Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2844 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (247 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (248 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1448 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (451 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (62 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (97 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 115 of 115 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Mechanica et Automatica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae Electrical and Mechanical Engineering     Open Access  
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 136)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Archive of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of NTU - Dynamics and strength of machines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Mechanical Science     Open Access  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Friction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
High Speed Machining     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería Mecánica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ingenieria Mecánica. Tecnologia y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Engineering Materials and Manufacture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Manufacturing, Materials, and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Material and Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Mechatronics and Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Microwave Engineering and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Powertrains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
JMST Advances     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 328)
Journal of Applied Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Applied Mechanical Engineering and Green Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computational and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Energy, Mechanical, Material and Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mechanical Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Journal of Mechanical Design and Testing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Renewable Energy and Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Jurnal Crankshaft     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Energi Dan Manufaktur     Open Access  
Jurnal Taman Vokasi     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Mesin     Open Access  
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Lubricants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Main Group Metal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Material Design & Processing Communications     Hybrid Journal  
Mechanical Engineering and Design     Open Access   (Followers: 77)
Mechanical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Mechanical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Media Mesin : Majalah Teknik Mesin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mekanika : Majalah Ilmiah Mekanika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
MTZextra     Full-text available via subscription  
Open Mechanical Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Periodica Polytechnica Mechanical Engineering     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A: Journal of Power and Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part K: Journal of Multi-body Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part N: Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Quantitative InfraRed Thermography Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Rekayasa Mesin     Open Access  
Research Papers Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Slovak University of Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Bulletin of Valahia University - Materials and Mechanics     Open Access  
Simetris : Jurnal Teknik Mesin, Elektro dan Ilmu Komputer     Open Access  
Strojarstvo     Full-text available via subscription  
Strojn?cky casopis ? Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technical Reports Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Mechanical Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tribologia : Finnish Journal of Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Vestnik of Don State Technical University     Open Access  
Двигуни внутрішнього згоряння     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Проблемы машиностроения - Mechanical Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.729
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0954-4070 - ISSN (Online) 2041-2991
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1090 journals]
  • Dynamic path planning and path following control for autonomous vehicle
           based on the piecewise affine tire model
    • Authors: Wuwei Chen, Mingyue Yan, Qidong Wang, Kai Xu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes a novel dynamic path planning and path following control method for collision avoidance, which works based on an improved piecewise affine tire model. The main contribution of this work is the design of a dynamic path planning method based on model predictive control, where it replans a maneuverable path to avoid moving obstacle in real time. A hierarchical control framework contains a high-level path replanning model predictive control and a low-level path following model predictive control. A collision avoidance cost function in the high hierarchies was designed to calculate the relative dynamic distance, which copes with the sudden obstacle. Moreover, the replanning path is the optimized output according to reference trajectory, obstacle, and handling stability. The control objective of the low hierarchies is to accurately track the replanning path, especially for the increased nonlinearity of large tire sideslip angle. For this reason, an improved piecewise affine tire model is designed and used for model predictive control to improve the path following performance and reduce calculated burden. The main improvement of the piecewise affine tire model is that the varied lateral stiffness coefficients adapt to the change of the tire sideslip angle in different tire regions. Based on the CarSim and Simulink platform, the dynamic path planning and path following simulations are designed to test the proposed method. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T06:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020941729
       
  • Adaptive estimations of tyre–road friction coefficient and body’s
           sideslip angle based on strong tracking and interactive multiple model
           theories
    • Authors: Xianyao Ping, Shuo Cheng, Wei Yue, Yongchang Du, Xiangyu Wang, Liang Li
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Vehicle dynamic states and parameters, such as the tyre–road friction coefficient and body’s sideslip angle especially, are crucial for vehicle dynamics control with close-loop feedback laws. Autonomous vehicles also have strict demands on real-time knowledge of those information to make reliable decisions. With consideration of the cost saving, some estimation methods employing high-resolution vision and position devices are not for the production vehicles. Meanwhile, the bad adaptability of traditional Kalman filters to variable system structure restricts their practical applications. This paper introduces a cost-efficient estimation scheme using on-board sensors. Improved Strong Tracking Unscented Kalman filter is constructed to estimate the friction coefficient with fast convergence rate on time-variant road surfaces. On the basis of previous step, an estimator based on interactive multiple model is built to tolerant biased noise covariance matrices and observe body’s sideslip angle. After the vehicle modelling errors are considered, a Self-Correction Data Fusion algorithm is developed to integrate results of the estimator and direct integral method with error correction theory. Some simulations and experiments are also implemented, and their results verify the high accuracy and good robustness of the cooperative estimation scheme.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T06:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020941410
       
  • Carsickness-based design and development of a controller for autonomous
           vehicles to improve the comfort of occupants
    • Authors: Mert Sever, Namik Zengin, Ahmet Kirli, M Selçuk Arslan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      It is anticipated that passengers in autonomous vehicles will be more occupied with in-vehicle activities. Loss of the authority on driving and engaging in non-driving tasks could cause lower predictability of car motions. This decrease in predictability is expected to increase the sensitivity to carsickness. It appears that it is crucial to develop controllers for autonomous driving with the capability of improving passenger comfort by reducing carsickness. In this regard, it can be asked how the motion variables can be used for the minimization of a carsickness-related measure, while the vehicle is required to follow a given path. In this study, an optimal control approach is being proposed to minimize a quantitative measure of carsickness. In order to address carsickness during autonomous maneuvers, the well-known motion sickness dose value formulation in ISO 2631-1 is augmented with horizontal direction motion components to define a performance measure. The performance measure includes the motion sensed in vestibular system rather than the motion occurring in the vehicle itself. Therefore, mathematical model of the vestibular system is included in the design of controller. Effects of acceleration and jerk are included in performance measure simultaneously. Control oriented linear parameter varying vehicle model is developed to design the path following controller. By means of simulation studies in which path following control is implemented, motion sickness dose values of the controlled vehicle are examined. It is shown by a regular lane change test at various speeds that the proposed controller, which seeks the minimization of the motion sickness dose value, achieves a reduction of the acceleration and jerk felt by a passenger, while the vehicle follows the given path.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T06:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020943316
       
  • Torque distribution method based on vibration instability of PS-HEV
           transmission system
    • Authors: Yingfeng Cai, Lei Dou, Donghai Hu, Long Chen, Dehua Shi, Jiajia Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The power-split hybrid electric vehicle has multiple working modes, which can be switched to different working mode according to different working conditions. The main switching process involved in the vehicle driving is the switch from the pure electric mode to the hybrid driving mode. This paper studies the mode switching process involved in the power-split hybrid electric vehicle driving process, and a nonlinear dynamic equation of the electromechanical coupling of the corresponding transmission system is established. Then the multi-scale method is employed to solve the dynamic equation, and the amplitude-frequency response curve is drawn. According to the curve, the effects of load, mechanical input excitation of the engine and motor electromagnetic excitation on the electromechanical coupling torsional vibration of the transmission system are studied. The engine and motor torque distribution schemes are obtained by analyzing the amplitude-frequency response curve of the torsional vibration characteristics of the system. The analysis results show that the vibration instability phenomenon of the transmission system can be avoided by establishing the nonlinear dynamic equation of the transmission system, analyzing the vibration characteristics of the vibration system, and optimizing the torque distribution of a PS-HEV at different working modes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T06:39:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020943308
       
  • The fundamental effects of in-cylinder evaporation of liquefied natural
           gas fuels in engines
    • Authors: Joshua Finneran, Colin P Garner, Francois Nadal
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Liquefied natural gas is emerging as viable and potentially sustainable transportation fuel with intrinsic economic and environmental benefits. Liquefied natural gas possesses thermomechanical exergy amounting to ∼1 MJ kg-1 which is currently wasted on liquefied natural gas vehicles, while it could be used to produce useful work. The present investigation proposes an indirect means of obtaining useful work from liquefied natural gas through charge cooling and also demonstrates additional benefits in terms of NOx emissions and power density. A thermodynamic engine model was used to quantify the performance benefits of such a strategy for a homogeneous-charge, spark-ignited, stoichiometric natural gas engine. Four fuelling strategies were compared in terms of fuel consumption, mean effective pressure and NOx emissions. Compared to the conventional port-injected natural gas engine (where gaseous fuel is injected), it was found that directly injecting the liquid phase fuel into the cylinder near the start of the compression stroke resulted in approximately -8.9% brake specific fuel consumption, +18.5% brake mean effective pressure and -51% brake specific NOx depending on the operating point. Port-injection of the fuel in the liquid phase carried similar benefits, while direct injection of the fuel in the gaseous phase resulted in minor efficiency penalties (∼+1.3% brake specific fuel consumption). This work highlights the future potential of liquefied natural gas vehicles to achieve high specific power, high efficiency and ultra-low emissions (such as NOx) by tailoring the fuel system to fully exploit the cryogenic properties of the fuel.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T09:59:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020941710
       
  • Steering control to balance a motorcycle at low speeds based on
           riders’ input
    • Authors: Sharad Singhania, Ichiro Kageyama, Venkata M Karanam
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Motorcycles are a primary mode of daily transportation in many developing countries, especially in towns and cities. The increased traffic congestion constrains the average speed of the motorcycle, causing stability and safety concerns for the riders. A controller that assists the riders can improve this scenario. This paper presents a new controller developed using an experimental study that improves the low-speed stability of a motorcycle. The experiments were conducted on a motorcycle with the riders of three experience levels: beginner, intermediate and expert. The input parameters: steering angle and steering torque; the output parameters: roll angle, yaw angle, roll rate and yaw rate were measured. Critical input and output parameters were identified statistically from the experimental measurements and used for the controller modelled in Simulink. The controller model was co-simulated with a multi-body dynamics model of the motorcycle. The co-simulation results showed the controller developed herein stabilises the motorcycle model at low speeds.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T11:19:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020906628
       
  • Analysis and research on vehicle wading performance
    • Authors: Zheng Xin, Su Donghai
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      With the inclusion of the effects from wheels rotation, vehicle wading phenomenon was simulated using computational fluid dynamics tools and compared with road wading test. The new method utilizing the volume of fluid model to simulate the two-phase (water and air) flow when vehicle wades, Reynolds-Averaging Navier–Stokes simulation with both Realizable and shear stress transport turbulent models were conducted and the results indicated that the essential features of vehicle wading phenomenon were captured accurately. A relatively better correlation is achieved between computational fluid dynamics analysis and road test when shear stress transport turbulent model was utilized compared to using Realizable turbulent model. With the addition of the wheel rotation effects in vehicle wading simulation, the potential risks of water intrusion into the critical chassis and electronic components can be early detected and the frequent late design changes can be avoided. The new approach adopted in this study with VOF model and RANS simulation with SST turbulent model has shown that the benefits of shorter vehicle development cycles and parts warranty cost reduction. Thus, the results from computational fluid dynamics simulation with wheel rotation effects included can serve as the design guidance for any future vehicle wading developments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T11:19:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020942005
       
  • Research on autonomous vehicle path tracking control considering roll
           stability
    • Authors: Fen Lin, Shaobo Wang, Youqun Zhao, Yizhang Cai
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      For autonomous vehicle path tracking control, the general path tracking controllers usually only consider vehicle dynamics’ constraints, without taking vehicle stability evaluation index into account. In this paper, a linear three-degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics model is used as a predictive model. A comprehensive control method combining Model Predictive Control and Fuzzy proportional–integral–derivative control is proposed. Model Predictive Control is used to control the vehicle yaw stability and track the target path by considering the front wheel angle, sideslip angle, tire slip angles, and yaw rate during the path tracking. Fuzzy proportional–integral–derivative algorithm is adopted to maintain the vehicle roll stability by controlling the braking force of each tire. Co-simulation with CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink shows the designed controller has good tracking performance. The controller is smooth and effective and ensures handling stability in tracking the target path.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T11:19:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020942006
       
  • Evaluating emissions and sensitivity of economic gains for series plug-in
           hybrid electric vehicle powertrains for transit bus applications
    • Authors: Vaidehi Hoshing, Ashish Vora, Tridib Saha, Xing Jin, Orkan Kurtulus, Nachiket Vatkar, Gregory Shaver, Oleg Wasynczuk, R Edwin García, Subbarao Varigonda
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      From the design space explored for series architecture plug-in hybrid electric vehicle transit buses by the authors, one powertrain and control design is selected to provide maximum benefit to investment ratio. Sensitivity analysis is performed for this powertrain configuration. Vehicle parameters (including vehicle mass, coefficient of drag, coefficient of rolling resistance), usage parameters (drivecycle, annual vehicle miles traveled, number of recharges in a day, recharge current, and battery temperature), and economic parameters (fuel price, motor price, and battery price) are varied to understand their effect on the number of required battery replacements, net present value, payback period, and fuel consumption reduction. It is shown that battery temperature has the most significant impact, particularly on the number of battery replacements and net present value and, as such, must be well controlled in practice. It is shown that to maintain the battery at 20°C, for ambient temperatures between −5°C and 45°C, 0.8–1.8% excess fuel is required across all drivecycles for the considered plug-in hybrid electric vehicle transit bus powertrain configuration. In addition, the well-to-wheel emissions of criteria pollutants resulting from the usage of this plug-in hybrid electric vehicle transit bus in Indiana and California are calculated and compared with the conventional transit bus, using the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation) Model. With a single over night charge, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle transit bus operating in either Indiana or California produces 50% less CO2 and other greenhouse gases as compared to a conventional transit bus.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-25T06:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020937522
       
  • Parameter optimization design of two-planetary-gear power-split hybrid
           system configuration using the RAD-MOPSO algorithm
    • Authors: Jiading Gu, Zhiguo Zhao, Yi Chen, Xiaowen Zhan, Lu He
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The performance of a power-split hybrid system and power coupling quality of its power components directly depend on the optimal design of its configuration and characteristic parameters. For numerous potential configurations, determining the best system configuration and corresponding planetary gear (PG) sets characteristic parameters to achieve the desired vehicle performance target is the key issue during a power-split system design. In this article, all potential configurations, different numbers of shifting actuators, connection positions of power components, and combinations of vehicle working modes are considered for a two-planetary-gear (2-PG) power-split hybrid system. A new algorithm, named Reborn after the Doom based on multi-objective particle swarm optimization (RAD-MOPSO) algorithm, is proposed to optimize the 2-PG system configuration and parameters. First, based on the analysis, evaluation, and screening of the system configuration, the design of the 2-PG hybrid system is considered as a multi-objective optimization design problem. The RAD-MOPSO algorithm is then proposed and applied, and the effectiveness and competitiveness of the proposed algorithm are validated by relevant benchmark functions. Finally, RAD-MOPSO is applied to the parameter optimization of the potential 2-PG system configuration. The calculation results demonstrate that this algorithm has faster convergence speed and better diversity performance compared with MOPSO and can also achieve efficient configuration screening and parameter optimization of a power-split hybrid system, and the Pareto-optimal solution set is obtained.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-25T06:51:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020937527
       
  • Inter-vehicle distance estimation considering camera attitude angles based
           on monocular vision
    • Authors: Jun Liu, Rui Zhang, Shihao Hou
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Perceiving the distance between vehicles is a crucial issue for advanced driving assistance systems. However, most vision-based distance estimation methods do not consider the influence of the change in camera attitude angles during driving or only use the vanishing point detected by lane lines to correct the pitch angle. This paper proposed an improved pinhole distance estimation model based on the road vanishing point without the lane line information. First, the road vanishing point is detected based on the dominant texture orientation, and the yaw and pitch angles of the camera are estimated. Then, a distance estimation model considering attitude angle compensation is established. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively correct the influence of the camera attitude angle on the distance estimation results.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T02:05:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020941399
       
  • Car-mounted (black box) camera–based prediction and avoidance of
           intersection collisions for advanced driver assistance systems
    • Authors: Inhwan Han
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study analyzed video and quantitative data of 471 four-way intersection vehicle collisions obtained from Virginia Tech Transportation Institute near-accidents data and used the analysis results to determine the threshold value for each of the nine types of intersection collisions. The collision cases obtained for this study were categorized into nine groups based on the direction of the car that recorded the video and location of the other car estimated through video analysis. In obscure cases, the aspect rate was additionally used to assign a group. After the group it belongs to is identified, the change rate of aspect ratio and area change rate were used to determine the possibility and specific type of intersection collision. When a collision was imminent, avoidance possibility was calculated to avoid the collision completely, and if the collision was inevitable, partial collision maneuver method that causes the least damage was deduced. The suggested algorithms were verified using the black box video from 16 actual accident cases. With the exception of special cases such as when most of the vehicle was out of view, most of them showed high correspondence.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T01:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020941370
       
  • Diagnosis of hydrous ethanol combustion in a spark-ignition engine
    • Authors: Caio H Rufino, Waldyr LR Gallo, Janito V Ferreira
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      By evaluating combustion duration and flame development, it is possible to evaluate the effects of utilizing a new type of fuel. This allows for optimization of the operational parameters such as the ignition timing, air–fuel ratio, and throttle opening with respect to efficiency, knock, emissions, and performance. In this work, the combustion of a Brazilian hydrous ethanol fuel was evaluated in a commercial flexfuel engine. Investigations were conducted by performing a heat release analysis of the experimental data and providing combustion characteristics. The experimental design comprised of variations in engine speed, load, ignition timing, and air–fuel ratio under lean condition. The results indicated the relationship between the engine parameters and combustion characteristics under a wide range of operational conditions, and identified the relationship between the physical characteristics of the fuels and their combustion in the commercial engine. For high engine speed, lean combustion presented a similar duration to the stoichiometric combustion duration. When comparing the combustion characteristics obtained for the hydrous ethanol with gasoline combustion, the main differences noted were reduced sensitivity to detonation and a shorter duration of combustion, although the temperature at the start of combustion was lower for ethanol. In addition to shorter combustion duration, ethanol presented a lower value for the Wiebe exponent. The results obtained from the combustion duration values and Wiebe function parameters enable the composition of a set of data required for a simplified combustion simulation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-21T12:52:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020940824
       
  • Hierarchical coordinated control distribution and experimental
           verification for six-wheeled unmanned ground vehicles
    • Authors: Rajan Prasad, Yue Ma, Yu Wang, Huimin Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, the all-wheel independent drive has been the most promising form of drive configuration in unmanned ground vehicles. Considering the difficulties in the control allocation for this kind of vehicle, this paper presents a hierarchical control coordination strategy with three layers to distribute control in real time effectively and accurately. In the upper layer, a hybrid instruction parsing method is proposed, which converts commands of the control panel into driving force requirement and target steering yaw rate, respectively, to prioritize steering command to maintain the trajectory based on the motor properties. Subsequently, a sliding mode controller is employed to convert the target yaw rate into the required yaw moment. The state estimation layer receives data from the sensors and estimates different properties/parameters required in other layers. The lower-level control layer receives commands from the upper layer and allocates respective control to wheels. The control allocation problem has been formulated as an optimization problem and later has been converted into a quadratic programming problem, in which a novel modified barrier method with the combination of reduced equation dimension has been adopted to minimize the computational effort and complexity for implementation on the embedded platform. Computer simulation and field experiment have been conducted, which verify the performance of the proposed strategy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-21T12:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020940823
       
  • An effective topology optimization method for crashworthiness of
           thin-walled structures using the equivalent linear static loads
    • Authors: Chun Ren, Haitao Min, Tianfei Ma, Fangquan Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The equivalent static loads method for nonlinear dynamic response structural optimization may be failed in large deformation crash conditions, due to topology optimization with the equivalent static loads mostly beyond the linear range and causing numerical defects such as high compliance of elements. To overcome the above disadvantage, an advanced structural topology optimization method for crashworthiness considering crash-reduced large deformation and plastic buckling is proposed using newly defined equivalent linear static loads. The equivalent linear static loads can adaptively scale to guarantee that the topology optimization is performed within linear range. At each cycle, the crash simulation is performed and the nonlinear nodal displacement vector at the time step with the maximum strain energy is scaled by an adaptive displacement-scaling factor. The equivalent linear static loads that are generated by multiplying the linear stiffness matrix and the scaled nodal displacement vector will be incorporated into topology optimization, which can guarantee the topology optimization to remain in linear range and further solve the numerical instability problems. The process is repeated until the convergence criteria are satisfied. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by solving a crashworthiness topology optimization of a crash box considering crash-induced plastic buckling to determine the location and profile of crash triggers. The results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the large deformation crashworthiness topology optimization of thin-walled structures and provides a feasible strategy for crash triggers design in crash box.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-21T12:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020940138
       
  • A novel evaluation on rolling resistance characteristics of truck tire
           through the simplified experimental modal analysis
    • Authors: Chengwei Zhu, Jingjing Yan, Ye Zhuang, Xueliang Gao, Qiang Chen, Jiannan Wei, Haitao Ding
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A novel evaluation method for the rolling resistance characteristics of truck tire is proposed, in which a simplified modal experiment is suggested through a single-point vibration sampling from the tire surface with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film. Three truck tires are utilized in the modal experiments, and the half-power bandwidth method is employed to identify the damping characteristics of the three tires. The damping characteristics of the tires are ranked by their values. These values are compared with their corresponding rolling resistance coefficients to manifest their correlative relationship. The experimental results, which are obtained from the modal experiment and the rolling resistance test, indicate that the modal parameters and the half-power bandwidth of the tire are exactly correlated to the rolling resistance coefficients. Furthermore, the damping ratios of the tires are correlated well with the rolling resistance coefficients among the tires. Overall, the proposed evaluation method could effectively evaluate the rolling resistance characteristics of the tire, which enable it to be a simple and economical alternative over the conventional tire rolling resistance experiments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-16T07:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020920032
       
  • A creep control for distributed rear wheel drive bus
    • Authors: Yuan Wang, Liangxin Yuan, Hao Chen, Peng Du, Xiaomin Lian
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Creep control is a kind of start-up control for electric vehicle. In the paper, two closed-loop control is contained in the creep control strategy. Proportional control with torque limitation, which adjusts vehicle speed, is the outer-loop control; and anti-slip control is the inner-loop control. In this way, the vehicle speed indicates no overshoot and has uniform convergence with driving torque. Moreover, the vehicle can start up on low adhesion or split road, and the driver can control the creep speed by the brake pedal only, so that the driver’s operation is reduced. Subjective evaluation method is proposed to determine the control performance metrics, and then the mathematical relationship between the performance metrics and the control parameters is established. The tuning method of the control parameters is proposed according to those performance metrics, which mitigates the workloads of calibration and provides a better driving experience. Some simulations and real vehicle experiments are conducted to verify that the control strategy has an expected performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T12:12:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020936788
       
  • Yaw rate tracking-based path-following control for four-wheel independent
           driving and four-wheel independent steering autonomous vehicles
           considering the coordination with dynamics stability
    • Authors: Yixiao Liang, Yinong Li, Ling Zheng, Yinghong Yu, Yue Ren
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The path-following problem for four-wheel independent driving and four-wheel independent steering electric autonomous vehicles is investigated in this paper. Owing to the over-actuated characters of four-wheel independent driving and four-wheel independent steering autonomous vehicles, a novel yaw rate tracking-based path-following controller is proposed. First, according to the kinematic relationships between vehicle and the reference path, the yaw rate generator is designed by linear matrix inequality theory, with the ability to minimize the disturbances caused by vehicle side slip and varying curvature of path. Considering that the path-following objective and dynamics stability are in conflict with each other in some extreme path-following conditions, a coordinating mechanism based on yaw rate prediction is proposed to satisfy the two conflicting objectives. Then, according to the desired yaw rate and longitudinal velocity, a hierarchical structure is introduced for motion control. The upper-level controller calculates the generalized tracking forces while the allocation layer optimally distributes the generalized forces to tires considering tire vertical load and adhesive utilization. Finally, simulation results indicate that the proposed method can achieve excellent path-following performances in different driving conditions, while both path-following objective and dynamics stability can be satisfied.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T12:11:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020938490
       
  • Mechanism of interior noise generation in high-speed vehicle based on
           anti-noise operational transfer path analysis
    • Authors: Ningning Liu, Yuedong Sun, Yansong Wang, Pei Sun, Wenwu Li, Hui Guo
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Owing to the continuous development of the automobile industry, increasingly stringent performance requirements for noise, vibration, and harshness of automobiles are being presented. Interior noise control in high-speed vehicles has not been adequately addressed, owing to the complex mechanism of noise generation. As simulations performed previously focused on vehicle wind noise and tyre noise cannot adequately predict the effect on passenger ear-side noise, these issues are investigated in this study. Their effects on passengers are investigated using transfer path analysis. An anti-noise operational transfer path analysis is proposed to study noise generated in high-speed vehicles. The established anti-noise operational transfer path analysis model can eliminate crosstalks between noise source signals of different transmission paths. The model is validated by comparing the measured and calculated values of the anti-noise operational transfer path analysis model. The coherence of the input noise signal and the ear-side noise signal of the passenger is assessed using coherence analysis. By calculating and categorising the contributions of different noise sources in different locations and types, the main noise sources affecting passenger comfort are determined. The result indicates that the main noise sources affecting the passenger’s ear-side noise change from engine noise to left-A wind noise and tyre radiation noise with increasing vehicle speed, in which the proportion also increase. The proposed anti-noise operational transfer path analysis is suitable for the interior-noise analysis of high-speed vehicles, and this study may serve as a reference for future studies regarding active and passive noise control in high-speed vehicles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T10:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020937219
       
  • An investigation of a high-performance centrifugal compressor with a
           variable map width enhancement slot for proton exchange membrane fuel cell
           systems in commercial vehicle application
    • Authors: Jianjiao Jin, Jianfeng Pan, Zhigang Lu, Qingrui Wu, Lizhong Xu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Maintaining required performance and rated power output of proton exchange membrane fuel cells while reducing fuel consumption demands and improving efficiencies at the largest parasitic work loss contributor, namely the air compressor. In this paper, we built a high-efficiency one-dimensional match model of centrifugal compressor for proton exchange membrane fuel cells first, which was based on the fuel cell air supply system and the optimal trim factor. And then a variable map width enhancement slot design adjusted by a closed ring was first introduced to extend the surge margin and keep high efficiency. Finally, the compressor with a variable map width enhancement slot was validated at a compressor performance rig and a fuel cell simulation system. The results from compressor performance test rig indicate that the compressor peak efficiency is as high as 77% and the surge margin is enhanced by about 28.1∼ 42.7 %. The simulation results of the fuel cell system indicate the maximum power consumption of the compressor and the H2 consumption of comprehensive adapted world transient vehicle cycle are reduced by nearly 1.6 kW and 4.86%, respectively, in comparison with the baseline screw compressor.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T09:54:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020937149
       
  • Virtual powertrain development
    • Authors: Peter Fietkau, Bruno Kistner, Jérôme Munier
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents the new system of virtual powertrain development introduced at Porsche AG that incorporates all phases of the development process, as well as all components and simulation disciplines. The system enables a powertrain in its entirety to be designed and tested virtually. Most activities can be planned and budgeted at the beginning of the project, and interactions that occur are systematically taken into consideration. The hardware-driven development process used until now is completely transmitted to the digital world. Powertrain development is divided into thirteen digital powertrain systems (DPSs), which contain different components and disciplines and are developed throughout the entire product development process. For each DPS, tasks, links, time schedules, reporting scopes, and responsibilities are precisely defined. Finally, a digital vehicle prototype is built from several DPSs. The results are aggregated in several stages, ensuring that core statements are consistently incorporated at all assessment levels, from the individual component to the overall vehicle. Furthermore, this article discusses in detail DPSs that are especially important for battery electric vehicles. For most of the examples, the powertrain of the Porsche Taycan is used. The Driving Performance and Load Spectra DPS provide the necessary design parameters for a new drive system. In the Electric Motor DPS, active parts of the electric motor are designed and all structural components are verified. In the Transmission DPS, all gear set parts are designed and verified. In the Cooling, Lubrication and Actuation DPS, all temperatures are calculated and the lubrication circuit is designed. The Powertrain Dynamics DPS provides information on powertrain vibrations. The article closes with a look at future development trends. The aim is not just to design and verify components but also to completely virtualize function and software development. Therefore, this article presents a system for creating and using a virtual development environment and tracking the results.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T10:08:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020936797
       
  • Ride comfort control of in-wheel motor drive unmanned ground vehicles with
           energy regeneration
    • Authors: Lipeng Zhang, Chenhui Ren, Xinmao Yuan, Wei Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Adopting in-wheel motor drive can improve vehicle dynamics control functions, which is the most ideal drive mode of unmanned ground vehicle. However, with the increase of the heavy unspring-mass vibration energy while the vehicle running on uneven road, the ride comfort will be seriously deteriorated. To solve the problem and save energy, the ride comfort control based on regenerative suspensions is adopted. By analyzing the vibration performance, the adverse effects of the vehicle equipped in-wheel motors with passive suspensions are revealed. Then, the dynamics model of the regenerative suspension is built. Based on the suspension power recovery, the multi-state optimal control strategy for improving the ride comfort is designed. Finally, comparing the simulation results of regenerative suspensions with the test results of passive suspensions, when the vehicle mass ratio decreases from 8:1 to 4:1, the body acceleration and the root mean square value of tire dynamic load increase by 28.1% and 31.6%, correspondingly. With the control method, the body acceleration is decreased by 23% and reaches the level of conventional vehicles. Furthermore, part of the vehicle vibration energy can be recovered and the vehicle driving range can be extended.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T06:51:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020933364
       
  • Robust adaptive anti-windup wheel slip tracking control for intelligent
           vehicle with fast terminal sliding mode observer
    • Authors: Jiaxu Zhang, Shiying Zhou
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Aiming at the requirement of the intelligent vehicle for the fast and stable tracking control of the wheel slip, a novel robust adaptive anti-windup wheel slip tracking control method with fast terminal sliding mode observer is proposed. First, a fast terminal sliding mode observer based on equivalent control on the sliding surface is proposed to estimate the states of the wheel slip dynamic system to lay the foundation for the full state feedback control law design. Second, a robust adaptive anti-windup wheel slip tracking control law with lumped uncertainty observer and additional anti-windup dynamics is derived based on Lyapunov-based method. The lumped uncertainty observer utilizes the nonlinear mapping ability of the radius basis function neural network to estimate and compensate the lumped uncertainty of the system, and the unknown optimal weight vector of the radius basis function neural network is updated by adaptive law. The additional anti-windup dynamics is used to suppress the effect of the input saturation on the stability of the system. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is verified through simulations of various maneuvers on vehicle dynamics simulation software.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T06:51:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020932675
       
  • Parameter matching and optimization for power system of range-extended
           electric vehicle based on requirements
    • Authors: Hanwu Liu, Yulong Lei, Yao Fu, Xingzhong Li
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      For the research on crucial technologies of range-extended electric vehicle, the first problem to be solved is parameter matching and efficiency optimization for range-extended electric vehicle power and transmission system. Parameter matching and optimization of range-extended electric vehicle power and transmission system are multi-objective optimization problem. Evaluation and analysis of multi-objective optimization problem should be mutually independent and balanced. With the aim of guaranteeing vehicle’s comprehensive performance, a parameter matching and optimization method for range-extended electric vehicle power and transmission system is proposed in this paper. First, the house of quality model of range-extended electric vehicle is established to determine weight coefficient of vehicle performance indicator based on market requirements instead of experience. Based on co-simulation control model which is established in Matlab-Simulink and AVL-Cruise, 40 groups of orthogonal tests are performed, and the sensitivity of characteristic parameters is analyzed to explore the coupling law among vehicle performance indicators, so as to clarify the entry point for parameter matching and optimization. The simulation results show that the characteristic parameters not only have a significant influence but also have a coupling effect on the vehicle performance indicators. The analysis of variance shows that there is a limitation in optimal level combination of various factors only by range. Then, particle swarm optimization algorithm is selected to optimize the parameters of range-extended electric vehicle power and transmission system based on sensitivity analysis results obtained above. The study reveals that it is more efficient and reasonable to match the range-extended electric vehicle power and transmission system with a smaller battery capacity and a “medium-sized” auxiliary power unit which can achieve adequate dynamic performance, lower purchase cost, longer driving range and less energy consumption. Finally, a comparative simulation between the range-based analysis and particle swarm optimization-based analysis is conducted, the simulation results indicate that the optimized design parameters solution can significantly improve the technical indicators of the vehicle.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-07T10:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020936781
       
  • A case study on particulate emissions from a gasoline plug-in hybrid
           electric vehicle during engine warm-up, taking into account start–stop
           operation
    • Authors: Martin Lenz, Moritz Cremer, Daniel Guse, Henning Röhrich, Stefan Pischinger
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Concerning the discussions about emissions caused by individual mobility, it is foreseeable that future vehicle concepts will increasingly be based on hybrid powertrains. These systems lead to more complex operating scenarios, which have a significant influence on the resulting emissions of the engine. This work shows a case study and the results in the operation and emission behavior of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with a direct injection gasoline engine when operated in an internationally recognized driving cycle. The vehicle’s exhaust aftertreatment system consists of a three-way catalytic converter; a particulate filter is not installed. The emissions are analyzed with a focus on particulate number emissions (from soot), especially during the warm-up phase and the frequent start–stop events (in total, there are 12 internal combustion engine operating phases), which are typical for hybrid vehicles. The results show that approximately 50% of the emitted particulates have a smaller size, 23 nm (a very high number of particulates with a mean size of 10 to 15 nm are present), which are currently not regulated, but are expected to have a high risk of adverse health effects.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-04T01:59:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020931227
       
  • A study on the mechanism reduction and evaluation of biodiesel with the
           change of mechanism reduction factors
    • Authors: Jun Woo Jung, Young Chan Lim, Hyun Kyu Suh
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to confirm the effect of changing the various factors with the directed relation graph error propagation–based methods and to adopt a new approach of the mechanism evaluation in the reduction of biodiesel mechanism. The factors considered in this study were a threshold value, target species, ambient conditions, and the evaluation formula consists of the reduction rates and the maximum error rate of ignition delay to objectively compare the skeletal mechanisms generated under different conditions. For a threshold value, the automatic mechanism reduction process was used to select the appropriate threshold value by applying the relative tolerance and absolute tolerance; so relative tolerance and absolute tolerance represent the factor of the threshold value. Also, the seven steps of mechanism reduction process consist of directed relation graph error propagation, directed relation graph error propagation with sensitivity analysis, peak concentration analysis, full species sensitivity analysis, and A-factor modification. As a result of the mechanism reduction, different relative tolerance and absolute tolerance values should be applied to each step to select the appropriate threshold value. For target species, considering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species as target species shows higher efficiency of mechanism reduction. Also, considering the negative temperature coefficient region as ambient conditions helps the mechanism be reduced efficiently than a wide range of ambient conditions. Finally, the reduced mechanism which had 247 species and 1129 reactions was generated, and the maximum error rate of ignition delay was about 30%. For the applicability of three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and verification of the reduced mechanism, the compression ignition engine simulation was performed. As a result of three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, the predicted cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, indicated mean effective pressure, and power were similar to the experimental results. However, the results of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions did not match the experimental results.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T08:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020931694
       
  • Deep learning procedure for knock, performance and emission prediction at
           steady-state condition of a gasoline engine
    • Authors: Seunghyup Shin, Sangyul Lee, Minjae Kim, Jihwan Park, Kyoungdoug Min
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, deep learning has played an important role in the rise of artificial intelligence, and its accuracy has gained recognition in various research fields. Although engine phenomena are very complicated, they can be predicted with high accuracy using deep learning because they are based on the fundamentals of physics and chemistry. In this research, models were built with deep neural networks for gasoline engine prediction. The model consists of two sub-models. The first predicts the knock occurrence, and the second predicts performance, combustion, and emissions. This includes maximum cylinder pressure, crank angle at maximum cylinder pressure, maximum pressure rise rate, and brake mean effective pressure, brake-specific fuel consumption, brake-specific nitrogen oxides, and brake-specific carbon oxide, which are representative results of the engine (for normal combustion cases without knock). Model input parameters were selected considering engine operating conditions, and physically measurable sensor values. For test cases, the accuracy of the first model for knock classification is 99.0%, and the coefficient of determination (R2) values for the second model are all above 0.99. Test times of both models were approximately 2 ms. The robustness of all the models was verified using K-fold cross-validation. A sensitivity study of accuracy, according to the amount of training utilized, was also conducted to determine how many data points are required to effectively train the deep learning model. Accordingly, a deep learning approach was applied to predict the steady-state conditions of a gasoline engine. Achieved model accuracies and robustness proved deep learning to be an effective modeling approach, and test time was recognized to be able to apply for the real-time prediction. The sensitivity analysis can be applied for the preliminary study to define the number of experimental points for the deep learning model.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020932690
       
  • Optimization of tire tread pattern based on flow characteristics to
           improve hydroplaning resistance
    • Authors: Haichao Zhou, Zhen Jiang, Baiyu Jiang, Hao Wang, Guolin Wang, Hao Qian
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Tire tread pattern is a crucial parameter to prevent hydroplaning. In this study, numerical modeling was used to investigate tire hydroplaning based on flow–structure interaction. The empirical model of hydroplaning speed published in the literature was used to validate the computational model. Analysis of water flow velocity and turbulent flow energy revealed that lateral grooves of the tire significantly influenced water drainage capacity. Based on the relationship between water flow vector and lateral groove shape, a combination of Kriging surrogate model and simulated annealing algorithm was used to optimize lateral groove design to minimize hydrodynamic lift force. Four geometry parameters of lateral grooves were selected as the design variables. Based on design of experiment principle, 12 simulation cases based on the optimal Latin hypercube design method were used to analyze the influence of design variables on hydrodynamic lift force. The surrogate model was optimized by the simulated annealing algorithm to optimize tire tread pattern. The results indicated that at the same water flow speed, the optimized lateral grooves can reduce hydrodynamic lift force by 14.05% and thus greatly improve safety performance of the tire. This study proves the validity and applicability of using numerical modeling for solving the complex design of tire tread pattern and optimization problem.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T09:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020932257
       
  • Multi-objective crashworthiness optimization of vehicle body with negative
           Poisson’s ratio structure based on factorial analysis
    • Authors: Songchun Zou, Shijuan Dai, Wanzhong Zhao, Chunyan Wang, Han Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To improve vehicle side crashworthiness, this paper first introduces the negative Poisson’s ratio structure to the traditional B-pillar and proposes a negative Poisson’s ratio B-pillar. Then, the performance of the negative Poisson’s ratio B-pillar is studied in detail by comparison with a traditional B-pillar and honeycomb B-pillar. Aiming at the problem that the side crashworthiness is also significantly affected by the side structure parameters of vehicle body, the factorial analysis theory is adopted to screen out the side structure parameters with significant effect. Based on this, by combining the optimal Latin hypercube design and response surface model, a multi-objective optimization design is conducted for those structure parameters based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II. Finally, the normal boundary intersection method is adopted to seek the Pareto optimal solution, and the simulation results show that compared with the traditional B-pillar, the negative Poisson’s ratio B-pillar optimized by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II has better comprehensive crashworthiness. The results of this paper can provide some basis for the design and optimization of vehicle side crashworthiness.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-02T09:22:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020932692
       
  • Adaptive intervention logic for automated driving systems based on injury
           risk minimization
    • Authors: Dario Vangi, Antonio Virga, Michelangelo-Santo Gulino
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Performance improvement of advanced driver assistance systems yields two major benefits: increasingly rapid progress towards autonomous driving and a simultaneous advance in vehicle safety. Integration of multiple advanced driver assistance systems leads to the so-called automated driving system, which can intervene jointly on braking and steering to avert impending crashes. Nevertheless, obstacles such as stationary vehicles and buildings can interpose between the opponent vehicles and the working field of advanced driver assistance systems’ sensors, potentially resulting in an inevitable collision state. Currently available devices cannot properly handle an inevitable collision state, because its occurrence is not subject to evaluations by the system. In the present work, criteria for intervention on braking and steering are introduced, based on the vehicle occupants’ injury risk. The system must monitor the surrounding and act on the degrees of freedom adapting to the evolution of the scenario, following an adaptive logic. The model-in-the-loop, software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop for such adaptive intervention are first introduced. To highlight the potential benefits offered by the adaptive advanced driver assistance systems, simulation software has been developed. The adaptive logic has been tested in correspondence of three inevitable collision state conditions between two motor vehicles: at each instant, the adaptive logic attitude of creating impact configurations associated with minimum injury risk is ultimately demonstrated.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T10:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020931228
       
  • A design approach for multi-configuration hybrid transmission mechanisms
    • Authors: Yan-song Chen, I-Ming Chen, Tyng Liu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Several hybrid architectures have been widely used in hybrid electric vehicles. For example, power-split architecture brings seamless operation, while parallel architecture makes the internal combustion engine directly drive the wheel. To combine the advantages of various architectures, this study aims to develop a design approach to create a transmission mechanism that has multiple configurations and uses these configurations to achieve several hybrid architectures. First, this study standardized hybrid transmission mechanisms using the Function Power Graph; this powerful and intuitive tool inspired several elements and an element layout for the new mechanisms. Then, several configurations with up to five elements were enumerated and organized into the databases. Next, the mechanisms with multiple configurations and a limited number of clutching units (clutches or brakes) were evaluated, 10 of which were identified as the best group that provided five parallel configurations, two 2-motor electric vehicle configurations, and a power-split configuration. At the end of this paper, a novel hybrid transmission mechanism was developed as a demonstration. It provides higher power and torque at the output but there is no need to use the larger internal combustion engine or motor-generators. This mechanism also enables the internal combustion engine to drive in overdrive parallel architectures to avoid the loss in energy conversion when the power-split architecture is not required. As a result, after a designer specifies the desired hybrid configurations, follows the procedure, and uses the configuration databases built in this study, a novel hybrid transmission mechanism will be created.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-20T09:30:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020924981
       
  • Analysis of ride comfort of a continuous tracked bogie system with
           variable configuration
    • Authors: Iman Soodmand, Kourosh Heidari Shirazi, Shapour Moradi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the effect of change in height of a so-called variable configuration of a continuous tracked bogie system on ride comfort performance is investigated. To this end, constraint equations among different vehicle parts are derived recursively, and equations of motion are formulated according to the Newton–Euler equations using the embedding technique. Besides, to model the track as a closed-loop chain, the penalty method has been used instead of loop-closure equations. To mathematically model the contact between tracks, wheels, and the terrain, the continuous contact force model has been employed. To validate the mathematical model, the vehicle dynamic behavior is simulated by the Runge–Kutta method in MATLAB software and compared with those obtained from the identical model, built in RecurDyn software, and the results show good agreement. Moreover, the vibrational behavior of the tracked vehicle is investigated using two different vehicle configurations. This reveals that an increase in vehicle height does not change the vehicle vibrational frequencies. However, it increases the vehicle vibration amplitude and the energy absorbed by the vehicle components and decreases the ride comfort.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-19T08:39:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020931684
       
  • Semi-physical NOx and soot model for CI engines: Study of its calibration
           procedure and portability
    • Authors: Hassan Karaky, Pierre Marty, Xavier Tauzia, Alain Maiboom, Gilles Mauviot
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A series of papers has previously presented a semi-physical model for NOx and soot emissions prediction for diesel engines. In this paper, the work is continued with an original analysis of the model’s capacity to be ported to a new engine and a sensitivity analysis of the number of training points required to obtain the desired accuracy. These two aspects are rarely developed in similar studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-18T12:47:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020931686
       
  • The Concept modeling method: An approach to optimize the structural
           dynamics of a vehicle body
    • Authors: Mohammad Fard, Jianchun Yao, Richard Taube, John Laurence Davy
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Although the concept modeling method has already been proposed in the literature, there is still very limited knowledge about the validation and the application of this method for vehicle body design. This paper substantially increases this limited knowledge by developing a concept model for predicting and optimizing the structural dynamics of a vehicle body-in-white and validating this concept model against a detailed finite element model. The geometry and parameters of the concept model are extracted from its detailed finite element model. The major members and panels of the detailed finite element model are replaced by their equivalent beam and shell elements models. The joints of the concept model are represented by stiffness and mass matrices extracted from the detailed finite element model using the Guyan Reduction Method. The developed concept model is validated by comparing its structural dynamics, including the resonant frequencies and the vibration mode shapes, with the original detailed finite element model and the experimental results. The simplicity and small size of the concept model enable it to easily enhance the structural dynamics of the body-in-white by optimizing the cross-sections of the load-carrying members of the structure. The optimization in this case increased the resonant frequencies of the body-in-white while reducing the total mass by about 6 kg. The results prove that the concept modeling method can significantly enhance the body-in-white structural dynamics by reducing the complexity of the model and allowing the focus for the optimization to be on the main members of the structure at the development stage when the final design parameters are not well known and have not been fixed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-18T12:45:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020931356
       
  • Experimental and numerical study of the dynamic response of an adhesively
           bonded automotive structure
    • Authors: NDD Silva, JJM Machado, EAS Marques, PMGP Moreira, LFM da Silva
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Based on economic and environmental factors related to energy efficiency, the automotive industry is being increasingly encouraged to design lighter structures, making use of adhesive bonding in vehicle body frames. To meet the standards of the automotive sector, adhesive joints must provide high strength and stiffness, low cost and good energy absorption at a component level, thereby ensuring good impact strength and passenger safety. This work aims to study, at room temperature (24°C), the impact response of a real scale automotive structure bonded with a crash-resistant epoxy, allowing to access the suitability of adhesives for automotive structural purposes. The epoxy adhesive was found to successfully transfer the loads to the aluminium substrates and not to compromise the integrity of the structure, as its failure was dominated by the behaviour of aluminium. Results obtained with a numerical model of the component were found to be in close agreement with the experimental failure load, demonstrating that numerical analysis can be a viable tool to predict the structure’s behaviour. In addition, a polyurethane was used as an alternative to the epoxy system to bond the structure, proving that the joint behaves better in the presence of a more flexible adhesive, as no failure was found for this case. Aluminium single-lap joints with two adhesive thicknesses were tested as a complement to understand the influence of this parameter on the impact response of a joint, showing a 21% decrease in strength when the highest thickness was used.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-18T12:43:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020931699
       
  • Fault-tolerant control based on 2D game for independent driving electric
           vehicle suffering actuator failures
    • Authors: Bohan Zhang, Shaobo Lu, Lin Zhao, Kaixing Xiao
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes a cooperative game-based actuator fault-tolerant control strategy for a four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle with an active front steering system. For achieving fault-tolerant control and targets cooperation, a two-dimensional game strategy is proposed to balance the stability and economy. The first-dimensional game is utilized to determine the dominant control target of the actuator, then the second-dimensional game is employed to assign the fault-tolerant control task for the remaining healthy actuators. The two dimensions are integrated based on the linear quadratic differential game theory, and a hybrid weighted Pareto frontier is thus established. A Shapley value based weight calculation method is proposed to obtain a set of fair and unique weights according to the importance of each player, which makes the solution of the optimal control problem more easily obtained. The effectiveness and real-time performance of the control strategy are tested under different scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can balance the stability and economy well, outperforms the traditional method in terms of target tracking performance. For special case, the response of the yaw rate could be improved up to 39.83% comparing to that of the linear quadratic regulator method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T11:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020928827
       
  • Numerical analysis on tractive performance of off-road tire on gravel road
           using a calibrated finite element method–discrete element method model
           and experimental validation
    • Authors: Weipan Xu, Haiyang Zeng, Peng Yang, Mengyan Zang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The interaction between off-road tires and granular terrain has a great influence on the tractive performance of off-road vehicles. However, the finite element method or the discrete element method cannot effectively study the interaction between off-road tires and granular terrain. The three-dimensional combined finite element and discrete element method is applied to handle this problem. In this study, a calibrated finite element method–discrete element method model is established, in which the finite element model of off-road tire is validated by stiffness tests, while the discrete element model of gravel particles is validated by triaxial compression tests. The calibrated finite element method–discrete element method model can describe the structural mechanics of the off-road tire and the macroscopic mechanical properties of the gravel road. Tractive performance simulations of the off-road tire on gravel road under different slip conditions are performed with the commercial software LS-DYNA. The simulation results are basically corresponded with the soil-bin test results in terms of granular terrain deformation and tractive performance parameters versus the slip rates. Finally, the effects of tread pattern, wheel load, and tire inflation pressure on tractive performance of off-road tire on granular terrain are investigated. It indicates that the calibrated finite element method–discrete element method can be an effective tool for studying the tire–granular terrain interaction and predicting the tractive performance of off-road tire on granular terrain.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-15T11:26:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020930175
       
  • Numerical continuation applied to internal combustion engine models
    • Authors: Shaun Smith, James Knowles, Byron Mason
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes tools from bifurcation theory, specifically numerical continuation, as a complementary method for efficiently mapping the state-parameter space of an internal combustion engine model. Numerical continuation allows a steady-state engine response to be traced directly through the state-parameter space, under the simultaneous variation of one or more model parameters. By applying this approach to two nonlinear engine models (a physics-based model and a data-driven model), this work determines how input parameters ‘throttle position’ and ‘desired load torque’ affect the engine’s dynamics. Performing a bifurcation analysis allows the model’s parameter space to be divided into regions of different qualitative types of the dynamic behaviour, with the identified bifurcations shown to correspond to key physical properties of the system in the physics-based model: minimum throttle angles required for steady-state operation of the engine are indicated by fold bifurcations; regions containing self-sustaining oscillations are bounded by supercritical Hopf bifurcations. The bifurcation analysis of a data-driven engine model shows how numerical continuation could be used to evaluate the efficacy of data-driven models.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-12T11:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020928665
       
  • Experimental and numerical study on the crashworthiness evaluation of an
           intercity coach under frontal impact conditions
    • Authors: Mehmet Ali Güler, Muhammed Emin Cerit, Sinem Kocaoglan Mert, Erdem Acar
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the energy absorption capacity of a front body of a bus during a frontal crash was investigated. The strength of the bus structure was examined by considering the ECE-R29 European regulation requirements. The nonlinear explicit finite element code LS-DYNA was used for the crash analyses. First, the baseline bus structures without any improvements were analyzed and the weak parts of the front end structure of the bus body were examined. Experimental tests are conducted to validate the finite element model. In the second stage, the bus structure was redesigned in order to strengthen the frontal body. Finally, the redesigned bus structure was compared with the baseline model to meet the requirements for ECE-R29. In addition to the redesign performed on the body, energy absorption capacity was increased by additional energy absorbers employed in the front of bus structure. This study experimentally and numerically investigated the energy absorption characteristics of a steering wheel armature in contact with a deformable mannequin during a crash. Variations in the location of impact on the armature, armature orientation, and mannequin were investigated to determine the effects of the energy absorption characteristics of the two contacting entities.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-11T05:19:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020927644
       
  • Modeling and dynamic analysis of a 6 x 6 heavy military truck by adaptive
           
    • Authors: Marcelo Andrés Acuña, Gustavo Simão Rodrigues, Rafael Vitor Guerra Queiroz, Elias Dias Rossi Lopes
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, the computer-aided vehicle dynamic analysis of a 6x6 heavy military truck is presented and examined. For the analysis, a MATLAB/Simulink® platform is used to design and model a truck. The vehicle configuration taken into account for the analysis is the powertrain (engine, gear box, transfer gear, differential), suspension, steering system and tire model according to the Pacekja 89’ formulation. In addition, the effect of the rolling resistance and drag is considered, in order to represent the vehicle behavior as real as possible. The longitudinal dynamic and lateral dynamic are formulated. First, the longitudinal dynamic model is established by means of implementation of the weight transfer function. The vehicles are considered as rigid bodies with 1 degree of freedom. Second, the vehicular planar model with three wheels, well known as bicycle model, is applied following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization double line change maneuver test reaching 3 degree of freedom. The driver behavior is represented by using an adaptive model predictive control varying the longitudinal velocity. The forces for braking, inertia of the rotating components, the energy lost in the powertrain, and the effect of dive squat and rollover. The numerical simulation results are shown and compared with a full-vehicle model formed by using Mechanical Simulation Corporation’s truckSIM®. There were chosen simulation scenarios applied to the model to observe the effects of different parameters concerning the dynamic behavior, and also prepared in truckSIM® environment. The main contributions of this article are the development of the vehicular model, through the use of block diagrams in a reliable and relatively simple programming code such as MATLAB/Simulink®, with innovative tools used in the control of autonomous vehicle driving and the flexibility to adapt said model to different environmental conditions and different vehicle parameters.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-10T09:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020924156
       
  • Master cylinder pressure reduction logic for cooperative work between
           electro-hydraulic brake system and anti-lock braking system based on speed
           servo system
    • Authors: Lu Xiong, Wei Han, Zhuoping Yu, Jian Lin, Songyun Xu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      As one feasible solution of brake-by-wire systems, electro-hydraulic brake system has been made available into production recently. Electro-hydraulic brake system must work cooperatively with the hydraulic control unit of anti-lock braking system. Due to the mechanical configuration involving electric motor + reduction gear, the electro-hydraulic brake system could be stiffer in contrast to a conventional vacuum booster. That is to say, higher pressure peaks and pressure oscillation could occur during an active anti-lock braking system control. Actually, however, electro-hydraulic brake system and anti-lock braking system are produced by different suppliers considering brake systems already in production. Limited signals and operations of anti-lock braking system could be provided to the supplier of electro-hydraulic brake system. In this work, a master cylinder pressure reduction logic is designed based on speed servo system for active pressure modulation of electro-hydraulic brake system under the anti-lock braking system–triggered situation. The pressure reduction logic comprises of model-based friction compensation, feedforward and double closed-loop feedback control. The pressure closed-loop is designed as the outer loop, and the motor rotation speed closed-loop is drawn into the inner loop of feedback control. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is validated by vehicle experiment in typical braking situations. The results show that the controller remains stable against parameter uncertainties in extreme condition such as low temperature and mismatch of friction model. In contrast to the previous methods, the comparison results display the improved dynamic cooperative performance of electro-hydraulic brake system and anti-lock braking system and robustness.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-10T09:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020927639
       
  • Analysis of the relationship between particle number and fuel cutoff in a
           single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine
    • Authors: Jingeun Song, Mingi Choi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the effects of fuel cutoff on particle number in a single-cylinder wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. Various durations of fuel cutoff and change in load and engine stop were tested, and the in-cylinder pressure, particle number, and NOx emissions were measured. The change in in-cylinder temperature during combustion stop was calculated using the in-cylinder pressure and the ideal gas law. Experimental results showed that as the fuel cutoff duration increased, the particle number increased significantly when combustion resumed. For the injection timing before top dead center 330°, the particle number, which was 600 × 103 #/cm3 under the continuous combustion condition, increased to 6700 × 103 #/cm3 after 30 s of fuel cutoff. Both the fuel cutoff and engine stop showed enormous amount of particle number when combustion restarted. A major factor that increased particle number was the temperature reduction of piston during the combustion stop. The peak in-cylinder temperature decreased by 38 K during 30 s of motoring, which was induced by the temperature drop of the piston. Therefore, in terms of particulate emissions, it is more advantageous to lower the engine load than to stop combustion: the piston surface remains hot during load reduction. In addition, it is recommended to change the engine load slowly to reduce the particle number emissions. In this study, the rapid load change from indicated mean effective pressure of 0.25 to 0.55 MPa showed 7% higher particle number emissions than the gentle load change. On the contrary, NOx was reduced because none was generated during combustion stop. However, the fuel cutoff would increase NOx in gasoline vehicles because the oxygen in the unburned air would significantly reduce the conversion efficiency of a three-way catalytic converter. It is especially worth investigating the reason for the increase in emissions because it is easy to think that all kinds of emissions will be reduced if fuel is not burned.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020929229
       
  • Effects of blade surface roughness on compressor performance and tonal
           noise emission in a marine diesel engine turbocharger
    • Authors: Chen Liu, Yipeng Cao, Sihui Ding, Wenping Zhang, Yuhang Cai, Aqiang Lin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A numerical study was conducted to investigate the effects of blade surface roughness on compressor performance and tonal noise emission. The equivalent sand-grain roughness model was used to account for blade surface roughness, and a hybrid method that combines computational fluid dynamics and boundary element method was used to predict compressor performance and tonal noise. The numerical approach was validated against experimental data for a baseline compressor. Nine different cases with different blade surface roughness were studied in this paper, the global performance was analyzed under compressor design speed, and the tonal noise level was predicted under the design condition. The results indicate that compressor total-to-total pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency were gradually decreased with the increasing blade surface roughness. Besides, the blade total pressure loss coefficient and the efficiency loss coefficient were also increased. It was found that the reverse flow at the leading edge of compressor rotor blades reduced blade loading. The pressure fluctuation at the leading edge showed that the peak of pressure fluctuations increased as the blade surface roughness was increased. The sound pressure level at blade-passing frequency shows a significant change with variation in blade surface roughness, which results in an increased total noise level. Furthermore, it was shown that the blade surface roughness had nearly no influence on acoustic directivity, but the sound pressure level increased with the increase in roughness, especially at blade-passing frequency.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:34:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020927637
       
  • Research on vehicle attitude and heading reference system based on
           multi-sensor information fusion
    • Authors: Jiacheng Fan, Zengcai Wang, Mingxing Lin, Susu Fang, Xiangpeng Liu, Baiwang Fan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To improve the accuracy of attitude and heading reference systems for moving vehicles, an effective orientation estimation method is proposed. The method uses an odometer, a low-cost magnetic, angular rate, and gravity sensor. This study addresses the problems of non-orthogonal error, carrier magnetic field interference and calibration to obtain accurate, long-term, stable magnetic field strength. A neural network fusion 12-parameter ellipse fitting method is proposed to eliminate the soft magnetic field and hard magnetic field interference. The interference to the accelerometer from linear acceleration is eliminated by using an odometer and a gyroscope, and the high-frequency noise from the accelerometer is eliminated by using a low-pass filter. An improved method to evaluate vehicle attitude is proposed and utilized to compensate for filtered accelerometer measurement when the vehicle is moving at a uniform, accelerate and steering state. The proposed method uses an effective adaptive Kalman filter based on the error state model to reduce dynamic perturbations. Filter gain is adaptively tuned under different moving modes by adjusting the noise matrix. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by experiments and simulations in multiple operating conditions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020927546
       
  • Development of an optimized game controller for energy saving in a novel
           interconnected air suspension system
    • Authors: Hossein Nazemian, Masoud Masih-Tehrani
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the focus is on reducing the energy that is consumed by a compressor for providing high air pressure in the reservoir. A new air suspension configuration is presented that is titled active interconnected air suspension with outsourced air pressure. In this configuration, a compressor is used to charge the tank; meanwhile, the air springs are connected. For minor excitation, first, the air flows between air springs to control roll angle and height adjustment. If the situation of body position gets worse, the compressed air tank compensates to keep the body not generating roll angle and bounce. This methodology has a benefit. This configuration conserves compressed air in the tank in minor road elevation. The optimized controllers are designed to control roll angle and bounce, but they determine the outsourced air mass flow rate. For switching between interconnection and outsourced mode, there are some rules defined based on game theory for a trade-off between high dynamical performance quality of the vehicle and reduction of energy consumption. The optimization is done on the rules to keep both aspects minimum as much as possible. A three-axle heavy truck is used, and its performance is under discussion on an uneven rough road. Roll angle is improved progressively in novel air suspension configuration, and the energy consumption is reduced. In the default condition, the roll angle is improved 72% from the passive case and 39% from the conventional configuration. Furthermore, the energy consumption optimized version reduces 14% from the non-optimized case and 46% from the outsourced mode. By importing road power spectral density type E and type G, as the short domain and high-frequency vibrations, to two sides of the truck, it is inferred that the vehicle could remain on interconnection mode entirely without using the compressor.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020927147
       
  • Robust H∞ Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy output-feedback control for differential
           speed steering vehicles
    • Authors: Paul Oke, Sing Kiong Nguang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper studied the modelling and control of four-wheel independently driven electric vehicles using differential speed steering. The Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy modelling approach represents the nonlinearities of the four-wheel independently driven electric vehicle state variables in several system models. The proposed controller design is a robust Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy output-feedback control based on a fuzzy Lyapunov function approach. More precisely, the Lyapunov function is chosen to be dependent on the membership functions. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the robust Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy controller are given in terms of linear matrix inequality constraints. The designed parameters are tested by simulating the four-wheel independently driven electric vehicles under varying operating conditions. The simulation results underscore the robustness and disturbance rejection importance of the proposed controller, which is then contrasted to better highlight the improved performance of the proposed approach over a fixed robust controller design.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020918705
       
  • Vibro-acoustic prediction and evaluation of permanent magnet synchronous
           motors
    • Authors: Qichao Dong, Xintian Liu, Hongzhong Qi, Yafu Zhou
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a multiphysics finite element method is proposed to predict and evaluate the electromagnetic vibration and noise of the permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, the expressions of radial electromagnetic force waves were derived based on the established mathematical models of airgap magnetic field using the analytical methods. Subsequently, the main circumferential spatial orders influencing electromagnetic noise were analyzed and discussed. Then, a multiphysics simulation model that consists of mechanical field, electromagnetic field, and acoustic field was established for the calculation of the electromagnetic radiation noise. Finally, the multiphysics simulation model developed for the electromagnetic vibration and noise prediction was validated by comparing the finite element analysis and experimental data. It is shown that, although the local differences exist, the results from the finite element calculation and test analysis have a good agreement on the analytical mechanism overall, both in amplitude and main orders. In addition, this paper has made a detailed analysis to the electromagnetic noise generation mechanism, which lays the basis for further study in predicting and suppressing the electromagnetic vibration and noise of the drive motors of pure electric vehicle.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:20:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020919659
       
  • Influencing analysis of different baffle factors on oil liquid sloshing in
           automobile fuel tank
    • Authors: Enhui Zhang, Wenyan Zhu, Lihe Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Oil liquid sloshing is a common phenomenon in automobile fuel tank under variable working conditions. Installing baffles in automobile fuel tank is the most effective way to suppress adverse influence caused by oil liquid sloshing. Different types of three-dimensional finite element models filling oil liquid are created, meshed, and simulated. The reliability of simulation results is verified by test. The concept of time–area value is proposed in this work. In order to explore the influence of different baffle factors on oil liquid sloshing, six factors are studied. Six kinds of influencing factors are height, structure, shape, spacing, number, and placement of baffles. The sloshing pressure and time–area value are the core parameters for evaluating the influence degree. Some results could be obtained by comparing the parameters of oil liquid sloshing under the same condition. High baffles and baffles with small spacing have obvious attenuation influence on the pressure of oil liquid sloshing. Low baffles, double baffles, parallel baffles, and the combined action of inertia force and gravity are more beneficial to the reduction of time–area value. Time–area value is the largest and the smallest in fuel tank with intersection baffles and low baffles, respectively.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-09T09:18:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020919584
       
  • A hierarchical adaptive control framework of path tracking and roll
           stability for intelligent heavy vehicle with MPC
    • Authors: Yantao Tian, Kai Huang, Xuanhao Cao, Yulong Liu, Xuewu Ji
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Roll stability is a major concern in the path tracking process of intelligent heavy vehicles in emergency steering maneuvers. Due to the coupling of lateral and roll motions of heavy vehicle, steering actions for path tracking may come into conflict with that for roll stability. In this paper, a hierarchical adaptive control framework composed of a supervisor, an upper controller and a lower controller is developed to mediate conflicting objectives of path tracking and roll stability via steering control. In the supervisor, path tracking control mode or cooperative control mode of path tracking and roll stability is determined by the predicted rollover index, and a weight function is introduced to balance the control objectives of path tracking and roll stability in cooperative control mode. Then, in order to achieve multi-objective real-time optimization, model predictive control with varying optimization weights is used in the upper controller to calculate the desired front steer angle. The lower controller which integrates the real electrically assisted hydraulic steering system based on Proportional-Integral-Derivative control is designed to control steering wheel angle. Simulation and hardware-in-loop implementation results in double lane change scenario show that the proposed hierarchical adaptive control framework can enhance roll stability in emergency steering maneuvers while keeping the accuracy of path tracking for intelligent heavy vehicle within an acceptable range.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-08T05:48:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020923260
       
  • Data augment method for machine fault diagnosis using conditional
           generative adversarial networks
    • Authors: Jinrui Wang, Baokun Han, Huaiqian Bao, Mingyan Wang, Zhenyun Chu, Yuwei Shen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      As a useful data augmentation technique, generative adversarial networks have been successfully applied in fault diagnosis field. But traditional generative adversarial networks can only generate one category fault signals in one time, which is time-consuming and costly. To overcome this weakness, we develop a novel fault diagnosis method which combines conditional generative adversarial networks and stacked autoencoders, and both of them are built by stacking one-dimensional full connection layers. First, conditional generative adversarial networks is used to generate artificial samples based on the frequency samples, and category labels are adopted as the conditional information to simultaneously generate different category signals. Meanwhile, spectrum normalization is added to the discriminator of conditional generative adversarial networks to enhance the model training. Then, the augmented training samples are transferred to stacked autoencoders for feature extraction and fault classification. Finally, two datasets of bearing and gearbox are employed to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed conditional generative adversarial network–stacked autoencoder method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T07:05:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020923258
       
  • Analysis of driving behaviours of truck drivers using motorway tests
    • Authors: Jianbing Gao, Haibo Chen, Kaushali Dave, Junyan Chen, Ying Li, Tiezhu Li, Biao Liang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Road transportations still play a dominant role in goods delivery, and driving behaviours significantly affect the fuel economy of heavy-duty trucks. Plenty of fossil fuel is wasted as a result of unreasonable driving behaviours even in the case of highly experienced drivers. The objective of this paper is to analyse drivers’ behaviours over two segments of motorways and estimate the potential benefits of fuel saving caused by a change in driving habits during national and international goods delivery. Drivers’ habits on motorways change depending on the road situations. In the acceleration process, the fuel consumption rates are huge even under low-speed conditions. The truck fuel consumption rates are exaggerated by positive road slopes, but still dominated by acceleration. Accelerations are generally in normal distributions, with the median value being approximately 0.5 m/s2. The speed ranges corresponding to each gear enlarge with the increase in gear number. The potentials of annual fuel saving for parts of European Union countries are nearly 2 × 106 m3 by adopting proper driving behaviours.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T07:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020925568
       
  • A stochastic optimal energy management strategy considering battery health
           for hybrid electric bus
    • Authors: Qinghu Cui, Shangye Du, Congzhi Liu, Laigang Zhang, Guoliang Wei
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The problem of battery health coupled with energy management brings a considerable challenge to the hybrid electric bus. To address this challenge, three contributions are made to realize optimal energy management control while prolonging battery life. First, a semi-empirical aging model of lithium iron phosphate battery is built and identified by the data fitting method, based on the battery cycling test. Besides, a severity factor map is constructed by employing the proposed aging model to characterize the relative aging of the battery under different operating conditions. Second, to make the driver demand torque more appropriate for statistical prediction, a Markov chain is formulated to predict driving behavior and also a stochastic vehicle mass estimation method is proposed to assist the prediction of required torque. Then, a stochastic multi-objective optimization problem is formulated by taking the severity factor map as a battery degradation criterion, where minimized battery degradation and fuel consumption can be simultaneously realized. Finally, a stochastic model predictive control strategy that considers battery health is established. Both simulation and hardware-in-loop tests are performed. The results demonstrate that fuel economy and battery degradation can be improved by 16.73% and 13.8% compared with rule-based strategy, respectively.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T07:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020924285
       
  • Design of non-solenoidal operation of starter motor
    • Authors: A Selvaraj, SB Ron Carter, S Thangavel
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A novel design and fabrication of the gear reduction starter motor is proposed. In this proposed configuration, the conventional solenoid of the starter motor is eliminated, resulting in a reduction in the starting current required while cranking, and the weight of starter motor is reduced by making it more compact. Failed/dead cranking and the cost of starter motor are also decreased. The function of the solenoid in the starter motor is replaced with a spring-coupled drive mechanism, which makes the function of the starter motor an automatic process. This replacement will affect the state of charge (SoC) and depth of discharge (DoD) of the battery positively, thereby reducing the battery drain and making it last long.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T07:01:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020925714
       
  • Magnetorheological semi-active mount system for engines: Prototyping and
           testing
    • Authors: Qing Liu, Guo-Dong Bai, Zhi-Hao Liu, Xian-Xu ‘Frank’ Bai, Hao Du, Peng Chen, Li-Jun Qian
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In order to maximize the controllability of magnetorheological (MR) mount for engines, a novel (MR) mount with an internal bypass (MRM-IB), which provides particular advantages of large dynamic stiffness range, small field-off dynamic stiffness and long available stroke under full vibration frequency range, is proposed and investigated in this paper. The proposed MRM-IB consists of a main rubber spring unit for supporting static load and a MR damping unit for mechanical energy dissipation. The MR damping unit is composed of a piston assembly, a MR fluid chamber and an annular MR fluid channel sandwiched by two concentric cylinders, that is, the inner and outer cylinders. Electromagnetic coil winding is wound on the outside of the inner cylinder and continuous damping/dynamic stiffness of the MRM-IB is tuned by the applied current in the coils. Structural principle of the magnetic circuit of the proposed MRM-IB is validated and analyzed, and the mathematical model of the controllable damping force is then established. In addition, a frequency-based piecewise controller and a fuzzy controller for a specific MR semi-active automotive mount system are designed, and the theoretical simulation and the experimental tests of the system are conducted, compared and analyzed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T07:00:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020925724
       
  • Multiple optimized support vector regression for multi-sensor data fusion
           of weigh-in-motion system
    • Authors: Xiaofeng Liu, Zhimin Feng, Yuehua Chen, Hongwei Li
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Weigh-in-motion is an efficient way to manage overload vehicles, and usually utilizes multi-sensor to measure vehicle weight at present. To increase generalization and accuracy of support vector regression (SVR) applied in multi-sensor weigh-in-motion data fusion, three improved algorithms are presented in this paper. The first improved algorithm divides train samples into two sets to construct SVR1 and SVR2, respectively, and then test samples are distributed to SVR1 or SVR2 based on the nearest distance principle. The second improved algorithm calculates the theoretical biases of two training samples closeted to one test sample, and then obtains the bias of the test sample by linear interpolation method. The third improved algorithm utilizes the second improved algorithm to realize adaptive adjustment of biases for SVR1 and SVR2. Five vehicles were selected to conduct multi-sensor weigh-in-motion experiments on the built test platform. According to the obtained experiment data, fusion tests of SVR and three improved algorithms are performed, respectively. The results show that three improved algorithms gradually increase accuracy of SVR with fast operation speed, and the third improved algorithm exhibits the best application prospect in multi-sensor weigh-in-motion data fusion.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T07:00:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020918802
       
  • Frequency domain modeling, analysis and verification of electro-hydraulic
           servo steering system for heavy vehicles
    • Authors: Zhizhong Zhang, Heng Du, Shumei Chen, Hui Huang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The electro-hydraulic servo steering system is one of the core components of a heavy vehicle, and frequency response characteristics of this system are essential to guarantee the vehicle flexibility. However, it is difficult to establish frequency domain model directly for the frequency response characteristics analysis due to the strong nonlinearity of steering trapezoidal mechanism and hydraulic power system in electro-hydraulic servo steering system. This paper proposes a simplified linearization analysis method for the electro-hydraulic servo steering system. By variable substitution defining the load flow and load pressure, and linear fit between double tire angles and cylinder displacement, the original model is simplified to a frequency domain model. Based on this model, the essential frequency response characteristics and the effects of key parameters to electro-hydraulic servo steering system can be obtained. Through the sweep frequency response analysis, the linearized frequency domain model is compared with the nonlinear time domain model and the actual test system, respectively. As shown in Bode plots, the amplitude-frequency phase-frequency characteristic curves of models match well, which verifies linearization analysis method and linear frequency domain model. The key parameters affecting the system frequency domain characteristics are the valve flow gain, the area of cylinder rodless and rod chamber, and the linearization coefficient between the left and right tire angles and so on. The electro-hydraulic servo steering system bandwidth is only 7.38 rad/s (1.17 Hz). This research is helpful for the design and optimization of heavy vehicle dynamic steering system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T06:59:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020918696
       
  • Yaw stability control through independent driving torque control of mid
           and rear wheels of an articulated bus
    • Authors: Wang Wenwei, Zhang Wei, Zhang Hanyu, Cao Wanke
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes a novel yaw stability control strategy for a four-wheel-independent-drive electric articulated bus with four motors at the middle and rear wheels. The proposed control strategy uses a hierarchical control architecture. In the upper layer, a 3 degree-of-freedom reference model is established to obtain the desired vehicle states and the desired yaw moments of the front and rear compartments are determined by means of sliding mode control, respectively. The lower layer distributes differential longitudinal forces according to the desired yaw moments based on quadratic programming theory. The tire utilization rate is used as the optimization goal considering the actual constraints. To verify performance, three test cases are designed on the dSPACE-ASM simulation platform. The test results show the proposed control strategy can improve the yaw stability and the trajectory following performance of the bus under different driving conditions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T10:15:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020919539
       
  • Method of estimating the rolling resistance coefficient of vehicle tyre
           using the roller dynamometer
    • Authors: Adrian Soica, Adrian Budala, Vlad Monescu, Slawomir Sommer, Wojciech Owczarzak
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The tendency in the past few years has been to introduce tyres with lower rolling resistance coefficients to the market. This paper presents a mathematical method for determining the rolling resistance coefficients variation depending on the speed. The method uses power balance which results from automobile dynamics while rolling on chassis dynamometer. The rolling resistance coefficients of tyres obtained through ‘drum test method’, for which the rolling resistance coefficients variation is known in terms of vehicle speed, are considered as reference values, while than rolling resistance coefficients of tyres obtained through ‘MAHA roller dynamometer’ using the recorded lost drag power in the roll-out phase on the stand are considered as tested values. The rolling resistance coefficients variation could be determined up to the maximum permissible speed of the tyre, for all wheels trained on the stand and not just for one tyre, as determined in laboratory conditions. The test conditions are similar to those in real road conditions, where the temperature of the environment and wheels cannot be controlled. The values obtained by the authors’ proposed method were compared with the values obtained by the ‘drum test method’. The main contribution of the proposed method is to estimate the rolling resistance coefficients without using a very expensive test facility.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T10:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020919546
       
  • A new electric wheel and optimization on its suspension parameters
    • Authors: Lingsheng Meng, Yuanji Zou, Yudi Qin, Zhichao Hou
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Hub-driven technology with its many advantages has become a potential transformation technology in the automotive industry. In order to inhibit the negative effects of the in-wheel motor, a new electric wheel configuration was presented with two-stage suspensions, and optimization was conducted for the suspension parameters. With the specially introduced flexible transmission elements and motor suspension, the electric wheel is capable of achieving power transmission and vertical vibration isolation simultaneously. A quarter-vehicle model was established, and vehicle performance-related indices were defined to evaluate the applicability of the new electric wheel. An optimization problem was then constructed for suspension parameters, where constraint conditions were derived according to vehicle dynamics. The optimal solution was sought by a genetic algorithm, aiming at utilizing the full potential of the configuration. Simulations were carried out taking the optimal suspension parameters into account, and comparison was made with vehicles equipped with other electric wheel configurations in terms of these performance indices. The results show that the proposed electric wheel reduces motor vibration, and increases wheel dynamic load and vehicle body acceleration.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T10:11:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020921736
       
  • A state observation and torque compensation–based acceleration slip
           regulation control approach for a four-wheel independent drive electric
           vehicle under slope driving
    • Authors: Luole Guo, Hongbing Xu, Jianxiao Zou, Hongyu Jie, Gang Zheng
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wheel slipping of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle on slope will reduce vehicle controllability and driving stability, thereby reducing vehicle safety. In order to solve the problem of wheel slipping and optimize the speed control performance of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle on slope, an acceleration slip regulation control strategy of slope drive is proposed in this paper. First, we design a road identification algorithm to identify the current road conditions of the four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle, and calculate the optimal slip ratio of the current road surface by curve fitting method. Then, with the optimal slip ratio as the control objective, the acceleration slip regulation control strategy is designed to maximize the utilization of wheel adhesion coefficient to prevent wheel slip. Third, a slope identification algorithm based on Luenberger state observer is designed to identify the various slopes of the uphill and downhill road, after which a torque compensation algorithm is designed according to the identification slope, to compensate for the longitudinal component of vehicle gravity at different slopes. Fourth, a slope torque distribution algorithm is proposed based on acceleration slip regulation and slope identification. Finally, through the joint simulation platform of MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim, it is shown that the proposed control strategy can better restrain wheel slipping on the uphill and downhill road, and has better dynamic characteristics and stability.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T10:10:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020917013
       
  • Semi-empirical estimation model of in-cylinder pressure for compression
           ignition engines
    • Authors: Youngbok Lee, Seungha Lee, Kyoungdoug Min
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      There have been significant efforts in recent years to comply with automotive emission regulations. To resolve the issue, researchers have strived to reduce the emissions through combustion control. The heat release rate, or in-cylinder pressure information, is necessary to model engine-out emissions, and can also be used to optimize efficiency and emissions by controlling combustion and estimating torque for torque-based engine dynamic control. Piezoelectric pressure sensors are widely used. However, because of cost and durability issues, there have been studies which estimate the in-cylinder pressure using data available only from the engine control unit to reduce engine costs. Therefore, in this study, in-cylinder pressure was predicted, without additional pressure sensors, in light-duty diesel engines. A variable polytropic exponent model was first adopted during the compression stroke, assuming a polytropic process. A Wiebe function was then applied for describing cumulative heat release rate during the combustion phase. Using the in-cylinder pressure model, it was possible to calculate combustion-related parameters which are frequently used such as ignition delay, combustion duration, peaked pressure, and MFB50 (mass fraction burned: timing when 50% of the fuel is burned) without pressure sensors. Notwithstanding the simplification of the model which is targeting real-time applications, the model can predict the in-cylinder pressure at steady-state conditions. The pressure at the end of compression stroke, at start of main combustion timing, and when it has a peaked value by the main combustion were estimated with accuracy of R2 0.996, 0.993, and 0.956, respectively, in test engine. The model was also validated against a second engine. This study can contribute to emission models that need to calculate in-cylinder temperature using pressure data, and other studies to establish engine control strategies, including optimization through combustion control and torque prediction, which can be applied to engine dynamic control.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T10:47:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020916952
       
  • Three-dimensional coupled thermo-mechanical analysis for fatigue failure
           of a heavy vehicle brake disk: Simulation of braking and cooling phases
    • Authors: Mohammad Rouhi Moghanlou, Hamed Saeidi Googarchin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, transient coupled thermo-mechanical finite element analysis of a three-dimensional model of braking pairs (brake disk and brake pads) is accomplished in order to estimate temperatures and stresses in brake disk during a braking cycle, including braking and cooling phases, and calculate fatigue life. A nonuniform distribution of temperatures is revealed on the surface of the brake disk, gradually generating surface hot spots and hot bands with temperatures up to 800 °C that lead to an uneven distribution of thermal stresses on the frictional surfaces. According to the simulations, variations in the circumferential stress, which is mainly responsible for the cracking of the brake disk, can reach up to 400 MPa in the hot spot areas, depending on the braking configurations. The numerical results are also used to estimate the fatigue life of brake disk using the Smith–Watson–Topper model. The numerical model demonstrates a high accuracy of fatigue life estimation when evaluated by prior experimental studies, signifying the effects of hot spots in reducing the service life of brake disk. Results of the fatigue life estimation show superiority to the analytical method both in the accuracy of calculation and detection of the failure location.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T09:58:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020921711
       
  • Biodiesel/butanol blends as a pure biofuel excluding fossil fuels: Effects
           on diesel engine combustion, performance, and emission characteristics
    • Authors: Yongcheng Huang, Yaoting Li, Kun Luo, Jiyuan Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Although both biodiesel and n-butanol are excellent renewable biofuels, most of the existing research works merely use them as the additives for petroleum diesel. As the main fuel properties of biodiesel and n-butanol are complementary, the biodiesel/n-butanol blends are promising to be a pure biomass-based substitute for diesel fuel. In this paper, the application of the biodiesel/n-butanol blends on an agricultural diesel engine was comprehensively investigated, in terms of the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. First, the biodiesel/n-butanol blends with 10%, 20%, and 30% n-butanol by weight were prepared and noted as BBu10 (10 wt% n-butanol + 90 wt% biodiesel), BBu20 (20 wt% n-butanol + 80 wt% biodiesel), and BBu30 (30 wt% n-butanol + 70 wt% biodiesel). It was found that adding 30 wt% n-butanol to biodiesel can reduce the viscosity by 39.3% and increase the latent heat of vaporization by 57.3%. Then the engine test results showed that with the addition of n-butanol to biodiesel, the peak values of the cylinder pressure and temperature of the biodiesel/n-butanol blends were slightly decreased, the peak values of the pressure rise rate and heat release rate of the blends were increased, the fuel ignition was delayed, and the combustion duration was shortened. BBu20 has the approximate ignition characteristics with diesel fuel. Both the brake thermal efficiency and the brake-specific fuel consumption of BBu30 were increased by the average percentages of 2.7% and 14.9%, while NOx, soot, and CO emissions of BBu30 were reduced by the average percentages of 17.6%, 34.1%, and 15.4%, compared to biodiesel. The above variations became more evident as the n-butanol proportion increased.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-28T07:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020916989
       
  • Sliding mode control of double-wishbone active suspension systems based on
           equivalent 2-degree-of-freedom model
    • Authors: Wu Qin, Wen-Bin Shangguan, Zhihong Yin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      As a critical component of transportation vehicles, active suspension systems (ASSs) have widely attracted attention for their outstanding capability of improving the riding comfort and the maneuverability. However, due to the effects of the suspension kinematic structure and the rubber elements containing bushings and top mount, the practical double-wishbone ASS cannot achieve the desired performance resulting from the control design based on a simple 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) model. In this paper, a sliding mode control (SMC) based on an equivalent 2-DOF model is proposed to suppress the sprung mass vibration of a double-wishbone ASS, which is to improve the riding comfort of vehicle. The SMC for a double-wishbone ASS is designed in four steps. First, an equivalent 2-DOF model of a double-wishbone ASS, which considers suspension kinematic structure and rubber properties, is established. The parameter values of an equivalent 2-DOF model are identified by using least square method. Second, an SMC is designed for an equivalent 2-DOF model, and the effect of the parameter value of the 2-DOF model on the riding comfort is investigated by experimental results. Third, a control compensator for a double-wishbone ASS is developed by considering the suspension kinematic structure. Four, the control for double-wishbone ASS is obtained by integrating the compensator into the SMC based on the equivalent 2-DOF model. The numerical simulation results show that the control can effectively suppress the sprung mass vibration of the double-wishbone ASS when the SMC design is based on an equivalent 2-DOF model.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T04:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020919588
       
  • A novel evaluation method for vehicle and traffic performance of different
           decision control of automatic lane change based on miniature model
    • Authors: Yangyang Wang, Guangda Chen, Yuanxing Jiang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Research on automatic lane-change decision is mainly limited to simulation validation and lacks real vehicle validation methods because it is limited by experimental site and automatic driving technology on real vehicles. This paper puts forward a miniature traffic model to simulate the actual traffic scene and achieves to verify the decision control of automatic lane-change scene. The miniature intelligent traffic scene contains miniature vehicles, simplified miniature road traffic environment, and wireless network communication. After testing the basic functions of the miniature traffic scene model, such as automatic lane change, lane keeping, and automatic following, a semi-physical simulation test of the traffic flow composed of the model vehicle and the virtual vehicle is carried out. The semi-physical simulation test includes vehicle-following test of hybrid-condition intelligent driver model, lane-change test of lane-change decision two-vehicle gaming model, and minimizing overall braking induced by lane changes. The results show that the feasibility of the method and of the lane-change decision two-vehicle gaming model of automatic lane change is better in terms of traffic safety, traffic efficiency, and homogeneity. Compared to the minimizing overall braking induced by lane-change model test, the test of lane-change decision two-vehicle gaming model improves 2.26% and 1.5% in the average speed and total driving distance, respectively. The standard deviation of the traffic speed of the lane-change decision two-vehicle gaming model was 28.57% lower than the minimizing overall braking induced by lane changes. Compared to pure simulation verification, the method considers the effects of actual sensor signals and actuator control, which is closer to the actual application.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-21T01:43:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020919578
       
  • Thermal analysis of the triple-phase asynchronous motor-reducer coupling
           system by thermal network method
    • Authors: Mingzhang Chen, Wuhao Zhuang, Song Deng, Chengjie Zhu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      As the core components of mechanical power system, triple-phase asynchronous motor and reducer are required strictly for temperature control. In this paper, the triple-phase asynchronous motor and the reducer are regarded as a coupling system, and thermal network method is used to predict the temperature field distribution of the coupling system. The predicted temperature of the thermal network method is consistent with the experimental result and the finite-element analysis. Furthermore, analysis shows that motor output power, coefficient of friction between teeth and lubricating oil parameters have a great effect on reducing the temperature of the coupling system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T06:29:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020916991
       
  • Effect of spark discharge energy scheduling on ignition under quiescent
           and flow conditions
    • Authors: Zhenyi Yang, Xiao Yu, Hua Zhu, David S-K Ting, Ming Zheng
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The enhancement of the breakdown power during the spark discharge process has been proved to be beneficial for the flame kernel formation process under lean/diluted conditions. Such a strategy is realized by using a conventional transistor coil ignition system with an add-on capacitance in parallel to the spark plug gap in this paper. In practical application, the use of different ceramic material other than aluminum oxide can change the parasitic capacitance of the spark plug, achieving similar effect in terms of rescheduling the discharge energy released during the breakdown phase. Detailed research has been carried out to investigate the effect of the parallel capacitance and the cross flow velocity on the flame kernel formation and propagation process. With the increase in parallel capacitance, more spark energy is delivered during the breakdown phase, while less energy is released during the arc/glow phase. Shadowgraph images of the spark plasma reveal that the high-power spark discharge can generate a larger high-temperature area with enhanced electrically prompted turbulence under quiescent conditions, as compared with that using the conventional transistor coil ignition discharge strategy under the same condition. The breakdown enhanced turbulence of the high-power spark is proved to be beneficial for the flame kernel development, especially with the lean or exhaust gas recirculation diluted combustible mixtures, given that sufficient spark energy is available for the high-power spark strategy to successfully generate the breakdown event. The results of combustion tests under flow conditions reveal that the breakdown enhanced turbulence of the high-power spark tends to be overshadowed by the turbulence generated from the flow field, and both the increase in flow velocity and parallel capacitance contribute to the reduction in discharge duration of the arc/glow phase. Therefore, the benefits brought about by the high-power spark discharge tend to diminish with the intensification of flow velocity.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T05:50:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020915976
       
  • Safe and optimal lane-change path planning for automated driving
    • Authors: Yang Ding, Weichao Zhuang, Liangmo Wang, Jingxing Liu, Levent Guvenc, Zhen Li
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes an integrated lane-change trajectory planning method for advanced driver assistance system of connected and automated vehicles. First, the time-based quintic polynomial automated lane-change model is presented, which could adjust longitudinal and lateral velocity simultaneously. By tuning the lane-change duration and longitudinal displacement in the lane-change model, the lane-change reference trajectories satisfying the demands of safety, lane-change duration, travel distance, and comfort were derived under traffic-free condition. All feasible reference trajectories compose a trajectory map, which includes different driving situations, such as quick and comfortable or sudden and safe lane change. Second, the lane-change constraints induced by surrounding vehicles are introduced. The effects of surrounding vehicles on the lane-change performance are investigated by adjusting the speeds and initial gaps of preceding and rear vehicles. In addition, the initial velocity of the host vehicle is optimized to maximize the area of the trajectory map to enable a safer lane change. Finally, within the derived trajectory map, an optimal lane-change trajectory eliminating potential collisions is calculated by minimizing the lane-change duration, travel distance, driving comfort, and fuel consumption.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-01T10:48:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020913735
       
  • A review for design and dynamics control of unmanned ground vehicle
    • Authors: Jun Ni, Jibin Hu, Changle Xiang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The unmanned ground vehicle is supposed to replace humans for various applications in both civilian and military area, including transport, delivery, shuttle, clean, patrol, scout, and battle. It has been widely expected that the unmanned ground vehicle will greatly change the human life and the land combat form in the near future. The key techniques of the unmanned ground vehicle are environment perception, motion planning, chassis dynamics control, and cloud control. In this paper, the state of the art of the development of the military and civilian unmanned ground vehicle is introduced, and many classic ones are reviewed in detail in different application categories. The overall design and X-by-wire dynamics control technique of the civilian and military unmanned ground vehicle are reviewed. The X-by-wire technique plays an important role in improving the maneuverability, mobility, and handling performance of the unmanned ground vehicle. Therefore, the chassis dynamics control is considered as a core technique of the X-by-wire unmanned ground vehicle. In addition, as a research trend of the unmanned ground vehicle dynamics control, the cloud-based dynamics control approach of future unmanned ground vehicle based on big data and cloud control techniques is described according to the authors’ work.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-24T10:49:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020912097
       
  • Enable faster and smoother spatio-temporal trajectory planning for
           autonomous vehicles in constrained dynamic environment
    • Authors: Long Xin, Yiting Kong, Shengbo Eben Li, Jianyu Chen, Yang Guan, Masayoshi Tomizuka, Bo Cheng
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Trajectory planning is of vital importance to decision-making for autonomous vehicles. Currently, there are three popular classes of cost-based trajectory planning methods: sampling-based, graph-search-based, and optimization-based. However, each of them has its own shortcomings, for example, high computational expense for sampling-based methods, low resolution for graph-search-based methods, and lack of global awareness for optimization-based methods. It leads to one of the challenges for trajectory planning for autonomous vehicles, which is improving planning efficiency while guaranteeing model feasibility. Therefore, this paper proposes a hybrid planning framework composed of two modules, which preserves the strength of both graph-search-based methods and optimization-based methods, thus enabling faster and smoother spatio-temporal trajectory planning in constrained dynamic environment. The proposed method first constructs spatio-temporal driving space based on directed acyclic graph and efficiently searches a spatio-temporal trajectory using the improved A* algorithm. Then taking the search result as reference, locally convex feasible driving area is designed and model predictive control is applied to further optimize the trajectory with a comprehensive consideration of vehicle kinematics and moving obstacles. Results simulated in four different scenarios all demonstrated feasible trajectories without emergency stop or abrupt steering change, which is kinematic-smooth to follow. Moreover, the average planning time was 31 ms, which only took 59.05%, 18.87%, and 0.69%, respectively, of that consumed by other state-of-the-art trajectory planning methods, namely, maximum interaction defensive policy, sampling-based method with iterative optimizations, and Graph-search-based method with Dynamic Programming.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T04:49:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020906627
       
  • Tactical driving decisions of unmanned ground vehicles in complex highway
           environments: A deep reinforcement learning approach
    • Authors: Huanjie Wang, Shihua Yuan, Mengyu Guo, Ching-Yao Chan, Xueyuan Li, Wei Lan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a deep reinforcement learning approach is proposed to handle tactical driving in complex highway traffic environments for unmanned ground vehicles. Tactical driving is a challenging topic for unmanned ground vehicles because of its interplay with routing decisions as well as real-time traffic dynamics. The core of our deep reinforcement learning approach is a deep Q-network that takes dynamic traffic information as input and outputs typical tactical driving decisions as action. The reward is designed with the consideration of successful highway exit, average traveling speed, and driving safety and comfort. In order to endow an unmanned ground vehicle with situational traffic information that is critical for tactical driving, the vehicle’s sensor information such as vehicle position and velocity are further augmented through the assessment of the ego-vehicle’s collision risk, potential field, and kinematics and used as input for the deep Q-network model. A convolutional neural network is built and fine-tuned to extract traffic features which facilitate the decision-making process of Q-learning. For model training and testing, a highway simulation platform is constructed with realistic parameter settings obtained from a real-world highway traffic dataset. The performance of the deep Q-network model is validated with extensive simulation experiments under different parameter settings such as traffic density and risk level. The results exhibit the important potentials of our deep Q-network model in learning challenging tactical driving decisions given multiple objectives and complex traffic environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-02-03T01:06:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019898009
       
  • Coordination strategy between AFS and ASB with fault-tolerant mechanism
           for ground vehicle
    • Authors: Pi Dawei, Yan Mingshuai, Liu Yulong, Liu Yahui
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In order to improve the performance of ground vehicle equipped with the active front-wheel steering and active stabilizer bar, the coordination for the two systems has been researched. A layered functional framework is proposed: the upper controller coordinates yaw motion with a designed Fuzzy proportional–integral–derivative controller algorithm correcting the outputs of active front-wheel steering and active stabilizer bar; for the middle subsystems, an ideal steering ratio is designed with the Sigmoid function to achieve the active steering, and a sliding mode algorithm is designed to reduce the roll angle; the bottom actuators achieve the control target from the middle layer. In addition, the upper layer has a rebuilt fuzzy rule-based fault-tolerant mechanism that handles the failure of stabilizer bar actuators to guarantee the stability of roll and yaw motion. Finally, the simulation and rapid-control-prototype test for step steering show that the designed algorithm can ensure roll and yaw performance. In consideration of the accidental failure of active stabilizer bar actuators, by actively adjusting the coordinated rules, the system could overcome the contradiction of coupling control and still maintain yaw and roll stability, which improves the active safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-01-24T08:58:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019896141
       
  • Virtual shaft: Robust coupling by bidirectional and distributed prediction
           of coupling values
    • Authors: Rene Savelsberg, Jakob Andert, Serge Klein, Stefan Pischinger
      First page: 2419
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Shifting automotive powertrain development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) increases efficiency by utilizingtest-benches as opposed to prototype vehicles (road-to-rig approach). The coupling of distributed test-benches by a virtualized shaft connection is required to reproduce interactions of automotive powertrain components. A coupling algorithm simulates a rigid connection by synchronizing the torque and speed of two distributed test-bench’s electric motors. System dead-times lead to limited stability and reduced bandwidth of the coupling algorithm. In this study, a method for a stable bidirectional coupling of speed and torque of both subsystems is described analytically and verified by simulation. All component models are calibrated based on measurements using state-of-the-art test-bench equipment. A distributed prediction algorithm is proposed for the dead-time compensation. Four Kalman predictors estimate the coupling values of both subsystems at wall-clock-time without measurement and communication latencies. A detailed drive cycle analysis is performed through simulation. This enables a Virtual Shaft Algorithm to achieve a higher bandwidth and an improved coupling robustness.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-07T04:32:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020906629
       
  • Truck mass estimation method based on the on-board sensor
    • Authors: Beijia Wang, Hongliang Wang, Lei Wu, Liuliu Cai, Dawei Pi, Erlie Wang
      First page: 2429
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Vehicle mass estimation is the key technology to improve vehicle stability. However, the existing mass estimation accuracy is easily affected by the change of road gradient, and there are few studies on the mass estimation method of the light truck. Aiming at this problem, this paper uses sensors to measure road gradient and rear suspension deformation and proposes a sensor-based vehicle mass estimation algorithm. First, factors that affect the mass estimation are analyzed, road gradient error correction method and mass estimation error correction method are established. Besides, the suspension deformation is decoupled from the road gradient. Second, the mass estimation algorithm model was established in Matlab/Simulink platform and compared with the mass estimation iterative algorithm. Finally, the road test was carried out under various conditions, the results show that the proposed mass estimation algorithm is robust, and the accuracy of the mass estimation will not be affected by the sudden change of road gradient.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T04:36:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020905151
       
  • Real-time estimation of tire–road friction coefficient based on
           lateral vehicle dynamics
    • Authors: Juqi Hu, Subhash Rakheja, Youmin Zhang
      First page: 2444
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes a two-stage framework for real-time estimation of tire–road friction coefficient of a vehicle on the basis of lateral dynamics of the vehicle. The estimation framework employs a new cascade structure consisting of an extended Kalman filter and two unscented Kalman filters to reduce the computational burden. In the first stage, extended Kalman filter is utilized to estimate lateral velocity of the vehicle and thereby both the front and rear tires’ side-slip angles. In the second stage, a two–unscented Kalman filters sub-framework is formulated in sequence to observe both the front- and rear-axle tire forces, and to subsequently identify their respective tire–road friction coefficient, regarded as two unknown states. All the measured signals required in the study could be realized from the conventional on-board sensors. Typical double-lane change and single-lane change maneuvers were designed and the developed algorithm was verified through CarSim–MATLAB/Simulink software platform considering high-, mid-, and low-friction road conditions. The simulation results show that the proposed method can yield accurate and rapid estimations of the tire–road friction coefficient for mid- and low-friction road conditions even under a single-lane change maneuver, although double-lane change maneuver is needed to accurately estimate the tire–road friction coefficient for high-friction road condition.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T10:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020929233
       
  • Comparison of economic viability of series and parallel PHEVs for
           medium-duty truck and transit bus applications
    • Authors: Vaidehi Hoshing, Ashish Vora, Tridib Saha, Xing Jin, Gregory Shaver, Oleg Wasynczuk, R Edwin García, Subbarao Varigonda
      First page: 2458
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article performs a novel comparison of the life-cycle costs of the series and parallel architectures for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Economic viability is defined as having a payback period less than 2 years and number of battery replacements less than or equal to three over a vehicle life of 12 years along-with drivability and gradability constraints. Economic viability is compared for two plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications (Medium-duty Truck and Transit Bus) using series and parallel architectures over multiple drivecycles, for three economic scenarios (viz. 2020, 2025 and 2030 where the fuel price, battery price and motor price are varied such that latter scenarios are more favorable for hybridization). One battery overnight recharge is assumed. The results demonstrate that by 2020 the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle transit buses are viable for the duty cycles Manhattan, Orange County, and China (Normal and Aggressive). By 2025, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Class 6 trucks are viable for all duty cycles considered (Pick-up and delivery, Refuse and New York Composite). The parallel architectures generally require less than 50% of the initial cost of the series architecture, due to smaller motor sizes, driving earlier viability for parallel architectures. The transit bus scenarios generally achieve payback sooner than the medium-duty truck due to higher fuel cost savings, driving earlier viability for transit bus applications.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T10:12:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020919255
       
  • An experimental study for effect factors of the roller tappet induced
           impact noise in high-pressure fuel system of GDi engine
    • Authors: Hui-Min Shen, Pei Tang, Chong Lian, Liangliang Hu, Shuang Wei
      First page: 2473
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      With the wide application of gasoline direct injection system, its noise problem is becoming increasingly prominent under serious competitive environment. As the primary noise source of the engine in idle condition, the significant noise generated by the low-to-high pressure transmission part of high-pressure fuel pump becomes more and more serious. This paper focuses on the driving component of high-pressure fuel pump, the roller tappet, and experimentally studies effect factors of impact noise induced by it at engine idle. Both the impact occurrence time and position are analyzed from the combined vibration acceleration and crankshaft/camshaft rotation angle signals in the time domain according to the structure and kinematic mechanism of the roller tappet. The influences of the axial clearance between roller and tappet shell, the engine rotation speed and the lubrication conditions are investigated by experiments. The experimental results show that the lubrication is the primary factor for the roller tappet induced impact noise reduction. A significant improvement about 83% can be achieved under pressure lubrication.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-03-10T11:52:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020903520
       
  • A generalized method for three-dimensional dynamic analysis of a
           full-vehicle model
    • Authors: Guofeng Zhou, Yafei Wang, Haiping Du
      First page: 2485
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Dynamic performances of the vehicle are significantly influenced by the suspension mechanisms. An understanding of the effects of the suspension kinematics and statics (or, briefly, kinestatics) is crucial to improve the dynamic performances of a vehicle. However, the suspension kinestatics is often neglected in the dynamic analysis. This paper presents a generalized full-vehicle model for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis, which consists of two pairs of the front and rear spatial suspension mechanisms. Each suspension is represented by a corresponding instantaneous screw joint supporting the vehicle body at any instant. The full-vehicle model is viewed to be a 6-degree-of-freedom spatial parallel mechanism. As the spatial parallel mechanism, the kinematics and statics of the full-vehicle model are analysed using the theory of screws. Taking the suspension kinestatics and tyre dynamics into consideration, the dynamic equations of the full-vehicle model are formulated in terms of the Lagrangian equations. As immediate applications, the dynamic behaviours of a vehicle are simulated and evaluated under two different road disturbances, respectively. By comparing with the simulation results from two other widely used methods, it confirms the validity of the theoretical method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-03T09:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020916942
       
  • Dual-mass flywheels with tuned vibration absorbers for application in
           heavy-duty truck powertrains
    • Authors: Lina Wramner
      First page: 2500
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      As the heavy-duty combustion engine development goes towards lower rotational speeds and higher cylinder pressures, the torsional vibrations increase. There is therefore a need to identify and study new types of vibration absorbers that can reduce the level of torsional vibrations transmitted from the engine to the gearbox. In this work, the concept of a dual-mass flywheel combined with a tuned vibration absorber is analysed. The tuned vibration absorber efficiently reduces the vibration amplitudes for engine load frequencies near the tuning frequency, but it also introduces an additional resonance into the system. By placing the tuned vibration absorber on an intermediate flange between the two dual-mass flywheels, the introduced resonance frequency will be lower than the tuning frequency and a resonance in operating engine speed range can be avoided. Numerical simulations are used to show how the torsional vibration amplitudes in a heavy-duty truck powertrain are affected by the tuned vibration absorber and how the different parameters of the tuned vibration absorber and the dual-mass flywheel affect the torsional vibrations and the resonance frequencies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T06:55:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020916940
       
  • Analysis of power split vibration absorber performance in heavy-duty truck
           powertrains
    • Authors: Lina Wramner
      First page: 2509
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The current development of more efficient combustion engines leads to an increase in engine torsional vibrations; therefore, new technology is needed for reducing the vibrations transmitted from the engine to the driveline. In this article, the concept of power split vibration absorber is evaluated. A mathematical model of the power split vibration absorber is presented, and an analytical study shows how different design parameters affect the power split vibration absorber performance. Numerical simulations with models representing typical heavy-duty truck powertrains are used in the evaluations. It is concluded that for a low level of damping, the power split vibration absorber can provide significantly lower vibration amplitudes than a corresponding dual mass flywheel within a limited speed range. If the power split vibration absorber is optimised for the critical low engine speeds, an overall decrease in the level of vibration can be obtained, but a larger installation space than with a conventional dual mass flywheel would probably be required.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T07:04:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020916933
       
  • Improved CFD prediction of flows past simplified and real-life automotive
           bodies using modified turbulence model closure coefficients
    • Authors: Charles Patrick Bounds, Chunhui Zhang, Mesbah Uddin
      First page: 2522
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In spite of its shortcomings, faster turnaround time and cost-effectiveness make the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes modeling approach still a popular and widely used methodology in many industrial applications, including the automotive industries in general, but the motorsports sector in particular. Existing literature suggests that all Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes models generally fail to predict pressure and velocity flow fields with a reasonable accuracy, especially in the vehicle wake region. Recent numerical works suggest that, when using two-equation eddy viscosity turbulence models, improved correlation between the experiment and computational fluid dynamics is not achievable through only mesh refinements or adding additional corrective terms in the turbulence transport equations, and additional efforts are necessary for better predictions. In this backdrop, the prediction improvement strategy adopted in this paper is based on the realization that the turbulence model closure coefficients are normally specified as constants and their values are determined from either a single observation or a simple functional form is assumed and that these coefficients are constructed and/or constrained to behave correctly in extremely limiting circumstances. Subsequently, this study investigated the influence of a few selected turbulence model closure coefficients on the veracity of computational fluid dynamics predictions by analyzing simulations run with turbulence model closure coefficient values that were different from the commonly used default ones. This was done by first investigating the individual effect of each model parameters on the prediction veracity, and then a combination of model closure coefficient values was formulated in order to obtain a prediction with the best experimental correlation. This procedure was applied to four different test objects which include NACA 4412 airfoil at 12° angle of attack, the 25 and 35° slant angle Ahmed body, and a full-scale sedan type passenger vehicle. The shear-stress transport [math] was chosen as the turbulence model because of its popularity in automotive applications. It was observed that, irrespective of the test model, the computational fluid dynamics predictions are somewhat independent of some closure coefficients, while the prediction showed strong dependencies on certain model constant values, especially those in the dissipation equation. The present study demonstrated that, by using a modified set of closure coefficient values, very well correlated computational fluid dynamics predictions were possible. The findings from this study simply reiterate a 20-year-old conclusion by Stephen Pope that the closure coefficients for a model are not static and universal but instead are dynamic and must be calibrated for specific flow situations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T10:47:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020916671
       
  • Influence of vaned diffuser on the potential effect of volute and stall
           inception of centrifugal compressor
    • Authors: Li Fu, Ce Yang, Hang Zhang, Wenrui Bao, Hanzhi Zhang
      First page: 2546
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In the automotive turbochargers centrifugal compressor, the volute has a strong potential effect, leading to circumferential nonuniformity of the impeller flow field and compressor stall. In this study, full-annulus unsteady simulations for centrifugal compressors with vaned/vaneless diffusers are carried out. The influence of the diffuser vane on the potential effect of the volute and stall behavior of a centrifugal compressor is studied in detail. Based on the distribution of the casing static pressure, the formation mechanism of the circumferential distribution of static pressure and the reverse propagation process of pressure waves caused by pressure distortion are revealed. The results of this study show that the diffuser vanes can weaken the potential effect of the volute on the impeller flow field by reducing the degree of static pressure distortion. The number of static pressure peaks in the circumferential direction is related to the number of vanes/blades. The diffuser vanes can change the circumferential position of the stall inception, but cannot eliminate the “locking effect” of the volute tongue on the circumferential position of the stall. In other words, the circumferential position of the stall inception is still determined by the volute tongue for a centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser. Although the degree of circumferential static pressure distortion inside the impeller is reduced, the stable operating range of the compressor cannot be significantly widened by adjusting the stagger angle of the diffuser vane when the stall first occurs at the impeller inlet.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T05:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020916562
       
  • Neural networks assisted computational aero-acoustic analysis of an
           isolated tire
    • Authors: Ghulam Moeen Uddin, Sajawal Gul Niazi, Syed Muhammad Arafat, Muhammad Sajid Kamran, Muhammad Farooq, Nasir Hayat, Sher Afghan Malik, Abe Zeid, Sagar Kamarthi, Sania Saqib, Ijaz Ahmad Chaudhry
      First page: 2561
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The computational aero-acoustic study of an isolated passenger car tire is carried out to understand the effect of dimensions of longitudinal tire grooves and operational parameters (velocity and temperature) on tire noise. The computational fluid dynamics and acoustic models are used to obtain aero-acoustic tire noise at near-field and far-field receivers around the tire and artificial neural networks-based regression are used to study the highly non-linear and interactive causal relationships in the system. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes based realizable k-epsilon model is used to solve the flow field in the computational domain. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings model is used to obtain aero-acoustic tire noise at far-field positions. Spectral analysis is used to convert the output time domain to frequency domain and to obtain A-weighted sound pressure level. Artificial neural network–based response surface regression is conducted to understand casual relationships between A-weighted sound pressure level and control variables (Groove depth, Groove width, Temperature and velocity). Maximum A-weighted sound pressure level is observed in the wake region of the tire model. The interaction study indicates that ∼10% reduction in the aero-acoustic emissions is possible by selecting appropriate combinations of groove width and groove depth. The interaction of velocity with width is found to be most significant with respect to A-weighted sound pressure level at all receivers surrounding the tire. The interaction of operational parameters, that is, velocity and temperature are found to be significant with respect to A-weighted sound pressure level at wake and front receivers. Therefore, the regional speed limits and seasonal temperatures need to be considered while designing the tire to achieve minimum aero-acoustic emissions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-04T05:06:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020915104
       
  • Effects of the injection timing on knock and combustion characteristics in
           dual-fuel dual-injection engines
    • Authors: Jie Li, Changwen Liu, Rui Kang, Lei Zhou, Haiqiao Wei
      First page: 2578
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To utilize ethanol fuel in spark ignition engines more efficiently and flexibly, a new ethanol/gasoline dual-direct injection concept in gasoline engine is proposed. Therefore, based on the dual-fuel dual-direct injection system, the effects of different injection timings and two injector positions on the characteristics of combustion were studied comprehensively, and the effects of different octane numbers and temperature stratifications on knock and combustion were explored. The results show that as for Position A (ethanol injecting toward spark plug), with the delay of injection timing, knock tendency and its intensity increase initially and then decrease due to the comprehensive effect of ethanol evaporation and fuel stratification; on the contrary, for Position B (ethanol injecting toward end-gas region), retarding the injection timing of ethanol can effectively reduce the knock propensity. As for the engine performance, a dual-direct injection performs best, especially the retarded injection timing of ethanol for Position A. It can be found that with the delay of the fuel injection timing, the torque first increases and then decreases. The brake-specific fuel consumption decreases initially and then increases at maximum brake torque spark timing.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T05:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020913718
       
  • Vehicle vibration suppression using an inerter-based mechatronic device
    • Authors: Yujie Shen, Jason Zheng Jiang, Simon A Neild, Long Chen
      First page: 2592
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      As a two-terminal mechanical element, the inerter has been successfully deployed in various mechanical systems, such as automotives, multi-story buildings, and motorcycles. The introduction of the inerter allows the use of network synthesis to design a passive mechanical network, and can potentially facilitate the identification of practical and high performance mechatronic vibration absorbers. This paper provides an approach for optimal design of both the mechanical and the electrical parts for an inerter-based mechatronic device in vehicle suspension. The system considered includes a mechanical ball-screw inerter alongside an electric motor that is not driven but instead used passively with an electrical load applied across the terminals. The trade-offs in designing the ball-screw inerter and the permanent magnet electric machinery is discussed in detail. Two factors, namely, the coil resistance and the inductor resistance, are taken into account in the performance evaluation. Results show that the improvements in the road holding performance can reach 9.24% for the ideal suspension system with no diverse effect on the ride comfort and suspension travel performance, while a 5.77% improvement can be obtained when the effects of the coil resistance and the inductor are included.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T04:41:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020909245
       
  • A condensed dynamic model of a heavy-duty truck for optimization of the
           powertrain mounting system considering the chassis frame flexibility
    • Authors: Bohuan Tan, Yuanchang Chen, Quanfu Liao, Bangji Zhang, Nong Zhang, Qingxi Xie
      First page: 2602
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The existing powertrain mounting models of the heavy-duty truck for optimizing the mounts parameters cannot well describe the deformation of the chassis frame. To overcome this disadvantage, a new full vehicle model is proposed which embraces the view of system modeling and includes the frame flexibility. The model can achieve optimal parameters of the Powertrain Mounting System for isolating the vibration transmitted from the powertrain to the chassis. A model reduction technique, improved reduced system, is used to obtain a reduced model of the frame to represent its original large-scale finite element analysis model for the accessibility of time-efficient solutions of the model. The reduced frame model is integrated with the powertrain mounting and suspension model to form the full dynamic model of the vehicle. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed model are evaluated by its original vehicle model built in software ADAMS and an existing rigid model with rigid foundation. A hybrid model optimization strategy is also presented to tune the dynamic parameters of the powertrain mounts using the developed coupling model. The simulation results show that the proposed coupling model has better representation of the dynamic characteristics of the real vehicle system, and the presented hybrid model optimization strategy can obtain better optimization results compared with the existing rigid model with rigid foundation. In addition, the application of the proposed model can also be extended to the vibration control and the structural fatigue prediction.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-15T11:39:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020909241
       
  • Development of a variable mode valve actuation system for a heavy-duty
           engine
    • Authors: Yang Wang, Wuqiang Long, Jingchen Cui, Hua Tian, Xiangyu Meng, Xin Wang, Duo Xu
      First page: 2618
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new variable mode valve actuation system for a heavy-duty engine was proposed and designed in this paper. The variable mode valve actuation system can significantly enhance braking safety and improve fuel economy and emission of heavy-duty engines through flexible switching among four-stroke driving mode, two-stroke compression-release braking mode, and cylinder deactivation mode on a conventional four-stroke engine. The switching was controlled by four-stroke driving modules and two-stroke braking modules, both of which have two operation states: effective state and failure state. For the control of the multi-cylinder engine, all cylinders can be divided into several groups, and all the four-stroke driving modules in the same group were controlled by one solenoid valve, as well as all the two-stroke braking modules were controlled by another solenoid valve. A hydraulic-mechanical multi-body dynamics model was established to investigate the switching response of the variable mode valve actuation system. The results indicated that when the engine operated at 2000 r/min, the switching of the four-stroke driving module and the two-stroke braking module required 30 °CA and 101 °CA at most, respectively. In addition, to avoid the conflict between the four-stroke driving valve lift and the two-stroke braking valve lift, the switching between the four-stroke driving mode and the two-stroke compression-release braking mode must have a reasonable sequence. The variable mode valve actuation system has an excellent switching response and it is convenient for the control of the multi-cylinder engine. Therefore, the variable mode valve actuation system has a good application prospect for heavy-duty engines.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-02-12T10:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020901659
       
  • A novel approach for experimental identification of vehicle dynamic
           parameters
    • Authors: Di Yao, Philipp Ulbricht, Stefan Tonutti, Kay Büttner, Prokop Günther
      First page: 2634
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Pervasive applications of the vehicle simulation technology are a powerful motivation for the development of modern automobile industry. As basic parameters of road vehicle, vehicle dynamic parameters can significantly influence the ride comfort and dynamics of vehicle, and therefore have to be calculated accurately to obtain reliable vehicle simulation results. Aiming to develop a general solution, which is applicable to diverse test rigs with different mechanisms, a novel model-based parameter identification approach using optimized excitation trajectory is proposed in this paper to identify the vehicle dynamic parameters precisely and efficiently. The proposed approach is first verified against a virtual test rig using a universal mechanism. The simulation verification consists of four sections: (a) kinematic analysis, including the analysis of forward/inverse kinematic and singularity architecture; (b) dynamic modeling, in which three kinds of dynamic modeling method are used to derive the dynamic models for parameter identification; (c) trajectory optimization, which aims to search for the optimal trajectory to minimize the sensitivity of parameter identification to measurement noise; and (d) multibody simulation, by which vehicle dynamic parameters are identified based on the virtual test rig in the simulation environment. In addition to the simulation verification, the proposed parameter identification approach is applied to the real test rig (vehicle inertia measuring machine) in laboratory subsequently. Despite the mechanism difference between the virtual test rig and vehicle inertia measuring machine, this approach has shown an excellent portability. The experimental results indicate that the proposed parameter identification approach can effectively identify the vehicle dynamic parameters without a high requirement of movement accuracy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-21T07:03:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020908724
       
  • Reliability-based design optimization for vertical vibrations of a
           modified electric vehicle using fourth-moment polynomial standard
           transformation method
    • Authors: Sheng Wang, Lin Hua, Xinghui Han, Zhuoyu Su
      First page: 2649
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a new reliability-based design optimization procedure for the vertical vibration issues raised by a modified electric vehicle using fourth-moment polynomial standard transformation method. First, the fourth-moment polynomial standard transformation method with polynomial chaos expansion is used to obtain the reliability index of uncertain constraints in the reliability-based design optimization which is highly precise and saves computing time compared with other common methods. Next, the half-car model with nonlinear suspension parameters for the modified electric vehicle is investigated, and the response surface methodology is adopted to approximate the complex and time-consuming vertical vibration calculation to the polynomial expressions, and the approximation is validated for reliability-based design optimization results within permissible error level. Then, reliability-based design optimization results under both deterministic and uncertain load parameters are shown and analyzed. Unlike the traditional vertical vibration optimization that only considers one or several sets of load parameters, which lacks versatility, this article presents the reliability-based design optimization with uncertain load parameters which is more suitable for engineering. The results show that the proposed reliability-based design optimization procedure is an effective and efficient way to solve vertical vibration optimization problems for the modified electric vehicle, and the optimization statistics, including the maximum probability interval, can provide references for other suspension dynamical optimization.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-06T11:03:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020907488
       
  • Modelling and analysis of a magneto-rheological damper
           featuringnon-magnetized flow pathsin the piston
    • Authors: Guo-Jie Li, Wen-Bin Shangguan, Subhash Rakheja
      First page: 2665
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The damping characteristics of a magneto-rheological damper featuring non-magnetized flow paths in the piston are analysed using the Eyring constitutive model considering both viscous and minor hydraulic losses. The force–displacement and force–velocity characteristics of the magneto-rheological damper with non-magnetized flow paths were experimentally evaluated under different excitations and magnetic field intensity. Experimental results revealed relatively largerpre-yield-like region, attributed to flows through the non-magnetized paths, which increased with an increase in the coil current. A mathematical model of the damper was subsequently formulated using the Eyring constitutive model considering pressure drop across the piston and viscous effect in addition to the current-dependent friction. The Eyring model parameters were identified as a function of the magnetic field intensity and thus the coil current. For this purpose, a finite element model was formulated to identify a relation between the coil current and the magnetic field intensity. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by comparing the model-predicted force–velocity characteristics with the measured data under different applied currents. The model results are also compared with those obtained from the widely reported modified Bouc–Wen model and the Bingham constitutive model. The comparisons showed that the Eyring constitutive model can yield more accurate predictions of the damping properties compared to the Bingham model but similar to those from the modified Bouc–Wen model, while the Bouc–Wen model involves identifications of considerably greater number of parameters. The proposed model provided more accurate prediction of the damping force in the pre-yield region compared to the other models.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T02:02:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020907487
       
  • Torque vectoring system design for hybrid electric–all wheel drive
           vehicle
    • Authors: Jeongmin Cho, Kunsoo Huh
      First page: 2680
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A torque vectoring system is designed for the hybrid electric–all wheel drive vehicle where the front and rear wheels are powered by the combustion engine and electric motors, respectively. The vehicle provides enhanced handling performance by a twin motor drive unit that can distribute the driving and regenerative braking torques to the rear-left and rear-right wheels independently. Based on the driver’s intention, a sliding mode controller is designed to calculate the desired traction force and yaw moment for the vehicle. The force distribution between the front and rear axles is investigated considering the principle of the friction circle, and characteristics of the engine and drive motors. The vertical tire force is estimated using the random walk Kalman filter for the proportional distribution between the front and rear longitudinal forces. For the torque distribution between the rear-left and rear-right wheels, an optimization problem is formulated by considering the constraints of the friction circle and motor characteristics. The proposed algorithm is evaluated in a simulation environment first by reflecting the characteristics of the hybrid electric–all wheel drive modules. Then, the test vehicle is utilized to validate the handling performance experimentally and to compare with the uncontrolled cases.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-07T04:34:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020906626
       
  • Truck suspension incorporating inerters to minimise road damage
    • Authors: Xiaofu Liu, Jason Z Jiang, Andrew Harrison, Xiaoxiang Na
      First page: 2693
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Road damage caused by heavy vehicles is a serious problem experienced worldwide. This paper investigates the potential for reduction in road damage by incorporating the inerter element into truck suspension systems. Initially, quarter-car, pitch-plane and roll-plane models with two low-complexity inerter-based linear suspension layouts are investigated in the frequency domain. Reductions of the J95 road damage index for each model are identified against conventional parallel spring–damper truck suspension layouts. It is also shown that the proposed suspensions are capable of enhancing the roll stability while keeping the road damage at a given level. Subsequently, the nonlinear relationship between force and displacement as manifested by leaf springs is incorporated into the pitch-plane and roll-plane time-domain models. These confirm the potential advantage of inerter-based suspension layouts for road damage reduction.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-04-06T10:27:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020905149
       
  • Parameter optimization of rule-based control strategy for multi-mode
           hybrid electric vehicle
    • Authors: Wei Du, Shengdun Zhao, Liying Jin, Jinzhou Gao, Hao Li
      First page: 2706
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle is considered as the best hybrid power solution because it has many operational modes and can achieve a wider and more efficient transmission range. But at the same time, it also brings some problems, such as the choice of operational mode. At present, the most commonly used mode-switching strategy is rule-based control strategy, but it needs to determine the logical threshold value of each control variable in advance. Usually these values are determined by experience, but cannot guarantee that the value obtained is the optimal solution. This paper combines the improved NSGA_II algorithm with the rule-based control strategy and optimizes the logic threshold value by using the improved NSGA_II algorithm to get the optimal logic threshold value. Combining the optimized rule-based control strategy with the minimum equivalent fuel consumption strategy, a real-time control strategy for multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle is proposed. The advantages of the proposed control strategy are proved by an example.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-02-12T11:00:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407020902557
       
 
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