results obtained in previous studies carried out at an international level. To do this, a cross-sectional study was conducted with Cuban teachers from urban and rural areas throughout the country. The sample was selected using a non-probabilistic technique. In total, 131 primary school and preschool teachers participated. Data were collected by applying the Autism Knowledge Questionnaire (AKQ) that measures ASD knowledge. The results indicated that Cuban teachers had an acceptable knowledge regarding ASD (0.57). Primary education teachers (17.58 ± 4.06) showed a higher level of knowledge than preschool teachers (15.35 ± 2.74). Regarding previous training, teachers who claimed to have received some type of specific ASD training (10.88 ± 3.29) made a greater number of errors than teachers who had not received specific training on ASD (8.91 ± 3.06). At the international level, Cuban teachers were observed to have similar knowledge about ASD when compared to active teachers or pre-service teachers from other countries where similar studies have been carried out. The results suggest that the training of Cuban teachers is not yet optimal to educate students with ASD in primary schools and preschools which are open to diversity.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040284
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 285: The Relationship between
           Professional Environmental Factors and Teacher Professional Development in
           Israeli Schools

    • Authors: Anat Hilel, Antonia Ramírez-García
      First page: 285
      Abstract: (1) Background: This paper examines the elements essential to effective teacher professional development (TPD) and the relationship between various professional environmental factors (professional learning community perceptions, self-efficacy, professional identity, principal’s transformation leadership patterns), TDP in primary education schools, and TDP prediction. (2) Methods: Data were collected during the 2020 school year from 412 teachers in primary education schools in five Israeli districts. The professional learning community, self-efficacy, professional identity, transformation leadership patterns, and TPD scales were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, Pearson moment-product correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis. (3) Results: Overall, participants’ TPD was high (4.12 ± 0.83). Statistically significant correlations were observed between TPD and four independent variables (0.41–0.64; p < 0.0001). No significant associations were seen between TPD and work-related characteristics. TPD differences were observed in participants with different educational levels (F = 4.63; p = 0.003). Higher TPD levels were predicted by perceptions of the principal’s transformation leadership patterns, self-efficacy, the professional learning community, and education (F-ratio = 57.85; adjusted R2 = 0.50; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The present study attests to the importance of the school principal’s leadership patterns for TPD, alongside the contribution of self-efficacy, professional learning community, and professional identity.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040285
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
  • Education Sciences, Vol. 12, Pages 286: Tales of Doctoral Students:
           Motivations and Expectations on the Route to the Unknown

    • Authors: Sara Diogo, Andreia Gonçalves, Sónia Cardoso, Teresa Carvalho
      First page: 286
      Abstract: This paper provides a reflection on the way changes taking place in doctoral education are being perceived and internalized by doctoral students. The Doctoral perceptions are analyzed through Ph.D. candidates’ motivations to enroll in the program and to their levels of satisfaction with the supervision experience. Comparisons between national and international students, as well as differences according to doctoral programs’ scientific areas, i.e., between students enrolled in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and in Social Sciences, Languages and Humanities (SSLH) are established. Based on a case study developed in a Portuguese university, conclusions point to the dominance of a romanticized, traditional view of doctoral education, with the academic profession at its core. This view is mostly shared by international students and those from SSLH scientific areas. In turn, national Ph.D. candidates and those from STEM areas have incorporated a more instrumental view of doctoral education, aiming for training participants to professions outside academia.
      Citation: Education Sciences
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/educsci12040286
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2022)
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