Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 986 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (59 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (713 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (23 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)

Showing 1 - 34 of 34 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication in Inorganic Synthesis     Open Access  
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inorganic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Inorganic Materials: Applied Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Progressive Research in Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Materials Today Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Polymers and the Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1566-2543 - ISSN (Online) 1572-8919
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2537 journals]
  • Curcumin- A Bio-based Precursor for Smart and Active Food Packaging
           Systems: A Review

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      Abstract: The current scenario of global trends impacts the way in which food is consumed and packed, meaning that change is inevitable and just around the horizon in terms of making food packaging eco-friendlier and more sustainable. Scientific advancements over the past decades have led to a wide spectrum of solutions to this problem in terms of smart, active, and antimicrobial packaging systems. The increasing demand for sustainability paves the way as a golden opportunity for these systems as they have the ability to incorporate biobased precursors like curcumin through advancements in the field of the invisible enabler, biochemistry. Investigating the properties of curcumin as a bioagent can change the dynamics of the current food packaging industry, owing to its non-toxic and eco-friendly nature and a plethora of pharmacological properties. Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the golden spice turmeric. Being derived from a ferulic acid, it shows excellent antimicrobial properties against bacterial pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli, and fungal cultures such as Penicillium spp. and Candida albicans. This makes it a potential agent in the food packaging industry and used as a natural food additive, dietary supplement, and pH indicator. Curcumin encapsulation has been explored with polymer matrices like polyvinyl alcohol [PVOH], low-density polyethylene [LDPE], polyvinyl acetate [PVAC], polylactic acid [PLA], etc. It has also been studied with metals like zinc as a complex which demonstrated an increase in the bioavailability of curcumin. This article aims to further explore the potential applications of curcumin in eco-friendly and antimicrobial packaging systems, and understand its importance as a bioagent. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
       
  • Synthesis of Biobased Soft-Packaging Polyesters from 2,5
           Thiophenedicarboxylic Acid

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      Abstract: Demand for light-packaging materials for food and beverages is on the rise globally, especially in developing countries where several depend on packaged food. Furthermore, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) a semi-crystalline thermally stable polyester, is widely used for carbonated soft drink, water and juice bottles, but shows a poor degradability properties after their lifespan. In this investigation, a series of novel random partially degradable poly(carbonate-co-esters) (PTB/PTBCn) containing 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid (TDCA), and different amounts of bis(2-hydroxyethoxy)benzene (BHEB) and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM) sub-units were successfully synthesized via a two-step melt polymerization as a facile and green semi-continuous process. The copolymers were thermally stable with tunable Tg values ranging from 47 to 71 °C, while their 5% decomposition temperature (Td, 5%) under N2 varied from 463 to 432 °C. Herein, focus was made on the synthesis of eco-friendly polyesters with satisfactory O2-gas barrier properties (5.5 cm3 mm/m2 × day × atm) at 25 °C suitable for most packaging applications. The mechanical and thermal analysis of PTB and PTBCn polyesters revealed excellent properties comparable to commonly used packaging materials such as poly(vinyl chloride), poly(lactic acid) and PET, whereby the incorporation of cyclohexane (CHDM) and phenyl (BHEB) rings units greatly enhanced the thermal and mechanical properties, transparency, oxygen permeability, and biodegradability of these polyesters. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
       
  • Ionically Crosslinked Chitosan/Tragacanth Gum Based Polyelectrolyte
           Complexes for Antimicrobial Biopackaging Applications

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      Abstract: The novel polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) were prepared by mixing different Wt% of Tragacanth gum (TG) to Chitosan (CS) and systematic evaluation of multifunctional properties of colloidal solution and films was carried out. The formation of PEC was dependant on the order of mixing of solutions. Particle size analysis, Zeta potential and FTIR confirmed the formation of PEC. SEM studies revealed the homogeneous distribution of colloidal particles on the surface. Contact angle analysis, water solubility, and moisture adsorption studies revealed the hydrophobicity of films. Further, the water vapor transmission rate and oxygen permeability of the control film was improved significantly and found to be in the range of polyethylene terephthalate by ionic crosslinking of TG and CS. Ionic crosslinking significantly enhanced antibacterial, antioxidant activity and rate of degradation in soil. Obtained biofilms exhibited far better preservation ability than commercial polyethylene films. Hence, biofilms could be used in antimicrobial packaging applications. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-01-09
       
  • Calcined Oil Shale Semi-coke for Significantly Improved Performance
           Alginate-Based Film by Crosslinking with Ca2+

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      Abstract: Oil shale semi-coke (OSSC) is the residual solid waste after refining of oil shale, which principally contains organic matter and minerals. The common disposal method of OSSC (i.e., landfill) poses potential risk to the environment, ecology and human health due to its residual organic matter. Therefore, it is imperative to explore a green and efficient way to dispose and utilize OSSC, where calcination (removal of organic matter and activation of minerals) might be an effective method. Firstly, the effect of calcination on OSSC was systematically studied, found that the OSSC calcined at 500–700 °C can retain the regular lamellar and activated clay mineral (such as kaolinite) without organic matter. Then, the reinforcing ability of the calcined OSSC was evaluated by incorporating it into sodium alginate (SA) matrix to prepare composite films, and the Ca2+-crosslinking strategy was adopted to further improve the performance of the composite film. With the addition of 3 wt% of OCCS-500 (the OSSC calcined at 500 ℃), the tensile strength of the composite film can reach 17.6 MPa, which was much higher than that of pure SA film (10.6 MPa), and the tensile strength of Ca2+-crosslinking composite film was up to 65.2 MPa. Furthermore, the crosslinked composite film also exhibited excellent thermal stability, water-resistance and acid–alkali resistance. In general, this work laid a foundation for the utilization of OSSC from two aspects of solid waste resource utilization and environmental protection. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
       
  • Characterization of Lipopeptides Biosurfactants Produced by a Newly
           Isolated Strain Bacillus subtilis ZNI5: Potential Environmental
           Application

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      Abstract: Aiming the production of lipopeptides biosurfactants (BioS), we isolated a new strain identified as Bacillus subtilis ZNI5 from a hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Lipopeptides purification by anionic exchange chromatography and identification by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (RP-HPLC–MS) permitted the selection of different homologues divided into four families. The first family corresponds to Surfactin isoforms with molecular weights of 1007, 1021 and 1035 Da; the second family correspond to Iturin isoforms with molecular weights of 1028, 1042 and 1056 Da; the third family correspond to a single isoform called Licheniformin with molecular weight of 1410 and the fourth family correspond to newly identified isoforms named Inesfactin with molecular weights of 973 and 987 Da. Regarding the functional properties of the ZNI5 BioS, it was characterized as a powerful surface-active agent that decreases the Surface Tension of water from 72 mN/m to about 32 mN/m with a CMC value of 350 mg/L more efficient than chemical surfactants (Triton X100; CTAB and SDS). Moreover, it has the capacity to disperse oil to about 80 mm at a concentration of 800 mg/L showing close efficiencies to the listed chemical surfactants. In addition, the physic–chemical characterization of the surface activities of ZNI5 BioS showed great thermal, pH and salts activity and stability enabling its use in the bioremediation fields and for diverse industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
       
  • Effect of Brown-Rotted Spruce as Lignin-Enriched Filler on the Properties
           of Reinforced Polyurethane Foam

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      Abstract: The study investigated the effect of lignocellulosic biomass filler decayed by brown-rot fungi on the preparation and properties of polyurethane (PU) foam. The properties of brown-rotted spruce were characterized by microstructure, chemical composition, and hydroxyl value to examine the possibility of preparing polyurethane foam using brown-rotted spruce as filler. Brown-rotted spruce was a homogeneous material, mainly composed of lignin (80.36%) with a high content (284.5 mg KOH/g) of hydroxyl groups in structure that could participate in a chain reaction with isocyanate groups on the foaming process. In the study, PU foams were prepared successfully with the addition of brown-rotted spruce as filler in different concentrations (1–10 wt%). The results showed that the addition of brown-rotted spruce improved the physical properties (low density, low thermal conductivity, high water absorption) of PU foam. These properties showed a significant dependence on filler amount. The density decreased from 89.64 kg m−3 to 60.22 kg m−3 as the filler amount increased. Scanning electron microscope showed the cellular structure of PU foam was affected by the filler amount. PU foam with low addition amount (5 wt%) had homogeneous shapes and smaller cell shapes, resulting in the highest compressive strength (0.42 Mpa). Utilizing brown-rotted wood as a lignin-enriched filler is a simple and feasible way to improve the properties of PU foam. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
       
  • Hydrophobic and Flame-Retardant Foam Based on Cellulose

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      Abstract: A study aimed to prepare cellulose-based hydrophobic, lightweight, and flame retardant foam composites. Cellulose was activated by phosphoric acid followed by blending with dolomite clay of different loading ratios. Gelatin/tannin as an adhesive system was used as a binder. A solution of the environmentally friendly silicone rubber (RTV) was applied onto foam samples via spray-coating to improve their water repealing performance, which was explored by investigating both of water contacting angle and wettability time of the coated foam samples. Flammability characteristics, thermal decomposition, surface morphology, and chemical structure of treated and untreated foams were investigated by flammability test, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared. The fire retardancy of foam composites was optimized at low and medium loading of dolomite. Also, the addition of RTV improved the hydrophobicity of composites maintained the fire retardancy of composites with medium loading.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
       
  • Polymers, the Light at the End of Dark Fermentation: Production of
           Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by a Photoheterotrophic
           Consortium

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      Abstract: In this study, the photoheterotrophic consortium C4 was used to produce the copolymer [P(3HB-co-3HV)]. PHA production was enhanced by using response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the effects of different concentrations of acetate and butyrate in mixtures (0.5–3 g L−1), ammonium sulfate and their combinations. This is relevant because PHA accumulation is stimulated by nitrogen limitation. The type and concentration of the substrate determines the monomeric composition and the PHA content (% per cell dry mass (CDM)). The RSM, carbon balance and metabolic behavior analysis results showed that at the lowest ammonium concentration, 0.1 g L−1, and when acetate was in a higher proportion than butyrate, biomass production was favored. In contrast, when the butyrate proportion was high, PHA production increased, reaching a highest production of 58% per CDM. The better conditions were evaluated in a 3-L reactor, and a maximum P(3HB-co-3HV) of 67% was determined. The predominant microbial population consisted of four major species, Macelibacteroides fermentans (37%), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (22%), Acinetobacter sp. (35%), and Clostridium propionicum (2%). Insights into the understanding of copolymer production by photoheterotrophic mixed cultures constitute the basis for developing coupled processes from organic residues. These microorganisms are worth studying since they produce a variety of valuable biotechnological products.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
       
  • Mechanical, Thermal and Microstructural Characteristic of 3D Printed
           Polylactide Composites with Natural Fibers: Wood, Bamboo and Cork

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      Abstract: In the study, polylactide-based (PLA) composites modified with natural particles (wood, bamboo, and cork) and with different levels of infilling (100%, 80%, and 60%) obtained by fused deposition modeling were tested. The effect of fiber type, infill level and crystallization rate on the mechanical properties were investigated by using tensile, flexural, and impact tests. The materials were subjected to mechanical tests carried out at 23 and 80 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry were employed to analyze crystallization behavior of composite. Furthermore, hydrothermal degradation was performed, and its effect on the properties was analyzed. The addition of natural fillers and different levels of infilling result in a similar level of reduction in the properties. However, the addition of natural fillers resulted in a slightly lower drop than the lowered infilling rate − 40% and 50% for tensile strength, respectively. Moreover, it was found that, composites made of PLA are more sensitive to high temperatures than to water. The decrease in Young's modulus of PLA at 80 °C was 90%, while after 28 days of hydrodegradation ~ 9%. The addition of fibers reduced this decrease at elevated temperatures. Importantly, in the case of a brittle material such as PLA, the impact strength has been improved by 50% for composites with cork particles and other lignocellulosic composites remained at the same level as for resin. Generally, the thermal treatment of composites increased the degree of crystallinity of the materials, as reflected in the higher results of mechanical tests.
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
       
  • Study on Adsorption Performance of MgO/Calcium Alginate Composite for
           Congo Red in Wastewater

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      Abstract: This research prepared a poly-functional material which has outstanding adsorption performance and easily recyclable for Congo red dye removal. The multifunctional gel yarn composed of calcium alginate and nano-magnesium oxide was prepared by wet spinning. For the morphology and structure of MgO/CA composite, the compound product was characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Then, the adsorption performance of MgO/CA aerogel for Congo red was studied, including the influence of four factors (adsorbent dosage, pH, initial concentration, contact time), adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics and adsorption thermodynamics. The results show that the adsorption properties of MgO/CA aerogel on Congo red largely depend on these factors. The best contact time for MgO/CA aerogel to remove Congo red is 24 h. Besides, the maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbents is usually very high (312.5, 322.6 and 344.8 mg/g at 303, 313 and 323 K, respectively). The adsorption kinetics can be best described by a pseudo second-order reaction, and the adsorption data agree well with the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters including the changes in entropy (ΔS0), free energy (ΔG0) and enthalpy (ΔH0), and stated that adsorption by the MgO/CA aerogel was endothermic and spontaneous.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Sustainable Alternative Ceiling Boards Using Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and
           Balanite Shell (BS)

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      Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study to investigate sustainable alternative ceiling boards using PKS and BS. The ceiling boards were prepared by mixing BS/binder, PKS/binder, and PKS/BS/binder at different ratios of 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, and 80/20 and represented as samples (A1, A2, A3 and A4), (B1, B2, B3 and B4), and (C1, C2, C3 and C4) respectively. The samples were cast by flat press process in rectangular sheet shape mould of 187 mm × 125 mm × 3 mm, cut into specimen sizes of 30 mm × 40 mm then tested for dry shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, flaking, and hardness properties. The morphology of the samples was examined using SEM. Results of the analysis show that irrespective of the filler loadings the properties of PKS / binder particularly at 20/80 ratio ‘‘B1” displayed better dry shrinkage of 3.7%; water absorption of 12.4%; apparent porosity of 15%; bulk density of 2.3 g/cm3; flaking of 0.05 g and hardness of 57.6 Hv which approximates those of the conventional specimen with better physical properties compared to BS/binder at 20/80 ratio ‘‘A1” and PKS/BS/binder at 20/80 ratio ‘‘C1”. These results, therefore, suggest that PKS at 20/80 ratio with improved strength could be used as a sustainable alternative in the production of ceiling boards.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Rigid Polyurethane Foam Obtained from Enzymatic Glycerolysis: Evaluation
           of the Influence of Lipase on Biopolyol Composition and Polymer
           Characteristics

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      Abstract: In this study, the synthesis of biopolyols derived from castor oil and glycerol was performed by enzymatic glycerolysis in a solvent-free system applying the lipases: Novozym® 435 (N435), from Candida antarctica fraction B, immobilized on macroporous anionic resin, and Eversa® Transform 2.0, a soluble formulation from Thermomyces lanuginosus. The biopolyols presented different conversion into mono- and diacylglycerol (MAG and DAG) owing to regioselectivity of the lipases. The resulting biopolyols were employed for the synthesis of polyurethane foams using different amounts of chemical blowing agent (water). The NCO source employed was polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). The foams were compared, and the results showed that the PU foams obtained by using the biopolyol from lipase N435 presented uniform pore size and more desirable mechanical characteristics. Although this has arisen, the results obtained by using the lipase Eversa® Transform 2.0 showed the possibility of applying a low-cost enzyme to obtain biopolyols and foams, and there may be a possibility of competition with chemical catalysts.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Characterization and Physical Properties of Mycelium Films Obtained from
           

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      Abstract: Fresh basidiomes of species belonging to the genera Aurantiporus, Ganoderma, Lentinus, and Panus species were collected from a cloud forest patch located in a natural protected area. Tissue portions of the fresh basidiomes were excised and grown in axenic culture with potato dextrose medium at 27 °C obtaining six strains. Additionally, a commercial strain of Pleurotus ostreatus was included for comparison with previous works. Mycelium films were obtained and morpho-anatomic characterized considering the main features. After that, the films were dried at room temperature and pressed at 7.5 g/cm2. SEM images were taken with a scanning electron microscope, and mechanical and thermo gravimetric analyses were carried out. The tensile modulus values obtained vary between 3.5 and 128.8 MPa and the tensile strength values between 0.27 and 1.5 MPa. The density was not uniform and is not related to the mechanical performance. The Maximum decomposition temperature of the mycelium films was reached at around 300 °C. The results showed significant differences in physic-mechanical behavior of mycelium films obtained with different fungal species, some of them with promissory characteristics for biotechnological applications.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Innovative Bio-based Poly(Lactic Acid)/Poly(Alkylene Furanoate)s Fiber
           Blends for Sustainable Textile Applications

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      Abstract: This work aims at producing and investigating, for the first time, the microstructural and thermo-mechanical properties of fibers constituted by poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(alkylene furanoate)s (PAFs) blends for textile applications. Two different PAFs have been investigated, i.e., poly(octylene furanoate) (P8F) and poly(dodecylene furanoate) (P12F), which have been blended with PLA in different concentrations and spun through a lab-made wet spinning device. The microstructural investigation of the fiber cross-section evidenced domains of PAFs homogeneously dispersed within the PLA matrix. The immiscibility of the produced blends was also suggested by the fact that the glass transition temperature of PLA was unaffected by the presence of PAF. The thermal stability of PLA was not substantially influenced by the PAF content, whereas the water absorption tendency decreased with an increase in P12F fraction. The mechanical properties of PLA/P8F blends decreased with the P8F amount, while for PLA/P12F fiber blends the stiffness and the strength were approximatively constant by increasing the P12F content. The drawing process, performed at 70 °C and with two different draw ratios, brought an interesting increase in the mechanical properties of PLA fibers upon P12F introduction. These promising results constitute the basis for future research on these innovative bio-based fibers.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Preparation of Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Based Hydrogel Supported by
           Two-Dimensional Montmorillonite Nanosheets for Methylene Blue Removal

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      Abstract: Carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel enhanced by two-dimensional montmorillonite nanosheets (CMC-MMTs Gel) has been successfully synthesized throguh polymerization for methylene blue (MB) removal from water. Structure characterization shows that the introduction of two-dimensional montmorillonite nanosheets (2D MMTs) into CMC-based hyddrogel results in a roguh surface and increased porosity. Adsorption tests demonstrate that the adsorption rate and adsorption capacity of CMC-based hydrogel increase significantly with the increase in 2D MMTs content, and a high adsorption capacity of 410 mg g−1 can be reached. After 5 cycles, CMC-MMTs Gel still exhibits good removal performance indicating a good reusability and structural stability. The enhanced MB removal performance and improved structural stability might be due to 2D MMTs and the increased porosity. FTIR and XPS characterizations demonstrate that the adsorption mechanism of MB onto CMC-MMTs Gel might be attributed to electrostatic adsorption and ion-exchange between MB molecules and MMTs, and the interactions between MB molecules and the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of CMC.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Natural Fibre-Reinforced Composite for Ballistic Applications: A Review

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      Abstract: The need to provide a better and stronger protection against various kinds of ballistic impacts and threats has necessitated the continuous exploration and utilization of high-performance fibres, especially those that are derived from renewable sources for ballistic applications. The development of ballistic protection materials with improved performance and low weight has received much concerns in the past few decades due to the rising cases of threats and insurgencies. Owing to the necessity of improving the ballistic performance of body armour and protective wears especially for military personnel, with a huge consideration for eco-friendly requirement, a review of relevant studies in this area is necessary. Present review article aims to present an overview of the progress and the outstanding advances that have been witnessed in the development of natural-based anti-ballistic composites in the past few years. The article covers the type and selection of the fibre/matrix, failure modes, Impact energy absorption and ballistic simulation of NFRCs. It also highlights the economic cost analysis of replacing synthetic fibres with natural ones in a ballistic composite, and the methods of enhancing the composites for high performance and greater ballistic efficiency. The utilization of natural fibres in PMCs have shown their great potentials as substitutes to the existing advanced fibrous materials that are mostly dominated by synthetic fibres.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • From the Waste Semicoke to Superabsorbent Composite: Synthesis,
           Characterization and Performance Evaluation

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      Abstract: Oil shale semicoke (SC), which generated during the production of shale oil has attracted much attention in agriculture recently, as the composition of organic matter, clay mineral and else. In this study, a novel superabsorbent composite of poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/semicoke (P(AA-co-AM)/SC) was prepared by polymerization of the acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM) via a convenient one-step reaction as the presence of SC. The characterization of FTIR, SEM, XPS and TG indicated that the successful polymerization and the SC had participated into the construction of 3D polymeric network in superabsorbent. The performance testing results showed that the superabsorbent composites exhibited the excellent water absorbency, favorable water retention properties, fast swelling rate, and nice water reusability. And a 10% of SC amount could improve the water absorbency to 643.13 g/g and 79.82 g/g in distilled water and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. The potted culture experiments revealed that the increased water retaining capacity of soil and obvious growth promoting effect for crop. In a word, the novel superabsorbent composite could be as a potential water-saving product used in the agriculture, and the approach reported in this work also can be as a new pathway for high value using of SC via a sustainable chemical engineering process.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Dual Function of Modified Palm Leaf Sheath Fibers in Adsorbing Reactive
           Yellow 3 and Cr(VI) From Dyeing Wastewater

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      Abstract: The safe and effective treatment for dyeing wastewater including harmful metal ions, which are important environmental pollution sources, has not been solved in the realistic industry. Using natural materials with short regeneration cycle should be valued in recognized and effective adsorption techniques. In this study, hydroxyl-rich tannin molecules were successfully modified on palm leaf sheath fibers (PLSF) to obtain multifunctional adsorbent for simultaneous removal of dye molecules and heavy metal ions in dyeing wastewater. As a result, modified PLSF can effectively adsorb reactive yellow 3 (RY3) dye molecules with a maximum adsorption capacity of 83.19 mg/g from dyeing wastewater, while the sample loaded with RY3 can adsorb Cr(VI) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 189.48 mg/g. XRD, SEM, FT-IR, and stereomicroscope are used to characterize the adsorbent samples. The kinetic and thermodynamic analysis results show that the adsorption of RY3 and Cr(VI) by the adsorbent is consistent with pseudo-second-order kinetics and the Langmuir isotherm model. The thermodynamic parameters of Cr(VI) adsorption indicate that adsorption is a spontaneous endothermic process and has good reusability of Cr(VI).
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Conversion of PP, HDPE and LDPE Plastics into Liquid Fuels and Chemical
           Precursors by Thermal Cracking

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      Abstract: The inappropriate disposal of plastic waste causes serious environmental problems. Nowadays, alternative processes are being studied for the sustainable reutilization of plastics. One of these options is the cracking into shorter liquid hydrocarbon fractions, while maintaining its basic chemical structure. The energetic potential from the original plastics structure remains and the fractions can be used as fuels and chemical precursors. This research addresses the kinetic study of thermal cracking of polypropylene (PP) and high- and low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) in a batch reactor. The kinetics of the reaction can be described as a first-order rate with the lowest activation energy using PP, followed by HDPE and LDPE with values of 367.28 kJ/mol, 453.37 kJ/mol and 457.96 kJ/mol, respectively. The yield obtained for the liquid fraction is highest for LDPE, with a value of 72% at 390 °C, followed by HDPE and PP with 69% and 62% at 375 °C. The liquid fractions obtained from the process were characterized according to ASTM standards, obtaining that LDPE and HDPE fractions have similar properties to diesel, while PP is closer to gasoline. The fractions were also analyzed by means of gas chromatography identifying the main products of the reaction and establishing a possible reaction mechanism.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
  • Synthesis of Cellulose/Nano-hydroxyapatite Composite Hydrogel Absorbent
           for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Palm Oil Mill Effluents

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      Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been identified to have an outstanding ability to remove heavy metal ions. Hence, nano-hydroxyapatite-cellulose hydrogel composites were developed to investigate the effects of the HA produced from Marcia marmorata clam shell biomass in the composites on increasing the adsorption capacity of a hydrogel to remove heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The hydrogel performance in the removal of heavy metal ions was investigated using a palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is the industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill. The addition of nano-hydroxyapatite in the cellulose hydrogel matrix succeeded in increasing the hydrogel adsorption capacity in the extraction of heavy metal ions, such as Cu2+, Pb2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+. The resulting composite hydrogel with 1.5% of wt/v% of nano-hydroxyapatite managed to get rid of 70.24%, 57.74%, 48.56%, 27.33%, and 25.98% of Cu2+, Pb2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ ions from POME, respectively. The success of this composite hydrogel in removing heavy metals is an important achievement in the field of industrial wastewater treatment, as it uses the nano-hydroxyapatite produced from the clam shell residual and cellulose powder as the raw materials for the synthesis of the composite instead of using chemicals that are harmful to the environment.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
       
 
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