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Showing 1 - 34 of 34 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication in Inorganic Synthesis     Open Access  
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inorganic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Inorganic Materials: Applied Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Progressive Research in Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Materials Today Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Journal Cover
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.419
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1565-3633 - ISSN (Online) 1687-479X
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Examining Impacts of Acidic Bath Temperature on Nano-Synthesized Lead
           Selenide Thin Films for the Application of Solar Cells

    • Abstract: The influence of bath temperature on nano-manufactured PbSe (lead selenide) films was successfully generated by utilizing CBD on the acid solution’s metal surface tool. Pb (NO3)2 was employed as a lead ion source as a precursor, while Na2O4Se was used as a selenide ion source. The XRD characterization revealed that the prepared samples are the property of crystalline structure (111), (101), (100), and (110) Miller indices. The scanning electron microscope indicated that the particles have a rock-like shape. There was a decrement of energy bandgap that is from 2.4 eV to 1.2 eV with increasing temperature 20°C–85°C. Thin films prepared at 85°C revealed the best polycrystal structure as well as homogeneously dispersed on the substrate at superior particle scales. The photoluminescence spectrophotometer witnessed that as the temperature of the solution bath increases from 20°C to 85°C, the average strength of PL emission of the film decreases. The maximum photoluminescence strength predominantly exists at high temperatures because of self-trapped exciton recombination, formed from O2 vacancy and particle size what we call defect centres, for the deposited thin films at 45°C and 85°C. Therefore, the finest solution temperature is 85°C.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jan 2022 10:50:01 +000
  • A Novel NIR Fluorescent Nanoprobe Targeting HER2-Positive Breast Cancer:

    • Abstract: TTRE, a photosensitizer molecule, has excellent biofluorescence imaging performance and effective antitumor properties for breast cancer. However, its application in breast cancer treatment is limited due to poor tumor selectivity and lack of targeting ability. In this study, TTRE and trastuzumab were combined to synthesize Tra-TTR-A, a novel near-infrared fluorescent nanoprobe for HER2 positive breast cancer. The targeting and antitumor abilities of Tra-TTR-A in breast cancer were also investigated. Like TTRE, Tra-TTR-A has a stable structure with remarkable optical properties and in vivo imaging capacity. However, Tra-TTR-A not only inhibits tumor growth by generating reactive oxygen species but also kills tumor cells by trastuzumab. In this study, Tra-TTR-A, a new type of near-infrared fluorescent nanoprobe that targets HER2-positive breast cancer, was successfully synthesized. Tra-TTR-A could be used in in vivo imaging, targeted photodynamic therapy, and diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 12:05:08 +000
  • Nanomaterials for Remediation of Environmental Pollutants

    • Abstract: Today, environmental contamination is a big concern for both developing and developed countries. The primary sources of contamination of land, water, and air are extensive industrialization and intense agricultural activities. Various traditional methods are available for the treatment of different pollutants in the environment, but all have some limitations. Due to this, an alternative method is required which is effective and less toxic and provides better outcomes. Nanomaterials have attracted a lot of interest in terms of environmental remediation. Because of their huge surface area and related high reactivity, nanomaterials perform better in environmental clean-up than other conventional approaches. They can be modified for specific uses to provide novel features. Due to the large surface-area-to-volume ratio and the presence of a larger number of reactive sites, nanoscale materials can be extremely reactive. These characteristics allow for higher interaction with contaminants, leading to a quick reduction of contaminant concentration. In the present review, an overview of different nanomaterials that are potential in the remediation of environmental pollutants has been discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Dec 2021 06:05:04 +000
  • Anion-Dependent Synthesis of Cu(II) Complexes with
           2-(1H-Tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-indole: Synthesis, X-Ray Structures, and Radical
           Scavenging Activity

    • Abstract: Two mononuclear Cu(II) complexes, [Cu(phen)2(HL)]ClO4·H2O·2DMF (1) and [Cu(phen)2(HL)2]·EtOH (2), comprising 1,10-phentantroline (phen) and 2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-indole ligand (H2L) ligands are reported. Analysis and characterization of the samples were performed using standard physicochemical techniques, elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography revealed the formation of a pentacoordinate complex in 1 and a hexacoordinate complex in 2, in which the anionic ligand HL− has undergone monodentate coordination through the tetrazole unit. Furthermore, the crystal structure of H2L·MeOH is also discussed. The potential application of compounds 1 and 2 in bioinorganic chemistry was addressed by investigating their radical scavenging activity with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and the results were supported also by theoretical calculations.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Dec 2021 08:05:02 +000
  • Green Synthesis of Nanostructure CeO2 Using Tea Extract: Characterization
           and Adsorption of Dye from Aqueous Phase

    • Abstract: Nanostructure CeO2 powders were synthesized using tea waste extract as gel precursor. The as-prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the TGA/DTG analysis, the intermediates of cerium chloride hydrates (CeCl3.4H2O and CeCl3.H2O) and cerium anhydrous (CeCl3) were produced, and the formation temperature of CeO2 was estimated to be 773 K. The cubic fluorite structure of CeO2 was detected to be the predominant species and was completely formed at the calcination temperature of 773K–1073 K with a crystal size between 8.8 and 11.4 nm based on the XRD measurement. Moreover, the main chemical state of ceria on the surface of the synthesized samples was confirmed to be tetravalent ceria by XPS. All samples show a strong Raman signal at a well-defined chemical shift of 463 cm−1 and a significant symmetry feature was observed, suggesting that the tetravalent ceria is the dominant species throughout the bulk sample. All the synthesized CeO2 calcined at different temperatures showed higher adsorption efficiency for Congo red (CR) compared with commercial CeO2. The adsorption efficiency maintained a steady state of more than 95% when the concentration of CR and adsorption temperature were varied in this study. The kinetic analysis showed that the second-order model was the appropriate model to interpret the adsorption behavior of synthesized CeO2. The calculated adsorption capacity derived from the second-order model is in good agreement with the experimental data. The isotherm analysis revealed that the Freundlich and D-R models fit well for the synthesized CeO2 and represent physisorption with a multilayer mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters, including the changes in Gibb’s free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, suggested that the adsorption of CR on the synthesized CeO2 sample was a spontaneous and endothermic process.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 08:50:02 +000
  • Feasibility of Using H3PO4/H2O2 in the Synthesis of Antimicrobial TiO2
           Nanoporous Surfaces

    • Abstract: Ti6Al4V alloys are the primary materials used for clinical bone regeneration and restoration; however, they are substantially susceptible to biomaterial-related infections. Therefore, in the present work, we applied a controllable and stable oxidative nanopatterning strategy by applying H3PO4, a weaker dissociating acid, as a substitute for H2SO4 in the classical piranha reaction. The results suggest that our method acted as a concomitant platform to develop reproducible diameter-controlled TiO2 nanopores (NPs). Interestingly, our procedure illustrated stable temperature reactions without exothermic responses since the addition of mixture preparation to the nanopatterning reactions. The reactions were carried out for 30 min (NP14), 1 h (NP7), and 2 h (NP36), suggesting the formation of a thin nanopore layer as observed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity revealed that NP7 could disrupt active microbial colonization for 2 h and 6 h. The phenotype configuration strikingly showed that NP7 does not alter the cell morphology, thus proposing a disruptive adhesion pathway instead of cellular lysis. Furthermore, preliminary assays suggested an early promoted osteoblasts viability in comparison to the control material. Our work opens a new path for the rationale design of nanobiomaterials with “intelligent surfaces” capable of decreasing microbial adhesion, increasing osteoblast viability, and being scalable for industrial transfer.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Dec 2021 06:35:02 +000
  • Degradation of Toxic Dye Using Phytomediated Copper Nanoparticles and Its
           Free-Radical Scavenging Potential and Antimicrobial Activity against
           Environmental Pathogens

    • Abstract: The present investigation deals with the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles in an ecofriendly manner using leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata. Green-synthesized copper nanoparticles were studied for their antibacterial, antioxidant, and catalytic activity. The leaves were powdered and extracted with water and added to copper sulphate solution. The reduction of copper ions to nanoparticles was preliminarily identified by the color change of the reaction mixture. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by using a UV-Vis Spectrophotometer at a different wavelength with different time intervals. Functional groups available on the surface of the nanoparticle were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed six distinct intense peaks indicating the crystalline nature of synthesized copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) demonstrated polydispersed nanoparticles formed in the reaction process. The antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated by an agar well diffusion assay against pathogenic bacteria. The antioxidant activity showed the excellent reduction of DPPH free radicals by nanoparticles. These results confirmed that copper nanoparticles serve as an alternative therapeutic agent over conventional drugs. Moreover, copper nanoparticles were also used to study the effect on the dye degradation process of methyl red and eosin dyes. Copper nanoparticles effectively remove the dyes with high efficiency up to 92% and 95% of methyl red and eosin dye, respectively.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 08:50:01 +000
  • Evaluation of pH, Calcium Ion Release, and Dimensional Stability of an
           Experimental Silver Nanoparticle-Incorporated Calcium Silicate-Based

    • Abstract: An experimental calcium silicate-based root-end filling material incorporated with silver nanoparticles intended for use in periapical surgeries was developed with the purpose to overcome the drawbacks of existing materials and to satisfy the ideal requirements of root-end filling materials. This study was designed to evaluate the physicochemical properties, pH, calcium ion release, and dimensional stability of the experimental cement, and compare the results with commercially available ProRoot MTA (Dentsply). An independent sample test was used to analyze the data. Mean initial pH (immediately after mixing) of the experimental cement was 10.42 ± 0.04 which was higher than that of MTA. However, there was a significant increase in pH of MTA at 1 day, 2 days, and 7 days. Presence of calcium chloride favored the release of calcium ions which was significantly increased in the experimental group at 24 hours. At the end of 30 days, MTA showed a significant expansion when compared to the experimental cement . In conclusion, the experimental nanoparticle-incorporated calcium silicate-based cement showed clinically acceptable physicochemical properties.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 05:35:02 +000
  • Ecofriendly Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Ananas comosus Fruit
           Peels: Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities

    • Abstract: Metallic nanoparticles are valuable materials and have a range of uses. Nanoparticles synthesized from plant wastes by environment-friendly methods have attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Also, the advantages of biological resources and synthesis methods are attracting attention. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from Ananas comosus fruit peels using ecofriendly method steps. The characterization of the particles obtained was determined by using a UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis.), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction diffractometer (XRD), Fourier scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles showed maximum absorbance at 463 nm, measuring 11.61 in crystal nanosize, and presented spherical in appearance. An antimicrobial activity test was determined with the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) method. The nanoparticles showed promising inhibitory activity on the Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogen microorganisms (Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Bacillus subtilis ATCC11774, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27833 bacteria, and Candida albicans yeast) at low concentrations. The cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles on different cancer cell lines were examined via the MTT assay.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Nov 2021 08:05:02 +000
  • A Novel Curcumin-Based Drug Powder Inhalation Medicine for Chronic
           Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    • Abstract: The dry powder inhaler is a new form of drug delivery that is widely used as an alternative to traditional drug delivery methods, addressing the shortcomings of traditional drug delivery methods and obtaining better therapeutic results. This mode of delivery is also one of the most rational ways to treat pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Curcumin, a natural polyphenol, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of COPD. In this study, different concentrations of curcumin ethanol solution were spray dried with mannitol as a carrier to obtain dry powder particles with different particle size distribution for the preparation of curcumin dry powder inhaler. The solubility and physicochemical properties were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy. The characterization results showed that the product obtained in the experiment had reasonable particle size distribution and excellent solubility properties, which were positive for the treatment of COPD or other pulmonary diseases.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Nov 2021 05:05:01 +000
  • “Green” Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles by Sonoelectrochemical and
           Sonogalvanic Replacement Methods

    • Abstract: The main features of the “green” synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) by the sonoelectrochemical methods are manufacturability, environmental friendliness, and the possibility of controlling the geometry of the forming particles. The electrochemical reduction technique allows efficiently designing the metal nanoparticles and provides the control of the content of components of bimetallic nanoparticles, as well as minimizing the number of precursors in working solutions. Due to the generation of turbulence, microjets, and shock waves, ultrasound increases mass transfer and formation of radicals in aqueous solutions and, accordingly, accelerates the processes of nucleation and growth of MNPs. Therefore, this hybrid method, which combines electrolysis and ultrasound, has attracted the interest of researchers in the last two decades as one of the most promising techniques. The present work presents a short analysis of the reference literature on sonoelectrochemical synthesis of metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles. The main factors influencing the geometry of nanoparticles and their size distribution are analyzed. The use of pulsed ultrasound and pulsed current supply during sonoelectrochemical synthesis is especially effective in designing MNPs. Emphasis is placed on the role of surfactants in the formation of MNPs and sacrificial anodes in providing the algorithm: “anodic dissolution-electrochemical reduction of metal-nucleation and formation of МNPs.” It is noted that ultrasound allows synthesizing the MNPs and M1M2NPs during the galvanic replacement, and an analogy of the formation of nanoparticles by sonogalvanic replacement and sonoelectrochemical method is shown.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Nov 2021 09:35:02 +000
  • Marine Macroalgae Display Bioreductant Efficacy for Fabricating Metallic
           Nanoparticles: Intra/Extracellular Mechanism and Potential Biomedical

    • Abstract: The application of hazardous chemicals during nanoparticle (NP) synthesis has raised alarming concerns pertaining to their biocompatibility and equally to the environmental harmlessness. In the recent decade, nanotechnological research has made a gigantic shift in order to include the natural resources to produce biogenic NPs. Within this approach, researchers have utilized marine resources such as macroalgae and microalgae, land plants, bacteria, fungi, yeast, actinomycetes, and viruses to synthesize NPs. Marine macroalgae (brown, red, and green) are rich in polysaccharides including alginates, fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs), galactans, agars or carrageenans, semicrystalline cellulose, ulvans, and hemicelluloses. Phytochemicals are abundant in phenols, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, and vitamins. However, microorganisms have an abundance of active compounds ranging from sugar molecules, enzymes, canonical membrane proteins, reductase enzymes (NADH and NADPH), membrane proteins to many more. The prime reason for using the aforesaid entities in the metallic NPs synthesis is based on their intrinsic properties to act as bioreductants, having the capability to reduce and cap the metal ions into stabilized NPs. Several green NPs have been verified for their biocompatibility in human cells. Bioactive constituents from the above resources have been found on the green metallic NPs, which has demonstrated their efficacies as prospective antibiotics and anti-cancer agents against a range of human pathogens and cancer cells. Moreover, these NPs can be characterized for the size, shapes, functional groups, surface properties, porosity, hydrodynamic stability, and surface charge using different characterization techniques. The novelty and originality of this review is that we provide recent research compilations on green synthesis of NPs by marine macroalgae and other biological sources (plant, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, yeast, and virus). Besides, we elaborated on the detailed intra- and extracellular mechanisms of NPs synthesis by marine macroalgae. The application of green NPs as anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, and popular methods of NPs characterization techniques has also been critically reviewed.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Nov 2021 06:05:01 +000
  • Clinical Diagnostic Value of Quantitative Hepatitis B Virus Core Antibody
           Test in Chronic Viral Hepatitis B

    • Abstract: The level of CHB virus (HBV) core antibody (HBcAb) is different in four stages of chronic HBV infection and may be used for differential diagnosis of the natural history of chronic HBV infection. To address this question, we examined multiple blood biomarkers and assessed the efficacy to diagnose different stages of chronic HBV infection. The quantitative detection of HBcAb, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV DNA, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and platelet count (PLT) were determined in the serum of 73 cases of low-replicative phase (LR), 46 cases of immune-tolerant phase (IT), 44 cases of immune clearance phase (IC), and 57 cases of HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH). Differentiating performance of these serum protein levels was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Our results showed that the levels of HBcAb, ALT, and AST levels were significantly higher in IC and ENH than those in LR and IT (both ). The levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg were higher in IC and IT than those in LR and ENH (both ). Logistic regression models showed that HBcAb, HBsAg, HBV DNA, ALT, and AST were the independent variables, respectively, and when combined, they provided high diagnostic accuracy for the staging of CHB. To sum up, HBcAb quantification is a new index, which can reflect whether the liver is in the immune activation state of HBV infection, and is related to the inflammatory state of the host liver. The combined detection of HBcAb quantification and other indicators has showed promising efficiency for staging of IC and ENH and can assist the diagnosis and treatment of CHB.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Nov 2021 10:50:04 +000
  • Preoperative Predictors of Prolonged Hospital Stay in Accelerated
           Rehabilitation for Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery

    • Abstract: In this study, we performed a retrospective and prospective study of preoperative predictors of the length of stay (LOS) in three groups of surgical patients and conducted a clinical retrospective study of the current research status of preoperative predictors of LOS prolongation in three groups of patients under ERAS (enhanced recovery after surgery) mode, such as patient characteristics and comorbidities. Information such as patients’ exercise preferences, exercise time, frequency and duration, footwear, location of knee osteoarthritis, whether there is a past history of knee injury, and smoking and drinking history was collected, and the research data of 312 patients undergoing the three operations were analyzed by SPSS. Meniscal injury-knee arthroscopy sample included a total of 104 people. Surgical sample for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction included a total of 100 subjects. Knee osteoarthritis-knee replacement surgery sample included 148 people who were divided into two groups in a ratio of 1 : 1: one group used Mailuo Shutong pills during hospitalization (intervention group) and the other group did not (control group). The research conclusions are as follows. Meniscal Knee Arthroscopy. (1) Samples from different causes of injury showed significant differences for all injured sites. (2) Samples with different smoking and drinking histories all showed significant differences for the causes of injury. (3) Exercise hobby, exercise frequency, duration of each exercise and duration of exercise, and warm-up time before exercise all showed positive correlation. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery. (4) Samples from different causes of injury showed significant differences for all the injured sites. (5) Age has a significant negative influence on the wearing of shoes at ordinary times. (6) Exercise hobby: the warm-up time before exercise had a significant negative influence on the injured area. (7) Two groups of analysis items of exercise frequency, exercise duration and exercise duration, preexercise warm-up time, and exercise hobby were typically positively correlated. Total Knee Arthroplasty. (8) There was a significant difference of 0.01 between the hospitalization days of the intervention group and the control group (), and the hospitalization days of the intervention group were significantly lower than those of the control group. These results indicated that Mailuo Shutong pills were of great significance for the treatment of orthopedic patients during the operation period in that it could effectively shorten the hospital stay of all orthopedic patients and strengthen the accelerated rehabilitation. (9) There was a significant positive correlation between the history of knee joint surgery and the use time of Mailuo Shutong pills. (10) There was a markable positive correlation between occupation and sports hobbies, sports time, frequency and duration, and footwear. There was a significant negative correlation between occupation and preexercise warm-up. (11) Exercise time, frequency, and duration have significant positive influence on BMI.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Nov 2021 09:35:01 +000
  • A Review of Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Food by Surface-Enhanced
           Raman Spectroscopy

    • Abstract: Antibiotics, as veterinary drugs, have made extremely important contributions to disease prevention and treatment in the animal breeding industry. However, the accumulation of antibiotics in animal food due to their overuse during animal feeding is a frequent occurrence, which in turn would cause serious harm to public health when they are consumed by humans. Antibiotic residues in food have become one of the central issues in global food safety. As a safety measure, rapid and effective analytical approaches for detecting these residues must be implemented to prevent contaminated products from reaching the consumers. Traditional analytical methods, such as liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and capillary electrophoresis, involve time-consuming sample preparation and complicated operation and require expensive instrumentation. By comparison, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has excellent sensitivity and remarkably enhanced target recognition. Thus, SERS has become a promising alternative analytical method for detecting antibiotic residues, as it can provide an ultrasensitive fingerprint spectrum for the rapid and noninvasive detection of trace analytes. In this study, we comprehensively review the recent progress and advances that have been achieved in the use of SERS in antibiotic residue detection. We introduce and discuss the basic principles of SERS. We then present the prospects and challenges in the use of SERS in the detection of antibiotics in food. Finally, we summarize and discuss the current problems and future trends in the detection of antibiotics in food.
      PubDate: Fri, 05 Nov 2021 16:05:02 +000
  • Harnessing Therapeutic Potentials of Statins Using Nanofibrous Carriers

    • Abstract: Statins are a wide category of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor drugs extensively prescribed for hypercholesterolemia. In fact, many studies showed beneficial effects of these agents on a variety of related illnesses, which include increased atherosclerotic plaque stability, decreased proliferation of vascular smooth muscle, platelet aggregation, the dampening of vascular inflammation, and also anabolic effects on bone tissue. Therefore, these drugs are considered as pleiotropic agents having different clinical applications other than those for which they were initially developed. Controlled drug delivery is an efficient way of delivery in tissue engineering. Amongst different controlled release formulations, nanofibers are a novel, alternative, widely used agent because of their unique properties. These include their sustained release of drug, a high drug-loading capacity, flexible shapes with a high surface-to-volume ratio, and superior porosity. Electrospinning is an economic and a simple method employed to produce nanofibers. In this report, studies related to statin nanofiber applications have been reviewed and their results have been summarized. Four different applications of statin nanofibers have been reported, including bone generation, endothelial stenosis and thrombosis, peripheral nerve injury, and anti-inflammatory action. Studies carried out both in vitro and in vivo showed effectiveness of statins in bone healing, aneurysm, and the healing of sciatic nerve injury. In addition, statins showed apoptosis effects and anti-inflammatory effects, with dose-dependent reduction of IL-6 and dose-independent reduction of TNF-α. Despite these promising results, validation via clinical trials is yet to be performed. The scope of statins in their pleiotropic range of actions is still not completely explored, and studies are still needed to enlighten different useful aspects of such drugs.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Nov 2021 09:20:02 +000
  • Antibacterial and Anticancer Potentials of Presynthesized Photosensitive
           Plectranthus cylindraceus Oil/TiO2/Polyethylene Glycol Polymeric

    • Abstract: The present study is concerned with the fabrication of the bifunctional Plectranthus cylindraceus oil/TiO2/polyethylene glycol polymeric film for antibacterial and anticancer activities. The suggested film is based on the utility of naturally extracted P. cylindraceus oil in the formation of the polymeric bionanocomposite film decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. The bionanocomposite film was fabricated by incorporating 15 w% of P. cylindraceus oil with 10 w% polyethylene glycol and 5 w% TiO2 nanoparticles. The active components of P. cylindraceus oil were verified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The surface morphology of the resulted bionanocomposite film was characterized by various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The antibacterial potential of the fabricated bionanocomposite film was investigated against four pathogenic strains. The obtained results revealed excellent sensitivity against the bacterial strains, particularly E. coli and S. aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration 320 µg mL−1 and minimum bactericidal concentration 640 and 1280 µg mL−1 for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Polymeric bionanocomposite exerted significant cytotoxicity against human lung carcinoma cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 42.7 ± 0.25 μg mL−1. Safety assessment test against peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) demonstrated that the bionanocomposite is nontoxic in nature. Bionanocomposite also showed potent photocatalytic effects. Overall, the results concluded that the bionanocomposite has expressed scope for multifaceted biomedical applications.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Oct 2021 10:50:01 +000
  • Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Effects of Gold
           Nanoparticles Containing Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Aqueous Extract

    • Abstract: Background. Wound healing is a complex process of replacing devitalized cellular structures and tissues with healthy cells and tissue. Nanotechnology has been increasingly proposed as a novel platform to treat wounds and skin regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and cutaneous wound healing activities of phytosynthesized Au NPs using Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) and synthesized Au NPs by using the citrate synthesis method. The Ok Au NPs were characterized using various techniques like UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cutaneous wounds were created on 30 rats and randomized into three groups: untreated and two groups treated with Ch Au NPs and Ok Au NPs. The treatment was carried out daily for 12 days. A peak characterized the Ok Au NPs at 538 nm in the UV-Vis spectrum. Based on the results of FTIR spectroscopy, various functional oxygenated groups such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, and nitrogenous groups were observed. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. TEM images of Ok Au NPs showed a spherical shape and size range of 75 nm. DPPH test showed similar antioxidant potentials for Au NPs. The Au NPs showed cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and this technique was found to be nontoxic. Agar well diffusion, which is the method to determine antibacterial characteristics of Au NPs, showed a significant beneficial effect against a variety of bacterial species. In addition, histopathological results showed that Au NPs could accelerate wound closure. Therefore, Au NPs could be suitable for wound healing applications.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:05:01 +000
  • A Physical-Chemical Study of the Interference of Ceftriaxone Antibiotic
           with Copper Chloride Salt

    • Abstract: The nano-CuCl2.2H2O salt was prepared by the ball milling method. The association parameters for bulk and nano-CuCl2 salts in H2O are estimated at different temperatures using the conductivity method by applying the Fuoss–Shedlovsky equation and it was higher for nano-CuCl2 than bulk CuCl2 salt. The interaction between the cation (Cu2+) and ligand (ceftriaxone) in H2O was determined also by the conductometric method. Two stoichiometric complexes 1/2 and 1/1 (M/L) are estimated and follow the order Kf (1/1) > Kf (1 : 2) and ∆Gf (1/1) > ∆Gf (1/2) for (M : L) (in negative values) indicate the favorable of formation of (1/1) complex compared to the (1 : 2) complex. The Gibbs free energies change was increased in negative signs with increasing the temperature. The antimicrobial activities of CFT, bulk Cu-CFT complex, and nano-Cu-CFT complex were studied on LB agar by the disc diffusion technique against clinical isolates of gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Fungi (Candida albicans). It was observed that (CFT) has a higher zone of inhibition and antibacterial activity than that of bulk and nano-Cu-CFT complexes in Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative bacteria). The nano-Cu-CFT complex showed a higher clear zone of inhibition and antifungal activity against candida than bulk Cu-CFT complex while the absence of the inhibition zone in CFT, so nano-Cu-CFT complex, can be used as an antifungal drug.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Oct 2021 10:35:01 +000
  • Effects of Different Particle Sizes of Hydroxyapatite on the Distribution
           and Migration of Trace Elements (Copper and Cadmium) in a Smelter-Impacted

    • Abstract: To study the remediation effect of hydroxyapatite with different particle sizes, a field in situ experiment was carried out by adding conventional hydroxyapatite (0.25 mm) and microhydroxyapatite (3 μm) and nanohydroxyapatite (40 nm) to the contaminated soil and planting Elsholtzia splendens. The distribution and migration of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in soil were investigated after 4 years. The results show that the application of three different particle sizes of hydroxyapatite significantly raise the soil pH, total phosphorus, and soil organic carbon. Moreover, the addition of hydroxyapatite can reduce the EXC fraction of Cu and Cd by 73.7%–80.1% and 20.8%–35.2%, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of Cu and Cd in >2 mm, 0.25–2 mm, 0.053–0.25 mm, and
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Oct 2021 04:05:02 +000
  • Microplasma Synthesis of Antibacterial Active Silver Nanoparticles in
           Sodium Polyacrylate Solutions

    • Abstract: The great demand for functional, particularly biologically active, metal nanoparticles has led to the search for technologically effective, green, and controlled methods of synthesizing these metal nanoparticles. Plasma glow discharge is one of the most promising techniques in this direction. The results of studies based on the synthesis of colloidal solutions of stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by the microplasma method in solutions of a nontoxic surfactant sodium polyacrylate (NaPA) are presented. It is shown that AgNPs with a size of 2–20 nm are formed in solutions of 0.05–0.2 mmol⋅L−1 AgNO3 + 5 g⋅L−1 NaPA at U = 250 V by tungsten cathode plasma glow discharge. At 20°C, the yellow solutions are formed with λmax ≈ 410 nm, which are stable during long-term storage. It was found that the process of AgNPs formation corresponds to a first-order reaction on the AgNO3 concentration. Its value has little effect on the geometry of nanoparticles, so the Ag(I) concentration in solution is one of the main factors influencing the rate of microplasma synthesis of AgNPs. The antimicrobial activity of synthesized AgNPs solutions against strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans was established.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Oct 2021 04:05:02 +000
  • A Novel Fluorescent Dye Invades Mitochondria to Selectively Kill Cancer
           Stem Cells via Increased ROS Production

    • Abstract: Development of multiple agents has a significant impact on the cancer diagnosis and therapy. Several fluorescent dyes including near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent agents have been already well studied in the field of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present study, we reported a novel fluorescent dye could obviously inhibit cancer cell proliferation with slight toxic effects on the biological organism. Furthermore, it displayed selective staining on cancer cells, particularly on cancer stem cells (CSCs), rather than normal cells. Mechanically, this dye preferred to invading mitochondria of cancer cells and inducing overwhelming reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The in vivo experiments further demonstrated that this dye could image cancer cells and even CSCs in a short-time intratumor injection manner using a zebrafish model and subsequently inhibit cancer cell proliferation after a relatively long-time drug exposure. Taken together, the future development of this agent will promise to make an essential contribution to the cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:20:02 +000
  • The Emerging Role of Nanomedicine in the Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty
           Liver Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review

    • Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease that can lead to end-stage liver disease needing a liver transplant. Many pharmacological approaches are used to reduce the disease progression in NAFLD. However, current strategies remain ineffective to reverse the progression of NAFLD completely. Employing nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has demonstrated significant potential for improving the bioavailability of drugs in the treatment of NAFLD. Various types of nanoparticles are exploited in this regard for the management of NAFLD. In this review, we cover the current therapeutic approaches to manage NAFLD and provide a review of recent up-to-date advances in the uses of nanoparticles for the treatment of NAFLD.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Oct 2021 07:50:01 +000
  • Phytosynthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using King of Bitter
           Andrographis paniculata and Its Embryonic Toxicology Evaluation and
           Biomedical Potential

    • Abstract: Phytosynthesis particles are the efficient activity of biomedical and environmental. In this present study, the green synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using the king of bitter herbal plant Andrographis paniculata was synthesized and characterized using XRD, SEM, HRTEM, AFM, and antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities. The size of the particles HRTEM shows 50 nm, and SEM shows the spherical shape, which reveals the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. XRD spectrum shows crystallinity of nanoparticles, and an average size is calculated about 22.97 nm. The phytosynthesis TiO2 shows the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. Similarly, toxicity studies have demonstrated the hatching and viability LD 50 value of TiO2 250 μg/L. The current study’s findings suggested that phytosynthesis TiO2 using extract of Andrographis paniculata exposure to potential hazard factors to biomedical and environmental uses.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Oct 2021 11:05:03 +000
  • Complexed Crystal Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dihydroorotase
           with Inhibitor 5-Fluoroorotate Reveals a New Binding Mode

    • Abstract: Dihydroorotase (DHOase) possesses a binuclear metal center in which two Zn ions are bridged by a posttranslationally carbamylated lysine. DHOase catalyzes the reversible cyclization of N-carbamoyl aspartate (CA-asp) to dihydroorotate (DHO) in the third step of the pathway for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides and is an attractive target for potential anticancer and antimalarial chemotherapy. Crystal structures of ligand-bound DHOase show that the flexible loop extends toward the active site when CA-asp is bound (loop-in mode) or moves away from the active site, facilitating the product DHO release (loop-out mode). DHOase binds the product-like inhibitor 5-fluoroorotate (5-FOA) in a similar mode to DHO. In the present study, we report the crystal structure of DHOase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScDHOase) complexed with 5-FOA at 2.5 Å resolution (PDB entry 7CA0). ScDHOase shares structural similarity with Escherichia coli DHOase (EcDHOase). However, our complexed structure revealed that ScDHOase bound 5-FOA differently from EcDHOase. 5-FOA ligated the Zn atoms in the active site of ScDHOase. In addition, 5-FOA bound to ScDHOase through the loop-in mode. We also characterized the binding of 5-FOA to ScDHOase by using the site-directed mutagenesis and fluorescence quenching method. Based on these lines of molecular evidence, we discussed whether these different binding modes are species- or crystallography-dependent.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 06:35:02 +000
  • Fabrication of a Lead Head Made of the Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite
           for the Temporary Cardiac Pacemaker

    • Abstract: Compared with traditional leads, carbon fiber composite leads have a series of advantages such as lightweight, soft texture, and high conductivity. In this experiment, we attempted to improve the existing carbon-fiber-based TTCP metal leads by using carbon-fiber-graphene-woven leads or conductive cloth, so as to solve a series of defects of TTCP metal leads commonly used in the clinical temporary cardiac pacemaker. We performed a series of measurements, including resistance comparisons and stability checks on the finished product characteristics. The results showed that the resistivity of the whole lead did not change significantly after modification, and the carbon fiber bundle was stable and easily deformed under lower stress to reduce the damage to the myocardium, which had excellent clinical application value.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Sep 2021 07:50:01 +000
  • Microencapsulation of Fe2+ in Spray-Dried Lactose for Improved

    • Abstract: The development of spray drying technology has been widely used for drying and preservation of food products. Though infant milk powder iron fortification is necessary for infants and children, iron fortification is accompanied by some limitations that reduce its quality and oxidation of Fe2+ into Fe3+, causing sensory problems and even a decrease in iron absorption, which does not meet the normal requirements of infant and child body development. To overcome this adverse effect and to improve the bioavailability of iron, a spray drying method was used to simulate the milk powder production process by codrying a mixture of ascorbic acid and ferrous sulfate, where ascorbic acid was uniformly coated on the outer layer of ferrous sulfate. It was demonstrated that ascorbic acid had a very obvious inhibitory effect on the oxidation of ferrous iron and could maintain the stability of ferrous iron in solid and solution for a long time, thus improving the bioavailability of iron.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Sep 2021 10:05:01 +000
  • Porous Lactose as a Novel Ingredient Carrier for the Improvement of
           Quercetin Solubility In Vitro

    • Abstract: In this work, quercetin was loaded in the highly-porous lactose via the adsorption of quercetin molecules in ethanol. The method aims to improve the quercetin solubility and the loading capacity of lactose. The method relates to the synthesis of the highly-porous lactose with a particle size of ∼35 μm, a mean pore width of ∼30 nm, a BET surface area of 35.0561 ± 0.4613 m2/g, and a BJH pore volume of ∼0.075346 cc/g. After the quercetin loading in ethanol, BET surface area and BJH pore volume of porous lactose were reduced to 28.8735 ± 0.3526 m2/g and 0.073315 cc/g, respectively. The reduction rate was based on the quercetin loading efficiency of highly-porous lactose. DSC analysis and XRD analysis suggest that the sediments of quercetin in the nanopores of porous lactose are crystalline. FTIR spectroscopy results suggest that there is no significant interaction between quercetin and lactose. The highly-porous lactose had a higher loading efficiency of 20.3% (w/w) compared to the α-lactose (with 5.2% w/w). The release rates of quercetin from the highly-porous lactose tablets were faster compared to the conventional α-lactose carrier.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Aug 2021 06:35:01 +000
  • Evidence-Based Analysis of the Emergency Temporary Cardiac Pacing
           (Electrical Stimulation from Metal Wire Electrode)

    • Abstract: The patient’s Cr (creatinine), BUN (blood urea nitrogen), HBG (hemoglobin), VT (ventricular tachycardia), pacing frequency, puncture point, emergency to permanent pacing time, pacing current (mA), pacing threshold current (mA), and admission diagnosis data were collected. The data were subjected to frequency statistics, curve regression analysis, PLS regression analysis, adjustment analysis, chi-square test, ridge regression analysis, discriminant analysis, negative binomial regression analysis, Poisson regression analysis, and stepwise regression analysis. Some findings include the following: (1) Cr has a significant positive effect on HBG, and BUN has a significant negative effect on HBG. (2) VT has a negative correlation with age and a positive correlation with CK-MB and CK (creatinine kinase). (3) Myocarditis has a negative correlation with age and a significant positive correlation with CTnI (cardiac troponin I). (4) AST (aspartate transaminase) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) have a significant positive impact on DDI (D-dimer), while CTnI has a significant negative impact on DDI. MYO (myoglobin) has no impact relationship to DDI. (5) ALT has a significant positive relationship with APTT (partial thromboplastin time). (6) Alb (albumin) and TBIL (total bilirubin) have a significant positive effect on PLT (platelet) count, while pro-BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) and MYO have a significant negative effect on PLT. (7) CK has a significant positive effect on INR (international normalized ratio). (8) The relationship between sinus node dysfunction and VT significantly affect the pacing frequency (beats/minute). For third-degree atrioventricular block, different samples of sinus node dysfunction showed significant differences. (9) There is a significant positive correlation between pacing current (mA) and pacing threshold current (mA). (10) There was a significant positive correlation between perceived voltage (mV) and the time from emergency to permanent pacing. Admission diagnosis has a significant positive impact on the time from emergency to permanent pacing. The change (increase) in time from emergency to permanent pacing was 1.137-fold when an additional condition was diagnosed on admission.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Aug 2021 07:50:03 +000
  • Novel Synthesis of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles: Biological Activity and
           Acute Toxicity Study

    • Abstract: Titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been attracting numerous research studies due to their activity; however, there is a growing concern about the corresponding toxicity. Here in the present study, titanium oxide nanoparticles were newly synthesized using propolis extract followed by antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity assay using human cancer cell lines, and acute toxicity study. The physicochemical characterization of the newly synthesized TiO2 NPs had average size = 57.5 nm, PdI = 0.308, and zeta potential = −32.4 mV. Antimicrobial activity assessment proved the superior activity against Gram-positive compared to Gram-negative bacteria and yeast (lowest MIC values 8, 32, and 32, respectively). The newly synthesized TiO2 NPs showed a potent activity against the following human cancer cell lines: liver (HepG-2) (IC50 8.5 µg/mL), colon (Caco-2), and breast (MDA-MB 231) (IC50 11.0 and 18.7 µg/mL). In vivo acute toxicity study was conducted using low (10 mg/kg) and high (1000 mg/kg) doses of the synthesized TiO2 NPs in albino male rats. Biochemistry and histopathology of the liver, kidney, and brain proved the safety of the synthesized TiO2 NPs at low dose while at high dose, there was TiO2 NPs deposit in different vital organs except the cerebral tissue.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Aug 2021 12:05:07 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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