Subjects -> EDUCATION (Total: 2507 journals)
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    - EDUCATION (2141 journals)
    - HIGHER EDUCATION (158 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS (4 journals)
    - ONLINE EDUCATION (41 journals)
    - SCHOOL ORGANIZATION (14 journals)
    - SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION (40 journals)
    - TEACHING METHODS AND CURRICULUM (38 journals)

EDUCATION (2141 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 857 Journals sorted alphabetically
#Tear : Revista de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
(Pensamiento), (palabra) y obra     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
21. Yüzyılda Eğitim Ve Toplum Eğitim Bilimleri Ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi     Open Access  
21st Century Pedagogy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
@tic. revista d'innovació educativa     Open Access  
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABDIMAS ALTRUIS : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Abdimas Toddopuli : Jurnal Pengabdian Pada Masyarakat     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Academic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Academy of Educational Leadership Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Academy of Management Learning and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Accounting Education: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Acta Científica : Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Didactica Norge     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Educationis Generalis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Education     Open Access  
Action in Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Action Learning: Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 404)
Actualidades Pedagógicas     Open Access  
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Adiyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Administração Educacional     Open Access  
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 287)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273)
Advanced Education     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in School Mental Health Promotion     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Africa Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Teacher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AGORA Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ahmad Dahlan Journal of English Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AIDS Education and Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ainedidaktiikka     Open Access  
Akademos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AKSIOMATIK : Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Matematika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aksis : Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia     Open Access  
Al-Athfaal : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Bahith Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Fikrah     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Idarah : Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Mudarris : Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Tadris : Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Arab     Open Access  
Al-Tadzkiyyah : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Al-Tanzim : Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
Alberta Journal of Educational Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aldaba     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria : Revista de Educação em Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Alotrop     Open Access  
Alsic : Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Alteridad     Open Access  
Ambiente & Educação : Revista de Educação Ambiental     Open Access  
American Annals of the Deaf     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
American Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Distance Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 296)
American Journal of Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi / Journal of Mother Tongue Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anargya : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio N – Educatio Nova     Open Access  
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Modern Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Antistasis : An Open Educational Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Apertura. Revista de innovación educativa‏     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ápice : Revista de Educación Científica     Open Access  
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Measurement in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aprender     Open Access  
AR-RIAYAH : Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar     Open Access  
Arabia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arabiyatuna : Jurnal Bahasa Arab     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Ciencias de la Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Areté, Revista Digital del Doctorado en Educación de la Universidad Central de Venezuela     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access  
Ars Educandi     Open Access  
Art Design & Communication in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Art Education     Hybrid Journal  
Arte e Investigación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Arts Education Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artseduca : Revista electrónica de educación en las ARTES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Asia-Pacific Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Association of Open Universities Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Distance Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of English Language Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Asian Journal of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ASp     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Assessing Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 263)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
At-Ta'dib Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
At-Taqaddum     Open Access  
At-Turats     Open Access  
ATENA Didaktik     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Athenea Digital     Open Access  
ATIKAN : Jurnal Kajian Pendidikan (Journal of Educational Studies)     Open Access  
Atthulab : Islamic Religion Teaching and Learning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aula Abierta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aula de Encuentro     Open Access  
Australasian Journal of Educational Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Australasian Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Journal of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Educational Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Australian Journal of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Australian Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Dyslexia and Other Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 473)
Australian Journal of Teacher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Screen Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 361)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Azalea: Journal of Korean Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bahastra     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Career Education and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Barn : Forskning om barn og barndom i Norden     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Basastra : Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, dan Pengajarannya     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BC TEAL Journal     Open Access  
Becoming : Journal of the Georgia Middle School Association     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Behavioural Sciences Undergraduate Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BELAJEA : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
BELIA : Early Childhood Education Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Review of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Beyond Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biblioteca Escolar em Revista     Open Access  
Biblioteka i Edukacja     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioeduscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioma : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biosfer : Jurnal Biologi dan Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
Biosfer : Jurnal Tadris Biologi     Open Access  
BISE : Jurnal Pendidikan Bisnis dan Ekonomi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biuletyn Historii Wychowania     Open Access  
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Técnico do Senac     Open Access  
Bordón : Revista de Pedagogía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British (Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285)
British Journal of Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
British Journal of Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
British Journal of Religious Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
British Journal of Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Special Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
British Journal of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
British Journal of Visual Impairment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.337
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0264-6196 - ISSN (Online) 1744-5809
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1164 journals]
  • Measuring levels of self-esteem of students with visual impairments in
           regular schools in Tanzania

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Orestes Silverius Kapinga, Mbwiga Aloni
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The global statistics show that more than 2.2 billion people are either faced with vision impairment or blindness. Visual impairment has been shown to affect young people’s emotional and psychological well-being, and has a profound effect on education attainment. This study assessed the levels of self-esteem of students with visual impairments in regular secondary schools in Tanzania. This was a cross-sectional research study. Self-esteem of students with visual impairment was studied in a group of 55 students included in two regular secondary schools enrolling students with visual impairments in Ruvuma and Iringa regions in Tanzania mainland. A set of self-esteem aspects was used to construct the outcome variable. Levels of self-esteem of students were obtained using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The findings show 7.3% and 92.7% of students with visual impairments constitutes low and high self-esteem respectively. Levels of self-esteem for students with visual impairments were independent of students’ class (p = .440), sex (p = .528) and type of disability (p = .169). Intrinsic self-esteem is more advocated among students with visual impairments in regular secondary schools in Tanzania. Further study on the relationship between levels of self-esteem and students’ performance needs to be addressed. Self-esteem was self-reported by students without any means of confirmation of the responses. This may have affected the estimated prevalence levels of students’ self-esteem.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-10-16T07:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211051685
       
  • For happy children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability:
           Efficacy research to promote sensitive caregiving with the Barti-mat

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Vernandi Dyzel, Paula Dekkers-Verbon, Marina Toeters, Paula S Sterkenburg
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Cycles of miscommunication often occur within the caregiver–child dyad when a child has a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability, influencing sensitive and responsive caregiver behaviour and child happiness. This study aims to examine the efficacy of using interactive technology, the Barti-mat, to promote sensitive and responsive caregiver behaviour, specifically mirroring behaviour, and increase the happiness of children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability. The secondary aim is to examine the social validity of the Barti-mat. A mixed-method approach was used, combining quantitative data from a multiple within-series single-case design and qualitative data comparing play-as-usual with play on the Barti-mat. Eleven caregiver–child dyads participated in a home-based study. No significant effects were found for Attunement nor for Valence. Significant improvements were found for Total Mirroring, Happiness, and Arousal. Overall, the caregivers enjoyed using the Bart-mat and were enthusiastic about the development of specialized play material for children with visual impairments. Results of the current study suggest that the Barti-mat can act as catalyst for caregiver mirroring behaviour and improve the happiness of a child with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability. Caregivers were generally motivated to use and recommend the Barti-mat again. Minor product improvement recommendations were made. The Barti-mat is appropriate for a diverse group of caregivers and children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability and would be a good adjunct to preventive attachment-based interventions.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T11:46:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211047733
       
  • An exploratory study to improve reading and comprehending mathematical
           expressions in braille

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Annemiek van Leendert, LG Boonstra, Michiel Doorman, Paul Drijvers, Johannes van der Steen, Johan Pel
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Braille readers read and comprehend mathematical expressions while moving their fingertips over braille characters. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effect of an intervention that teaches braille readers who use a braille display to use finger movements with a focus on the expression’s mathematical structure. The finger movements involved movements where the two index fingers are about one or two braille cells apart and movements where the index fingers explore different parts of the expression. We investigated to what extent the intervention supports an interplay between finger movements and the expression’s mathematical structure to make the process of calculating the value of an expression easier and to make braille readers more aware of the expression’s structure. Three braille readers, respectively in Grades 7, 8, and 11, received the intervention consisting of five individual lessons. During the pre-, post-, and retention test, the braille readers’ finger movements were video recorded, as well as the time needed to read and process the mathematical tasks. Four expressions were selected for further analysis. The results show that during the posttest, each braille reader required at least 29% less time to read and process the expressions. The retention test results were even better. Scanpaths indicated that braille readers picked up features of mathematical structures more easily after the intervention. Based on our findings, we recommend that braille readers receive lessons in tactile reading strategies that support the reading and processing of mathematical expressions and equations.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T11:44:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211044972
       
  • Facebook experiences of visually impaired students: A deconstruction of
           the challenges and benefits

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      Authors: Michael Asante Quainoo, Michael Yao Wodui Serwornoo, Christiana Hammond
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores the motivation for usage, benefits, and strategies to overcoming the challenges visually impaired people face in their Facebook interactions. Using in-depth interviews and a narrative analysis of five visually impaired students at the University of Cape Coast, we found that Facebook usage among visually impaired students, although unique in experiences and gratifications, has promoted the formation and strengthening of their social bonds in the community of visually impaired people and their significant other. However, the visually impaired students face significant challenges with interpreting the pictures and videos they encounter on Facebook because screen reader software currently in use cannot interpret graphical content forcing them to rely on their sighted friends which have created independence and privacy issues. Despite these challenges, Facebook remains a powerful communication tool for visually impaired students in interacting with both their disabled and non-disabled friends whom they would normally shy away from in person.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T11:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211047731
       
  • Study on information patients with vision impairment receive from
           ophthalmologists in Japan

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      Authors: Risa Nara, Yukie Sato, Yusuke Masuda, Masamitsu Misono, Koichi Tanida
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether people with visual impairment in Japan are provided with useful information by their ophthalmologist while being notified of their disability, and what information is needed by these individuals upon being diagnosed. An analysis of the responses from 197 respondents revealed that only 30.45% had been provided information by their ophthalmologist upon being diagnosed, while 69.55% patients were not provided any information. When asked about the form of media they used to receive information, the most frequently used was the internet (16.68%). As web accessibility is not sufficient in Japan, making information media accessible to the visually impaired is a challenge. Finally, when asked about the type of information they would like to be provided, the most common answer was information about peer support. This suggests that ophthalmologists are expected to (1) understand the needs of the visually impaired and (2) provide information appropriately and promptly.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T11:11:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211038132
       
  • Validation of the Tactual Span in individuals with congenital and acquired
           blindness

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      Authors: Eyal Heled, Or Oshri
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Neuropsychological assessment tools for individuals with blindness are relatively scarce. In the current study, we assessed the validity of the Tactual Span, a task aimed at evaluating tactile working memory. During the task, the fingers of both hands are touched in specific sequences of ascending difficulty, which participants are asked to repeat in exact and reverse order. Twelve participants with congenital blindness and 13 with acquired blindness were examined alongside 18 sighted controls, matched to the experimental group with respect to age and education. Participants performed the Tactual Span and three additional tasks assessing working memory in the auditory modality, as well as a Semantic Fluency test. Results showed that the Tactual Span was significantly correlated with most of the other working memory measures, in all groups, but not with the Semantic Fluency test. In addition, the congenital and acquired blindness groups performed similarly to one another and better than sighted controls on most working memory tasks, but not on the Semantic Fluency test. Findings suggest that the Tactual Span is a feasible task for measuring tactile working memory in individuals with congenital and acquired blindness. Therefore, it can expand the cognitive assessment toolbox of professionals working with blind individuals and increase the strength of conclusions drawn from cognitive assessments in educational and vocational settings.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-09-23T08:36:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211044983
       
  • Knowledge and practice of drivers on the provision of service to persons
           with visual disability: A survey of public transport drivers in a tertiary
           inclusion school in West Africa

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      Authors: Carl Halladay Abraham, Stephen Ocansey, Samuel Bert Boadi-Kusi, Fateena Faheem, Bright Opoku Gyan, Yaa Agyewuo Nti, Mercy Berchie, Emmanuel Kwasi Abu
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Public transport plays an important role in improving mobility for persons with visual impairment. Commercial drivers are major stakeholders in ensuring that there are efficient and accessible public transport systems on university campuses that have a relatively high number of persons with visual impairment. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 90 taxi drivers who operate their services on the campus of a tertiary inclusion school. The drivers were surveyed on their knowledge and practices in providing services to persons with visual impairment. The findings show that 55 (61.1%) drivers knew how to identify a pedestrian with a visual disability by looking out for the white cane. A total of 77 (85.6%) drivers have also adopted the practice of stopping for pedestrians to cross the road. However, only 20 (22.5%) respondents agreed to reserve the front seat for the passenger with visual impairment. Participants were not knowledgeable on the sections of the disability act relating to the provision of transport services to persons with visual impairment nor the kind of punishment associated with breaching the rules. The study provides recommendations on how to bridge the gap between the demands of the disability act and the practices of commercial drivers.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T01:34:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211044969
       
  • Emotional valence and arousal induced by auditory stimuli among
           individuals with visual impairment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hyung Nam Kim, Sam Jotham Sutharson
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Despite significant vision loss, humans can still recognize various emotional stimuli via a sense of hearing and express diverse emotional responses, which can be sorted into two dimensions, arousal and valence. Yet, many research studies have been focusing on sighted people, leading to lack of knowledge about emotion perception mechanisms of people with visual impairment. This study aims at advancing knowledge of the degree to which people with visual impairment perceive various emotions – high/low arousal and positive/negative emotions. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairment participated in interviews where they listened to stories of people who became visually impaired, encountered and overcame various challenges, and they were instructed to share their emotions. Participants perceived different kinds and intensities of emotions, depending on their demographic variables such as living alone, loneliness, onset of visual impairment, visual acuity, race/ethnicity, and employment status. The advanced knowledge of emotion perceptions in people with visual impairment is anticipated to contribute toward better designing social supports that can adequately accommodate those with visual impairment.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-09-02T11:38:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211042257
       
  • Evaluation of science and mathematics books used for students with visual
           impairment in inclusive classrooms in Tanzania

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Francis William
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the adapted science and mathematics books for students with visual impairment in inclusive classrooms in Tanzania secondary schools. It was conducted in 14 regions using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data were generated from a sample of 19 heads of school, 103 students, and 77 teachers. The findings of the study show that the books are appropriate for students with visual impairment. However, they lacked enough tactile illustrations and pictures. Further findings revealed that lack of braille knowledge among some teachers limited them from using the books. As such, a few teachers who had braille knowledge had started to use the books while those with limited knowledge did not. Most teachers reported lack of appropriate pedagogy for handling special needs in inclusive classrooms. Therefore, although the books are appropriate, a lot needs to be desired in building teachers’ capacity to use the books. Various inclusive methodological knowledge to teachers needs to be ensured. Furthermore, the books must be improved to include more tactile graphics and pictures to make them more reader-friendly for students with visual impairment. Other educational books, including three-dimensional (3D) models, should be part of the adapted books.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T05:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211036409
       
  • “My disability does not measure me: it is a way of living and being in
           the world” meanings of social inclusion from the perspective of people
           with visual impairment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: María del Pilar Oviedo-Cáceres, Karen Natalia Arias-Pineda, María del Rosario Yepes-Camacho, Patricia Montoya Falla, Laura Guisasola Valencia
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Social inclusion involves the dynamics that link the development of capacities with access to opportunities, well-being, relationship networks, and the exercise of citizenship. This study sought to understand the meanings on social inclusion of people with visual impairment from four cities in Colombia, as well as the family dynamics that favor or hinder inclusion processes. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted, by applying 26 semi-structured interviews via telephone. The interviews were transcribed and the themes extracted by the authors. The three emerging categories were the following: (1) My disability does not measure me: it is a way of living and being in the world; (2) deconstructing imaginaries: a wager on inclusion; and (3) from the family, the most important is letting be. Our results indicate that social inclusion is mediated by the meanings they assign to their own condition of visual impairment, by the existing social imaginaries on the theme, and by the family dynamics or the nearby environment. The work recognized the following as facilitators: acceptance of the disability by those who have the condition and by their close environment; recognition of the disability as part of human diversity; the family as actor that recognizes, respects individuality, and promotes their development; and the individual skills to cope with the situation and find a support network. Barriers were the negative imaginaries and the biomedical view that persist in society, which interact with the daily lives of the people, thus generating situations of exclusion.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T05:43:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211036403
       
  • Family functioning and coping strategies in families of people with visual
           impairment

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      Authors: Francisco Javier Quintero, María Del Carmen Amaris, Karen Villalba, Rosa Amelia Pacheco
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This article attempts to determine the relationship that exists between family functioning and the family coping strategies used by families of people with visual impairment while responding to this non-normative life event. The method used was a transversal correlational design that is part of a PhD research study called “An Analytical Model of Functional Relationships of the Fatalistic Attitude, Family Life Quality and Its Incidence in Functioning, Coping and Vital Events in Families of People With Visual Impairment.” The instruments F-COPES (Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale) and FACES-III (Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scale) were applied, and among the findings, it was established that there exist meaningful relationships between cohesion and internal strategies used by the families to face visual impairment. This report also establishes new perspectives for practitioners regarding the guidelines for rehabilitation practices and public policy designs for inclusion.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T05:41:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211036392
       
  • Who said that we do not see' An inclusion strategy for students with
           visual impairment using cell models and a modeling-clay-based evaluation
           method

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      Authors: Renata Guimarães Dumpel, Andréia Santos Silva, Ricardo dos Santos Pereira, Cristina Delou, Helena Carla Castro
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Currently, there is a great need for inclusive practices and materials for visually impaired students (SVIs), especially from Biology. Thus, we developed two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) didactic models about cytology as well as a modeling-clay-based evaluation method. The two-dimensional tactile atlas included the representation of organelles with an explanatory text in two formats (written and Braille), whereas the 3D human cell model was made with a colorful polymer clay pasta. These models were tested by students of public schools, with and without visual impairment as well as by teachers of science/biology. Their perceptions were analyzed by using questionnaires, whereas the modeling clay-based evaluation method was used with the SVIs to identify their level of understanding about the cellular structures presented to them. According to all participants including SVIs, both materials facilitated the understanding of cell organelles. Interestingly, the modeling clay-based evaluation method confirmed that this blind audience could see (distinguish) as many details as those who have no visual impairment. Our results strengthen the fact that this blind public depends on the accessibility level that, apparently, is offered by our 2D and 3D models to them. In agreement with that conclusion, all teachers pointed this strategy as helpful to this public especially during teaching these overly complex topics.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T08:59:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211036410
       
  • A novel multidisciplinary approach to the management of end-stage macular
           disease

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      Authors: Su Ling Young, Nathan Ng, Ngee Jin Yap, Zain Hussain, Peter D Cackett
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction: In 2017, the Royal College of Ophthalmologists UK published ‘The Way Forward’ describing the effects of the ageing UK population on clinical demand for macular conditions. Although one-stop clinics have become accepted standard practice for combined assessment and injections, there is little guidance regarding eventual discharge of patients, and practice varies between clinicians. In 2018, NHS Lothian started a multidisciplinary one-stop clinic involving an Ophthalmologist, a Medical Photographer, a specialist Low Vision Optometrist, and a Low Vision Counsellor. We aimed to detail our experiences of this novel multidisciplinary discharge clinic for advanced macular disease patients. We also aimed to assess patient-reported anxiety and depression outcomes following this clinic. Retrospective data on 60 patients who attended the clinic from August 2018 to January 2019 were collected and included in analysis. Average age at presentation to the clinic was 85.76 ± 8.18 years old and patients had been followed up in the macula clinic for a mean of 4.80 ± 2.43 years prior to attending the clinic. In all, 31 patients responded to a survey on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HADS). Three (10%) of the patients reported scores abnormal for anxiety, and there were no abnormal scores for depression. The clinic provides a holistic approach for end-stage macular disease patients and reduces unnecessary macular anti–vascular endothelial growth factor treatments and clinic review appointments. This is especially important now during the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic. This provides significant benefits to capacity for delivery of clinical services and facilitates a safe and supported discharge for patients.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-08-17T12:55:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211032694
       
  • Design thinking approach to simplify monetary transactions for the
           visually challenged

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      Authors: Akanksh A Manjunath, MC Sohan, MR Anala, KN Subramanya
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Design thinking, having applications in many fields, is emerging to be a pragmatic technique for facilitating Human Centred Design (HCD), a modern-day necessity, through a well-defined systematic process. This paper presents a case study detailing the application of design thinking principles to approach and develop solutions for the visually challenged to recognize the denomination of Indian currencies. Throughout the paper, specific implementations of design thinking principles have been detailed with emphasis on the key takeaways from the various stages. A comprehensive review of our approach compared to existing and unconventional applications has been provided to underline the importance of incorporating design thinking into emergent consumer-oriented solutions. A lot of research has been done in developing denomination classification models, however, there seems to be a lack of solutions designed through the perspective of a blind person who plays the critical factor in determining effectiveness once deployed. The design procedure helped us realize the importance of developing a simple user-friendly interface with a single input button and audio relays to guide the blind user during operation. Establishing a good platform for interaction and feedback was found to be critical in helping us modify and prioritize aspects such as achieving a low false-positive percentage and the addition of a high threshold Softmax function which made the solution design effective.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-08-16T08:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211032492
       
  • Investigating comprehension measures of Reading Adventure Time! For
           improving reading skills

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      Authors: Frances Mary D’Andrea, Tessa McCarthy, Cheryl Kamei-Hannan, M Cay Holbrook
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Reading Adventure Time! was designed to support braille reading skills. The education technology tool operates on an Apple iPad using a refreshable braille display and was developed under a United States Federal grant, the Stepping Up Technology program (H327S120007). Forty-nine student/teacher pairs used the app. Students read passages on their braille displays and responded to comprehension questions. Data included reading comprehension scores, accuracy, and reading miscues for each passage read using the app. Students read orally and silently, and passages consisted of both literary and expository literature. Results indicated that comprehension of literary and expository texts was highly positively correlated r(48) = .79, p 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-08-06T06:33:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211034648
       
  • Using e-mail as performance feedback to teach paraprofessionals to
           implement constant time delay with braille words

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      Authors: Carlie R. Rhoads, Erik W. Carter
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Equipping paraprofessionals to implement evidence-based instructional practices with fidelity can enhance the education of students with visual impairments. We used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate the ability of paraprofessionals to follow constant time delay procedures with high fidelity when teaching braille words. We delivered performance feedback by e-mail and examined student learning outcomes. All three paraprofessionals achieved 100% correct implementation of constant time delay and maintained this high level of implementation over time. All three students successfully learned the targeted words. The combination of the training and support with e-mail feedback was effective at equipping them to deliver an evidence-based practice. Paraprofessionals affirmed the social validity of the intervention and considered e-mail performance feedback as an easy-to-understand way of receiving much-needed guidance. E-mail feedback is a cost-effective and simple tool for providing constructive feedback, while also ensuring paraprofessionals deliver instruction with high fidelity.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T05:27:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211029339
       
  • Incorporating the Expanded Core Curriculum into science

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      Authors: Ying-Ting Chiu, Tiffany Wild
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) is a set of concepts and skills that are taught to students with visual impairments to support their learning that often occurs incidentally with vision. Students with visual impairments must learn both the ECC and content from the general education curriculum, including science. Thus, it is crucial to incorporate these two sets of curricula so that students with visual impairments can learn both sets of curricula more efficiently. This article presents an analysis of science curricula and lesson plans that support the Next Generation Science Standards while promoting teaching skills to students with visual impairments in the ECC. The results show that the ECC can be incorporated into science easily which will allow the ECC and science to be taught in one lesson.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-07-14T04:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211029341
       
  • Blind rehabilitation programs teach iPhone and iPad use to improve
           independence in Veterans with low vision or blindness

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      Authors: Hila Miskin, Jared Silberlust, Zaskia Blondet, Gabino Lares, Deepak Mandi, Michael Silverman
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      While many individuals affected by blindness or low vision utilize accessibility applications on iPhone and iPad devices, few receive professional training on application use. Determining the impact of a smartphone and tablet-based curriculum at a Blind Rehabilitation Center (BRC) on functionality and independence can help patients and physicians understand the value of these training programs. Between January 2015 and December 2019, a pre–post initiative evaluated patient functionality and independence scores before and after exposure to a technology educational curriculum at the West Palm Beach Veteran Affairs BRC. A total of 337 patients with impaired vision or complete blindness participated in a 1-month, 35-hr iPhone and iPad learning course. This course was led by technology instructors trained in working with patients with low vision or blindness. The level of function and independence was determined before and after the educational curriculum using a modified Functional Independence Measurement (FIM) Scale from 1 to 7, with 1 indicating no independent functionality and 7 indicating complete independence. After completion of the course, patients were stratified by age, gender, ethnicity, and eye-related diagnosis. All demographic groups noted an increase in FIM score, with average improvement of 3.75 points. A factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that younger age groups displayed a statistically significant improvement in FIM score compared to older groups with an F ratio of F(3, 295) = 4.503, p = .004. Eye diagnosis did not have an impact on FIM score change. These results suggest any patient may benefit from professional training in the use of iPhone and iPad applications with younger patients showing greater rates of initial improvement. The authors recommend increased utilization of smartphone and tablet training programs at BRCs by all individuals with low vision or blindness.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-07-13T07:14:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211026708
       
  • A scoping review of vision rehabilitation services in Canada

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      Authors: Atul Jaiswal, Sangeetha Santhakumaran, Sadie Walker, Mahadeo A Sukhai, Tanya Packer, Dorothy Kessler
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Around 1.5 million Canadians live with some form of vision impairment. The demand for vision rehabilitation (VR) services is projected to increase as the number of older adults with age-related vision loss rises. To inform programmes and policies for VR, we aimed to answer two research questions: (1) How are VR services delivered in Canada' and (2) If gaps exist in current delivery of VR services, how can they be characterized' We used Arksey and O’Malley scoping review framework. A comprehensive search of five databases (PubMed, CINAHL/EBSCO, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Global Health) was performed during January 2019 and then updated in March 2021. Index terms and keywords relating to vision loss or impairment and rehabilitation were used. Non-peer-reviewed (grey) literature, in the form of reports and policies on VR in Canada, was sourced via Google/Google Scholar. To be included, sources had to (1) focus on VR services in Canada, (2) be available in English or French, and (3) be published after 2003. Data were extracted and analysed thematically to describe VR services across provinces and to identify gaps in service delivery in Canada. Out of 1311 studies identified, 62 were included. Findings indicate that the structure of VR services as well as provincial funding for assistive devices varies across provinces. The reported gaps at the level of service providers, users, and delivery systems were lack of awareness about the benefits of VR, limited collaboration and coordinated services between eye care and VR services, delayed referral to VR, shortage of specialists, and insufficient funding and training for vision devices. This article describes VR services in Canada and documents important gaps in VR services and research evidence across provincial jurisdictions. Future work to address gaps, and develop and evaluate interventions to facilitate optimal VR services is imperative.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-07-12T06:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211029344
       
  • ‘Boom Boom in the Zoom Zoom Room’: Online music therapy with children
           and adolescents with visual impairment

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      Authors: Bill Ahessy
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic created a major transformation in the delivery of music therapy services worldwide as they moved online. Telehealth research is in its infancy and online work with children and adolescents with visual impairment has yet to be investigated. This survey-based study explored the experiences and perceptions of parents of children and adolescents with visual impairment (n = 11) who engaged in online music therapy. Video playlists were accessed regularly and almost all parents reported positive (2/11) or very positive (8/11) responses and perceived them as beneficial in engaging with their child. Ninety-five percent (10/11) of parents perceived the teleheath programme to be a positive experience for their child, 73% (8/11) observed positive behaviours directly after the sessions, and 82% (9/11) indicated that the programme was a valuable family resource that supported bonding and interaction. Inductive reflexive thematic analysis generated four themes from the qualitative data: (a) positive impacts, (b) interactive family resource, (c) connection to school, and (d) challenges. A discussion of the findings is followed by implications for practice.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-07-12T06:43:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211029342
       
  • Living with deafblindness during COVID-19: An international webinar to
           facilitate global knowledge translation

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      Authors: Walter Wittich, Jude Nicholas, Saskia Damen
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Arguably, individuals living with deafblindness are among the hardest hit by the effects of the corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID- 19), given the importance of the sense of touch for their ability to interact with the world. To address this challenge, it is imperative to facilitate the implementation of evidence- and experience-based recommendations, and to improve knowledge translation on a global scale. Deafblind International organized a webinar to provide a platform where participants could exchange experiences and solutions to overcome the challenges created by the arrival of COVID-19, in order to facilitate information exchange among stakeholders in deafblindness during this pandemic. We present an overview of its content here and place the summarized themes in context with existing research literature. Abstract submission was open for 4 weeks in May 2020, resulting in 30 submissions from 13 countries across 5 continents. Of the 26 presenter teams, 9 (35%) had a co-presenter that was living with deafblindness themselves. The number of individual participants across all sessions ranged from 55 to 140 (M = 98), with a total of 3709 session registrations overall, and the organizers estimate a total attendance of around 400 participants. Based on extensive field notes taken during the webinar, and repeated viewing of the recordings, qualitative description allowed the team to synthesize eight principal themes across the event: access to information, communication, service accessibility, adaptations to service delivery, online safety and security, physical distancing, mental health and research. The first Deafblind International webinar was able to fill an important gap by bringing together a variety of stakeholders in deafblindness across the globe. The event created a sense of group membership and peer support, brought the participants, researchers, the professionals as well as their service agencies closer together and generated a sense of hope and collaboration.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-06-17T10:27:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211002887
       
  • The effect of audio description on film comprehension of individuals with
           visual impairment: A case study in Turkey

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      Authors: Zeynep Zengin Temırbek uulu, Çiğdem Sağın-Şimşek, Elena Antonova-Ünlü
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which audio description contributes to the visually impaired individuals’ comprehension of a film by examining the visually impaired and sighted participants’ comprehension of two versions of the same film, one with and the other without supplementary audio description. The results of the study showed that the visually impaired participants were able to comprehend and narrate the events to the same extent as the sighted participants did when the film was supplemented with audio description. The qualitative analysis validated this finding and demonstrated that the visually impaired participants were able to comprehend the film to a great extent with the assistance of audio description. These findings emphasized the role of audio description assistance and its effects as an important resource in converting visual information to vocal information, which greatly aids the visually impaired individuals’ film comprehension. Also, the use of “Causal Network Model” showed that understanding the plot better could enable the audio description creators to provide better assistance for the visually impaired if they applied this model.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-06-15T10:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211020058
       
  • Puberty challenges of female adolescents with visual impairment

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      Authors: Shirin Aghaee-Chaghooshi, Anahita khodabakhshi-koolaee, Mohammad Reza Falsafinejad
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Physical, psychological, emotional, and social maturity is one of the main challenges occurring during adolescence and is associated with dramatic changes in adolescents. However, these challenges are worsened when the adolescent has a disability in addition to pubertal changes. Accordingly, the present study aimed to explore the puberty challenges of female adolescents with visual impairment.This study is qualitative in terms of its design and an applied study in terms of its objectives and was conducted using a descriptive phenomenology. The research population included all female adolescents with visual impairment who were studying in high school in Tehran in 2020. The participants were blind and visually impaired girls who were selected from the Narjes educational Complex for Blind Girls using purposive sampling. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and were saturated after interviewing 15 participants. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. The collected data were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven-step method of data analysis.The challenges faced by the female adolescents with visual impairment were categorized into four main themes including “worrying emotions experienced during puberty,” “development of emotional and love needs,” “redefining social relationships with family and others,” and “lack of information resources on puberty.” This study showed that the lack of information resources, awareness about puberty for female adolescents with visual impairment, the way others treat the puberty of girls, and adolescents’ own reaction to the phenomenon of puberty affect their quality of life in this period. Therefore, paying attention to the experience of female adolescents with visual impairment about the phenomenon of puberty provides a true picture of the feelings, needs, and challenges for visually impaired female adolescents during puberty, their families, school health educators, health professionals, and school counselors.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T06:19:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211019069
       
  • Self-reported use of technology by orientation and mobility clients in
           Australia and Malaysia before the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Lil Deverell, Jahar Bhowmik, Abdullah Al Mahmud, Bee Theng Lau, Fakir M Amirul Islam, Suku Sukunesan, Chris McCarthy, Denny Meyer
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Since the 1960s, many electronic travel aids have been developed for people with low vision or blindness to improve their independent travel skills, but uptake of these specialist devices has been limited. This study investigated what technologies orientation and mobility (O&M) clients in Australia and Malaysia have, use, like, and want to support their travel, to inform technology research and development. This two-phase mixed-methods study surveyed O&M clients face-to-face in Malaysia (n = 9), and online in Australia (n = 50). Participants managed safe walking using a human guide, long cane, or guide dog when their vision was insufficient to see hazards, but a smartphone is now a standard travel aid in both Australia and Malaysia. Participants relied on smartphone accessibility features and identified 108 apps they used for travel: for planning (e.g., public transport timetables), sourcing information in transit (e.g., GPS location and directions, finding a taxi), sensory conversion (e.g., camera-to-voice, voice-to-text, video-to-live description), social connections (e.g., phone, email, Facebook), food (e.g., finding eateries, ordering online), and entertainment (e.g., music, games). They wanted to ‘carry less junk’, and sought better accessibility features, consistency across platforms, and fast, reliable, real-time information that supports confident, non-visual travel, especially into unfamiliar places.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T02:37:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211019070
       
  • Low vision: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among optometrists in India

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      Authors: Nidhi Pandya, Nayan Gupta, Dimple Nagpal
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      In a developing country like India, affordable eye care services are limited and less developed. Moreover, a general lack of awareness about proper vision care leads to a rise in the number of individuals with visual impairment. In developing countries like India, the low vision services are still growing. Hence, it becomes necessary to understand the knowledge and practice patterns among optometrists regarding low vision services. This was a cross-sectional study carried out from May 2020 to July 2020 among optometrists across India. The questionnaire was constructed using the information from the already existing literature, and content validity was done through experts in this field. Furthermore, this survey was circulated to 1374 optometrists in the form of Google survey. The participants were able to participate in the survey only after a written informed consent. Analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 20.0 (SPSS, Inc., IBM), to report the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the low vision services in India. In total, 280 individuals participated in this survey, and the mean age of the participants was 28 ± 8 years. There were 156 (55.7%) females and 124 (44.3%) males with a response rate of 20.37%. Out of 280 participants, 184 (65.7%) were involved in clinical practice, whereas 96 (34.3%) in optical practice. Lack of accessibility and time were found to be the two major barriers to enhance knowledge in low vision; however, accessibility, lack of awareness, and cost were the hindering factors to practise low vision services among these participants. This study reports that accessibility to the low vision services and awareness about the services are the barriers to uptake of low vision services. Besides this awareness, training programmes and public awareness would effectively contribute to enhance low vision services.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T07:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211019071
       
  • Interventions for quality of life and related outcomes among unpaid
           caregivers of older adults with visual impairments: A scoping review

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      Authors: Afeez Abiola Hazzan, Pamela Haibach-Beach, Lauren Lieberman, Jamia Williams
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Unpaid family caregivers play a critical role in the care of older adults with visual impairments. Caring for older adults with visual impairments requires much time and energy, often resulting in psychological stress and reduced quality of life for the unpaid caregiver. However, there is a paucity of data on the impact of caregiving on quality of life and related outcomes among these caregivers. The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review examining issues of quality of life, health, stress, burden, and barriers among unpaid caregivers of older adults with visual impairments. The study also aimed to summarize interventions for addressing these issues. This study followed the Arksey and O’Malley five-stage approach for scoping reviews. We performed a search of published peer-reviewed articles available in PubMed, CINAHL Complete, and PsycINFO to identify relevant studies. Two reviewers conducted the screening of titles, abstracts, and full-texts. A total of 24 articles were eligible for full-text screening from the 452 records identified, and 5 articles met the final inclusion criteria. The following four themes were identified: (1) prevalence of quality of life–related barriers among unpaid caregivers of older adults with visual impairments; (2) adverse events among unpaid caregivers of older adults with visual impairments; (3) interventions for unpaid caregivers of older adults with visual impairments; and (4) potential impacts of intervention on unpaid caregivers of older adults with visual impairments. These findings point to a lack of interventions for unpaid caregivers of older adults with visual impairments, despite the prevalence of quality of life–related barriers and adverse events in this population. This study aligns with the social model of disability as it relates to the failure of the system to meet the needs of older adults with visual impairments. Research addressing these issues is urgently needed.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T07:50:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211019064
       
  • The effectiveness of orientation and mobility Training on the quality of
           life for students who are blind in Iran

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      Authors: Noshin Kamali, Mohammad Ashori
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Orientation and mobility (O&M) training is a practical and helpful method to prepare people who are blind for independent living. Hence, this study aimed to survey the effect of O&M training on the quality of life in students who are blind in Iran. This research was a quasi-randomized controlled trial design. Participants were 24 third-grade to sixth-grade students from two schools for blind in Isfahan, Iran. Using cluster sampling method, one school was assigned to the experimental group (n = 12) and the other to the control group (n = 12). The experimental group participated in the 8-session O&M training program. Both groups completed a World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) at pre-intervention and post-intervention. The obtained data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) test. The results showed significant increases in quality of life and all subscales (physical health, mental health, social relationships, and environmental health) in the experimental group than in the control group. The findings suggest that O&M training can promote quality of life among students who are blind in Iran. Moreover, these findings increase the interest of children and adolescents who are blind in O&M training.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T11:48:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211019066
       
  • Bullying in physical education of children and youth with visual
           impairments: A systematic review

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      Authors: Lindsay Ball, Lauren Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, Melanie Perreault, Kyle Tirone
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Bullying is prevalent in youth but occurs at a higher rate of incidence in children with visual impairments in comparison to children without disabilities. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of literature from the past 20 years on bullying research in physical education of youth with visual impairments. This review examined studies on bullying in physical education for school-age children with visual impairments. Articles that did not include children with visual impairments or blindness, physical education, or any type of intentional bullying were eliminated. After a thorough screening of the articles obtained in the search, 14 were selected and analyzed thematically. Results revealed that of the 114 participants in these studies, 86% experienced social–relational bullying, 64% experienced verbal bullying, and 21% experienced physical bullying. Children with visual impairments were bullied in physical education class by their teachers (50%), paraeducators (7%), and their peers (93%). The bullying occurred in class (93%), in the locker room (21%), and at various locations outside of class. Generalization of these findings to all children with visual impairments is limited due to a lack of quantitative studies found with our search criteria. However, the findings indicate a need to educate teachers and paraeducators about proper modifications to class structure and assessment practices, as well as variations to sports and physical activity, to reduce bullying. In addition, teaching self-advocacy to children with visual impairments may minimize bullying and help with peer acceptance and support in the classroom.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T10:42:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211009927
       
  • Parallel and sideways inverse perspective drawing of a cube top: By an
           adult who is blind

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      Authors: Selene Carboni, John M Kennedy, Marta Wnuczko
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      An adult, who is blind, with modest experience in drawing, drew a cube in parallel and sideways inverse perspective, with Y and T junctions common in drawings by sighted 9- to 11-year-old children. Drawing development may be similar in the blind and sighted.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-05-17T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211009934
       
  • COVID-19 and vision impairment: Constraints negotiation, participation,
           and well-being during lockdown in the United Kingdom

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      Authors: Nigel Halpern, Jillian M Rickly, Marcus Hansen, John Fellenor
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      In response to the Coronavirus disease, the United Kingdom (UK) government introduced lockdown measures requiring people to isolate and adhere to social distancing. This article uses Constraints Negotiation Theory to examine effects of the lockdown on people with vision impairment (PwVI). The research is based on an online survey of 639 PwVI in the UK. The analysis was conducted using partial least squares structural equation modelling in SmartPLS. The findings show that the lockdown had a negative effect on the participation and well-being of PwVI. However, they also show that the negative effects could be negotiated by adapting activities. This emphasises the need for a more inclusive response to current or future pandemics that recognises the vulnerabilities of PwVI and helps them to overcome the challenges associated with any measures that are introduced.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-05-17T07:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211009931
       
  • Gender differences in postural balance, physical activity level, BMI, and
           body composition in athletes with visual impairment

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      Authors: Ferhat Esatbeyoglu, Ayse Kin-İsler
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to examine the gender differences in postural balance, physical activity (PA), and body mass index (BMI) and body composition in visually impaired (VI) athletes. A total of 66 athletes took part in this study. After anthropometric measurements, the PA level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. The modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance tool was used to assess postural balance in four standing conditions: (1) eyes-open on a firm surface, (2) eyes-closed on a firm surface, (3) eyes-open on a compliant surface, and (4) eyes closed on a compliant surface. Findings revealed gender differences in anthropometric measurements (p  .05). Weekly, high and moderate PA levels as well as walking were found to be different across the four groups (p  .05). Postural balance scores in conditions 1 and 3 showed significant gender differences (p  .05). Gender-matched differences were also apparent in conditions 1 and 3, revealing that VI male and female athletes scored worse in these conditions than their sighted male and female counterparts (p 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-05-14T08:55:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211009921
       
  • Individual differences in emotional intelligence skills of people with
           visual impairment and loneliness amid the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Hyung Nam Kim, Sam Jotham Sutharson
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      In response to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, public health interventions such as social distancing and stay-at-home orders have widely been implemented, which is anticipated to contribute to reducing the spread of COVID-19. On the contrary, there is a concern that the public health interventions may increase the level of loneliness. Loneliness and social isolation are public health risks, closely associated with serious medical conditions. As COVID-19 is new to us today, little is known about emotional well-being among people with visual impairment during the COVID-19 pandemic. To address the knowledge gap, this study conducted phone interviews with a convenience sample of 31 people with visual impairment. The interview incorporated the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (version 3) and the trait meta-mood scale (TMMS) to measure loneliness and emotional intelligence skills, respectively. This study found that people with visual impairment were vulnerable to the feeling of loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic and showed individual differences in emotional intelligence skills by different degrees of loneliness. Researchers and health professionals should consider offering adequate coping strategies to those with visual impairment amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T09:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211013860
       
  • Touching and hearing the shapes: How auditory angular and curved sounds
           influence proficiency in recognising tactile angle and curve shapes when
           experienced and inexperienced in using haptic touch

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      Authors: Torø Graven, Clea Desebrock
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated whether adding auditory angular and curved sounds to tactile angle and curve shapes – one unspecified sound to one unspecified shape – positively influences the accuracy and exploration time in recognising tactile angles and curves when experienced and inexperienced in using haptic touch. A within-participant experiment was conducted, with two groups of participants: experienced and inexperienced in using haptic touch, and with two conditions: congruous (e.g., angle shape and angular sound) and incongruous (e.g., angle shape and curved sound) tactile and auditory shape information. Adding congruous auditory angular and curved sounds to tactile angle and curve shapes positively influences the accuracy in recognising tactile angles and curves both when experienced and inexperienced in using haptic touch, and the exploration time on correct recognitions when experienced. People integrate tactile and auditory (angle; curve) shape information and this improves their proficiency in recognising tactile angles and curves.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-04-30T09:10:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02646196211003114
       
  • Grade 12 national examination assessment practices for learners with
           visual impairments in selected schools in Mwense and Lusaka districts,
           Zambia

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      Authors: Sarah Muyoma Ndume
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The study aimed at examining the practices at Grade 12 level with respect to learners with visual impairments. The sample was drawn from Mwense and Lusaka districts of Zambia. The study was guided by the following objective: to establish the current practices of the Grade 12 national examination assessment for learners with visual impairments in selected schools of Mwense and Lusaka districts, Zambia. The study was qualitative, and a case study design was used. The study comprised 22 respondents consisting of four pupils, six school leavers, and six school specialist teachers, two school headmasters, two Education Standard Office (ESO) in charge of special education, and two officials from the Examination Council of Zambia (ECZ). Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data based on the themes that emerged in the study. The study findings revealed that learners who were totally blind wrote their examinations using braille format, and enlarged print was used for those learners who were partially sighted. The findings of study also showed that the examination questions were modified into a descriptive form, and by doing so, learners were able to access the examinations. The study further revealed that learners were given extra time during the examinations, although this was not adequate. It was equally revealed that there were no special provisions that were considered when marking examination scripts for the learners with visual impairments, meaning their scripts were marked just like other scripts for learners without sight challenges. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the Examination Council of Zambia should come up with a marking centre where the scripts for the learners with visual impairments could be marked to solve the problem of missing results, among others.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T08:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621995853
       
  • The associations between vision level and early hand use in children aged
           6–36 months with visual impairment: A cross-sectional, historical case
           note review

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      Authors: Julia Smyth, Jim Richardson, Alison Salt
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Vision level varies within the population of children born with visual impairment (VI). Children with profound visual impairment (PVI – with light awareness at best) are more developmentally vulnerable than peers born with typical sight or those with severe visual impairment (SVI – basic form vision). Many children with VI are dependent on their hand skills to support their development. However, the impact of vision level on the development of hand use is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to describe the associations between vision level and early hand use in children between 6 and 36 months of age with SVI and PVI. A historical case note review, including video footage of 19 children with SVI ([math] = 19 months) and 12 children with PVI ([math] = 16 months), was completed. Hand use was observed while the children completed the Reynell-Zinkin Scales. Observations were recorded using a data collection tool designed for the study. The tool included a checklist of developmentally appropriate hand skills expected to emerge in the first 3 years of life. The observer marked each skill as present, absent or emerging in the video clips. Children with SVI used 80.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [75.0, 87.5]) of the hand skills under observation. Those with PVI used 57.1% (95% CI = [46.4, 67.9]) of these skills. Vision level and hand use were positively correlated: rs = .564 (95% CI = [.263, .765]), p 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T12:08:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621994867
       
  • Readiness of individuals with visual impairments for participation in
           distance education

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      Authors: Eleni Koustriava
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals with visual impairments (VI) may face difficulties fitting in a distance education (DE) program mainly because of accessibility issues and a pervading lack of readiness. The main question was which difficulties and, specifically, which specific aspects of participants’ readiness could jeopardize their attendance in a DE program. The aims of this study were to examine the readiness of individuals with VI for participation in DE and the possible relationships between participants’ readiness for participation and their personal characteristics. A 42-item questionnaire has been developed to examine readiness for participation through five sub-scales referring to motivation, skills, self-management, interaction, and access to technological means (including means of assistive technology). The findings revealed a slightly positive degree of readiness as far as participants’ motivation, perception of their skills, and self-management are concerned and an approximate neutral degree of readiness regarding the aspects of interaction and access to technological means in the context of a DE program. The greater the educational level and the frequency of computer usage, the more positive the readiness for participation.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T11:27:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621994865
       
  • The impact of monocular and binocular visual impairment on the quality of
           life of Brazilian children

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      Authors: Tais Siqueira Venâncio, Bruna Michele Freire de Araújo, João Vitor Ramos de Toledo Negrão, Lívia de Andrade Freire, Niro Kasahara
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this case–control study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) in children with visual impairment from an urban area in Brazil. Participants included children with binocular and monocular visual impairment and normal controls aged between 4 and 15 years. All subjects underwent a basic ophthalmic exam and answered the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL). The score results were compared among the groups with analysis of variance (ANOVA). The sample included 45 children with visual disability (24 binocular and 21 monocular) and 30 age-matched controls. The groups did not differ in age and gender distribution. The child self-report score for the binocular visual impairment group was lower when compared to controls in all four core scales; as compared to monocular children, the binocular group scored lower in physical health and social functioning. The total score of binocular children (67.9 ± 25.2) was lower than that for monocular children (83.0 ± 13.3, p = .01) and controls (84.2 ± 13.6, p 
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T11:26:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621994882
       
  • Content/face validity of motor skill perception questionnaires for youth
           with visual impairments: A Delphi method

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      Authors: Alexandra Stribing, David F Stodden, Eva Monsma, Lauren J Lieberman, Ali S Brian
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Youth with visual impairments (VIs) tend to have lower levels of motor competence and physical activity with increased sedentary behavior and risk of obesity when compared to their peers without VIs. Knowing the influence that motor competence plays on physical activity behaviors in childhood, it is important to identify factors, such as self and others’ perceptions, that may be supporting/inhibiting motor competence levels for youth with VIs. To rigorously examine self-perceptions, parents’ perceptions, and metaperceptions, it is important to have instruments with appropriate content and face validity. Therefore, the purpose of this Delphi study was to determine the content/face validity of the self-perception, parents’ perception, and metaperception questionnaires for youth with VIs. Participants (N = 13, male = 2; female = 11) included experts from four categories: (1) teachers directly working with students with VIs in schools (teachers of the visually impaired [TVI], orientation and mobility specialists [O and M], adapted and general physical educators [n = 6]); (2) researchers who publish studies in the field of physical education, motor behavior, or VIs (n = 3); (3) parents of children with VIs (n = 2); and (4) individuals with documented VIs (n = 2). After two rounds of completing the Delphi procedure, results showed means above 4.0 out of 5.0 for all three questionnaires. The panel of experts deemed the content/face validity of the instruments acceptable.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T11:21:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621990687
       
  • An examination of Unified English Braille and its efficiency in
           representing print

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      Authors: Mackenzie Savaiano, Devin M Kearns
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study considers whether Unified English Braille provides an efficient representation of printed English. Two databases of English words were used to acquire and calculate information about English orthography that was then used to analyze Unified English Braille (UEB) using a computer program developed by the second author. In general, braille groupsigns and wordsigns represent many of the most frequently occurring letter combinations and words in English. However, there were some braille contractions that are so infrequent, they appear fewer than 100 times per million words or did not appear in the database at all. There was good braille representation within the 50 most frequent words, and our efficiency index showed that braille is already extremely efficient, although there is some mismatch between the order of introduction for braille and the frequency of certain words and letter combinations in English. There is a common understanding that we should teach all of the contractions by the end of third grade, but our results show that some contractions, many of which are shortform words, never appear in school texts. It may be possible to approach instruction of shortform words in a different way.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T09:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620973710
       
  • Experiences of individuals with blindness or visual impairment during the
           COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Hungary

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      Authors: Judit Gombas, Judit Csakvari
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the measures of social distancing and national lockdown had a significant impact on everyday life. Individuals with BVI (blindness and visual impairment) are assumed to face increased barriers in numerous domains of their lives. This online survey research investigates, among Hungarian adults with BVI (N = 132), the impact of the lockdown on their access to shopping, daily support needs, access to remote studies of higher education or work, and leisure habits. Respondents accounted for negative impacts of the lockdown on their participation and independence in all research topics. Issues of accessibility were common both concerning shopping for essential goods and access to remote study and work.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T06:38:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621990695
       
  • The functional ability of older adults with visual impairments: A 2-year
           follow-up study

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      Authors: Kaisa-Mari Mirjam Saarela, Ulla Jämsä, Aura Falck, Helvi Kyngäs, Heidi Johanna Siira
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      This study describes the self-estimated functional ability of older adults with visual impairments (VI) living at home prior to and after 24 months of individual low vision rehabilitation (LVR) according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. The LVR was carried out according to regular standard of care in Finland. The study provides knowledge that is relevant for improving both LVR as well as other services for older adults living with VI. Thirty-nine older adults with VI initially participated in the study with 28 remaining for the follow-up at 24 months of LVR. Data were collected by an orally administered questionnaire including items from the Oldwellactive Wellness Profile instrument. Data were analyzed using the marginal homogeneity test, and the outcomes were divided into four categories according to the ICF framework. Comparisons between the baseline and 2-year follow-up revealed statistically significant decreases in daily functions, including going outdoors (p = .011), washing oneself (p = .016), taking care for personal hygiene (p = .046), dressing (p = .034), preparing meals (p = .041), and doing heavy housework (p = .046), following 2 years of received LVR. A statistically significant increase in the need for help was also observed during the study period (p = .025). The independence of older adults with VI decreased, and the need for external services or help increased during 24 months after the onset of receiving LVR. Visual problems were shown to widely affect functional ability. Activities and participation dimension together with loneliness are most affected and need attention in individual LVR.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-12T05:53:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621991886
       
  • Setting research priorities in age-related vision loss: The first step in
           a critical participatory action research approach

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      Authors: Colleen McGrath
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      There are no known examples of studies utilizing a critical participatory action research (CPAR) approach with older adults aging with vision loss, to better understand how environmental factors impact activity engagement. As such, the aim of this article was to share the process of initiating a CPAR approach with older adults with age-related vision loss to identify a set of research and/or rehabilitation priorities related to the influence of physical, social, cultural, political, and institutional environmental factors on activity engagement. This study utilized a CPAR approach. Eight older adults (aged 65 years of age and older) with a diagnosis of age-related vision loss (including macular degeneration, glaucoma, and/or diabetic retinopathy) took part in three half-day meetings as well as a one-on-one interview over a period of 2 months. Through a series of facilitated group discussions, the older adults identified research and/or rehabilitation priorities related to how environmental influences support or limit the participation of older adults with age-related vision loss (ARVL) in everyday activities. Three research and/or rehabilitation priorities were identified including (1) community mobility; (2) assistive technology; and (3) community support and services. For each priority, the older adults, along with the researchers, answered four key questions including (1) What do we need to know more about' (i.e., research question); (2) How could we learn more about this' (i.e., proposed methods of data collection); (3) Who would we need to involve as key stakeholders' (i.e., participants); and (4) What would change look like' (i.e., action potential). This study shared the process of initiating a CPAR process with eight older adults with ARVL to identify research and/or rehabilitation priorities. By doing so, this study will help to provide direction for future ARVL research and rehabilitation that is grounded, methodologically, in a CPAR approach.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-10T10:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620984219
       
  • Exploring the influence of reading medium on braille learning outcomes: A
           case series of six working-age and older adults

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      Authors: Natalina Martiniello, Walter Wittich
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Tactile sensitivity is known to decline with age. Braille provides a vital method of reading and writing for working-age and older adults with acquired visual impairment. The proliferation of low-cost braille displays raises new possibilities for adult braille learners, with dots of greater height than standard paper braille, potentially benefitting older adults with reduced tactile sensitivity. This study explored the influence of reading medium (paper vs braille display) on the accuracy and speed of six working-age and older adult braille learners and examined differences when transitioning from one reading medium to another. Findings indicate that (1) learning letters on a braille display resulted in better speed and accuracy (time: M = 44.2, SD = 37.3, accuracy: M = 83%, SD = 24.8%) than on paper (time: M = 54.3, SD = 40.4, accuracy: M = 80.6%, SD = 28.1%); (2) transitioning from one medium to another generally resulted in the same or better performance (reading times decreased by 11.2% and accuracy improved by 2.4%); and (3) the advantage of the braille display appears to be greatest when reading letters in combination (reading times decreased by 26.8% and accuracy improved by 6.5% for letter-pairs vs a 1.9% reduction in speed and a 2% improvement in accuracy for single letters). The benefit of the braille display condition was most pronounced for participants with reduced tactile sensitivity. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that the use of braille displays in early braille instruction may decrease frustration for those with reduced tactile sensitivity and should not adversely affect the ability for learners to transition to standard paper braille, assuming that both formats are introduced and reinforced throughout training.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-09T08:33:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619621990702
       
  • ‘We’re on their side, aren’t we'’ Exploring Qualified Teacher
           of Children and Young People with Vision Impairment (QTVI) views on the
           

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      Authors: Anna Pilson
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Mindful of the assertion that children with vision impairment (VI) are three times more likely than their peers to develop a mental health problem, this study aimed to identify practitioner-perceived priorities in supporting the emotional well-being of visually impaired children, via eliciting self-reported explorations of professional practice and experiences of Qualified Teacher of Children and Young People with Vision Impairment (QTVI). Using a focus group-based interviewing technique with QTVIs from a single peripatetic VI advisory service in England, the study found that despite evident good practice, the QTVIs could feel inhibited by a lack of confidence in their ability to deliver adequate and appropriate intervention. This stems from a perceived lack of knowledge of resources available, a feeling of ‘reinventing the wheel’ and ‘bolting on’ to existing generic materials to try to improve their relevance to VI, and also an uncertainty regarding ownership of delivery of such interventions. QTVIs demonstrated clear willingness to support the emotional well-being of pupils on their caseload, but expressed a desire for more professional training, a clearer understanding of the breadth of the QTVI role, and a centralisation of knowledge and resources pertaining to emotional well-being. Therefore, this article recommends the development of resources for sharing good practice, as well as encouraging the VI educational sector to provide additional continuing professional development opportunities, and also potentially a review of the course specification of the Mandatory Qualification for Vision Impairment Teaching in England.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-02-03T12:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620984218
       
  • Assessment of eye movements and selected vision function tests in three
           pupils with albinism: A case study in Tanzania

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      Authors: Gunvor B Wilhelmsen, Mads Gjerstad Eide, Marion Felder
      Abstract: British Journal of Visual Impairment, Ahead of Print.
      Albinism is a huge challenge both socially and educationally in Tanzania and many other countries. Pupils with albinism are normally encouraged to read with a fixed gaze due to their nystagmus, and there are doubts about whether refraction improves their reading.The aim is to get more knowledge about their functional vision as a fundament for educating pupils with albinism.The article presents a case study with three pupils from a primary school in Tanzania who went through a functional assessment of vision using standardized methods and a new eye-tracker software measuring smooth pursuits.The assessment reveals large individual differences not only in visual acuity but also in ocular motor functions.There is a need for better understanding of the vision challenges these pupils face so that professionals can develop more suitable methods in school for securing their education.
      Citation: British Journal of Visual Impairment
      PubDate: 2021-01-18T01:09:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0264619620986855
       
 
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