Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 986 journals)
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    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)

Showing 1 - 34 of 34 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication in Inorganic Synthesis     Open Access  
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section A     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inorganic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Inorganic Materials: Applied Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Progressive Research in Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Materials Today Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Polymer Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.443
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1436-2449 - ISSN (Online) 0170-0839
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2537 journals]
  • Correction to: A novel double‑layered polymeric nanofiber‑based
           

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      Abstract: The original version of this article inadvertently contained mistake.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Synthesis, characterization and application of a molecularly imprinted
           polymer as an adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of selected
           pharmaceuticals from water samples

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      Abstract: Most pollutant compounds exist as mixtures in the environment. In this regard, one of the 12 principles of green analytical chemistry emphasizes the need for methods that allow for analysis of multiple compounds versus those that analyze a single analyte at a time. In this work, we present a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) synthesized for the selective and efficient extraction of selected pharmaceuticals belonging to five different classes, namely an antiretroviral (nevirapine), an antidepressant (venlafaxine), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), an anticonvulsant (carbamazepine) and a cardiac stimulant (etilefrine) from surface water samples. Cavity tuning experiments using the target pharmaceuticals as a single or multi-template were conducted and the venlafaxine-imprinted polymer was successfully selected for the study based on its high selectivity toward targeted pharmaceuticals. Batch adsorption and kinetic studies showed that adsorption of the selected pharmaceuticals onto the particles of the polymer followed a Freundlich adsorption isotherm as well as a pseudo-second-order adsorption model. This indicated heterogeneity of the binding surface energies on the MIP resulting in multiple interactions through chemisorption. An analytical method for quantification of the compounds using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was successfully developed, with detection limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.31 ng mL−1 and quantification limits in the 0.12–3.81 ng mL−1 range. The imprinted polymer was then evaluated as a selective adsorption sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the selected pharmaceuticals in dam water samples followed by LC–MS analysis, giving recoveries ranging from 43 to 69%.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • UV-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization of acrolein

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      Abstract: In this paper, the polymerization of acrolein (A) via UV-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is reported. The optimization of the experimental conditions of the polymerization is investigated, and it shows that dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent, ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBIB) and fluorescein (FL) as catalyst, and [A]0/[EBIB]0/[FL]0 = 200/1/0.1 in the period of 5 h at 47 °C are suitable conditions for the reaction. In this way, the yield of the polymer is 24.5%. The glass transition temperature and melting point of polyacrolein characterized by differential scanning calorimetry are 115.5 °C and 165.7 °C, respectively. At low conversion, the polymerization conforms to be the first-order kinetics reaction. The dependence of polymerization on light source is proved by “on/off” light source experiment. In short, this study opens up a new way for the ATRP of acrolein, and the polyacrolein with abundant aldehyde groups can be used in the fields of biomedical labeling, immobilization carrier and adsorption of organic amines. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Thermomechanical investigations of polyurea microspheres

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      Abstract: Polyurea is a thermoset elastomer with a wide range of implementations in industrial and biomechanical applications. In the past two decades, bulk polyurea was heavily investigated under different environmental, operating, and loading conditions. The further exploitation of the superior thermomechanical properties of polyurea necessitates the exploration of smaller length scales, e.g., microscales and nanoscales. Thus, the objective of this research was to fabricate cross-linked polyurea microspheres, which was hypothesized to inherit some of the properties of the bulk polyurea. While the production yield was found to be low, the resulting polyurea microspheres exhibit the hallmark characteristics of their bulk counterpart. The microspheres, fabricated by a modified precipitation polymerization process, were examined with a scanning electron microscope showing the microspheres to have a highly textured surface morphology and an average diameter of 2.4 ± 2.9 µm. Using FTIR spectroscopy and a thermogravimetric analyzer, the microspheres were found to have inherited the overall chemical structure and hygrothermal properties of bulk polyurea. Using an atomic force microscope, the elastic modulus of the microspheres was found to be 114.75 ± 40.71 MPa, four times stiffer than that of bulk polyurea. With such disparity of the elastic modulus, the polyurea microspheres can be used as a reinforcement phase in future polymer–polymer composites.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Structure of terminal units of polybutadiene synthesized via anionic
           mechanism

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      Abstract: The structure of head and end groups of the polybutadiene synthesized by anionic polymerization of butadiene using tert-butyllithium as an initiator has been established using methods of NMR spectroscopy with T2-filter as well as 2D 1H, 13C HMBC and HSQC NMR spectroscopy. The spectral signals of head groups, which consist of tert-butyl groups connected with cis-1,4, trans-1,4 or 1,2-units of polybutadiene chain, were identified for the first time. A new method for the quantitative calculation of the content of head and end groups with different microstructures was proposed. It was shown that the total content of 1,4-units (both cis-1,4 and trans-1,4) in terminal groups is considerably higher than that in a main chain of polybutadiene.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Bridging the gap between rubbers and plastics: a review on thermoplastic
           polyolefin elastomers

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      Abstract: Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) are studied for their unique properties of being easily processes and recycled. This paper focuses on the wide scope of thermoplastic polyolefin elastomers (TPO/TPE-O) which is one of the major classes of TPE. The performance of TPO is the cumulative effect of polyolefins and rubbers with the ease of processing due to the presence of thermoplastics. The study focuses on the classification of TPO, their routes of synthesis, composites, applications, and its impact on environment. The mechanical blending of polyolefins and conventional rubber was carried out to manufacture TPO. In further developments, the polyolefin elastomers (POE) were synthesized by copolymerization techniques to overcome the drawback of mechanical blending techniques. Environment-friendly blends of TPO are synthesized using industrial and municipal waste which includes scrap rubber tires, marble waste-filled polypropylene, computer body waste, etc. This technology will help in reducing the issue of landfills. The composites of TPO have been studied using different types of fillers which may be synthetic or bio-based. These include talc, carbon black, carbon nanotubes (CNT), Kenaf fiber, pineapple leaf fiber, etc. TPO have found their use in encapsulation, in electrical insulation, roofing, medical devices, and the automobile industry. Also, impact of using TPOs on environment is discussed here qualitatively.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Application of different mathematical models for further investigation of
           in vitro drug release mechanisms based on magnetic nano-composite

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      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate drug release mechanisms on the novel pre-synthesized magnetic nano-composite-based polyurethane matrices and develop a kind of appropriate model to forecast quantitatively targeted drug delivery for in vitro breast cancer therapy. A newly presented analytical instrument, ion mobility spectrometry, was used to investigate loading and release procedures for two pharmaceutical cancer agents of DOX and MTX for breast cancer treatment. Loading percentages on the nano-composite matrices were obtained 94% and 98% for DOX and MTX, respectively. In vitro drug release data were obtained in two different pHs (4.7 and 7.4) in various continuously time intervals to follow release procedure. Cumulative release profile was drawn and consequently quantitatively correlated and interpreted with varied mathematical models, viz. zero-order model, first-order model, Higuchi model, Hixson–Crowell model and Korsmeyer–Peppas model. The calculated parameters of mentioned models including r2, slope and intercept were used for evaluation and describing the kinetics of drug release. The criterion for the most suitable model was based on the high degree of correlation coefficient of nano-composite drug release profile. Hence, finally it is concluded that the best fitted drug release pattern between all proposed methods is Higuchi kinetic model which explains the drug-diffusion-diffuse controlled manner.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Cytotoxic potential and antiparasitic activity of the Croton
           rhamnifolioides Pax leaves. & K. Hoffm essential oil and its inclusion
           complex (EOCr/β-CD)

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      Abstract: Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are neglected tropical diseases with relevance and public interest. Currently, the search for antiparasitic agents from medicinal plants has been the target of great research. Croton rhamnifolioides Pax. & K. Hoffm is known in popular medicine as “quebra-faca” or “caatinga-branca” and is used to treat stomachache, vomiting and fever. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential and antiparasitic activity of the Croton rhamnifolioides Pax leaves. & K. Hoffm essential oil (EOCr) and its inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (EOCr/β-CD). The trypanocide, leishmanicidal and cytotoxicity activity investigations were performed in triplicates by in vitro cell culture assays using different EOCr (1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5 μg/mL) and EOCr/β-CD (1000, 500 and 250 μg/mL) concentrations dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. The results showed the EOCr and EOCr/β-CD possessed an inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 85.21 and 1823 μg/mL against T. cruzi, IC50 values of 127.43 and 354.568 μg/mL against Leishmania braziliensis and IC50 values of 111.84 and 923.56 μg/mL against Leishmania infantum, respectively, with the EOCr being the most effective against T. cruzi. The EOCr presented toxic effects against NCTC929 fibroblasts at the highest concentrations of 1000 and 500 μg/mL, obtaining an IC50 value of 338.84 μg/mL; however, the EOCr/β-CD showed no signs of significant cytotoxicity obtaining an IC50 greater than 1000 μg/mL. The current results suggest the C. rhamnifolioides essential oil presents significant results, thus representing an alternative source for the development of natural products with antiparasitic activity.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Preparation of a novel polyurethane network based on PPG–PGN–PPG:
           investigation of the effect of plasticizers on its properties

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      Abstract: In this research to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of polyglycidyl nitrate (PGN)-based energetic polyurethane network was used a novel flexible chain triblock copolymer based on polypropylene glycol–poly glycidyl nitrate–polypropylene glycol (PPG–PGN–PPG). Energetic polyurethane was prepared by curing of the triblock copolymer with different curing agents (TDI, IPDI, N100, IPDI/N100) and different NCO/OH ratios. To evaluate the effect of plasticizer on the thermo-mechanical properties of the polyurethane, the compatibility of copolymer with three energetic plasticizers, including n‐butyl nitroxyethyl nitramine (BuNENA), trimethylol ethane trinitrate (TMETN), and 1,2,4-butanetriol trinitrate (BTTN) was studied using the swelling test and thermal analysis. The results indicate that BuNENA is more compatible with this copolymer than other plasticizers. The mechanical properties effect of the BuNENA plasticizer on the polyurethane network was investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis as well as the tensile test. The IPDI/N100 curing agents-polyurethane mixture, demonstrated appropriate mechanical properties (0.35 MPa stress and 70% elongation) that make it a suitable binder system comparison with pure PGN (unstable and de-cured). Also the mechanical properties of the prepared polyurethane containing 15 wt% BuNENA showed 0.17 MPa stress and 98% elongation.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Poultry eggshell effects on microporous poly(lactic acid)-based film
           fabrication for active compound-releasing sachets

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      Abstract: Poultry eggshells (ES) were used to create microporous structures as an alternative and sustainable filler in a poly(lactic acid)/polybutylene succinate (PLA/PBS) blend designed for sachet use. Crude chicken eggshell (CES) and duck eggshell (DES) are utilized as natural calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sources by systematically varying filler content. Using CES and DES as sustainable fillers produces smaller pore diameters (ranging from 300 to 500 nm), a higher pore density (~ 106 pores/mm2) and greater pore homogeneity within the PLA/PBS matrices. Poultry ES also improves calcium dispersion within the PLA/PBS matrices, compared to the highly variable pore sizes which cause the calcium agglomeration clearly observed in the PLA/PBS/CaCO3 composites. Moreover, the organic residuals contained in the crude poultry ES promote interfacial adhesion in PLA/PBS matrices, resulting in uniform micropore distribution. The obtained morphologies of the PLA/PBS/poultry ES composites permit oxygen and water permeation comparable to those of conventional plastics currently used as active compound-releasing sachets. The stress–strain curves also reveal slightly improved toughness with 0.3 phr poultry ES. Lastly, poultry ES also induces crystalline PLA and PBS in α-forms with Xc,PLA of 20–30% and Xc,PBS of 30–50% and maintains high tensile strength, similar to that of PLA/PBS/CaCO3 composites.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Grafted poly (vinyl alcohol) functionalized by folic acid and its
           transdermal microneedles

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      Abstract: A well-soluble grafted polymer of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) used to fabricate dissolved microneedles was achieved through classic Michael addition and the functionalization of folate-targeted ligand. FTIR, Raman spectrum and 1H-NMR characterization ascertained the microstructure of resulted polymer. XPS analysis further confirmed the reasonability of analytic structure as well as the functionalized rate of folate of the modified PVA. Using the synthetic polymer to fabricate microneedles patch which was only a matter of 10% (w/w) concentration could accomplish, and the gained patch displayed decent insertion capability of porcine cadaver skin and the inserted microneedles emerged obviously a dissolved phenomenon within 1 min. Meanwhile, the left traces on surface of the skin recovered about 15 min after the patch removal, implying a little invasiveness to skin. The release of insulin-loaded microneedles exhibited burst release in the initial phase and then reduced gradually, and the insulin loaded in the needles of patch might release totally within 1 h, revealing the functionalized grafted polymer could be used as a well material for fabrication dissolving microneedles.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Radiation cross-linked gelatin/sodium alginate/carboxymethylcellulose
           sodium hydrogel for the application as debridement glue paste

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      Abstract: Autolytic debridement can accelerate wound healing by removing necrotic tissue. A hydrogel was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, sodium alginate and carboxymethylcellulose sodium by radiation-induced cross-linking at room temperature, which was aiming at the application of debridement glue paste. The swelling ratio of the debridement glue paste is 30 times to its dry weight, when the weight ratio of gelatin/sodium alginate/carboxymethylcellulose sodium was 2:2:2 and the absorbed dose was 20 kGy, with dose rate of 20 Gy/min. The extrusion and compressive assay have confirmed that it possessed stable mechanical strength, and the weight ratio had little effect on the molecular structure by FTIR and TGA. Cell culture experiments demonstrated the debridement glue pastes with the cytotoxicity of grade 0 or 1 (biosafe). The debridement glue paste group could remove the necrotic tissue within 4 days and showed complete wound healing within 18 days; comparatively, the control group without treatment removed the necrotic tissue within 10 days and showed complete wound healing within 26 days in animal experiments using rabbit scald model. Histologic analysis exhibited that more granulation tissue was observed in debridement glue paste. The result of this study suggested that debridement glue pastes had excellent biocompatibility, could selectively remove necrotic tissue, induced granulation tissue formation and accelerated the wound healing.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Formulation development and evaluation of drug-in-adhesive-type
           transdermal patch of metoclopramide HCl

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      Abstract: The objective was to design and develop a drug-in-adhesive-type transdermal patch formulation of metoclopramide HCl, which is used as an effective antiemetic, dopaminergic antagonist agent. In DIA patches, drug is directly embedded in the polymeric adhesive layer and permeates through the skin to provide systemic effect, avoiding gastrointestinal tract complications, including the first-pass metabolism. Six different patch formulations were prepared by a solvent evaporation method using varying metoclopramide HCl concentrations using acrylate polymer DURO-TAK® 387/2510 for adhesive support. In vitro permeation profiles and parameters were obtained by using the skin of hairless albino Wistar rats. The influence of drug content on the rate of permeation was investigated, and patch formulation was optimized based on Q12, flux, and lag time. The effect of permeation enhancers (EO and PG) on the permeation rate of metoclopramide HCl was also studied. The skin irritation study was performed to observe the hypersensitivity against the patch component. Stability studies of the optimized formulation of a transdermal patch for three months at three different temperatures were investigated. The transdermal patch formulation containing 10% w/w metoclopramide HCl was capable of effectively delivering metoclopramide HCl for systemic effect without any skin irritation. It has Q12 of 3.892 ± 0.0043 mg/cm2, flux rate of 0.2501 mg/cm2 h, and the coefficient of permeability of 6.25E−02 cm/h with a lag time of 0.442 h. The stability data revealed that the optimized patch formulation could be stored at 4 °C in the refrigerator with a shelf life of 3.53 months. This newly developed metoclopramide transdermal DIA patch is an effective alternative to oral delivery with desirable antiemetic activity.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid-assisted one-pot catalytic synthesis of
           phenyl silicone resins

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      Abstract: A facial one-pot method for the preparation of phenyl silicone resins is introduced. Vinyl end-capped phenyl silicone resin (i) and phenyl hydrosilicone resin (ii) were successfully prepared by selecting trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as the catalyst. The structures and the thermo-optical performances of the resulting resins were investigated by IR, NMR, GPC, TGA and UV–Vis, respectively. The results show that the yield, the transparency and the refractive index for resin (i) are 95%, 90.4% and 1.5253, respectively, and for resin (ii) are 94%, 92.8% and 1.5201, respectively. The properties of the cake obtained by hydrosilylation of resin (i) and (ii) in the ratio of 1:1 for LED chip encapsulation were studied, and the packaging effect was examined preliminarily.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Investigation on tribo-characteristics of Calotropis gigantea
           fiber-reinforced-CNT modified polymer composites

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      Abstract: This study included the preparation and tribo-characterization of Calotropis gigantea (CG) fiber reinforced CNT modified phenolic resin composites. Composites were prepared with varying contents (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in phenolic resin, which was reinforced with CG fiber. The prepared composites were tested for their adhesive wear and frictional behavior at different applied loads (up to 100 N) against EN-31 steel disk on a standard pin-on-disk tribometer. The results revealed that addition of MWCNT enhanced the pressure–velocity (PV) limit significantly and reduced the value of friction coefficient of CG-fiber-reinforced phenolic resin composite. The friction coefficient decreases with increasing applied load. The wear rate significantly depends on MWCNT contents. The contact temperature of sliding surfaces increased with increasing applied load. The worn surfaces were analyzed and discussed to understand the wear mechanism involved with the help of SEM micrographs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Polystyrene-supported bromoderivative of 2-pyrrolidone: synthesis,
           characterization and application in microwave-assisted bromination
           reactions

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      Abstract: A novel, microwave safe and recyclable polymeric reagent was prepared by anchoring bromoderivative of 2-pyrrolidone in the polymer matrix of 3% tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate cross-linked polystyrene. The synthetic utility of the prepared polymeric reagent was demonstrated by the efficient bromination of unsaturated compounds, activated aromatic compounds and also for the α-bromination of ketones under microwave activation. Operational simplicity, moderate to excellent yield of the products, shorter reaction time and dry reaction medium are the foremost attraction of this protocol. Moreover, the synthesized functional polymer was stable under standard laboratory conditions and can be kept for several months without any significant loss of activity. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Simulating release model and antimicrobial efficiency of LDPE film
           carrying ferula asafetida leaf and gum extracts

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      Abstract: The development of antimicrobial LDPE films containing ferula hydroalcoholic leaf and gum extracts was investigated. At the end of the 10th day, the highest rate of the released flavonoid compounds was related to the films containing 5% leaf extracts (PE-Leaf-5, 3663.71 µg/g) for 95% ethanol simulation at 60 °C. The carvacrol acetate and β-Elemene in the 95% ethanol simulation containing PE-Leaf and α-bisabolol in the simulation including a film containing gum extract (PE-Gum) were not found. The highest effect of the antimicrobial property was related to the PE-Leaf films, but the highest rate of release of the compounds was related to the PE-Gum films. At the end of day 14th, the growth rate of Aspergillus niger in the presence of the PE-Leaf-5 and PE-Gum-5 films was reduced 3.23 and 3.72 logarithmic cycles, respectively. At the end of day 10th at 4ºC, the total fungi count has reduced 0.89 and 0.85 logarithmic cycles in the dough samples packed with PE-Leaf and PE-Gum films, respectively while after 6 days preservation at 25°C, they reduced 1.51 and 1.68 logarithmic cycles, respectively. It seems the development of antimicrobial films containing ferula bioactive compounds can be effective in prolonging the shelf life of the foods.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • A new method to measure the three-dimensional solubility parameters of
           acrylate rubber and predict its oil resistance

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      Abstract: As people pay more and more attention to environmental protection and the high cost of diesel and gasoline, in order to reduce environmental pollution and use cost, some low-pollution and low-cost components, such as alcohols (ethanol, etc.) and esters (methyl acetate, etc.), are added to diesel and gasoline. Due to the addition of new components, the swelling degree of rubber products will also change. In the literature, this method is often used to test the oil resistance of vulcanizates directly by immersing them in oil. In this paper, a new method is used to predict the oil resistance of vulcanizates. In order to investigate the swelling property of acrylate rubber more comprehensively and predict its oil resistance, the swelling behavior of carboxylic acrylate rubber (AR12) produced by Zeon Corporation (Japan) was measured by swelling method in 24 different organic solvents, and the value of one-dimensional solubility parameter (δ) of AR12 was obtained, ranging from 18 to 22 MPa1/2. The swelling data were analyzed by Hansen Solubility Parameter in Practice software, and the three-dimensional solubility parameter sphere, two-dimensional solubility parameter graph and three-dimensional solubility parameter of AR12 were thus obtained. The values of the three-dimensional solubility parameter of AR12 were δd = 18.30 MPa1/2, δp = 7.10 MPa1/2 and δh = 5.60 MPa1/2, respectively. There is an energy difference (Ra) between AR12 and the 24 solvents, and the swelling ratio (q) of AR12 in the 24 solvents presents an inverse “S”-shaped curve as the Ra values between them change. The experimental results proved that the three-dimensional solubility parameters were more accurate in predicting swelling performance than that of one-dimensional solubility parameter. To verify the experimental results, the relationships of Ra, q and δt values with the volume fractions of two groups of solvent mixtures were established. The experimental results showed the same as those obtained by a single solvent, which further proved the correlation of rubber swelling responses. This new method can be used to predict the oil resistance of rubber, and its advantages compared to traditional methods are using more environmentally friendly and cheaper liquid instead of toxic or expensive liquid. This method can be used not only to evaluate acrylate rubber, but also predict the oil resistance of other polymers.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Development of poly(1-vinylimidazole)-chitosan composite sorbent under
           microwave irradiation for enhanced uptake of Cd(II) ions from aqueous
           media

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      Abstract: A chitosan-based composite named poly(1-vinylimidazole)-chitosan (PVI-CS) was fabricated employing a microwave-assisted protocol to be used as a novel composite for CdII contaminated water. The prepared PVI-CS composite was evaluated using SEM-coupled EDX, FTIR and zeta potential analyses. Under certain experimental conditions of the batch process, the binding behavior of PVI-CS sorbent against CdII ions was investigated. Results demonstrate that the optimized experimental conditions for CdII ions removal by PVI-CS composite sorbent were to be pH 7.2, the PVI-CS dose 2.5 g/L and the CdII concentration 25 mg/L at 30 °C. The Langmuir qmax of the PVI-CS turned out to be 204.92 mg/g for CdII ions. The kinetics analysis revealed that the process was best-fitted for pseudo-first-order kinetics with R2 > 0.999. The CdII ions removal efficiency of PVI-CS sorbent remained satisfactory even after five cycles, which establish that PVI-CS is a sustainability composite for an effective water purification system.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of modified polyisobutylene-based
           dispersants from polyisobutylene succinimides

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      Abstract: In this study, Alkenyl succinimides with different alkyl chain lengths were synthesized using polyisobutylene (PIB) with the molecular weights of 1000 and 1300, which displayed the best functional properties. The secondary amines found in b-Polyisobutylene succinimide (b-PIBSI) dispersants were prepared by attaching PIB chains to a polyamine core via two succinimide moieties. In this work, detergent/dispersant type additives were synthesized based on polyisobutylene succinic anhydride (PIBSA) and its aminated compounds (PIBSI) with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). The resulting PIBSA and PIBSI characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) spectroscopies were greatly complicated because of the interactions between the carbonyls of the succinimide groups and unreacted secondary amines of the Mb-PIBSI dispersants. The viscoelasticity of obtained PIBSI indicated the increase in storage modulus with time which illustrated the increase in the solid-like properties of PIBSI. Therefore, an alternative procedure was developed based on fluorescence quenching of the succinimides by secondary amines and urethane groups.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
       
 
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