A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 | Last   [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 382 Journals sorted by number of followers
American Journal of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 340)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283)
Annual Review of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167)
Social Forces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Social Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Information, Communication & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Anthropological Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
The British Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Qualitative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Sociological Methods & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
International Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
City & Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Critical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
AlterNative : An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
European Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Comparative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of European Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Mental Health and Social Inclusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
The Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Victorian Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Contemporary Sociology : A Journal of Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Games and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Critical Discourse Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sociology of Health & Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Complexity in Leadership and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Sociological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Health and Social Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Judgment and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Design and Culture : The Journal of the Design Studies Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Sociolinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ethnicities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Rural Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Social Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Sociology of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Sociological Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Social Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Middle East Women's Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
The Sociological Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Studies in Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Family & Community History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
African Identities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sociological Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Policy History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Sociology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Comparative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Philosophy & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Historical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Symbolic Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Berliner Journal für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Global Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Communication Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Classical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sociology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sociological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sociological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Review of Sociology / Revue Canadienne De Sociologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advertising & Society Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
East Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cultures & conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal for the Study of Radicalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Studies in Latin American Popular Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Sociologia Ruralis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Teaching Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sociological Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Anthropologie et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Political Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers canadiens de sociologie     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Sociology: Revue Internationale de Sociologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sociological Research Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bronte Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gender and Behaviour     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Race/Ethnicity : Multidisciplinary Global Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Sociology & Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Sociologie du Travail     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cross-cultural Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Mexicana de Sociologí­a     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Surveillance and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ateliers d'anthropologie     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nordic Journal of Migration Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Japanese Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Senses and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Pacific     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sociolinguistic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Critical Realism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista de Psicología Social, International Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Women and the Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Visitor Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Italian Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mathematical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Études françaises     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethnologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meridians : feminism, race, transnationalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studia Iranica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Group Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Indian Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aztlan : A Journal of Chicano Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Public and Professional Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sociological Spectrum: Mid-South Sociological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Historical Pragmatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Dynamics: A journal of African studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sociologie et sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Good Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamic Law and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lien social et Politiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recherches féministes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sociology Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Enfances, Familles, Générations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transatlantica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chrétiens et sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SociologieS - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue de la régulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Seminar : A Journal of Germanic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscapes of Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COnTEXTES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Política y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revue Internationale De Securite Sociale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Ethnic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access  
Studies in American Naturalism     Full-text available via subscription  
Southern Cultures     Full-text available via subscription  
Liinc em Revista     Open Access  
World Cultures eJournal     Open Access  
Spaces for Difference: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access  
Tracés     Open Access  
Socio-logos     Open Access  

        1 2 3 | Last   [Sort alphabetically]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Philosophy & Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.233
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 13  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2210-5433 - ISSN (Online) 2210-5441
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • AI, Suicide Prevention and the Limits of Beneficence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we address the question of whether AI should be used for suicide prevention on social media data. We focus on algorithms that can identify persons with suicidal ideation based on their postings on social media platforms and investigate whether private companies like Facebook are justified in using these. To find out if that is the case, we start with providing two examples for AI-based means of suicide prevention in social media. Subsequently, we frame suicide prevention as an issue of beneficence, develop two fictional cases to explore the scope of the principle of beneficence and apply the lessons learned to Facebook’s employment of AI for suicide prevention. We show that Facebook is neither acting under an obligation of beneficence nor acting meritoriously. This insight leads us to the general question of who is entitled to help. We conclude that private companies like Facebook can play an important role in suicide prevention, if they comply with specific rules which we derive from beneficence and autonomy as core principles of biomedical ethics. At the same time, public bodies have an obligation to create appropriate framework conditions for AI-based tools of suicide prevention. As an outlook we depict how cooperation between public and private institutions can make an important contribution to combating suicide and, in this way, put the principle of beneficence into practice.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • Decolonization of AI: a Crucial Blind Spot

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Critics are calling for the decolonization of AI (artificial intelligence). The problem is that this technology is marginalizing other modes of knowledge with dehumanizing applications. What is needed to remedy this situation is the development of human-centric AI. However, there is a serious blind spot in this strategy that is addressed in this paper. The corrective that is usually proposed—participatory design—lacks the philosophical rigor to undercut the autonomy of AI, and thus the colonization spawned by this technology. A more radical or substantial proposal is advanced in this discussion that is known as community-based design. This alternative makes a theoretical maneuver that allows AI design to be directed by human agency, thereby introducing a safeguard that may help to prevent colonization by this technology.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • The Unique and Practical Advantages of Applying A Capability Approach to
           Brain Computer Interface

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Intelligent neurotechnology is an emerging field that combines neurotechnologies like brain-computer interface (BCI) with artificial intelligence. This paper introduces a capability framework to assess the responsible use of intelligent BCI systems and provide practical ethical guidance. It proposes two tests, the threshold and flourishing tests, that BCI applications must meet, and illustrates them in a series of cases. After a brief introduction (Section 1), Section 2 sets forth the capability view and the two tests. It illustrates the threshold test using examples from clinical medicine of BCI applications that enable patients with profound disabilities to function at a threshold level through computer mediation. Section 3 illustrates the flourishing test by exploring possible future applications of BCI involving neuroenhancements for healthy people, using examples adapted from research currently underway in the US military. Section 3 applies a capability lens to a complex case involving dual effects, both therapeutic and non-therapeutic, showing how the threshold and flourishing tests resolve the case. Section 4 replies to three objections: neurorights are the best tool for assessing BCI; the two tests are moving targets; and the analysis utilizes a capability view to do work it is not designed for. The paper concludes that a capability view offers unique advantages and gives practical guidance for evaluating the responsible use of present and future BCI applications. Extrapolating from our analysis may help guide other emerging technologies, such as germline gene editing, expected to impact central human capabilities.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • Justice and the Normative Standards of Explainability in Healthcare

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Providing healthcare services frequently involves cognitively demanding tasks, including diagnoses and analyses as well as complex decisions about treatments and therapy. From a global perspective, ethically significant inequalities exist between regions where the expert knowledge required for these tasks is scarce or abundant. One possible strategy to diminish such inequalities and increase healthcare opportunities in expert-scarce settings is to provide healthcare solutions involving digital technologies that do not necessarily require the presence of a human expert, e.g., in the form of artificial intelligent decision-support systems (AI-DSS). Such algorithmic decision-making, however, is mostly developed in resource- and expert-abundant settings to support healthcare experts in their work. As a practical consequence, the normative standards and requirements for such algorithmic decision-making in healthcare require the technology to be at least as explainable as the decisions made by the experts themselves. The goal of providing healthcare in settings where resources and expertise are scarce might come with a normative pull to lower the normative standards of using digital technologies in order to provide at least some healthcare in the first place. We scrutinize this tendency to lower standards in particular settings from a normative perspective, distinguish between different types of absolute and relative, local and global standards of explainability, and conclude by defending an ambitious and practicable standard of local relative explainability.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • Alienation in a World of Data. Toward a Materialist Interpretation of
           Digital Information Technologies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The essay proposes to use alienation as a heuristic and conceptual tool for the analysis of the impact of digital information and communication technologies (ICTs) on users. It follows a historical materialist understanding, according to which data can be considered as things produced in an industrial fashion. A representational interpretation, according to which data would merely reflect a given reality, is untenable. It will be argued instead to understand data as an additional layer which has a transformative impact on reality as a whole. The analysis follows the early Marx in thinking of alienation as a structural condition which holds even if it is not experienced psychologically by users. Alienation means that the desire to express oneself and achieve social recognition, self-realization, and participation through the use of ICTs is incongruent to the inherent purposes and functions of these technologies. Digital platforms create the ideological illusion that users contribute to the production of data solely for their own gratification. Users, in turn, react to structural alienation either by internalizing it, in which case they may become enthusiastic data producers, or by imposing alienating conditions on other users. Finally, it will be shown that a strong notion of privacy is less suited to articulate concerns about the impact of ICTs because it expresses a desire for privilege and individual control which has become unfulfillable in the environment of data industries. The essay closes by showing some of the changes in institutional structures and behavior that could follow from the focus on alienation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Correction to: Escaping the Impossibility of Fairness: From Formal to
           Substantive Algorithmic Fairness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Introduction to the Topical Collection on AI and Responsibility

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-11-02
       
  • Ethical Redress of Racial Inequities in AI: Lessons from Decoupling
           Machine Learning from Optimization in Medical Appointment Scheduling

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract An Artificial Intelligence algorithm trained on data that reflect racial biases may yield racially biased outputs, even if the algorithm on its own is unbiased. For example, algorithms used to schedule medical appointments in the USA predict that Black patients are at a higher risk of no-show than non-Black patients, though technically accurate given existing data that prediction results in Black patients being overwhelmingly scheduled in appointment slots that cause longer wait times than non-Black patients. This perpetuates racial inequity, in this case lesser access to medical care. This gives rise to one type of Accuracy-Fairness trade-off: preserve the efficiency offered by using AI to schedule appointments or discard that efficiency in order to avoid perpetuating ethno-racial disparities. Similar trade-offs arise in a range of AI applications including others in medicine, as well as in education, judicial systems, and public security, among others. This article presents a framework for addressing such trade-offs where Machine Learning and Optimization components of the algorithm are decoupled. Applied to medical appointment scheduling, our framework articulates four approaches intervening in different ways on different components of the algorithm. Each yields specific results, in one case preserving accuracy comparable to the current state-of-the-art while eliminating the disparity.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
       
  • Virtual Reality, Embodiment, and Allusion: an Ecological-Enactive Approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract It is common in the cognitive and computational sciences to regard virtual reality (VR) as composed of illusory experiences, given its immersive character. In this paper, we adopt an ecological-enactive perspective on cognition (Sect. 3) to evaluate the nature of VR and one’s engagement with it. Based on a post-cognitivist conception of illusion, we reject the commonly held assumption that virtual reality experiences (VREs) are illusory (Sect. 4). Our positive take on this issue is that VR devices, like other technological devices, can be embodied during use, which is why they can be the source of experiences (Sect. 5). We then propose a new concept to interpret VREs, namely, allusion, which means that the subject acts as if the virtual experiences are real (Sect. 6). This kind of engagement has a volitional aspect, which is evident in the onboarding of VR devices and which allows us to distinguish VREs from other experiences. We conclude that, even though we have experiences that afford certain interactions in VR, the strong continuity between cognitive and biological processes is not sustained therein. This characterizes a difference of kind—given the current state of technology—between VREs and fully fledged cognitive states, which nevertheless allows for constrained experimentation in cognitive science.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
       
  • Types of Technological Innovation in the Face of Uncertainty

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Technological innovation is almost always investigated from an economic perspective; with few exceptions, the specific technological and social nature of innovation is often ignored. We argue that a novel way to characterise and make sense of different types of technological innovation is to start considering uncertainty. This seems plausible since technological development and innovation almost always occur under conditions of uncertainty. We rely on the distinction between, on the one hand, uncertainty that can be quantified (e.g. probabilistic risk) and, on the other, deep forms of uncertainty that may resist the possibility of being quantified (e.g. severe or fundamental uncertainties). On the basis of these different ingredients of uncertainty in technological innovation, we propose a new taxonomy that reveals the technological nature of innovation. Unlike previous taxonomies employed to handle different types of technological innovations, our taxonomy does not consider the economic value of innovation alone; it is much more oriented towards societal preferences and forms of technological uncertainty. Finally, we investigate the coherence of our proposal with the dual nature of technological artefacts, showing that innovation can be grounded on structural and functional factors and not just on economic ones.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
       
  • To Each Technology Its Own Ethics: The Problem of Ethical Proliferation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Ethics plays a key role in the normative analysis of the impacts of technology. We know that computers in general and the processing of data, the use of artificial intelligence, and the combination of computers and/or artificial intelligence with robotics are all associated with ethically relevant implications for individuals, groups, and society. In this article, we argue that while all technologies are ethically relevant, there is no need to create a separate ‘ethics of X’ or ‘X ethics’ for each and every subtype of technology or technological property—e.g. computer ethics, AI ethics, data ethics, information ethics, robot ethics, and machine ethics. Specific technologies might have specific impacts, but we argue that they are often sufficiently covered and understood through already established higher-level domains of ethics. Furthermore, the proliferation of tech ethics is problematic because (a) the conceptual boundaries between the subfields are not well-defined, (b) it leads to a duplication of effort and constant reinventing the wheel, and (c) there is danger that participants overlook or ignore more fundamental ethical insights and truths. The key to avoiding such outcomes lies in a taking the discipline of ethics seriously, and we consequently begin with a brief description of what ethics is, before presenting the main forms of technology related ethics. Through this process, we develop a hierarchy of technology ethics, which can be used by developers and engineers, researchers, or regulators who seek an understanding of the ethical implications of technology. We close by deducing two principles for positioning ethical analysis which will, in combination with the hierarchy, promote the leveraging of existing knowledge and help us to avoid an exaggerated proliferation of tech ethics.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
       
  • How Much Should You Care About Algorithmic Transparency as
           Manipulation'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Wang (Philosophy & Technology 35, 2022) introduces a Foucauldian power account of algorithmic transparency. This short commentary explores when this power account is appropriate. It is first observed that the power account is a constructionist one, and that such accounts often come with both factual and evaluative claims. In an instance of Hume’s law, the evaluative claims do not follow from the factual claims, leaving open the question of how much constructionist commitment (Hacking, 1999) one should have. The concept of acts in equilibrium (Nozick, 1981) is then used to explain how different individuals reading Wang can end up with different evaluative attitudes towards algorithmic transparency, despite factual agreement. The commentary concludes by situating constructionist commitment inside a larger question of how much to think of our actions, identifying conflicting arguments.
      PubDate: 2022-10-14
       
  • Does AI Debias Recruitment' Race, Gender, and AI’s
           “Eradication of Difference”

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we analyze two key claims offered by recruitment AI companies in relation to the development and deployment of AI-powered HR tools: (1) recruitment AI can objectively assess candidates by removing gender and race from their systems, and (2) this removal of gender and race will make recruitment fairer, help customers attain their DEI goals, and lay the foundations for a truly meritocratic culture to thrive within an organization. We argue that these claims are misleading for four reasons: First, attempts to “strip” gender and race from AI systems often misunderstand what gender and race are, casting them as isolatable attributes rather than broader systems of power. Second, the attempted outsourcing of “diversity work” to AI-powered hiring tools may unintentionally entrench cultures of inequality and discrimination by failing to address the systemic problems within organizations. Third, AI hiring tools’ supposedly neutral assessment of candidates’ traits belie the power relationship between the observer and the observed. Specifically, the racialized history of character analysis and its associated processes of classification and categorization play into longer histories of taxonomical sorting and reflect the current demands and desires of the job market, even when not explicitly conducted along the lines of gender and race. Fourth, recruitment AI tools help produce the “ideal candidate” that they supposedly identify through by constructing associations between words and people’s bodies. From these four conclusions outlined above, we offer three key recommendations to AI HR firms, their customers, and policy makers going forward.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
       
  • Escaping the Impossibility of Fairness: From Formal to Substantive
           Algorithmic Fairness

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Efforts to promote equitable public policy with algorithms appear to be fundamentally constrained by the “impossibility of fairness” (an incompatibility between mathematical definitions of fairness). This technical limitation raises a central question about algorithmic fairness: How can computer scientists and policymakers support equitable policy reforms with algorithms' In this article, I argue that promoting justice with algorithms requires reforming the methodology of algorithmic fairness. First, I diagnose the problems of the current methodology for algorithmic fairness, which I call “formal algorithmic fairness.” Because formal algorithmic fairness restricts analysis to isolated decision-making procedures, it leads to the impossibility of fairness and to models that exacerbate oppression despite appearing “fair.” Second, I draw on theories of substantive equality from law and philosophy to propose an alternative methodology, which I call “substantive algorithmic fairness.” Because substantive algorithmic fairness takes a more expansive scope of analysis, it enables an escape from the impossibility of fairness and provides a rigorous guide for alleviating injustice with algorithms. In sum, substantive algorithmic fairness presents a new direction for algorithmic fairness: away from formal mathematical models of “fair” decision-making and toward substantive evaluations of whether and how algorithms can promote justice in practice.
      PubDate: 2022-10-08
       
  • The Golem and The Leviathan: Two Guiding Images of Irresponsible
           Technology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract What does it mean to be irresponsible in developing or using a technology' There are two fundamentally different answers to this question and they each generate research strands that differ in scope, style and applicability. To capture this difference, I make use of two mythical creatures of Jewish origin that have been employed in the past to represent relationships between man and man-made entities: the Golem (Collins and Pinch, 2002, 2005) and the Leviathan (Hobbes, 1994). The Golem is the traditional image of technology as a creature that can be helpful but needs to be controlled. Irresponsibility in this perspective is the failure to exercise control. The Leviathan is the image of technology as a difficult compromise between fundamental values. Irresponsibility is in this perspective is allowing some values to systematically dominate others. Having worked out the basics of these images, I show that each comes with its specific methodological challenges: where the Golem gives rise to the Collingridge Dilemma of control, the Leviathan gives rise to Münchhausen’s trilemma of justification. Since the Golem image is predominant in scholarship on irresponsibility, I conclude with an appeal for a more equal distribution of efforts in conceptualizing technologies as Golems and as Leviathans.
      PubDate: 2022-10-08
       
  • Minds in the Metaverse: Extended Cognition Meets Mixed Reality

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Examples of extended cognition typically involve the use of technologically low-grade bio-external resources (e.g., the use of pen and paper to solve long multiplication problems). The present paper describes a putative case of extended cognizing based around a technologically advanced mixed reality device, namely, the Microsoft HoloLens. The case is evaluated from the standpoint of a mechanistic perspective. In particular, it is suggested that a combination of organismic (e.g., the human individual) and extra-organismic (e.g., the HoloLens) resources form part of a common mechanism that realizes a bona fide cognitive routine. In addition to demonstrating how the theoretical resources of neo-mechanical philosophy might be used to evaluate extended cognitive systems, the present paper illustrates one of the ways in which mixed reality devices, virtual objects (i.e., holograms), and online (Internet-accessible) computational routines might be incorporated into human cognitive processes. This, it is suggested, speaks to the recent interest in mixed/virtual reality technologies across a number of disciplines. It also introduces us to issues that cross-cut disparate fields of philosophical research, such as the philosophy of science and the philosophy of technology.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13347-022-00580-w
       
  • AI, Opacity, and Personal Autonomy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Advancements in machine learning have fuelled the popularity of using AI decision algorithms in procedures such as bail hearings, medical diagnoses and recruitment. Academic articles, policy texts, and popularizing books alike warn that such algorithms tend to be opaque: they do not provide explanations for their outcomes. Building on a causal account of transparency and opacity as well as recent work on the value of causal explanation, I formulate a moral concern for opaque algorithms that is yet to receive a systematic treatment in the literature: when such algorithms are used in life-changing decisions, they can obstruct us from effectively shaping our lives according to our goals and preferences, thus undermining our autonomy. I argue that this concern deserves closer attention as it furnishes the call for transparency in algorithmic decision-making with both new tools and new challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13347-022-00577-5
       
  • Ethical Idealism, Technology and Practice: a Manifesto

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Technology has become one of the main channels through which people engage in most of their everyday activities. When working, learning, or socializing, the affordances created by technological tools determine the way in which users interact with one another and their environment, thus favoring certain actions and behaviors, while discouraging others. The ethical dimension behind the use of technology has been already studied in recent works, but the question is often formulated in a protective way that focuses on shielding the users from potential detrimental effects. Nevertheless, when considering collateral ethical benefits that the use of technology could bring about, virtue ethics and the notions of “practice” and “practical wisdom” present new opportunities to harness this potential. By understanding the combination of technology, its users and their interactions as a system, technology can be seen as the space where most of its users’ daily practice happens. Through this practice, users can get the chance to collaterally develop and enhance their ethical awareness, sensitivity and reasoning capabilities. This work is shaped as a manifesto that provides the background, motivations and directions needed to ask a complementary question about the ethics of technology that aims towards the potentiality behind the use of technology. Instead of focusing on shielding the users, the proposed ethical idealist approach to the ethics of technology aims to empower them by understanding their use of technology as the space where the development of their practical wisdom, understood in the virtue ethics’ sense, takes place.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13347-022-00575-7
       
  • Correction to: Big Tech and Antitrust: An Ordoliberal Analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13347-022-00582-8
       
  • Technology and French Thought: a Dialogue Between Jean-Luc Nancy and
           François-David Sebbah

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This paper is not an article in a regular sense. It is a dialogue between François-David Sebbah, one of the two editors of this topical collection, and Jean-Luc Nancy, one of the most eminent representatives of the contemporary French Thought. This dialogue took place in the first half of 2022 in a written form, because of the sanitary restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic and because Nancy was heavily sick. Sebbah sent to Nancy a text, corresponding to Section 2.1, and Nancy responded to it with another text, corresponding to Section 2.2. Unfortunately, Nancy died on August 23, 2022, and could not revise his own text nor pursue the dialogue, as it was originally planned. For this reason, an introductory clarification by Sebbah, corresponding to Section 1, has been added. The purpose of such clarification is to introduce the reader to Nancy’s philosophy of technology—although technology never had a central role in Nancy’s reflections. In Section 2.1, Sebbah proposes a distinction between “French Theory,” “French Thought,” and “French Philosophy.” He also proposes a list of twelve possible intersections between the French Thought and the philosophy of technology. In Section 2.2, Nancy criticizes the use of expressions such as “French Thought.” He also insists, in a Heideggerian vein, on the fact that Technology (with a capital “T”) does not depend on human ends but has its own ends.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s13347-022-00579-3
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.225.221.130
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-