The European Physical Journal Special Topics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.552 Citation Impact (citeScore): 2 Number of Followers: 1 Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 19516355  ISSN (Online) 19516401 Published by SpringerVerlag [2469 journals] 
 The effect of fins and wavy geometry on natural convection heat transfer
of $$\hbox {TiO}_{{2}}$$ TiO 2 â€“water nanofluid in trash binshaped
cavity
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract This paper studies the effect of fins number and size and wavy wall of a trash binshaped cavity on the natural convection heat transfer (NC) of a \(\hbox {TiO}_{2}\) –water nanofluid. The flow is considered buoyancy driven, which is under thermal radiation. The effects of Rayleigh number ( \(10^{3}10^{5})\) , thermal radiation (0.1 \(\) 0.3), nanoparticle concentration (0.02 \(\) 0.04), and geometry are investigated. Nondimensional mode of NS equations would be governing equations, and the finite element technique is utilized to discrete them. Two plans are examined: firstly, the effects of thermal parameters on the enclosure with no fin are studied. Secondly, the effects of the fins length and number, and also the wavy geometry on Nusselt number (Nu) and flow distribution are investigated. The findings of the present paper are that increasing the fin number around the inner cylinder increases \(\hbox {Nu}_{\mathrm{avg}}\) up to 54%, and reduces the local entropy generation (EG) and enhances the Bejan number. Moreover, if the wavy wall amplitude changes from 0.05 to 0.1, \(\hbox {Nu}_{\mathrm{avg}}\) reduces by 31%, and if the Ra changes from \(10^{3}\) to \(10^{5}\) , \(\hbox {Nu}_{\mathrm{avg}}\) increases up to 36%.
PubDate: 20220520

 Taguchi optimization of automotive radiator cooling with nanofluids

Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract Considering the influences of the heat transfer rate in automotive radiators on several aspects such as engine performance, fuel economy and available space for components, the present study numerically investigates the impacts of different nanofluids on the heat transfer and pressure drop in an automotive radiator. Four different parameters each having four levels are taken into consideration, which are nanoparticle volume fraction ( \(\phi =0.1, 0.3, 0.7\) , and 1%), Reynolds number (Re \(=\) 9350, 13,800, 18,500 and 23,000), type of base fluid (EG20, EG40, EG60, and water) and type of nanoparticle ( \(\hbox {Fe}_{3}\hbox {O}_{4}\) , CuO, \(\hbox {Al}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) , and \(\hbox {SiO}_{2})\) . Taguchi method is employed for reducing the number of parameter combinations from 256 to 16. It is found that the nanofluid utilization improves heat transfer between 3.2 and 45.9% depending on the combination of the investigated parameters. Pressure drop is noticeably increased due to nanofluid utilization. Regarding the Taguchi optimization, using \(\hbox {Fe}_{3}\hbox {O}_{4}\) –water nanofluid with 0.3% volume fraction at Re \(=\) 9350 is the most appropriate option for a high heat transfer with relatively low pressure drop. It is concluded that the radiator size can be reduced by 10.8% by using nanofluids due to the improvement in heat transfer, which consequently allow a larger space to designers for placing other components.
PubDate: 20220520

 Double diffusive convective transport and entropy generation in an annular
space filled with aluminawater nanoliquid
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract Many of the engineering/industrial applications involving the energy transport undergoes entropy generation which is unavoidable and this leads to degradation of system efficiency. Several researchers working in this field are exploring new ways to minimize the entropy generation so that the efficiency of the system could be enhanced. Motivated by these applications, the current article scrutinizes the rate of entropy generation along with thermal and solutal transport resulting from doublediffusive convective phenomenon in a nanoliquidfilled annular enclosure. Along vertical surfaces of the annulus, the uniform temperature and concentration conditions are specified, while the upper and lower boundaries are maintained as insulated and impermeable. The set of nonlinear coupled governing equations in vorticitystream function form supported by related initial and boundary conditions are computed numerically using timesplitting technique. The influence of various controlling parameters namely the buoyancy ratio ( \(5 \le N \le 5\) ), Lewis number ( \(0.5\le {Le} \le 2\) ), aspect ratio ( \(0.5\le {Ar} \le 2\) ) and nanoparticle volume fraction ( \(0\le \phi \le 0.05\) ) on fluid movement, temperature, concentration and entropy production are scrutinized and variation in thermal and solutal dissipation rates, entropy production and Bejan number are graphically illustrated and are discussed with physical interpretation. Through the vast range of computational experiments, it has been found that the quantity of generated entropy in an enclosure is greater during aided flow compared to that of opposing case. Further, it has also been found that higher thermal and solutal performance rates with minimal loss of system energy (entropy generation) could be achieved with a shallow annulus.
PubDate: 20220519

 Coupled buoyancy and Marangoni convection in a hybrid nanofluidfilled
cylindrical porous annulus with a circular thin baffle
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract The purpose of the current article is to evaluate the impact of coupled buoyancy and thermocapillary driven convection in a cylindrical porous annulus saturated with Ag/MgO–water hybrid nanofluid along with viscous dissipation effects. The left side wall of the annulus is kept heated, while the right side wall of the annulus is kept cold. The top and bottom limits are supposed to be adiabatic. A thin circular baffle is anchored to the inner cylinder. The primary goal of this research is to look into the effect of baffle size and location on Marangoni convection, thermal behaviour, and flow fields. Here, the effects of viscous dissipation are taken into account. The governing equations are subjected to the finite difference approach, which employs the ADI, SOR, and central differencing schemes. In this work, contour plots and average Nusselt number profiles are used to demonstrate the flow type, temperature behaviour, and thermal variations along the enclosure. The research demonstrates that the size and location of the fin plays a prominent role in influencing fluid flow within the annulus. An improvement in thermal transfer rate is reported for \(\phi \) and for the higher value of Ma considering the viscous dissipation, length and location of the baffle.
PubDate: 20220519

 OpenFOAM for computational combustion dynamics

Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the mathematical description of a physical phenomenon that involves fluid flow, combustion, and chemical reaction is combined with a numerical solution of the problem via the use of a computer process. Computational fluid dynamics has emerged as a critical tool for comprehending and forecasting the behavior of reacting flows, which are fundamentally complicated systems involving the intricate interplay of chemical kinetics and fluid mechanics. Among the numerous open source CFD packages, the widely used C++ finite volume simulation toolbox OpenFOAM (OpenSource Field Operation and Manipulation) has a number of advantages, including an objectoriented framework, the ease with which multiphysics modules can be added, and its free availability. However, numerous shortcomings have been identified regarding its application to chemically reacting flows, most notably incomplete splitting schemes, inadequate ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers for stiff chemistry, and oversimplified mixture transients. This article focuses on the combustion flow in an intake manifold. A sample intake manifold consists of two inlets and one outlet. The finite volume method is used for computing the mathematical modeling developed for combustion. The focus of the attention will be the demonstration of the structure of the flame. The energy deposition and pressure near the outlet are higher. The results are compared and found a good agreement between OpenFOAM and DUNE (Distributed and Unified Numerics Environment) numerics.
PubDate: 20220519

 Mixed convection in a double liddriven rectangular cavity filled with
hybrid nanofluid subjected to nonuniform heating using finitevolume
method
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract Mixed convection in a rectangular double liddriven cavity filled with hybrid nanofluid (Al \(_2\) O \(_3\) –Cu–water) subjected to insulated sidewalls and sinusoidal temperature on horizontal walls is numerically investigated. Using the SIMPLE algorithm for pressure, velocity coupling, the momentum, mass conservation, and energy equations are numerically solved by the finitevolume method (FVM). The data were validated by comparing the present results with the results of the problem solved by Sarris et al. (Numer Heat Transf Part A Appl 42(5):513–530, 2010) for pure liquid. The effects of amplitude ratio, phase deviation, and Reynolds numbers on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are discussed. It is found that the rate of heat transfer is improved as the volume fraction of the hybrid nanoparticles and the amplitude ratio are increased. The nonuniform heating at cavity walls tend to provide higher heat transfer rate and the heat transfer rate increases with respect to Reynolds number.
PubDate: 20220518

 Computational analysis of fluid immersed active cooling for battery
thermal management using thermal lattice Boltzmann method
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract A computational analysis of the thermal management system of a batterypack, whereby the cells are actively cooled at their surfaces by being immersed in a nanofluid medium. Nanofluids used in the automotive and energy management systems are selected and modelled within this work. The present study is conducted by carefully observing the flow structures, thermal energy distribution, entropy generation and pumping power requirements within the batterypack, to be able to present a resource helpful for designers in the preliminary stages of their thermal management system. This study throws light beyond the case of the batterypack thermal management, to other applications that require to be maintained at a given temperature or require a certain quantity of heat to be removed from it.
PubDate: 20220518

 Numerical simulation of nonuniform heating due to magnetohydrodynamic
natural convection in a nanofluid filled rhombic enclosure
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract Numerical simulation of magnetohydrodynamic natural convection heat transfer in a rhombic enclosure of inclination angle \({\mathrm {45}}^{\mathrm {^{\circ }}}\) containing copperwater nanofluid has been presented in this paper. The top and bottom walls of the enclosure are subjected to nonuniform heating while left wall being subjected to lower temperature and right wall being maintained adiabatic. The finite element strategy (COMSOL Multiphysics) is used to solve the governing equations. The numerical simulations are done for the parametric values: 10 \(^{4\, }\le \) Rayleigh number \(\le \) 10 \(^{6}\) ; 0 \(\le \) Hartmann number \(\le \) 100; 0 \(\le \) volume fraction of nanofluid \(\le \) 0.05. The phase deviation angle (top wall) is varied in the range from 0 to \({\uppi }\) with amplitude of non linear heating being maintained constant. The motivation of this research goes with the fact that the associated transport phenomenon conveys the implication of designing an optimal thermal system analogous to the theme of nonuniform heating, with the phase angle being a crucial design parameter. The numerical results depict to the fact, that the rate of heat transfer follows nonmonotonic trends and is considerably influenced by interplay of the phase shift angle, Rayleigh number and Hartmann number. The results showed that at Rayleigh number \(\ge 10^{5}\) , the heat transfer rate gets inhibited by enhancing the magnetic field intensity. The impact of different types of nano particles is illustrated by comparing the results with the results of three different nanofluids, silver– water, titanium dioxide–water and diamond–water nanofluids.
PubDate: 20220518

 Magnetohydrothermal performance of hybrid nanofluid flow through a
nonDarcian porous complex wavy enclosure
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract The present work elucidates the hydrothermal characteristics within a nonDarcian porous complex wavy enclosure saturated with \(\hbox {Al}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) –Cu– \(\hbox {H}_{2}\hbox {O}\) hybrid nanofluid considering a uniform magnetic field. The left sidewall of the enclosure is wavy and heated isothermally, whereas the other sidewall is maintained at ambient temperature, all other walls are insulated. The Forchheimer–Brinkmanextended Darcy model is implemented to analyze the flow through porous media. The dimensionless transport equations are numerically solved following the finite volumebased inhouse computational code with successive staggered nonuniform mesh distribution. The hydrothermal behaviors are investigated meticulously changing the dimensionless variables like undulation amplitude ( \(\lambda \) ), Hartmann number (Ha), Darcy number (Da), and modifiedRayleigh number ( \(\hbox {Ra}_{\mathrm{m}}\) ). The remarkable results reveal that enhancing the heating surface area by heightening the amplitude of the undulation always leads to higher heat transfer, but does not always favor the growth of the flow strength. The heightening of the flow strength with amplitude is noted for higher \(\hbox {Ra}_{\mathrm{m}}\) only. The flow intensity, as well as heat transfer, increases with the growing \(\hbox {Ra}_{\mathrm{m}}\) . The same decreases with increasing Da and Ha. Local distribution of heat transfer characteristics shows complex behavior depending on the amplitude of the undulations and associated dimensionless numbers.
PubDate: 20220517

 CBSFEM algorithm for mixed convection of irregularshaped porous
liddriven cavity utilizing thermal nonequilibrium medium
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract This contribution examines a highly forced convection situation due to the movements of two adjacent wavy and straight walls of twosided wavy enclosures. An adiabatic obstacle is located within the domain and the top boundary is partially heated. The included porous medium is assumed to be radiant and the twoenergy equations system is applied for this proposed. An inclined magnetic force together with heat generation sources is inclusive in the flow area. The governing equations have been solved utilizing the characteristicbased split algorithm under the spirit of finiteelement method. Numerical outcomes for the flow and heat transfer for the fluid and solid phases are determined for miscellaneous combinations of the physical factors. Graphical and tabular findings pointing out interesting features of the physics of the problem are presented and discussed. The forced convection mode is dominant at higher values of the undulation parameter \(\lambda \) and low values of \(\mathrm {the\, Hartmann\, \, number}\) Ha. Also, the radiative porous medium reduces the Nusselt coefficient for the solid phase. Furthermore, the rate of the heat transfer is reduced by 80% when the values of the Darcy coefficient are decreased from \({10}^{2}\) to \({10}^{5}\) .
PubDate: 20220517

 Thermal treatment inside a partially heated triangular cavity filled with
casson fluid with an inner cylindrical obstacle via FEM approach
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract A comprehensive numerical study is presented for the hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer of Casson fluid in an enclosed partially heated triangular cavity. A cylindrical obstacle is placed with different thermal boundary conditions inside the cavity. The governing partial differential equations are converted to a nondimensional form via suitable similarity variables. Wellknown finite element method (FEM) is employed to solve the governing equations and investigate the impact of various physical parameters like the length of the heating element, Casson and radiation parameters, and the Hartmann number on the streamlines, isotherms, and local Nusselt numbers. Simulations are performed for the three selected (cold, adiabatic, and heated) conditions of an inner cylindrical obstacle. It is demonstrated that the maximum Nusselt number ensues near the edges of the heating element and the Casson parameter tends to reduce the Nusselt number. It is also found that the length of the heating element has substantial effects on the heat transfer in the cavity. The new results of this study may help to study the thermal control and nonNewtonian fluids inside closed enclosures.
PubDate: 20220517

 Complex urban systems: a living lab to understand urban processes and
solve complex urban problems
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
PubDate: 20220516

 Effect of double rotating cylinders on the MHD mixed convection and
entropy generation of a 3D cubic enclosure filled by nanoPCM
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract In this manuscript, phase change material (PCM) including the nanoparticles is considered in a 3D cubic enclosure to investigate the mixed convection of heat transfer under the magnetic field effect. Double rotating cylinders also are located in the middle of the enclosure to study the effect of their angular velocity in different conditions. Governing equations are solved by Galerkin Finite Element Method (GFEM) and were confirmed by previous studies. As main outcomes, results with enhanced angular velocity, both the average temperature and cumulative energy were significantly decreased. Furthermore, unaltered fluidity ( \(\hbox {Ha}=0\) ) imposes greater entropy, but this tendency reverses when the Hartman number (Ha) rises, resulting in minimum entropy trends.
PubDate: 20220516

 Natural convection investigation under influence of internal bodies within
a nanofluidfilled square cavity
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract The current article presents a numerical simulation of the nanofluid convection inside a square enclosure with two inner adiabatic circular bodies. Galerkin finiteelement analysis was utilized to solve the governing equations under the assumptions of laminar, steady flow conditions considering a homogeneous singlephase approach. The parameters under investigation are Rayleigh number (Ra), solid volume fraction, the horizontal position of the two inner cylinders, and the inclination angle of the enclosure. The results indicate that increasing the Rayleigh number, and the solid volume fraction improves the heat transport rate. It is obtained that at low Ra, there is no significant impact on the enclosure angle, while as the Ra goes up, the heat transfer rate increases gradually. In addition, the best location of the internal bodies is in the middle of the cavity as it exhibits an increase in the flow velocity. To obtain the highest Nusselt number, it is recommended to use an inclination angle of 30 at any value of the Rayleigh number.
PubDate: 20220516

 Numerical investigation of unsteady MHD mixed convective flow of hybrid
nanofluid in a corrugated trapezoidal cavity with internal rotating
heatgenerating solid cylinder
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract This study examines the magnetohydrodynamic flow of hybrid silveralumina (AgAl \(_2\) O \(_3\) )/water nanofluid within a corrugated trapezoidal cavity that contains a heatgenerating rotating solid cylinder. The hybrid nanofluid flow and convective heat transfer are modelled using a singlephase approach. The governing equations for fluid flow and convective heat transfer are solved using the penalty finite element method. The finite element algorithm was validated against previously published work, and it was found to be in good agreement with the existing literature. We investigate the effects of the Ag and Al \(_2\) O \(_3\) nanoparticle diameters and the radius of the heatgenerating solid cylinder on streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. The results of this study reveal that the flow circulation regions near the rotating cylinder are enhanced with increased nanoparticle diameters and cylinder radius. Moreover, the nanofluid temperature and heat transfer rate are increased with reduced nanoparticle diameters and increased cylinder radius.
PubDate: 20220515

 Temporal instability of nanofluid layer in a circular cylindrical cavity

Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract The instability of an interface formed at the boundary of a circular cylindrical cavity is examined through an irrotational theory of viscous fluids. The cavity is assumed to be an infinite circular cylinder and the flow is considered to be twodimensional. The cavity is filled with the Newtonian viscous fluid while the fluid outside the cavity is taken as Newtonian nanofluid. The normal mode procedure is employed and the growth rate parameter is calculated. The quadratic relationship in growth rate is achieved and for larger modes, it reduces to the case of the planar interface. The variety of nanofluids’ physical parameters is studied on the instability of the interface. The density of nanofluid makes the interface more unstable while nanofluid’s viscosity has stabilizing nature. The nanofluid with larger radius nanoparticles forms a more unstable interface than the smaller sized nanoparticles.
PubDate: 20220515

 Natural convection of hybrid nanofluid flow in the presence of multiple
vertical partial magnetic fields in a trapezoidal shaped cavity
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a numerical investigation on natural convection flow of silver(Ag)magnesium oxide(MgO)water hybrid nanofluid in a trapezoidal shaped cavity under the effect of partial magnetic fields is carried out. Unsteady, dimensionless governing equations in stream functionvorticity formulation are approximated by radial basis functions (Rbfs) in space and the fourth order backward differentiation formula in time. Pseudo time derivative in stream function equation is also taken into account. Brinkman model for dynamic viscosity and Xue’s model for thermal conductivity are adopted. The pertinent observed parameters are Rayleigh number ( \(10^4 \le Ra \le 10^6\) ), Hartmann numbers ( \(0\le Ha_1, Ha_2 \le 100\) ), equally weighted concentration of nanoparticles ( \(0 \le \phi _1, \phi _2 \le 0.01\) ), tilt angle of oblique walls ( \(0 \le \theta \le \pi /9 \) ) and the lengths of the partial magnetic fields ( \(0.5 \le \ell _{b_1}, \ell _{b_2} \le 1\) ). The large area of impact region of partial magnetic field results in inhibition of fluid flow and heat transfer.
PubDate: 20220514

 Analysis of geometrical shape impact on thermal management of practical
fluids using square and circular cavities
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract The heating or cooling performance of convective thermal systems is critically dependent upon their geometrical shapes/configurations apart from other controlling aspects. Here, an effort is made to address the shape impact on thermal performance, using square and circular systems under the classical differentially heating configuration. The comparison of systems’ performance is made by applying the constraints of identical fluid volume, heating and cooling surfaces, and cavity inclinations for both systems. The study covers mostly used practical working fluids namely air, water, and a waterbased nanofluid. For such a type of thermal system analysis, the numerical approach is chosen appropriately to generate a huge volume of the solved results. The Prandtl number, Rayleigh number, the nanofluid concentration, and cavity orientation are used as the system parameters, and the study reveals a strong impact of the cavities’ shapes. In general, the thermal performance and evolved circulation (due to the differential heating) are found superior with the circular cavity over its equivalent square cavity configuration. The analysis confirms that the geometric modification is a better choice for achieving superior heat transfer; the heat transfer enhancement could be up to \(\sim 22.21{\%}\) (when the cavity is horizontal), 24.11% (with inclined cavity) with air as a working medium. There is a further enhancement on heat transfer with the modified circular cavity up to 2.76% (with horizontal cavity), 15.19% (with inclined cavity) using nanofluid. The heat flow dynamics from the heating side to the cooling side are also explored using the Bejan’s heatlines. The outcome of this study will help the designer to model the thermal device considering various controlling aspects from an appropriate thermal management point of view.
PubDate: 20220513

 Comparison study of vertical and horizontal elastic wall on vented square
enclosure filled by nanofluid and hexagonal shape with MHD effect
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract In the present paper, numerical investigations of the magnetohydrodynamics forced convection of CNT–water nanofluid inside a square enclosure with one inlet and one outlet were performed. The analysis was carried out for a wide range of Reynolds number ( \(100\le Re \le 1000\) ), Hartmann number ( \(0\le Ha \le 60\) ), inclination angle of the magnetic field ( \(0^{\circ } \le \gamma \le 90 ^{\circ }\) ), elasticity of the bottom and left walls of the enclosure ( \(10^{4}\le E\le 10^{7}\) ), location of the center of the hexagonal body in horizontal directions ( \(0.3\le x_{0}/L\le 0.7\) ) and in normal directions ( \(0.25\le y_{0}/L\le 0.75\) ), size of the internal hexagonal body ( \(0.1 \le a/L\le 0.3\) ), and, finally, the volume fraction of the nanoparticles ( \(\varphi = 0\) and 0.1). For the flexible walls of the enclosure, a series of coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) analyses were accomplished by utilizing the Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian formulation. It has been revealed that the bottom wall of the enclosure is very sensitive to the elastic wall, while the Nusselt number on the top wall increases with Hartmann number no matter which wall is elastic. It is also the most contributor to the heat transfer at Reynolds numbers of \(Re=100\) and 500, while the contribution of other walls changes with Reynolds number.
PubDate: 20220513

 Laminar mixed convection of permeable fluid overlaying immiscible
nanofluid
Free preprint version: Loading...Rate this result: What is this?Please help us test our new preprint finding feature by giving the preprint link a rating.
A 5 star rating indicates the linked preprint has the exact same content as the published article.
Abstract: Abstract Immiscible flow has been extensively emerged in science and technology. Researchers and architects were delighted by the concept of multiple fluid transport by the means of shear pressure. The reliance of drag impact of the two immiscible liquids is very much aspired but yet challenging. A mathematical examination has been conveyed to understand the free convection inside a vertical vessel. There are two immiscible liquids filled in the enclosure which are synthesized as two discrete regions encompassing a nanofluid and permeable fluid. The Tiwari–Das model and Dupuit–Forchheimer is utilized to define the nanofluid and permeable fluid, respectively. Southwell overrelaxation technique subject to suitable interface and boundary conditions is bestowed to solve the conservation equations. Essential criteria defining the fluid flow and energy transfer are studied deliberately. The outcomes demonstrate that the Grashof, Brinkman and Darcy numbers augment the velocity, whereas inertial, solid volume fraction, viscosity and thermal conductivity ratios depletes the momentum. The temperature distributions are not much modulated with any of the controlling parameters. By sagging nanoparticles, the flow is not much reformed but reckoning copper nanoparticle as ethylene glycol–mineral oil base fluid regulates the supreme flow. Diamond nanoparticle dropped in water catalyzes the highest rate of heat transfer.
PubDate: 20220513
