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PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (65 journals)

Showing 1 - 64 of 64 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Central Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACS Physical Chemistry Au     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Sensors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica     Free  
Advances in Image and Video Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Applied Materials Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biophysical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis, Structure & Reactivity     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
EPJ B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EPJ E - Soft Matter and Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Friction     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Reviews in Physical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part B: Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Chemistry A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Physical Chemistry B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Physical Chemistry C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Quantum Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Radiation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Physics: An International Journal in the Field of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Nature Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 322)
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry     Open Access  
Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Physical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physical Review A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Physical Review B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Physical Review D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Physical Review E     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Physical Review Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B     Full-text available via subscription  
Physics and Chemistry of Liquids: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Plasma Processes and Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Protection of Metals and Physical Chemistry of Surfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Revista Fuentes     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Focus on Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Focus on Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Solid State Ionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The European Physical Journal D - Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
The European Physical Journal Special Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Radiation Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.734
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0449-3060 - ISSN (Online) 1349-9157
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • Mechanisms modulating the activities of intestinal stem cells upon
           radiation or chemical agent exposure

    • Authors: Liao Z; Hu C, Gao Y.
      Pages: 149 - 157
      Abstract: AbstractIntestinal stem cells (ISCs) are essential for the regeneration of intestinal cells upon radiation or chemical agent damage. As for radiation-induced damage, the expression of AIM2, YAP, TLR3, PUMA or BVES can aggravate ISCs depletion, while the stimulation of TLR5, HGF/MET signaling, Ass1 gene, Slit/Robo signaling facilitate the radio-resistance of ISCs. Upon chemical agent treatment, the activation of TRAIL or p53/PUMA pathway exacerbate injury on ISCs, while the increased levels of IL-22, β-arrestin1 can ease the damage. The transformation between reserve ISCs (rISCs) maintaining quiescent states and active ISCs (aISCs) that are highly proliferative has obtained much attention in recent years, in which ISCs expressing high levels of Hopx, Bmi1, mTert, Krt19 or Lrig1 are resistant to radiation injury, and SOX9, MSI2, clusterin, URI are essential for rISCs maintenance. The differentiated cells like Paneth cells and enteroendocrine cells can also obtain stemness driven by radiation injury mediated by Wnt or Notch signaling. Besides, Mex3a-expressed ISCs can survive and then proliferate into intestinal epithelial cells upon chemical agent damage. In addition, the modulation of symbiotic microbes harboring gastrointestinal (GI) tract is also a promising strategy to protect ISCs against radiation damage. Overall, the strategies targeting mechanisms modulating ISCs activities are conducive to alleviating GI injury of patients receiving chemoradiotherapy or victims of nuclear or chemical accident.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab124
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Nicaraven mitigates radiation-induced lung injury by downregulating the
           NF-κB and TGF-β/Smad pathways to suppress the inflammatory response

    • Authors: Xu Y; Zhai D, Goto S, et al.
      Pages: 158 - 165
      Abstract: AbstractRadiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is commonly observed in patients receiving radiotherapy, and clinical prevention and treatment remain difficult. We investigated the effect and mechanism of nicaraven for mitigating RILI. C57BL/6 N mice (12-week-old) were treated daily with 6 Gy X-ray thoracic radiation for 5 days in sequences (cumulative dose of 30 Gy), and nicaraven (50 mg/kg) or placebo was injected intraperitoneally in 10 min after each radiation exposure. Mice were sacrificed and lung tissues were collected for experimental assessments at the next day (acute phase) or 100 days (chronic phase) after the last radiation exposure. Of the acute phase, immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues showed that radiation significantly induced DNA damage of the lung cells, increased the number of Sca-1+ stem cells, and induced the recruitment of CD11c+, F4/80+ and CD206+ inflammatory cells. However, all these changes in the irradiated lungs were effectively mitigated by nicaraven administration. Western blot analysis showed that nicaraven administration effectively attenuated the radiation-induced upregulation of NF-κB, TGF-β, and pSmad2 in lungs. Of the chronic phase, nicaraven administration effectively attenuated the radiation-induced enhancement of α-SMA expression and collagen deposition in lungs. In conclusion we find that nicaraven can effectively mitigate RILI by downregulating NF-κB and TGF-β/pSmad2 pathways to suppress the inflammatory response in the irradiated lungs.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab112
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Irradiated microvascular endothelial cells may induce bystander effects in
           neural stem cells leading to neurogenesis inhibition

    • Authors: Ma L; Ye Z, Zhang Y, et al.
      Pages: 192 - 201
      Abstract: AbstractRadiation-induced neurocognitive dysfunction (RIND) has attracted a lot of attention lately due to the significant improvement of the survival of cancer patients after receiving cranial radiotherapy. The detailed mechanisms are not completely understood, but extensive evidence supports an involvement of the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis, which may result from radiation-induced depletion of neural stem cells (NSCs) as well as the damage to neurogenic niches. As an important component of neurogenic niches, vascular cells interact with NSCs through different signaling mechanisms, which is similar to the characteristics of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). But whether RIBE is involved in neurogenesis inhibition contributed by the damaged vascular cells is unknown. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of RIBEs in non-irradiated bystander NSCs induced by irradiated bEnd.3 vascular endothelial cells in a co-culture system. The results show that compared with the NSCs cultured alone, the properties of NSCs were significantly affected after co-culture with bEnd.3 cells, and further change was induced without obvious oxidative stress and apoptosis when bEnd.3 cells were irradiated, manifesting as a reduction in the proliferation, neurosphere-forming capability and differentiation potential of NSCs. All these results suggest that the damaged vascular endothelial cells may contribute to neurogenesis inhibition via inducing RIBEs in NSCs, thus leading to RIND.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab125
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Pattern of chromosomal aberrations persisting over 30 years in a
           Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident survivor: study using mFISH

    • Authors: Nikitina V; Nugis V, Astrelina T, et al.
      Pages: 202 - 212
      Abstract: AbstractThe long-term in vivo cytogenetic effects of high-dose radiation exposure can be traced in accidentally irradiated persons, and particularly useful for developing strategies of monitoring and therapy of such patients, as well as for elucidating the fundamental aspects of hematopoiesis and radiobiology. Using 24-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), we analysed the frequency and the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident victim 30, 31, 32 and 33 years after acute accidental exposure to high-dose gamma radiation of the whole body. Totally, 993 metaphase cells were analyzed (or 219, 272, 258, 244 cells each year), of which 297 were aberrant. Our study demonstrated a constant aberrant cell frequency at 28% in 2016–2018 years, while in 2019, a significant increase up to 35% occurred due to contribution of significantly elevated frequency of simple aberrations in the absence of evident recent genotoxic factors. Four clonal aberrations were detected, three of which persisted for more than one year at a frequency up to 2.5% of analyzed cells. The distribution of 731 breakpoints per individual chromosomes was nearly proportional to their physical length, excepting Chromosomes 13 and 20, which were significantly breakpoint-deficient compared to the genome median rate. Monitoring of the long-term effects on chromosomal instability caused by radiation exposure is important for understanding and predicting the long-term effects of ionizing radiation.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab131
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Study on the protective effect and mechanism of Liriodendrin on radiation
           enteritis in mice

    • Authors: Li J; Zheng X, Li X, et al.
      Pages: 213 - 220
      Abstract: AbstractPatients receiving pelvic or abdominal radiotherapy may experience acute and/or chronic side effects due to gastrointestinal changes. However, effective medicine for treating radiation enteritis has not been found yet. Sargentodoxa cuneata is a famous Chinese medicine used to treat intestinal inflammation, and our research team has found the main biologically active compound through its extraction, which is Liriodendrin. In this study, we found that Liriodendrin can reduce the expression of Cer, Cer1P and S1P in the sphingolipid pathway, thereby reducing the histological damage to the intestinal tract of mice and inhibiting the apoptosis of intestinal tissue cells. In addition, Liriodendrin can reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), and it is suggested through flow cytometry that the proportion of neutrophils in the intestinal tissue can decrease due to the existence of Liriodendrin. At the same time, the western blot evaluation revealed that Liriodendrin significantly inhibited the activation of Bcl-2/Bax/Caspase-3 and NF-κB signaling pathways. The results show that Liriodendrin can inhibit intestinal inflammation and intestinal cell apoptosis through the sphingolipid pathway. Therefore, the aforementioned results demonstrated that Liriodendrin may be a promising drug for the treatment of radiation enteritis.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab128
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Dose- and LET-dependent changes in mouse skin contracture up to a year
           after either single dose or fractionated doses of carbon ion or gamma rays
           

    • Authors: Ando K; Yoshida Y, Hirayama R, et al.
      Pages: 221 - 229
      Abstract: AbstractTime dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions for skin damage was investigated to answer the question of whether the flat distribution of biological doses within a Spread-Out Bragg peak (SOBP) which is designed based on in vitro cell kill could also be flat for in vivo late responding tissue. Two spots of Indian ink intracutaneously injected into the legs of C3H mice were measured by calipers. An equieffective dose to produce 30% skin contraction was calculated from a dose–response curve and used to calculate the RBE of carbon ion beams. We discovered skin contraction progressed after irradiation and then reached a stable/slow progression phase. Equieffective doses decreased with time and the decrease was most prominent for gamma rays and least prominent for 100 keV/μm carbon ions. Survival parameter of alpha but not beta in the linear-quadratic model is closely related to the RBE of carbon ions. Biological doses within the SOBP increased with time but their distribution was still flat up to 1 year after irradiation. The outcomes of skin contraction studies suggest that (i) despite the higher RBE for skin contracture after carbon ions compared to gamma rays, gamma rays can result in a more severe late effect of skin contracture. This is due to the carbon effect saturating at a lower dose than gamma rays, and (ii) the biological dose distribution throughout the SOBP remains approximately the same even one year after exposure.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab123
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Japanese structure survey of radiation oncology in 2015

    • Authors: Numasaki H; Nakada Y, Okuda Y, et al.
      Pages: 230 - 246
      Abstract: AbstractThis article describes the ongoing structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load and geographic distribution to identify and overcome any existing limitations. From May 2016 to August 2018, the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology conducted a questionnaire based on the Japanese national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2015. Data were analyzed based on the institutional stratification by the annual number of new patients treated with radiotherapy per institution. The estimated annual numbers of new and total (new plus repeat) patients treated with radiation were 225 000 and 271 000, respectively. Additionally, the estimated cancer incidence was 891 445 cases with approximately 25.2% of all newly diagnosed patients being treated with radiation. The types and numbers of treatment devices actually used included linear accelerator (linac; n = 936), Gamma Knife (n = 43), 60Co remote afterloading system (RALS; n = 21), and 192Ir RALS (n = 129). The linac system used dual-energy functions in 754 units, 3D conformal radiotherapy functions in 867, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) functions in 628. There were 899 Japan Radiological Society/Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology-certified radiation oncologists (RO), 1213.9 full-time equivalent (FTE) ROs, 2394.2 FTE radiotherapy technologists (RTT), 295.7 FTE medical physicists, 210.2 FTE radiotherapy quality managers, and 906.1 FTE nurses. The frequency of IMRT use significantly increased during this time. In conclusion, the Japanese structure of radiation oncology has clearly improved in terms of equipment and utility although there was a shortage of personnel in 2015.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab129
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Risk perception of genetic effects and mental health among residents of
           Kawauchi village, 10 years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
           accident

    • Authors: Liu M; Matsunaga H, Orita M, et al.
      Pages: 261 - 263
      Abstract: Ministry of the Environment10.13039/501100002981
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab108
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Survey of malignant pleural mesothelioma treatment in Japan: Patterns of
           practice and clinical outcomes in tomotherapy facilities

    • Authors: Nakanishi-Imai M; Murai T, Onishi M, et al.
      Pages: 281 - 289
      Abstract: AbstractWe conducted a nationwide survey of tomotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in Japan. Fifty-six facilities were surveyed and data on 31 patients treated curatively between 2008 and 2017 were collected from 14 facilities. Twenty patients received hemithorax irradiation after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) (first group). Five patients received irradiation without EPP (second group), while six received salvage radiotherapy for local recurrence (salvage group). Among the seven patients not undergoing EPP, five (four in the second group and one in the salvage group) were treated with lung sparing pleural irradiation (LSPI) and two with irradiation to visible tumors. Two-year overall survival (OS) rates in the first and second groups were 33% and 60%, respectively (median, 13 vs 30 months, P = 0.82). In the first and second groups, 2-year local control (LC) rates were 53 and 67%, respectively (P = 0.54) and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 16% and 60%, respectively (P = 0.07). Distant metastases occurred in 15 patients in the first group and three in the second group. In the salvage group, the median OS was 18 months. Recurrence was observed in the irradiated volume in four patients. The contralateral lung dose was higher in LSPI than in hemithorax irradiation plans (mean, 11.0 ± 2.2 vs 6.1 ± 3.1 Gy, P = 0.002). Grade 3 or 5 lung toxicity was observed in two patients receiving EPP and hemithorax irradiation, but not in those undergoing LSPI. In conclusion, outcomes of EPP and hemithorax irradiation were not satisfactory, whereas LSPI appeared promising and encouraging.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab127
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A retrospective study of small-pelvis radiotherapy plus image-guided
           brachytherapy in stage I–II non-bulky cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    • Authors: Yoshimoto Y; Murata K, Irie D, et al.
      Pages: 290 - 295
      Abstract: AbstractWe herein report a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of a combination therapy of pelvic irradiation that excluded the common iliac lymph nodes region and image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) for non-bulky (≤4 cm) cervical cancer. Thirty-three patients with stage I–II cervical squamous cell carcinoma (≤4 cm) and without pelvic/para-aortic lymphadenopathy who were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone between February 2009 and September 2016 were included. The radiotherapy consisted of CT-based small-pelvis irradiation (whole pelvis minus common iliac lymph node area) of 20 Gy/10 fractions followed by pelvic irradiation with a midline block of 30 Gy/15 fractions and IGBT of 24 Gy/4 fractions (6 Gy/fraction for high-risk [HR] clinical target volume [CTV] D90%). In-room computed tomography (CT) imaging with applicator insertion was used for brachytherapy planning, with physical examinations and diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also being referred to for determination of HR CTV. Over a median follow-up of 60.5 months (range, 7–89), two patients developed distant recurrence and one developed local and distant recurrence. Two patients died from cervical cancer, one from hepatocellular carcinoma and one from non-cancerous disease. The 2/5-year local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 100%/96.7%, 93.8%/90.6% and 93.9%/93.9%, respectively. No pelvic/para-aortic lymph node recurrence was observed. There were no late complications of grade 3 or higher in the small bowel, large bowel/rectum, or bladder. Our results suggest that a combination therapy of IGBT plus small-pelvis irradiation excluding common iliac lymph nodes provides reasonable clinical outcomes and can be a treatment option in non-bulky (≤4 cm) cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrac001
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Three cases of retroperitoneal sarcoma in which bioabsorbable spacers
           (bioabsorbable polyglycolic acid spacers) were inserted prior to carbon
           ion radiotherapy

    • Authors: Serizawa I; Kusano Y, Kano K, et al.
      Pages: 296 - 302
      Abstract: AbstractFrom August 2019 to August 2020, we inserted polyglycolic acid (PGA) spacers and administered carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) to three cases of retroperitoneal sarcoma at our hospital. We aimed to investigate its utility and safety for retroperitoneal sarcoma. We analyzed changes in PGA spacer volume and corresponding computed tomography (CT) values in addition to the dose distribution using in-room CT images that were obtained during treatment. We assessed adverse events and investigated the suitability, safety and effectivity of PGA spacer insertion. During treatment, changes in PGA spacer volumes and CT values were confirmed. Volumes increased in patients with a folded PGA spacer, and it increased 1.6-fold by the end of irradiation compared with planning CT. The CT values decreased by 20–50 Hounsfield units at the end of irradiation compared to the planning CT. Dose distribution evaluation showed that the dose to the gastrointestinal tract adjacent to the tumor was maintained below the tolerable dose, and a sufficient dose was delivered to the target by PGA spacer insertion. One case of subileus caused during abdominal surgery for PGA spacer insertion occurred. No other adverse events, such as digestive disorders, were observed. CIRT with PGA spacer insertion for retroperitoneal sarcomas is safe and effective. For cases in which there is no option but to perform irradiation using a PGA spacer, precautionary measures such as verification of dose distributions using CT images are necessary.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrac002
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • How should we appropriately classify low-risk uterine cervical cancer
           patients suitable for de-intensified treatment'

    • Authors: Murakami N; Kuno I, Yoshida H, et al.
      Pages: 312 - 313
      Abstract: AbstractWe suggested de-escalation would be possible for cervical cancer like human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer. However, the classification was based on tumor shrinkage that can be obtained after half of the treatment was finished. Our other article found adverse factors which can be obtained prior to treatment, and they might classify patients earlier.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab130
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A novel method for skin marking in radiotherapy: first clinical use of
           temporary organic tattoo seal

    • Authors: Goto M; Oshiro Y, Tamaki Y, et al.
      Pages: 314 - 318
      Abstract: AbstractAn oil-based pen is widely used as a skin marker for identification of the isocenter and computed tomography (CT)-coordinate origin during radiotherapy. However, use of this pen has some disadvantages, including color loss and color migration. To address these problems, we have developed use of a temporary fashion tattoo (Inkbox) for skin marking. The utility and feasibility of Inkbox as an alternative to an oil-based pen were evaluated in this study. The study included patients from two centers who required skin marking for radiotherapy performed between December 2020 and March 2021. Skin markings were made with an oil-based pen or with Inkbox. The durability was recorded during daily irradiation. Skin markings with Inkbox were made in 32 patients. The total number of skin markings was 94: 64 with Inkbox and 30 with an oil-based pen. A questionnaire survey to evaluate each method was conducted among patients after radiotherapy. The median durations of marking were 16 and 4 days with Inkbox and an oil-based pen, respectively (p-value < 0.001). The survey showed that Inkbox had less impact on the daily lives of patients, including reduced color migration to clothes and less concern about disappearance of the marking. There were no adverse cutaneous side effects with Inkbox. The duration of marking with Inkbox is about 16 days, with little impact on daily life. These findings suggest that Inkbox is a potentially useful method of skin marking in radiotherapy.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab126
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Ionizing radiation alters organoid forming potential and replenishment
           rate in a dose/dose-rate dependent manner

    • Authors: Fujimichi Y; Otsuka K, Tomita M, et al.
      Pages: 166 - 173
      Abstract: AbstractIntestinal organoids are an in vitro cultured tissue model generated from intestinal stem cells, and they contain a mixture of epithelial cell types. We previously established an efficient ‘one cell/well’ sorting method, and defined organoid-forming potential (OFP) as a useful index to evaluate the stemness of individual cells. In this study, we assessed the response to radiation dose and dose-rate by measuring both OFP and the percentage of stem cells in the crypts. After high-dose-rate (HDR, 0.5 Gy/min) irradiation in vivo, the percentage of stem cells in the harvested crypt cells decreased, and the replenishment of cycling stem cells originating from dormant cells was enhanced, but OFP increased in cells irradiated with a total dose of >1 Gy. In contrast, at a total dose of 0.1 Gy the percentage of stem cells reduced slightly, but neither replenishment rate nor OFP changed. Furthermore, the response to 1 Gy of low-dose-rate (LDR) irradiation was similar to the response to 0.1 Gy HDR irradiation. These results suggest that 0.1 Gy HDR irradiation or 1 Gy LDR irradiation does not alter stemness. Additionally, the OFP increase in the colon in response to irradiation was smaller than that in the duodenum, similar to the percentage of stem cells. Understanding the differences in the response of stem cells between the colon and the duodenum to radiation is important to clarify the mechanisms underlying the development of radiation-associated intestinal cancers.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab120
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • STAT3 as a target for sensitizing prostate cancer cells to irradiation

    • Authors: Zhang Q; Zhou X, Wei S, et al.
      Pages: 174 - 182
      Abstract: AbstractRadioresistance of prostate cancer (PCa) is a major factor leading to local failure of radiotherapy. STAT3 is an oncogenic protein that was recently found to be activated in PCa tumors. This study aimed to investigate the radiosensitization effect of targeting STAT3 in PCa tumors. Here, the radiosensitization effect of STAT3 blockade was investigated by clonogenic assay, flow cytometry and western blot analysis in human PCa cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that STAT3 blockade with a STAT3 inhibitor or siRNA increased the radiosensitivity of PCa cells and that radiation together with STAT3 blockade induced more apoptosis and double-strand breaks (DSBs) than radiation alone in LNCaP cells. In addition, radiation induced STAT3 activation and survivin expression in PCa cells, which was inhibited by STAT3 blockade. Transfection with survivin cDNA attenuated the radiosensitization effect of STAT3 blockade. These effects were further confirmed by in vivo studies, which showed that the STAT3 inhibitor enhanced the treatment efficacy of radiation on LNCaP xenografts with decreased STAT3 activation and survivin expression.These findings suggest that STAT3 blockade radiosensitizes PCa cells through regulation of survivin. Thus, our study has revealed STAT3 as a potential sensitizer for irradiation in PCa cells. Its clinical application as an adjuvant in radiotherapy of PCa should be explored in the future.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab117
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Radiation affects glutathione redox reaction by reduced glutathione
           peroxidase activity in human fibroblasts

    • Authors: Shimura T; Nakashiro C, Fujiwara K, et al.
      Pages: 183 - 191
      Abstract: AbstractThe glutathione (GSH) redox control is critical to maintain redox balance in the body’s internal environment, and its perturbation leads to a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and oxidative stress which have negative impacts on human health. Although ionizing radiation increases mitochondrial ROS generation, the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced late ROS accumulation are not fully understood. Here we investigated the radiation effect on GSH redox reactions in normal human diploid lung fibroblasts TIG-3 and MRC-5. Superoxide anion probe MitoSOX-red staining and measurement of GSH peroxidase (GPx) activity revealed that high dose single-radiation (SR) exposure (10 Gy) increased mitochondrial ROS generation and overall oxidative stress in parallel with decrease in GSH peroxidase (GPx) activity, while GSH redox control was effective after exposure to moderate doses under standard serum conditions. We used different serum conditions to elucidate the role of serum on GSH redox reaction. Serum starvation, serum deprivation and DNA damage response (DDR) inhibitors-treatment reduced the GPx activity and increased mitochondrial ROS generation regardless of radiation exposure. Fractionated-radiation was used to evaluate the radiation effect on GSH reactions. Repeated fractionated-radiation induced prolonged oxidative stress by down-regulation of GPx activity. In conclusion, radiation affects GSH usage according to radiation dose, irradiation methods and serum concentration. Radiation affected the GPx activity to disrupt fibroblast redox homeostasis.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab122
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Biological and internal dosimetry for radiation medicine: current status
           and future perspectives

    • Authors: Sudprasert W; Belyakov O, Tashiro S.
      Pages: 247 - 254
      Abstract: AbstractThe International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Hiroshima International Council for Health Care of the Radiation-Exposed (HICARE) jointly organized two relevant workshops in Hiroshima, Japan, i.e. a Training Meeting ‘Biodosimetry in the 21st century’ (BIODOSE-21) on 10–14 June 2013 and a Workshop on ‘Biological and internal dosimetry: recent advance and clinical applications’ which took place between 17 and 21 February 2020. The main objective of the first meeting was to develop the ability of biodosimetry laboratories to use mature and novel techniques in biological dosimetry for the estimation of radiation doses received by individuals and populations. This meeting had a special focus on the Asia-Pacific region and was connected with the then on-going IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) E35008 ‘Strengthening of “Biological dosimetry” in IAEA Member States: Improvement of current techniques and intensification of collaboration and networking among the different institutes’ (2012–17). The meeting was attended by 25 participants, which included 11 lecturers. The 14 trainees for this meeting came from India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. During the meeting 13 lectures by HICARE and IAEA invited lecturers were delivered besides eight research reports presented by the IAEA CRP E35008 network centers from the Asia-Pacific region. Two laboratory exercises were also undertaken, one each at Hiroshima University and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The second training workshop aimed to discuss with the participants the use of mature and novel techniques in biological and internal dosimetry for the estimation of radiation effects by accidental, environmental and medical exposures. The workshop was attended by 19 participants from Indonesia, Jordan, Oman, Philippines, Singapore, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, UAE, USA and Yemen. The main outcome of both meetings was a review of the state-of-the-art of biodosimetry and internal dosimetry and their future perspectives in medical management. This report highlights the learning outcome of two meetings for the benefit of all stake-holders in the field of biological and internal dosimetry.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab119
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • DNA strand break induction of aqueous plasmid DNA exposed to 30 MeV
           protons at ultra-high dose rate

    • Authors: Ohsawa D; Hiroyama Y, Kobayashi A, et al.
      Pages: 255 - 260
      Abstract: AbstractRadiation cancer therapy with ultra-high dose rate exposure, so called FLASH radiotherapy, appears to reduce normal tissue damage without compromising tumor response. The aim of this study was to clarify whether FLASH exposure of proton beam would be effective in reducing the DNA strand break induction. We applied a simple model system, pBR322 plasmid DNA in aqueous 1 × TE solution, where DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) can be precisely quantified by gel electrophoresis. Plasmid DNA were exposed to 27.5 MeV protons in the conventional dose rate of 0.05 Gy/s (CONV) and ultra-high dose rate of 40 Gy/s (FLASH). With both dose rate, the kinetics of the SSB and DSB induction were proportional to absorbed dose. The SSB induction of FLASH was significantly less than CONV, which were 8.79 ± 0.14 (10−3 SSB per Gy per molecule) and 10.8 ± 0.68 (10−3 SSB per Gy per molecule), respectively. The DSB induction of FLASH was also slightly less than CONV, but difference was not significant. Altogether, 27.5 MeV proton beam at 40 Gy/s reduced SSB and not DSB, thus its effect may not be significant in reducing lethal DNA damage that become apparent in acute radiation effect.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab114
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Radiotherapy Patterns of Care for Locally-advanced Non-small Cell Lung
           Cancer in the Pre- and Post-durvalumab Era: A Region-wide Survey in a
           Japanese Prefecture

    • Authors: Kubo N; Kobayashi D, Iwanaga M, et al.
      Pages: 264 - 271
      Abstract: AbstractThe promising results of the PACIFIC study led to the approval of consolidation durvalumab for coverage by the National Health Insurance (NHI) in 2018 for patients with locally-advanced unresectable non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). However, the effect of NHI coverage on the patterns of care for this population remains unclear. Here, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey to determine the patterns of care for patients with stage II–III NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy in 2017 (pre-durvalumab era) or in 2019 (post-durvalumab era). Data were obtained from 11 radiotherapy facilities in Gunma prefecture, which has a population of 1.94 million. We identified 80 and 83 patients with stage II–III NSCLC who received definitive radiotherapy in Gunma in 2017 and 2019, respectively. At a given facility, CCRT was the treatment of choice in a significantly greater proportion of patients in 2019 than in 2017 (66% ± 20% vs 51% ± 29%, P = 0.041). Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was more frequent in 2019 than in 2017 (24% vs 1.2%). Carboplatin plus paclitaxel was used for CCRT at higher rate in 2019 than in 2017 (73% vs 44%). Consolidation durvalumab was performed in 73% (40/55) of CCRT-treated patients in 2019, and the treatment was performed for the planned 12 months in 45% (18/40) of patients. These data indicate that NHI coverage of durvalumab might be a possible reason for choosing CCRT in patients with stage II–III NSCLC in the real-world setting.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab116
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Outcomes of SBRT for lung oligo-recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer:
           a retrospective analysis

    • Authors: Lin Q; Zhou N, Zhu X, et al.
      Pages: 272 - 280
      Abstract: AbstractThe benefit of local ablative therapy (LAT) for oligo-recurrence has been investigated and integrated into the treatment framework. In recent decades, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been increasingly used to eliminate metastasis owing to its high rate of local control and low toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of SBRT for patients with lung oligo-recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from our therapeutic center. Patients with lung oligo-recurrence of NSCLC treated with SBRT between December 2011 and October 2018 at Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital) were reviewed. The characteristics, treatment-related outcomes, and toxicities of the patients were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression were performed to identify the factors associated with survival. A total of 50 patients with lung oligo-recurrence of NSCLC were enrolled. The median follow-up period was 23.6 months. The 3-year local progression-free survival (LPFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after SBRT were 80.2%, 21.9% and 45.3%, respectively. Patients in the subgroup with LAT to all residual diseases showed significantly improved OS and PFS. No treatment-related death occurred after SBRT. SBRT is a feasible option to treat patients with lung oligo-recurrence of NSCLC, with high rates of local control and low toxicity. LAT to all residual diseases was associated with better survival outcomes. Future prospective randomized clinical trials should evaluate SBRT strategies for such patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab118
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Prediction of post-radiotherapy survival for bone metastases: a comparison
           of the 3-variable number of risk factors model with the new Katagiri
           scoring system

    • Authors: Sakurai T; Takamatsu S, Shimoyachi N, et al.
      Pages: 303 - 311
      Abstract: AbstractWe investigated patient survival after palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases while comparing the prognostic accuracies of the 3-variable number of risk factors (NRF) model and the new Katagiri scoring system (Katagiri score). Overall, 485 patients who received radiotherapy for bone metastases were grouped as per the NRF model (groups I, II and III) and Katagiri score (low-, intermediate- and high-risk). Survival was compared using the log-rank or log-rank trend test. Independent prognostic factors were identified using multivariate Cox regression analyses (MCRA). MCRA and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare both models’ accuracy. For the 376 evaluable patients, the overall survival (OS) rates decreased significantly in the higher-tier groups of both models (P < 0.001). All evaluated factors except ‘previous chemotherapy status’ differed significantly between groups. Both models exhibited independent predictive power (P < 0.001). Per NRF model, hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.44 (P = 0.099) and 2.944 (P < 0.001), respectively, for groups II and III, relative to group I. Per Katagiri score, HRs for intermediate- and high-risk groups were 4.02 (P < 0.001) and 7.09 (P < 0.001), respectively, relative to the low-risk group. Areas under the curve (AUC) for predicting 6-, 18- and 24-month mortality were significantly higher when using the Katagiri score (P = 0.036, 0.039 and 0.022). Both models predict survival. Prognostic accuracy of the Katagiri score is superior, especially in patients with long-term survival potential; however, in patients with short prognosis, no difference occurred between both models; simplicity and patient burden should also be considered.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jrr/rrab121
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2 (2021)
       
 
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