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Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.848
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 15  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0265-4075 - ISSN (Online) 1460-3608
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • On the Link Between Parental Support and Life Satisfaction: General and
           LGBQ+ Specific Self-Concepts as Mediators, and Parent-Oriented
           Interdependent Self-Construal as a Moderator

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      Authors: Fangsong Liu, Eddie S. K. Chong
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      IntroductionPrevious studies found that perceptions of parental support for sexual orientation was negatively associated with psychological distress, this study aimed to examine whether, how, and when perceived parental support for sexual orientation (PPSSO) contributed to mental well-being.MethodA total of 477 (66.5% male; age: M = 26.61, SD = 5.95) Chinese lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer/questioning, and other non-heterosexual (LGBQ+) individuals participated in this study. They provided demographic information and completed measures of PPSSO, parent-oriented interdependent self-construal (POISC), self-esteem, internalized homonegativity, and life satisfaction. Structural equation modelling was conducted for data analyses.ResultsPPSSO was found to be positively associated with life satisfaction. The positive link between PPSSO and life satisfaction was fully mediated by self-esteem and internalized homonegativity. Furthermore, we identified POISC as a significant moderator. Specifically, high levels of POISC strengthened the negative association between PPSSO and internalized homonegativity. The indirect positive effect of PPSSO on life satisfaction through internalized homonegativity was stronger for participants who endorsed high levels of POISC.ConclusionsSelf-esteem and internalized homonegativity might be the underlying mechanisms for the positive link between PPSSO and life satisfaction. Parental support may contribute to Chinese sexual minorities’ self-stigma and, in turn, life satisfaction to a greater extent, especially for those who depend largely on their parents to define themselves.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-22T08:11:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231174187
       
  • Interpersonal variables and caregiving partners' burden in cardiac
           illness: A longitudinal study

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      Authors: Eran Katz, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Paula Pietromonaco, Hodaya Wolf, Robert Klempfner, Hanoch Hod, Noa Vilchinsky
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The literature on coping with illness has for many years viewed only the patients as the focal point of attention and support, and only recently have the needs of patients’ caregivers been acknowledged as well. In addition, studies that have focused on factors contributing to caregiving partners’ burden in the context of chronic illness have assessed mostly intrapersonal variables of either the patient or the partner, thus overlooking the dyadic and interpersonal nature of caregiving. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the contribution of interpersonal factors, such as patients’ and partners’ relationship satisfaction and social support perceptions, to caregiving partners’ burden in the context of cardiac illness. Couples comprising male patients and female caregiving partners (N = 131) completed measures of relationship satisfaction, provided support, and received support upon patients’ admission to a cardiac rehabilitation program after an acute cardiac event (Time 1), and 3 months later (Time 2), upon program completion. Caregiving partners also completed a measure of burden at both measurement times. Path analyses revealed that partners’ relationship satisfaction, provided support, and received support, were all associated with lower levels of different dimensions of burden at both timepoints, as well as over time. Patients’ contribution to their partners’ burden was salient cross-sectionally but not over time. The findings shed light on the substantial role played by interpersonal factors in the caregiving process. Our findings suggest that both patients and partners should be regarded as caregivers and care receivers to each other.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-20T11:42:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231177259
       
  • The interpersonal process model of intimacy, burden and communal
           motivation to care in a multinational group of informal caregivers

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      Authors: Giulia Ferraris, Eva Bei, Chelsea Coumoundouros, Joanne Woodford, Emanuela Saita, Robbert Sanderman, Mariët Hagedoorn
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The interpersonal process model of intimacy suggests that intimacy within dyads develops when open communication from one dyad member is met with validating, understanding and caring responses from the other dyad member. Little is known about interpersonal processes between informal caregivers and care recipients in different illness contexts (i.e., coping with neurological, physical or other impairments/comorbidities) and relationship types (i.e., spouses, adult children and others), and how interpersonal processes are linked to the caregivers’ wellbeing. In this cross-sectional study, caregivers (N = 882) from nine countries reported on their open communication with care recipients, care recipients’ responsiveness, and caregivers’ wellbeing (i.e., intimacy, burden and communal motivation to care). Although caregivers of care recipients with neurological impairments and adult child caregivers reported lower mean levels of open communication and perceived responsiveness, similar mediating effects of perceived responsiveness between open communication and intimacy (effect = 0.05; CI95 = [0.04, 0.06]), burden (effect = −0.42; CI95 = [−0.49, −0.35]), and communal motivation to care (effect = 0.28; CI95 = [0.21, 0.36]) were reported across different illness contexts and relationship types. Only the negative relationship between perceived responsiveness and burden was stronger for spouses (b = −0.23, CI95 = [-0.26, −0.19]) than for adult children and others. Results suggest the interpersonal process model of intimacy may be used to identify caregivers at risk of poor wellbeing in different illness contexts and with different relationships with their care recipients. Lack of open communication and caregivers’ misperceptions of care recipients’ responsiveness may represent opportunities to intervene to enhance caregivers’ intimacy to the care recipients, communal motivation to care, and to decrease caregiver burden.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-17T11:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231174415
       
  • Reciprocal Self-Disclosure: Although Respondents are Reluctant to Steal
           the Spotlight, Self-Disclosers Feel Validated, Understood, and Cared for
           when Respondents Share Comparable Experiences

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      Authors: Zachary A. Reese, Kristin Orrach
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      People often self-disclose news about themselves. Respondents may have similar news and feel conflicted about whether to share that news in the moment – that is, to reciprocally self-disclose. On the one hand, reciprocally self-disclosing could enable them to convey that they understand the recipient’s experience. On the other hand, reciprocally self-disclosing could dishonor the recipient’s contribution in a manner akin to stealing the spotlight. What contextual variables do respondents consider when navigating this conflict' How do recipients perceive reciprocal self-disclosures (RSDs) relative to non-disclosures – and what contextual variables moderate recipients’ perceptions' In this paper, we report four studies (N = 1200 Reddit conversations, 733 MTurk and 701 Prolific users) examining how people use and perceive RSD across a variety of contexts. We focus principally on context valence (positive vs. negative) and news similarity (similar vs. more extreme). Across experimental and naturalistic studies, respondents were highly context-sensitive and particularly reluctant to reciprocally self-disclose in positive contexts. Yet, recipients were less context-sensitive. Recipients evaluated similar RSDs as comparably responsive as non-disclosures in positive contexts and more responsive than non-disclosures in negative contexts. Furthermore, recipients perceived more extreme RSDs as more responsive than non-disclosures in negative contexts and less responsive than non-disclosures in positive contexts. Exploratory analyses suggested privacy, gender of respondent, and closeness predicted whether respondents used RSD but not whether recipients perceived RSD as responsive. In short, people often refrain from RSD to avoid committing communication errors – but our research suggests RSD can be highly responsive and incurs few costs relative to non-disclosure.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-16T01:38:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231174530
       
  • “Children don’t think about these things.”: A qualitative research
           on the relationship views and experiences of former unaccompanied refugee
           children

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      Authors: Lida Anagnostaki, Alexandra Zaharia
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Αlthough unaccompanied refugee minors have sadly been and still are a part of the movements observed worldwide of hundreds of thousands of migrants fleeing persecution, violence and war, there seems to be limited research on their relationships from their viewpoint. The present study explored the relationship experiences of former unaccompanied refugee children (now older adults). During the Greek civil war (1944–1949) thousands of children between the ages of three to 14 were taken from their villages in Greece and settled as unaccompanied refugees in institutions in countries of the former Eastern Bloc. The research sought to gain a rich understanding of their views and experiences regarding personal relationships. Nine older adults (8 men and 1 woman), who were separated from their families when they were younger than 10 years of age, were interviewed. Their narratives were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The themes that emerged from the analysis demonstrated that attachment ties to their parents were severely affected by separation raising questions as regards the existence of attachment representations, the importance of relationships seemed generally undermined, while the role of peers was accentuated. The participants’ resilience and coping mechanisms are also discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-12T05:29:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231175633
       
  • I just don’t agree with my parents: Why Chinese adolescents keep
           secrets

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      Authors: Jianjin Liu, Allegra J Midgette, Yuejiao Li
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The present study investigated 195 Chinese adolescents’ (Mage = 15.9, SD = 1.46, 56% female) everyday secret-keeping behaviors and their rationale for their behaviors as reported in a two-week daily diary. A total of 860 secrets were reported. Chinese adolescents primarily kept secrets involving personal activities, followed by academic events and events concerning interpersonal relationships and electronic use. Justifications for their secretive behaviors mainly included reports of fear of parental disapproval in all types of events, particularly in personal events. Adolescents’ fear of parental disapproval was often referenced in the context of adolescents’ belief that their parents differed when it came to the value of doing activities outside of academics and attitudes towards adolescents’ academic successes and failures. Our findings highlighted the significance of academic events and achievement in Chinese adolescents’ secret-keeping behaviors and the central role of avoiding parental punishment or criticism in their justifications across all types of events. Girls reported a greater proportion of secrets concerning personal activity and a smaller proportion concerning electronic use than boys. Developmental differences were also found in the reporting of keeping secrets in personal activity and electronic use, i.e., adolescents reported more secrets in personal activity but fewer secrets concerning electronic use when they grew older. The findings highlight the importance of balancing adolescents’ needs for autonomy development and academic achievement in adolescent-parent relationships.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-10T06:58:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231175632
       
  • Developmental Differences in Reported Overparenting, Autonomy, and Glucose
           Monitoring within a Medical Specialty Camp Context

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      Authors: Ryan J. Gagnon, Barry A. Garst, Leslie E. Heffington
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Developmentally inappropriate and excessive parenting can manifest at higher levels in children with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). A child’s age, level of T1D training, and time since T1D diagnosis have been associated with higher levels of developmentally excessive parenting (i.e., overparenting), lower rates of autonomy granting, and lower rates of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Utilizing a structural equation model, the present study examined these associations with data collected from a medical specialty camp (MSC) serving 262 youth with T1D. Respondents primarily identified as female (59.5%), were an average 13.83 years old, and had attended the MSC for an average of 3.72 years. Respondents had an average of 5.95 years since T1D diagnosis, an average of 2.62 years utilizing a CGM, reported checking their CGM data an average of 12.75 times per day, and an average of 12.02 parent CGM checks per day. As youth age increased, rates of overparenting decreased. Similarly, youth with more MSC experience reported lower rates of overparenting. Contrary to the study hypotheses, overparenting had a positive effect on autonomy granting. Finally, a negative relation was found between years with T1D and average CGM checks, consistent with the broader T1D literature where adherence to diabetes management tends to decline in parallel with youth experience level managing T1D.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-06T10:58:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231173459
       
  • The multidimensional evaluation of enacted social support: Best practices
           for use based on issues of factor structure, study design, and scale
           instructions

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      Authors: Colter D. Ray, Alan C. Mikkelson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The Multidimensional Evaluation of Enacted Social Support (MEESS) measures communicated support in terms of supportiveness, helpfulness, and sensitivity. However, a systematic review of studies using the scale showed that the scale is mostly used as a unidimensional measure of support. Additionally, the scale is prone to having high interfactor correlations, and researchers rarely perform a confirmatory factor analysis to verify the scale’s factor structure. Therefore, we conducted two studies (Combined N = 1609) using nationally representative samples of U.S. adults to investigate the scale’s factor structure in message recall and hypothetical message study designs. We also explored whether the scale is best presented one factor at a time with factor-specific instructions as opposed to presenting the scale as a single set of items with one instruction set. Study 1 results indicate that the one-factor and three-factor solutions are both adequate without performing modifications during confirmatory factor analysis, but the three-factor model did provide a small but significantly better fit to the data than the one-factor model. In Study 2, both the one- and three-factor solutions had adequate fit; however, when using the factor-specific instructions, the three-factor solution had a far superior fit compared to the one-factor solution. Given the purpose of the scale as a multidimensional evaluation of social support, we recommend always conducting a confirmatory factor analysis when using the MEESS and to present the scale with separate instructions for each factor’s items.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-06T02:06:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231171621
       
  • The longitudinal influence of cumulative risk: Is relationship education a
           resource'

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      Authors: Jeremy B. Kanter, Daniel G. Lannin, Amy J. Rauer, Susan Sprecher, Ani Yazedjian
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Singular risk factors elicit negative relational outcomes for couples, yet the accumulation of risk factors can be especially detrimental to relationship functioning. Few studies, however, have explored the long-term effects of cumulative risk exposure on intimate relationships as well as examined whether relationship education (RE) protects couples from adverse effects of cumulative risk exposure. Accordingly, the present study examined the long-term association between cumulative risk and relationship satisfaction, potential interaction effects between cumulative risk and exposure to singular risks, and if RE protected couples from the effects of cumulative risk exposure. Participants included 6298 couples in the Supporting Healthy Marriages Project. Lagged regression analyses of the participants in the control condition who did not receive relationship education (n = 3160) indicated that men and women under greater cumulative risk exposure experienced greater decreases in relationship satisfaction 2.5 years later. The impact of singular risk factors on relationship satisfaction did not consistently differ as a function of cumulative risk exposure. A multi-group analysis indicated that RE did not protect against the adverse effect of cumulative risk on later relationship satisfaction. Results highlight the long-term detrimental consequences of cumulative risk exposure for relationship satisfaction. Future efforts to enhance relationship functioning may benefit from addressing the accumulation of factors that erode relationship functioning.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-06T01:03:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231173048
       
  • Overprotective parenting and social anxiety in adolescents: The role of
           emotion regulation

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      Authors: Louise Mathijs, Bénédicte Mouton, Grégoire Zimmermann, Stijn Van Petegem
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The present study sought to examine the underlying mechanisms through which overprotective parenting relates to social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Specifically, we tested whether the adolescents’ emotion regulation strategies of dysregulation, suppression, and integration, played an intervening role in the association between perceived maternal and paternal overprotection and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. A sample of 278 Swiss adolescents filled out questionnaires assessing perceived overprotective parenting, social anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation. Results indicated that perceived overprotective parenting was significantly associated with adolescents’ social anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, structural equation modeling analyses indicated that emotional dysregulation, in particular, intervenes in the association between both maternal and paternal overprotection and social anxiety. These findings highlight emotion regulation difficulties as a potential mechanism underlying the association between parental overprotection and social anxiety, suggesting that adolescents’ maladaptive emotion regulation strategies as well as overprotecting parenting could be targeted when treating social anxiety symptoms.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-05T07:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231173722
       
  • Diversity of network communication mode and interpersonal interactions:
           Relationship with social support and well-being

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      Authors: Xin Yao Lin, Margie E. Lachman
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Social interactions today expand beyond in-person interactions. Therefore, it is important to recognize that social interactions can occur with social network members across multiple communication modes (in-person, phone, and online). The current study explored the role that social support plays in the relationship between mode frequency (in-person, phone, and online), network communication mode diversity (breadth and evenness of communicating with network members via different communication modes), and well-being (positive affect, stress, and loneliness) from the 3-year UCNET (UC Berkley Social Networks Study, N = 1159) dataset. The study contained samples for two age groups (cohorts) – 21–31 year-olds and 50–70 year-olds, which also allowed for an exploration of age differences in these relationships. Longitudinal random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPM) showed a high degree of stability over the 3 years for all variables. Cross-sectional structural equation mediation models showed that social support mediated the relationships of mode frequency (in-person, phone, and online) and network communication mode diversity with well-being (more positive affect and less loneliness and stress). Age differences were found in the relationship between frequency of communication modes and social support, in that the frequency of communication mode was positively related to social support for younger adults, but not for middle-aged/older adults. Current findings provided future research directions geared toward further understanding of the mode frequency and network communication mode diversity constructs and how they relate to various psychosocial outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-05-04T05:50:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231173928
       
  • Weathering racism and colorism: Exploring concurrent and short-term
           longitudinal associations between discrimination, colorism, psychosocial
           

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      Authors: Alaysia M. Brown, Antoinette M. Landor, Katharine H. Zeiders
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Due to systemic racism, young adults of color have been disproportionately exposed to a myriad of environmental stressors. Given research suggesting that exposure to external stressors may influence how individuals evaluate their romantic relationships, the current study examined whether exposure to racial/ethnic discrimination is associated with how young adults of color appraise their partnerships. Using a sample of Black and Latinx young adults (N = 86), the current study examined whether exposure to racial/ethnic discrimination may be indirectly associated with romantic relationship satisfaction—due to its relation to anger and depressive symptoms. Concurrent analyses indicated that young adults who encountered increased exposure to racial/ethnic discrimination were likely to report greater feelings of anger, and in turn, lower relationship satisfaction. In contrast, short-term longitudinal analyses indicated that exposure to discrimination may have positive and negative implications for relationship satisfaction. Findings underscore the importance of extending literature on the effects of racial/ethnic discrimination beyond individual well-being to include interpersonal relationships and suggest that socioculturally-relevant factors such as skin tone may make the relation between discrimination and romantic relationship outcomes more nuanced.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-28T05:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231170900
       
  • Attachment orientations moderate people’s preferences for market versus
           communal relationships under a control threat

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      Authors: Agata Gasiorowska, Tomasz Zaleskiewicz
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In two studies, we examined the effects of a control threat and attachment orientation on people’s preferences for market relationships. In Study 1, experiencing a control threat increased the willingness to seek practical support in the market rather than ask a close person for help among participants with higher attachment anxiety. In a well-powered preregistered Study 2, we replicated these results and demonstrated that they also hold for situations in which emotional support is desired. In addition, we demonstrated that the effect of a control threat on the preference for market-based support is moderated by attachment orientations above the effect of objective and subjective socioeconomic status. The effects we found suggest that people’s involvement in market relationships may fulfill important psychological needs, serving as a buffer against attachment insecurities.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-26T07:26:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231173460
       
  • Perceptions of Oneself and One’s Spouse Following a Stressor Discussion
           Predicting Attachment Insecurity Over One Year

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      Authors: Brett K. Jakubiak, Julian D. Fuentes, Brooke C. Feeney
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The Attachment Security Enhancement Model (ASEM) posits that attachment anxiety decreases when people revise their negative working model of self, whereas attachment avoidance decreases when people revise their negative working model of others. These revisions are expected to occur in diagnostic situations that provide relevant information about the self and close others. Guided by this theory, the current research assessed whether state perceptions of oneself (state self-efficacy, state self-esteem) and of one’s spouse (state perceived partner responsiveness [PPR]) following a personal stressor discussion provide an impetus for changing trait-level perceptions and decreasing the relevant attachment insecurity dimension over time. In a sample of 164 newly married couples, we found that people who reported greater post-discussion state self-efficacy and state self-esteem reported greater increases in trait self-efficacy and trait self-esteem over the following year. These changes to the model of self in turn predicted greater decreases in attachment anxiety over that year, consistent with the ASEM. Regarding perceptions of one’s spouse, neither state nor trait PPR predicted declines in attachment avoidance, and state PPR did not predict changes in trait level perceptions. Finally, we observed some ASEM-inconsistent changes in attachment insecurity: Increases in trait PPR predicted declines in attachment anxiety, and increases in trait self-esteem and self-efficacy predicted declines in attachment avoidance. These findings suggest that personal stressor discussions may catalyze changes in trait perceptions and attachment change. Additionally, this work shows that improving the model of self and the model of others promotes attachment security but that the processes for reducing attachment anxiety and avoidance may not be entirely separable.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-18T02:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231170145
       
  • Narrative Identity and Positive Youth Development in Turkish Emerging
           Adults: The Moderating Role of Cultural Self-Construals

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      Authors: Alp Aytuglu, Ayfer Dost-Gözkan, Pınar Şengül-Tığ, Burcu Buğan-Kısır, Geoffrey L. Brown
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined the associations between narrative coherence, the 5Cs of positive youth development, and cultural self-construals among 91 Turkish emerging adults (48 females, 42 males, and 1 other) aged between 18 and 29 (Mage = 23.01, SD = .52). Emerging adults partook in a life story interview to share three important narratives involving parental interactions that were assessed for causal and thematic coherence. Participants also self-reported on their positive development (competence, confidence, character, caring, and connection) and cultural self-construals (autonomy, relatedness, and autonomy relatedness). Results of path analysis revealed that high causal coherence in narratives was associated with lower levels of competence, confidence, and connection, whereas high thematic coherence was linked to higher levels of competence, confidence, and connection. Further, we examined the role of cultural self-construals in moderating the link between narrative coherence and the 5Cs. Thematic coherence was related to decreased caring when autonomy was high and relatedness was low. Thematic coherence was also related to increased connection only when autonomy was low and relatedness was high. Moreover, causal coherence was related to decreased caring and connection for emerging adults with highly autonomous self-construals. Similarly, causal coherence was associated with lower levels of confidence for emerging adults with high autonomous-related self-construals. Implications for research with Turkish emerging adults are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-14T06:11:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231170899
       
  • Walking hand in hand: The role of affection-sharing in understanding the
           social network effect in same-sex, mixed-sex, and gender-diverse
           relationships

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      Authors: Karen L Blair, Chelsea Hudson, Diane Holmberg
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals who perceive greater support or approval for their relationships from friends and family also report greater relationship stability and commitment and better mental and physical health (known as the “social network effect”). These associations have been explained, in part, through three cognitive-affective processes: uncertainty reduction, cognitive balance, and dyadic identity formation. However, we know less about cognitive-behavioral mechanisms that might help explain the social network effect. In this study, we propose and test a model in which physical affection-sharing acts as one such behavioral mechanism. In a sample of 1848 individuals in same-sex (n = 696), mixed-sex (n = 1045), and gender-diverse (n = 107) relationships, we found support for our overall model. Our findings suggest that perceived support for one’s relationships is a significant predictor of perceived support for physical affection-sharing, which in turn predicts the frequency of affection-sharing in private and public contexts and, ultimately, relationship well-being. However, we also found that relationship type moderates these associations, highlighting how the experience of sharing affection with one’s partner changes for many in marginalized relationships, especially in public. We conclude by discussing how our findings contribute to theories of social support for relationships, underscoring the importance of considering affective, cognitive, and behavioral factors relevant to the process. We also emphasize the understudied role of context in shaping affection-sharing experiences across all relationship types.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-13T03:02:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231169786
       
  • Mindfulness may buffer the longitudinal influence of peer rejection on
           adolescents’ prosocial behavior: A cross-lagged study

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      Authors: Tianjiao Wang, Wanxue Qi
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Interpersonal rejection has been found to impair people’s prosocial actions. However, this relation may change as a function of theoretically relevant personality traits. The present study examined the potential moderating roles of trait mindfulness in the longitudinal relations between peer rejection and prosocial behaviors. At two time points with an interval of eight months, 654 adolescents nominated children in their class who have been rejected by peers and children who have enacted prosocial behaviors toward classmates and then completed the mindfulness questionnaire. Cross-lagged model results indicated that peer rejection could negatively predict prosocial behaviors in both high and low mindfulness groups of children while the reverse predictive relation from prosociality to peer rejection was not significant. More prominent, trait mindfulness might buffer the negative contribution of peer rejection to prosocial behaviors. Within a more ecologically valid context with a longitudinal design, our study contributed to a better understanding of the conditions under which interpersonal rejection may undermine prosocial behaviors.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-12T03:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231167550
       
  • Spouses’ attachment orientations shape physiological responses to
           relational stress over time

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      Authors: Lindsey A Beck, Paula R Pietromonaco, Fiona Ge, Nate C Carnes, Holly Laws, Sally I Powers
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This research examined how the interplay between spouses’ attachment orientations contributes to physiological responses to relational stress. Mixed-gender newlyweds (NWave 1 = 218 couples; NWave 2 = 184 couples; NWave 3 = 164 couples) discussed relationship conflicts during three laboratory sessions over the first 3–4 years of marriage. Individuals provided saliva samples to assess their cortisol levels before, during, and after each conflict, which reflected physiological responses to stress. Across all three waves, anxiously-attached individuals showed greater cortisol reactivity (via faster rates of cortisol change and/or more exaggerated changes in cortisol slope) in anticipation of conflicts, especially when they had an avoidantly-attached partner. Findings highlight the dyadic nature of spouses’ responses to relational stress.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-11T04:26:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231169305
       
  • An Actor-Partner Model of Partner Phubbing, Mobile Phone Conflict, and
           Relationship Satisfaction Between Romantic Partners in Liberia

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      Authors: Euriahs M. Togar, M. M. P. Vanden Abeele, Carel H. van Wijk, Raja Mehtab Yasin, Marjolijn L. Antheunis
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, this study investigates among Liberian couples whether partner phubbing predicts relationship satisfaction, both directly and indirectly via mobile phone conflict. Moreover, this study examines whether phubbing by men is less likely to lead to conflict than that by women given the differential power relations and income distributions in Liberian romantic couples. Using data from married, cohabiting, and couples living apart (N = 128) in Liberia, a direct link was found between the phubbing behavior of women and partner’s (men) relationship satisfaction. Moreover, men and women’s phubbing behavior predicted their own and their partner’s experience of mobile phone conflict, which in turn predicted a decrease in relationship satisfaction. Power imbalance between men and women, as well as income disparity, were found to influence some of the relationships between partner phubbing, phone conflict, and relationship satisfaction, but did not give substantial support to the hypotheses that women would elicit more conflict than men in couples characterized by high power imbalance and income inequality. Overall, the study shows the importance of examining interdependence effects in phubbing research and supports that there is meaningful cross-cultural variation that warrants further scrutinizing.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-08T02:41:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231169701
       
  • Parent-emerging adult text interactions and emerging adult perceived
           parental support of autonomy

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      Authors: Morgan T. Brown, Michaeline Jensen, Andrea M. Hussong
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Parents play an important role in scaffolding autonomy and independence as their children transition to adulthood. In the digital age, mobile phones allow for increased connection at this important developmental transition, but we know little about the extent to which digital connection may help (i.e., through developmentally appropriate support) or hinder (i.e., through intrusiveness or helicopter parenting) emerging adult (EA) autonomy development. We tested whether digital parent-EA interactions tapping engagement, monitoring, and responsiveness were associated with EA perceptions of parental autonomy support in a sample of 238 college students (Mage = 19.85) who contributed all text messages exchanged with their parents over 2 weeks. Results indicate that many dimensions of parent-EA text message interactions are unrelated to perceived parental autonomy support, but those that did emerge point towards a potentially maladaptive role of overparenting in associations with less perceived parental autonomy support. Results underscore that, for most EAs, parental text messaging is not likely to be perceived as autonomy inhibiting, but that for a small minority of parent-EA dyads, intense levels of digital connection with parents may be associated with perceived autonomy inhibition.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-06T07:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231167347
       
  • Are You Tired of “Us'” Accuracy and Bias in Couples’ Perceptions of
           Relational Boredom

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      Authors: Kiersten Dobson, Sarah C. E. Stanton, Rhonda N. Balzarini, Lorne Campbell
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Relational boredom is an important cognitive-emotional experience that is understudied in the relationship maintenance literature. In three dyadic studies, we investigated accuracy and bias in partners’ perceptions of each other’s relational boredom, and how accurate and biased boredom perceptions were associated with relationship quality. Results revealed that, overall, partners tended to overestimate—but accurately track—each other’s relational boredom across the features that comprise relational boredom and across time. Additionally, when people accurately perceived their partner experiencing high levels of boredom, they reported lower relationship quality; in all other cases, one’s own relationship quality was preserved. Furthermore, when people accurately perceived their partner experiencing high levels of boredom, their partner also reported lower relationship quality, while the partner’s relationship quality was consistently preserved when the perceiver was accurate at low levels of boredom or overestimated. These findings have important implications for how couples navigate boredom and maintain long-term relationships.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T11:19:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231168141
       
  • Greater average levels of relatedness need fulfilment across daily and
           monthly life predict lower attachment insecurities across time

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      Authors: Yuthika U. Girme, Nickola C. Overall
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment insecurity is characterized by chronic concerns about whether partners can fulfil core relatedness needs, including feeling loved and cared about. In two longitudinal studies, our aim was to extend current evidence that certain relationship conditions buffer attachment insecurity by (1) focusing on the central ingredient—fulfilment of relatedness needs—that likely account for buffering effects, and (2) illustrate the importance of general experiences of relatedness need fulfilment across couples’ lives. Couple members completed initial assessments of attachment insecurity, reported on the fulfilment of relatedness needs every month for 6 months (Study 1) or daily for 3 weeks (Study 2), and then completed re-assessments of attachment insecurity 6-months (Study 1) or 9-months (Study 2) later. Across both studies, greater fulfilment of relatedness needs across monthly and daily relationship life predicted decreases in attachment anxiety and avoidance. General experiences of relatedness across couples’ lives appear to reflect a relationship environment that fulfils core needs for love, care, and regard that cultivate attachment security.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-03T05:44:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231162390
       
  • Parental stress mediates the effects of parental risk factors on
           dysfunctional parenting in first-time parents: A dyadic longitudinal study
           

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      Authors: Mirjam Senn, Céline Stadelmann, Fabienne Forster, Fridtjof W. Nussbeck, Guy Bodenmann
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Both parental psychological well-being (e.g., depressive symptoms) and parental relationship functioning (e.g., negative communication) are common parental risk factors for dysfunctional parenting. The spillover process from these parental characteristics to dysfunctional parenting is assumed to be amplified by parental stress, which is particularly common among mothers and fathers of young children. However, few studies have examined dyadic spillover processes from parental risk factors and parental stress on parenting in early childhood. In the current study, we first examined direct actor and partner effects of parents’ depressive symptoms and negative communication at 10 months postpartum on dysfunctional parenting at 48 months postpartum in 168 primiparous mixed-gender couples. Second, we analyzed indirect effects via one’s own and the partner’s parental stress at 36 months postpartum using Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Models (APIMeM). We found direct actor effects for mothers’ depressive symptoms and negative communication on their dysfunctional parenting. Additionally, indirect actor effects were found for depressive symptoms and negative communication among mothers and fathers. Specifically, mediating effects of depressive symptoms and negative communication on one’s dysfunctional parenting through one’s parental stress were found. There were no indirect partner effects through parental stress. These findings highlight the important role of parental stress in early childhood as a mediator between both individual and relationship parental risk factors and dysfunctional parenting. These results further underscore the importance of longitudinal dyadic analyses in providing early and tailored interventions for both mothers and fathers of young children.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-04-01T07:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231165340
       
  • Social Environment and Moment-to-Moment Variation in Self-Construal Among
           Latinx Emerging Adults: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Approach

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      Authors: Carmen Kho, Matthew Zawadzki, Alexandra Main
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Self-construal involves how one thinks of themselves in relations to others, including how much one thinks of themselves as separate from others (independent) or connected (interdependent). Researchers have typically assumed these self-perceptions are stable. However, given self-construal’s basis in the perceptions of others and the self, it is highly likely that self-construal can vary in different social environments. Thus, the goals of the present study were to examine (1) whether independent and interdependent self-construal fluctuates within-person among Latinx emerging adults from day-to-day and moment-to-moment, and (2) how individuals’ social environment is concurrently associated with fluctuations in self-construal. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), Latinx emerging adults (N = 191) reported on their independent and interdependent self-construal, as well as aspects of their social environment (occurrence of social interaction, interaction partner, quality of social interaction, and closeness of relationship) twice a day for 14 days, for up to 4058 observations in total. Using multilevel modeling to partition the variance in self-construal at the moment, day, and person level, we found substantial moment-to-moment variation. Further analyses indicated that aspects of the social environment were consistently associated with interdependent, but not independent, self-construal. The findings highlight the need to re-conceptualize changes in self-construal as a function of the social environment, and the need to measure aspects of culture, including self-construal, using ecologically valid measures that allow for more dynamic and sensitive assessments.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-28T09:59:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231167887
       
  • “I am a binary trans man and I love being pregnant”: Making meaning of
           pregnancy in seahorse dad narratives

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      Authors: Cimmiaron F. Alvarez, Kristina M. Scharp, Amanda M. Friz
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Although there are many ways one might start a family, the culture in the United States considers pregnancy one of a woman’s most important life achievements, privileging biological ties above all else. These cultural assumptions stigmatize seahorse dads, or transmen and nonbinary individuals who become pregnant. Using relational dialectics theory (RDT), this study examined posts on Reddit to highlight how marginalized discourses resist dominant discourses to make meaning of a semantic object. RDT’s corresponding method, contrapuntal analysis, revelated three discourses that competed to make meaning of seahorse dads: the discourse of pregnancy as a woman’s burden (DWB), the discourse of pregnancy as a woman’s privilege (DWP), and the discourse of pregnancy as an independent process (DIP). These discourses interacted through contractive practices (i.e., disqualification, naturalization, and neutralization), synchronic interplay (i.e., entertaining, countering, and negating), and dialogic transformation (i.e., hybridization and an aesthetic moment). Findings revealed theoretical implications and practical applications.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-24T06:28:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231165700
       
  • Mindfulness and Relationships: A Special Issue on Recent Developments

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      Authors: Chelom E. Leavitt, Johan C. Karremans
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This article serves as the conclusion of the special issue entitled “Mindfulness and Relationships.” The special issue includes nine research articles with authors and samples from a variety of countries. Romantic relationships between two heterosexual partners were studied most often in the special issue articles, but studies also focused on family relationships, friendships, and relationships between strangers. This article provides a summary of the special issue and the associations between mindfulness and relationships. The article concludes with the special issue editors’ reflections on the current and future direction of research on mindfulness and relationships of all types.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T12:58:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231166711
       
  • Needing More, Needing less: Unravelling why a Prompt Dependency Cycle
           Forms in Neurodiverse Relationships

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      Authors: Bronwyn Maree Wilson, Susan Main, John O’Rourke, Eileen Slater
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Social interaction is a fundamental component of relationships; however, the key features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) include marked and lifelong impairments in social interaction that adversely affects abilities to fulfil this essential relationship requirement. Despite the momentum of worldwide research on ASD, there is insufficient empirical study on adults with ASD and their relationships. This research examined the reported social interaction needs of adults when involved in neurodiverse relationships (relationships that include adults with ASD and neurotypical (NT) adults). The use of an advocacy/participatory approach allowed for a detailed investigation of the characteristics of participants’ interpersonal communication. It was identified that a pairing of incompatible social interaction needs caused a sequence of distinctive, competing, and intertwined interactions that formed into interwoven communication cycles. These cycles included compensatory and competing behaviours, which were specific to each group of participants. Prompting, prompt dependency and/or prompt avoidance occurred within a dynamic system.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T06:38:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231161308
       
  • Different Path to Happiness: The Role of Basic Psychological Need
           Satisfaction in Benefiting Close and Distant Others

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      Authors: Ekaterina Nastina, Inna F Deviatko
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Numerous studies show that prosocial behavior leads to positive emotional outcomes for the actor, yet does it matter, who the beneficiary is' The present paper explores differential effects of helping acts towards close versus distant recipients on subjective well-being and the role that basic psychological needs play in this relationship. Two studies using event-recall (N = 127) and interventional (N = 305) designs in Russian samples were conducted to test our hypotheses. Study 1 showed that performing acts of kindness towards family and friends (compared to a control condition) led to higher satisfaction of the needs for relatedness and morality, while helping strangers increased only the latter. Study 2 failed to unconditionally replicate the prosocial-happiness link; however, when the need for competence was controlled for, helping both types of recipients was shown to provide higher event-level well-being outcomes. The positive effect of prosocial acts toward strong ties was mediated by relatedness and morality satisfaction, while when the recipient was a stranger, the effect was accounted for by fulfilling the needs for morality and autonomy. No significant event-level well-being differences were detected between those helping close versus distant others and no differences in positive affect, negative affect or life satisfaction emerged between the three conditions. The paper provides support for the importance of the self-perceived impact for the success of kindness interventions. We conclude with a discussion of implications for kindness interventions towards different recipients.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T02:50:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231165720
       
  • Social support and social strain from children and subsequent health and
           well-being among older U.S. adults

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      Authors: Renae Wilkinson, Julia S. Nakamura, Eric S. Kim, Tyler J. VanderWeele
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Social relationships contribute to well-being across the life course and may be especially vital resources for supporting healthy aging among older adults. This research examined associations between perceptions of social support and social strain from children assessed by older adult parents and 35 indicators of physical, behavioral, and psychosocial health and well-being. We utilized three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; N = 11,609), a diverse, national sample of U.S. adults over age 50. We found that increases in social support were associated with better subsequent outcomes on all psychological indicators (higher positive affect, life satisfaction, optimism, purpose in life, mastery, health mastery, financial mastery; lower depression, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, negative affect, perceived constraints) and most social factors (lower loneliness, greater likelihood of contact with children and other family) over the four-year follow-up period. Results also showed that increases in social strain were subsequently related to worse functioning across all indicators of psychological well-being and select social factors (i.e., higher loneliness) and psychological distress outcomes (i.e., higher hopelessness, negative affect, and perceived constraints). However, we did not find evidence that changes in social support and social strain were associated with physical health or health behavior outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-20T09:27:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231164900
       
  • Integrating multiple time-scales to advance relationship science

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      Authors: Saeideh Heshmati, David Sbarra, Lizbeth Benson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      It is widely acknowledged that social relationships unfold across multiple time-scales. For example, social interactions that take place over moments, hours, or days also shape relationship change and outcomes over months, years, and even decades. These processes likely unfold in the reverse direction as well: experiences over longer-term timeframes may shape how people interact on a moment-to-moment basis. The increasing availability of intensive longitudinal data and measurement burst designs, as well as creativity in the contexts and modes of data collection--including social media, text messages, and event-contingent sampling--have exploded the possibilities for advancing knowledge on social relationships across multiple time-scales. The aim of this issue is to forward methodological innovations, empirical findings, and future directions in relationship science through the study of social and personal relationships across multiple time-scales.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-16T01:11:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231152562
       
  • Validating the Fear of Being Single Scale for Individuals in Relationships

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      Authors: Isabel A. Cantarella, Stephanie S. Spielmann, Ty Partridge, Geoff MacDonald, Samantha Joel, Emily A. Impett
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The Fear of Being Single (FOBS) Scale (Spielmann et al., 2013) assesses insecurity about singlehood, but its items are phrased for those who are currently single. The present research validated the FOBS in Relationships Scale for individuals currently in relationships. Results suggested that both single and partnered individuals experience FOBS, and that the FOBS Scale and FOBS in Relationships Scale are appropriate measures for single and partnered individuals, respectively. We advise against using the original FOBS Scale for those in relationships, and recommend an abridged scale for researchers who wish to make direct comparisons of FOBS between single and partnered individuals.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-15T02:01:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231164588
       
  • Social relationships in later life: Does marital status matter'

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      Authors: Zhenmei Zhang, Ning Hsieh, Wen-Hua Lai
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has suggested that unmarried persons may be disadvantaged in personal networks and social support. However, little is known about whether the quantity and quality of social relationships differ by marital status among older Americans. Using data from the 2006 and 2008 psychosocial questionnaires of the Health and Retirement Study, we examined the quantity and frequency of contact of three types of social relationships (i.e., friends, children, and family members) as well as the quality of these ties across six marital status groups (i.e., first married, remarried, cohabiting, divorced/separated, widowed, and never married). Our analytic sample included 13,087 respondents aged 51 and above. Multiple linear regression was used for the analysis. Our results show significant differences in social relationships by marital status. In terms of relationships with friends, compared to first-married persons, all the unmarried groups (except the cohabitors) had more frequent contact with their friends and reported greater support as well as greater strain from their friends, controlling for demographic covariates. Remarried persons and cohabitors were largely similar to their first-married counterparts except that both had fewer friends they felt close to, and the cohabitors also reported greater strain with their friends. In terms of relationships with children, all the unmarried groups except for widowed persons had fewer children they felt close to. All the unmarried groups were also disadvantaged in contact frequency and perceived social support from their children. Remarried persons were significantly disadvantaged compared to first-married persons in contact frequency and relationship quality with their children. These associations were largely robust when health and socioeconomic conditions were controlled for. In terms of relationships with family members, there were only a few significant differences across marital status groups. Our findings show the crucial role of marital status in shaping social relationships in later life.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-13T08:32:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231163112
       
  • Love under lockdown: How changes in time with partner impacted stress and
           relationship outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Kaitlin Derbyshire, Sabrina Thai, Claire Midgley, Penelope Lockwood
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      With the onset of COVID-19, governments around much of the world implemented strict social distancing and stay-at-home orders that profoundly affected the amount of time many couples were spending together. In the present research, we examined whether perceptions of a change in time spent with a partner were associated with stress, and whether stress levels in turn predicted relationship commitment and satisfaction, both in the short term (Time 1) and longer term (Time 2; i.e., after 10 months). Results indicated partial mediation, such that less (vs. more) time spent with the partner was associated with greater stress at Time 1, which in turn partly accounted for lower commitment and relationship satisfaction both at Time 1, and satisfaction at Time 2. Less (vs. more) time spent with partner at Time 1 also predicted a greater likelihood of relationship dissolution at Time 2, again partially mediated by stress. An increase in quality time spent together at Time 2 predicted stress and relationship outcomes over and above the change in time spent together more generally. This research has important implications for understanding the ongoing effects of the pandemic on romantic relationships. In addition, this study provides new evidence regarding how changes in time spent with a partner are associated with stress and subsequent relationship outcomes.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-10T02:01:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231162599
       
  • Echoes of slavery: Reflections on contemporary racial discrimination in
           Black Americans’ romantic relationships

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      Authors: TeKisha M. Rice
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Informed by ecological and intersectional perspectives, this study examined how Black Americans’ reflections on the historical context of slavery and experiences with discrimination shaped their understandings of and experiences within their own relationships. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 individuals in romantic relationships. Findings of the thematic analysis covered five themes: comparing social climates, assumptions about Black relationships, the discrimination triad, an opportunity to respond, and valuing and celebrating Black love. Contemporary experiences of discrimination were a filter that echoed the historical devaluing and mistreatment of Black individuals and their relationships. Partners’ interactions around discrimination were critical opportunities to offer support to their romantic partner.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T04:08:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231154934
       
  • Deceptive affection is strategically expressed under relational
           threat—but not towards partners with low mate value

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      Authors: Neil R. Caton, Sean M. Horan
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals sometimes express affection that they do not feel. This describes deceptive affectionate messages and occurs when communicators express affectionate messages that are not consistent with their internal feelings of affection in the moment. They are commonly expressed in romantic relationships (about 3 times per week) and are argued to function as relational maintenance and retention. The present work (N = 1993) demonstrated that deceptive affectionate messages are the behavioral output of an evolved psychological system that strategically operates to maintain significant pair bonds (i.e., high mate value partners) but not non-significant pair bonds (i.e., low mate value partners). This system is uniquely and nonrandomly designed to increasingly generate deceptive affectionate messages when the individual’s highly valued partnership is perceived to be under relational threat and decreasingly deploy deceptive affectionate messages when the highly valued partnership is not under threat, but the system does not apply this relational strategy in low-valued partnerships. This supports evolutionary psychological reasoning that affectionate communication should be predicated on a cost–benefit ratio, such that deceptive affectionate messages are expressed to high value mates because the substantial costs of losing a highly valued partner outweigh the smaller risks of enacting them (e.g., discovered deception, temporary relational conflict). By establishing that deceptive affection is predicated on a cost–benefit ratio, the present work better solidifies deceptive affection, and affection exchange theory more broadly, in the human evolutionary sciences.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T03:45:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231152909
       
  • Understanding the Link Between Anxious Parental Overprotection and
           Academic Confidence in Emerging Adults: Mediation through Interpersonal
           and Intrapersonal Processes

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      Authors: Mary B Eberly Lewis, Justin J Slater, Meredith McGinley, Wendy M Rote
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Some parents may engage in overparenting, often characterized as overprotection, to ensure their college student’s academic success, yet, findings show that such parental efforts undermine performance. In the present study, we propose that there are interpersonal (parental hostility) and intrapersonal factors (depression and self-regulation) that act as mechanisms through which anxious overprotective parenting leads to diminished emerging adult academic confidence. Emerging adults (N = 967; 75.6% women; Mage = 18.71, SD = .94) who were primarily in their first (60.5%) or second (35.7%) year of college completed measures of academic confidence (academic adjustment, academic efficacy, confidence in graduating), reports of mothers’ and fathers’ anxious overprotective parenting, perceptions of maternal and paternal hostility, depression, and self-regulation. Employing a double mediation structural equation model, results revealed that anxious maternal and paternal overprotective parenting operated through perceived parental hostility to intrapersonal processes (depression, self-regulation) in predicting academic confidence. Maternal and paternal hostility, in particular, was paramount as an interpersonal mediator through which overprotective parenting led to emerging adult intrapersonal and academic outcomes. Although cross-sectional, the current findings are suggestive of the developmental cascade model (Masten & Cicchetti, 2010), whereby diminished family dynamics are associated with internalizing symptoms and self-regulatory issues, which, in turn, are linked with lower academic achievement in children.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-03-01T02:50:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231160131
       
  • Narcissistic Admiration and Narcissistic Rivalry: Associations With
           Accuracy and Bias in Perceptions of Romantic Partners

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      Authors: Gwendolyn Seidman, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Masumi Iida
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies examined perceptions of romantic partners, using the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept model to conceptualize narcissism. We examined three types of partner perceptions: partner-enhancement (perceiving one’s partner more positively than oneself), mean-level bias (perceiving one’s partner more positively than the partner’s self-perception), and tracking accuracy (accurately perceiving the relative position of one’s partner within a sample). In Study 1, 252 individuals rated themselves and their partners in two agentic domains (attractiveness/vitality, status/resources) and one communal domain (warmth/trustworthiness). Narcissistic admiration was associated with less partner-enhancement, especially for agentic qualities. Study 2 surveyed 75 romantic couples about their self-perceptions and partner perceptions. Analyses with the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model revealed that narcissistic admiration was associated with less partner-enhancement. Study 2 also used the Truth and Bias model to examine mean-level bias and tracking accuracy. Narcissistic rivalry was associated with less mean-level bias and greater tracking accuracy in the domain of attractiveness/vitality.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-02-27T11:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231161165
       
  • Do narcissistic admiration and rivalry matter for the mental health of
           romantic partners' Insights from actor-partner interdependence models

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      Authors: Leopold Maria Lautenbacher, Michael Eid, David Richter
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Personality traits of romantic partners may be part of the puzzle of how romantic relationships are related to mental health. We investigated the role of narcissistic admiration and rivalry in this context. Positive associations of admiration and negative associations of rivalry with the mental health of individuals and their partners were hypothesized. Furthermore, we expected admiration to be particularly relevant for the narcissist’s mental health and rivalry to matter more for the partner. Actor-partner interdependence models and Bayesian inference methods were used (n = 7438 couples). Hypotheses and methods were pre-registered. Contrary to expectations, the results only supported the hypotheses concerning actor effects. Most partner effects were miniscule, with the exception of the effect of male rivalry on female mental health. While controlling for extraversion and agreeableness reduced and partly reversed the initial effects of narcissism, an exploratory analysis suggested that these personality factors should be considered as mediators and that most partner effects of admiration and rivalry on mental health may be cases of indirect-only mediation, with extraversion and agreeableness acting as process variables. While replications are needed, the findings suggest that the question posed in the title may be answered with “not that much, apparently”.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-02-25T12:18:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231159913
       
  • Lonely Algorithms: A Longitudinal Investigation Into the Bidirectional
           Relationship Between Algorithm Responsiveness and Loneliness

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      Authors: Samuel Hardman Taylor, Mina Choi
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This research project addresses the role algorithms play in curating meaningful social connections on social media by examining perceived algorithm responsiveness (PAR) and perceived algorithm insensitivity (PAI) within the framework of the bidirectional model of social internet use and loneliness. In study 1, a cross-sectional survey found that PAR and PAI on Instagram are both associated with loneliness, and that the association for PAR depends upon age. In study 2, a 3-wave longitudinal survey replicates these associations. Online relational maintenance behaviors explained the negative relationship between PAR and loneliness but not the positive relationship for PAI and loneliness. Loneliness at wave t-1 predicted perceptions of algorithm responsiveness at wave t but not vice versa. This research contributes to social media uses and effects by theorizing and empirically testing the connection of algorithms with loneliness, finding that perceptions of social media algorithms are associated with perceived social isolation.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-02-25T05:30:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231156623
       
  • Directly-measured smartphone screen time predicts well-being and feelings
           of social connectedness

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      Authors: Christine Anderl, Marlise K. Hofer, Frances S. Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Previous findings on the relationship between smartphone use and well-being have been mixed. This may be partially due to a reliance on cross-sectional study designs and self-reported smartphone usage. In the current study, we collected screen time data by directly tracking participants’ (N = 325, ages 14−80 years, 58% women) smartphone usage over a period of 6 days. We combined this tracking with ecological momentary assessment, asking participants three times per day about their psychological well-being and feelings of social connectedness. Smartphone screen time was determined for the hour directly before each assessment. Results revealed that at times when participants used their smartphone more in the hour before an assessment, they reported lower psychological well-being and lower social connectedness. A bidirectional relationship emerged between smartphone screen time and social connectedness, suggesting a potential “vicious cycle” whereby smartphone usage leads to reduced social connectedness, which promotes more smartphone usage.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-02-23T04:53:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231158300
       
  • Non-relative foster caregivers’ changes in mindfulness and couple
           relationship skills following relationship education

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      Authors: Evin W. Richardson, Jacquelyn K. Mallette, Ted G. Futris, Mark Pettit
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Foster caregivers experience many challenges related to fostering which, for those in a committed couple relationship, may impact the health of that relationship. Recent efforts have been made to provide couple relationship education (CRE) to foster caregivers to provide them with the knowledge and skills to develop and maintain a healthy relationship with their partner amidst the challenges of fostering. Further, recent studies have begun to examine changes in other skills that may hinder or promote changes in couple relationship skills following participation in CRE programs. One such parallel process may be changes in mindfulness, which may promote or hinder change in couple relationship skills following a CRE program. Guided by adult learning theory and utilizing a repeated measures actor-partner interdependence model (RM-APIM), the current study aims to examine foster caregiver couples’ change in relationship skills after participating in the CRE program ELEVATE and to examine how changes in mindfulness may moderate change in couple relationship skills. Findings suggest that both men and women report significant improvements in both mindfulness and couple relationship skills following participation in ELEVATE and that change in mindfulness moderates change in couple relationship skills for women.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-02-20T04:31:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231157774
       
  • Characteristics of relationship agreements and associations with
           relationship functioning among people with diverse relationship structures
           

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      Authors: Ellora Vilkin, Joanne Davila
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Having a relationship agreement — a mutual understanding between partners regarding relationship and sexual behaviors both within and outside their relationship — has been linked with healthy relationship functioning. Yet research has been largely limited to sexual agreements among gay and bisexual men, with few studies regarding relationship agreement prevalence, types, and motivations among people of diverse sexual and gender identities and relationship types (e.g., polyamory, monogamy). This study sought to describe characteristics of and motivations for relationship agreements and examine associations between agreements and two metrics of relationship functioning: adaptive decision-making and satisfaction. In a cross-sectional online survey about sexuality, dating, and relationships among people of diverse sexual orientations, 722 U.S. participants (M age 29.3, 48.9% cisgender women, 83.7% non-heterosexual, 34.9% monogamous) provided data regarding relationship agreements, decision-making, and satisfaction. Bivariate and regression analyses were used to examine individual and relational correlates of having an agreement as well as associations between agreements, deciding, and satisfaction. A large majority of participants (N = 594, 82.3%) had a relationship agreement. Nearly two-thirds described their current relationship status as some form of consensual non-monogamy (CNM), with 41% having 2 or more current significant partners. Common reasons for making an agreement included building trust and honesty, protecting the relationship or partners’ feelings, managing expectations, and preventing HIV or STIs. Across participants, having an agreement — regardless of the type — was associated with higher scores on both satisfaction and decision making. Implications for couples/relationship researchers and therapists are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-02-15T08:38:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231157772
       
  • Dyadic Association Between New Parents' Mindfulness and Relationship
           Satisfaction: Mediating Role of Perceived Stress

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      Authors: Laurence Morin, Julie C. Laurin, Marina Doucerain, Simon Grégoire
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The transition to parenthood is marked by increased potential stressors and relationship satisfaction declines among new parents. Recently, it has been suggested that people with greater mindfulness perceived their environment as less stressful during difficult times in life, which in turn, is associated with greater relationship satisfaction. Accordingly, this dyadic diary study evaluated if perceived stress explains the link between new parents' mindfulness and relationship satisfaction. A total of 78 new parent couples (N = 156 participants; M = 6 months postpartum) provided ecologically valid perceived stress and relationship satisfaction data by responding to a questionnaire on their smartphones, between 7 p.m. and midnight, for 14 consecutive days. Data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model (APIMeM). Results revealed that parents with higher mindfulness reported lower perceived stress, which in turn was associated with them reporting higher relationship satisfaction. In addition, one’s mindfulness was directly positively associated with their partner’s relationship satisfaction. Lastly, when all partner effects between mindfulness, perceived stress and relationship satisfaction were tested together without defining specific partner paths, one’s mindfulness was positively associated with their partners’ relationship satisfaction. Our findings extend current knowledge on the dyadic association between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction during the transition to parenthood by highlighting perceived stress as a key variable underlying this relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-02-09T11:34:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231156404
       
  • Connecting Feelings of School Belonging to High School Students’
           Friendship Quality Profiles

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      Authors: Tingting Fan, Amy Bellmore
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Utilizing a person-centered approach, the present study explored 614 adolescents’ reports of self-disclosure, help, conflict, and conflict resolution with a close friend to investigate variability in profiles of friendship quality, whether gender and gender homophily and ethnicity homophily of friends are associated with profile membership, and how the profiles relate to feelings of school belonging. A latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of friendship: an ideal friendship profile (25.57% of the sample), a realistic friendship profile (54.56%), and a somewhat problematic friendship profile (19.87%). Compared to adolescents in the somewhat problematic profile, female adolescents were more likely to have a realistic or ideal friendship profile than males. Adolescents with ideal and realistic friendship profiles reported the highest feelings of school belonging; those in the somewhat problematic profile reported the lowest school belonging. The advantages of attending to profiles that incorporate multiple dimensions of friendship quality to understanding the social and academic experiences of adolescents are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-02-02T05:00:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231151952
       
  • Social Bandwidth: When and Why Are Social Interactions Energy
           Intensive'

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      Authors: Jeffrey A. Hall, Jess Dominguez, Andy J. Merolla, Christopher D. Otmar
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This manuscript identifies the characteristics of a social interaction or social event that make it energy intensive and explores the experience of recovering from an energy-intensive interaction. Study One (N = 309) used an inductive approach to identify social interactions or events that were energy intensive. Study Two (N = 120) used an experience sampling method to explore overall energy expense in everyday conversations (N = 3,092). Communication episode, more choice to interact, less familiarity of partners, and greater feelings of connection and disconnection predicted energy intensiveness. Results suggest that people seek solitude after an energy-intensive interaction, and the disconnection felt in the interaction influences desire for company when alone. Overall, social exclusion and communication content are important components in explaining the multi-faceted nature of energy-intensive interactions.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T01:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231154937
       
  • Relational mindfulness themes in descriptions of intimate encounters
           across six interpersonal contexts

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      Authors: Douglas L. Kelley, Hannah M. Nichols
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of research suggests that mindfulness is associated with relational processes and outcomes, including intimate behavior and experience. Yet, substantial questions exist as to interpersonal manifestations of intrapsychic mindfulness. The current study used a qualitative approach to explore participant descriptions of intimate experience, across six interpersonal communication contexts (talk, sex, play, grief, conflict, and forgiveness), for evidence of relational mindfulness themes. Using reflexive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2022) as a guide, analysis produced 10 themes represented by three mindfulness supra-categories: (1) present with - presence, emotional expression, and feeling understood, (2) awareness of - attention, observation, defining, and understanding, (3) nonjudgment by - acceptance, vulnerability, and nonreactivity. All themes were identified in participant responses across the six interpersonal contexts, with the exception of nonreactivity in play and grief. Significantly, these findings broaden the lens with which mindfulness researchers may continue to explore the mindfulness - interpersonal relationship connection.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-30T01:02:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231154286
       
  • Let’s Talk, Honey: An Analysis of Associations Between Communication
           Patterns and Dyadic Adjustment in Married Couples

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      Authors: Selin Karakose, Thomas Ledermann
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Good communication is an integral part of successful intimate relationships. The present study examined the factor structure of the Communication Pattern Questionnaire-Short Form (CPQ-SF) and the dyadic associations between communication patterns and dyadic adjustment in a sample of 162 married couples from Turkey (mean age = 39.09 years). Psychometric analyses support that the Turkish version of the Communication Patterns Questionnaire with 7 items (the CPQ-TR-7) is a reliable measure to assess partners’ communication patterns in the form of positive interactions, self-demand, and self-withdraw. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analysis revealed that husbands’ and wives’ positive interactions were positively associated with their own as well as their partners’ dyadic adjustment, the more husbands’ and wives’ withdraw, the lower their own dyadic adjustment, and the more wives demand, the lower their own dyadic adjustment.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-27T05:13:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231153668
       
  • Texting or face-to-face for support-seeking in romantic relationships: The
           role of affordances and attachment

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      Authors: Y. Anthony Chen, Runzhi Mary Lu
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Support-seeking, a critical and strategic function of close relationships, is increasingly practiced via texting. Guided by attachment theory and an affordance-centric approach, this study investigated to what extent individuals in a romantic relationship would use texting and face-to-face for support-seeking, and what stimulates their interest in mediated support-seeking. A survey of college students in exclusive romantic relationships (N = 211) found that several affordances (i.e., accessibility, the availability of social cues, and conversation control) were associated with varying levels of interest in texting or face-to-face for support-seeking. Both accessibility and the availability of social cues were perceived as less important by avoidant individuals, which was related to a lack of interest in texting and face-to-face interactions for support-seeking. Anxious individuals valued the availability of social cues more, which led to a greater interest in face-to-face interactions when seeking assistance. These findings contribute to a better understanding of support-seeking behavior in today’s mediated world.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-20T10:34:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231152910
       
  • Intergenerational model of financial satisfaction and parent-child
           financial relationship

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      Authors: Maja Zupančič, Mojca Poredoš, Žan Lep
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The study examined an intergenerational model of financial socialization and its outcomes that connects parents’ and their children’s self-perceived financial learning outcomes to satisfaction with financial management and parent-child financial relationships. The conceptual model was based on models of financial socialization processes contributing to healthy financial development of emerging adult students (Shim et al., 2010; Sirsch et al., 2020), but extended the links across two generations within the same family. Considering perspectives of both generations in a single model, it was tested in a sample of 482 pairs of Slovenian first-year university students and one of their parents. Structural equation modeling revealed that parental healthy financial learning outcomes (knowledge, behavioral control, behavior) shaped their children’s positive financial development (financial learning outcomes and satisfaction) and promoted the parents’ satisfaction with financial management. In turn, both the students’ and the parents’ financial management satisfaction positively predicted a joint measure of satisfaction with parent-child financial relationship. Similar links of financial learning outcomes to satisfaction with financial management and parent-child financial relationships were observed for both generations, even though parents and their children were financially socialized under different socioeconomic conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T11:49:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231153352
       
  • Social support and strain from different relationship sources: Their
           additive and buffering effects on psychological well-being in adulthood

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      Authors: Huiyoung Shin, Sunjeong Gyeong
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The present study examined the main and interactive effects of relationship-specific (i.e., spouses, friends, parents, and children) social support and strain on positive (happiness and well-being) and negative (loneliness and depressive symptoms) psychological well-being, and whether the associations varied by age and gender. A dataset was collected from 1033 adults (20–69 years; 50.1% female) from South Korea regarding social support and strain and indicators of psychological well-being. Results revealed that spousal and friend support was associated with enhanced happiness and well-being and reduced loneliness, whereas spousal and friend strain was associated with heightened depressive symptoms. Relationship-specific social support and strain showed interactive effects. Social support from parents and spouses buffered the adverse effects of social strain on psychological well-being, but their protective effects diminished when they experienced high levels of parental or spousal strain. These patterns were dependent on age and gender, with protective effects of friend support being greater for younger adults and women than for older adults and men.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T03:47:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231153350
       
  • Money to marriage, or marriage to money' Examining the directionality
           between financial processes and marital processes among newlywed couples

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      Authors: Matthew T. Saxey, Ashley B. LeBaron-Black, Jeffrey P. Dew, Jeremy B. Yorgason, Spencer L. James, Erin K. Holmes
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have shown that if couples manage their money in sound ways, their marriages may benefit. Scholars have also shown that the quality of a marriage may precede positive financial behaviors. Previous studies have not determined the directionality of these processes, but researchers have assumed that it flows from financial variables to marital satisfaction. Utilizing a sample of U.S. mixed-gender, newlywed dyads (N = 1220), we examined which is a stronger association: financial processes predicting marital processes or marital processes predicting financial processes. Specifically, we estimated three dyadic, structural equation models to examine cross-lagged associations between husbands’ and wives’ own financial behaviors and their own marital satisfaction, between husbands’ and wives’ own financial communication and their own marital satisfaction, and between husbands’ and wives’ own financial behaviors and their own financial communication across two waves of data. We found that husbands’ marital satisfaction predicted rank-order change in their reports of financial communication more strongly than the reverse. Furthermore, we found that wives’ financial behaviors predicted rank-order change in their reports of financial communication more strongly than the reverse. These results have implications for theory, future research, and improving the financial and marital wellbeing of U.S. mixed-gender, newlywed couples.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-13T06:33:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221149967
       
  • Counter-Hegemonic narratives of white weddings: Brides responses to
           wedding disruptions during the covid-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Madison A. Pollino, Laura Stafford, Allison M. Scott
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Dominant cultural discourses dictate what the ideal wedding should look like, and these discourses often center around the white wedding. White weddings typically include a bride in a white dress, a large reception, and a honeymoon. Given that western culture privileges the white wedding, weddings that deviate from this norm are sometimes delegitimatized. We used Relational Dialectics Theory 2.0 to examine dominant discourses of weddings during Covid-19. Covid-19 necessitated that many couples alter their wedding plans and prompted them to explicitly consider the taken-for-granted assumptions of the white wedding. We conducted a contrapuntal analysis of 87 recently married women’s open-ended survey responses about how Covid-19 changed their wedding plans and what the women liked and disliked about these changes. These disruptions in wedding plans afford the opportunity to explore dominant white wedding discourses among brides. The following discourses emerged from our analysis: the centripetal discourse of the white wedding, the centrifugal discourse of the focus on relationships, the centripetal discourses of the perfect day, and the centrifugal discourses of the perfect day.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T05:30:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075231151955
       
  • From close to ghost: Examining the relationship between the need for
           closure, intentions to ghost, and reactions to being ghosted

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      Authors: Christina M. Leckfor, Natasha R. Wood, Richard B. Slatcher, Andrew H. Hales
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Ghosting—the act of ending a relationship by ceasing communication without explanation—is a type of ostracism that threatens a person’s basic psychological needs for belonging, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and control. The experience of ghosting creates uncertainty within the relationship and may vary based on individual differences in the need for closure, which is the desire to avoid ambiguity. Across three preregistered studies with emerging adults, we predicted that a greater need for closure would be associated with lower intentions to use ghosting (Studies 1 and 2) and lower needs satisfaction after being ghosted (Study 3). Results from Study 1 (N = 553) and Study 2 (N = 411) were inconsistent, but together indicate that a higher need for closure is not negatively associated—and may be positively associated—with ghosting intentions. In Study 3 (N = 545), participants who recalled a time when they were ghosted reported lower needs satisfaction than included and directly rejected participants. Further, a higher need for closure was associated with lower needs satisfaction after being ghosted and after being directly rejected, but with greater needs satisfaction after being included. Overall, these findings suggest that the need for closure is less influential when deciding how to end a relationship, but it appears to play an important role in amplifying both positive and negative experiences within a relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T11:53:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221149955
       
  • Coparenting relationship quality and breastfeeding duration for dual
           earner new parents

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      Authors: Jia (Julia) Yan, Miranda N. Berrigan, Jingyi Wang, Claire M. Kamp Dush, Sarah J Schoppe-Sullivan
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      We tested the prospective associations between coparenting relationship quality and breastfeeding duration among 164 dual-earner, cisgender, heterosexual couples identifying as mothers and fathers at the transition to parenthood. We hypothesized that mothers who perceived higher quality (more supportive and less undermining) coparenting relationships would breastfeed for a longer duration. At 3 months after childbirth, mothers reported their perceptions of coparenting relationship quality using the Coparenting Relationship Scale. Mothers reported their breastfeeding behaviors at four time points—when their infant was 3, 6, 9 months and 12–36 months old. Survival analysis revealed that higher quality coparenting relationships were associated with longer breastfeeding duration. This association was only observed among families of girls. This study highlights the interactive role of coparenting relationship quality and infant sex as proximal contexts that may shape breastfeeding practices.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T10:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221150390
       
  • Strategy specific support during uncertain waiting periods

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      Authors: Michael Dooley, Kate Sweeny, Jennifer Howell
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Uncertainty over what the future holds can be a source of anxiety and worry, and people use a variety of coping strategies in response to this distress. However, limited research has examined whether and how interpersonal factors might influence how exactly people choose to cope with uncertainty. In the current studies, we explore how perceptions of a romantic partner’s strategy-specific support behaviors (e.g., support for bracing for the worst, support for maintaining optimism) relate to the coping strategies used by the person facing stressful uncertainty. Study 1 recruited doctoral students on the academic job market and found that those on the job market (support recipient) reported greater use of particular coping strategies to the extent that they perceived their partner (support provider) as supporting the use of that coping strategy. In Study 2, we built on those findings by recruiting law school graduates and their romantic partners as they awaited the law graduate’s bar exam result. We largely replicated the pattern of findings from Study 1 when looking at law graduates’ perceptions of their partner’s support attempts; however, partners’ reports of their support efforts were unassociated how law graduates coped, despite finding no mean-level differences between the two parties’ perceptions of support efforts. Further analyses revealed that, depending on the coping strategy, either partners’ own coping efforts or their perceptions of the law graduate’s coping efforts predicted the type of support they provided. We discuss implications of these findings for relationship functioning and interpersonal support.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2023-01-02T04:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221148081
       
  • “Abusers are Using COVID to Enhance Abuse”: Domestic Abuse Helpline
           Workers’ Perspectives on the Impact of COVID-19 Restrictions on those
           Living with Domestic Abuse

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      Authors: Zara P. Brodie, Roxanne D. Hawkins, Chloe MacLean, Jack McKinlay
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Mobility restrictions enforced by the UK Government in March 2020 as a response to COVID-19 resulted in those vulnerable to domestic abuse being confined in isolation with their abusers, deprived of safe spaces and many of their usual sources of support. Domestic abuse helplines therefore became an increasingly vital avenue for victim support, seeing a substantial increase in service demand during lockdown periods. Purpose: This project examined the nature and frequency of calls received by domestic abuse helplines since the first COVID-19 lockdown period. Design and Sample: Through semi-structured interviews with 11 domestic abuse helpline workers across UK services dedicated to a diverse range of populations. Results: Key themes identified through thematic analysis were: (1) Abusers weaponising government guidelines to justify and intensify abuse, and restrictions acting as both a barrier and facilitator to leaving an abusive relationship; (2) A loss of previously accessed support, with users uncertain about what help was available and issues around engaging with new forms of support; and (3) Isolation from social support networks, with callers reporting a loss of respite, lack of emotional and practical support, removal of third-party abuse monitoring opportunities, and subsequent mental health implications. Conclusions: These findings will act as a crucial guide for policy decision-making regarding support needs emerging from the pandemic and beyond, highlighting the importance of multi-agency partnerships and clear referral pathways to share the increasing financial burden of domestic abuse amongst services. The longer-term integration of more diverse options for remote support to reduce the risk of detection will be paramount as we emerge from the pandemic, but these should serve to offer a wider range of support routes for abuse victims rather than a replacement for face-to-face provision.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-22T07:48:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221147203
       
  • A multimethod examination of stress and support among sexual minority
           couples

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      Authors: Timothy J. Sullivan, K. Daniel O’Leary, Joanne Davila
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Little is known about how sexual minority couples cope with experiences of discrimination related to sexual orientation, and whether such processes are different from the management of general life stressors. Using self-report and observational methods, we investigated differences in couple support processes by stressor type. A sample of 84 sexual minority couples (Mage = 25.4 years, SD = 4.0) completed self-report measures and two video-recorded discussions (one sexual orientation-related discrimination stressor and one general life stressor not related to sexual orientation) that were coded for observed dyadic coping and social support behavior. In self-report models, more frequent stressors experienced by either partner, regardless of type, were related to more negative dyadic coping behavior and more positive partner social support provision. Discrimination stressors were uniquely related to less positive evaluations of dyadic coping behavior, but this result did not hold when accounting for covariates and could have been confounded by age. In observed models, we found no differences in positive dyadic coping or positive social support behavior across stressor discussions, but we found significantly less negative dyadic coping behavior during discrimination stressor discussions. Future work should examine how adaptive support processes may influence relationship functioning.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-15T08:07:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221145637
       
  • Time for a Measurement Check-Up: Testing the Couple’s Satisfaction Index
           and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Using Structural Equation
           Modeling and Item Response Theory

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      Authors: Christopher Quinn-Nilas
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Relationship and sexual satisfaction are two central outcomes in the study of relationships and are commonly used in both academia and applied practice. However, relationship and sexual satisfaction measures infrequently undergo specific psychometric investigation. Ensuring that measures display strong psychometric performance is an important but under-tested element of replication that has come under more scrutiny lately, and adequate measurement of constructs is an important auxiliary assumption underpinning theory-testing empirical work. A measurement check-up was conducted, including Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test factorial validity, measurement invariance to test for group comparability, and Item Response Theory (IRT) to assess the relationship between latent traits and their items/indicators. This format was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Couple’s Satisfaction Index (CSI) and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX), two commonly used scales of relationship and sexual satisfaction with a sample of 640 midlife (40–59 years old) married Canadians who were recruited by Qualtrics Panels. Results of CFA suggested that both models were satisfactory. Invariance testing provided robust support for intercept invariance across all the groupings tested. IRT analysis supported the CSI and GMSEX, however, there was evidence that the GMSEX provided somewhat less information for those high on sexual satisfaction. This measurement check-up found that the CSI and GMSEX were reasonably healthy with some caveats. Implications are discussed in terms of replicability and meaning for scholars and practitioners.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-13T12:28:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221143360
       
  • Family communication patterns, mediated communication, and well-being: A
           communication interdependence perspective on parent–adult child
           relationships

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      Authors: Emily M. Buehler, Jenny L. Crowley, Ashley M. Peterson, Jennifer A. Jackl
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated how technology use, as understood through the communication interdependence perspective (CIP) and family communication patterns (FCPs), influence well-being in parent–adult child relationships. We proposed a model in which beliefs and attitudes about family communication shape adult children’s interdependent use of multiple modes of communication with a parent, which in turn impact their loneliness, psychological well-being, relational satisfaction, and closeness with a parent. Results revealed conversation orientation largely promoted communication interdependence (i.e., increased integration of face-to-face and mediated communication and ease of transitioning between channels), whereas conformity orientation largely dampened communication interdependence (i.e., increased segmentation to mediated channels and difficulty transitioning between channels). In turn, more communication interdependence (i.e., less segmentation to mediated channels and more ease transitioning between channels) corresponded with more relational well-being while segmentation to face-to-face reduced loneliness. Several indirect effects suggest that the ways adult children use technology with a parent help explain how cognitive schemas fostered by FCPs affect well-being. Theoretical implications are discussed as they pertain to the CIP and family communication.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-10T06:36:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221145628
       
  • The influence of loneliness on perceived connectedness and trust beliefs
           – longitudinal evidence from the Netherlands

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      Authors: Alexander Langenkamp
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      While social pluralism and diversity are central characteristics of functioning democracies, civil society and democratic institutions require citizens to perceive themselves as an integral part of society in order to function. This stems from a general sense of unity and cohesion and a mutual understanding of citizens that institutions and other members of the society are trustworthy. While objective aspects of social embeddedness, that is organizational membership and inter-relational contact, are established predictors of these outcomes, perceived loneliness is rarely investigated. This study investigates whether changes in loneliness reduce levels of perceived connectedness and political and interpersonal trust beliefs. By analyzing 12 waves of panel data from the Netherlands gathered between 2008 and 2020 (n = 41,508 observations from 9954 individuals), the analysis shows that intra-personal variation in loneliness predicts a citizen`s sense of connectedness and interpersonal trust beliefs. Regarding political trust, the relationship was not found with panel fixed effect.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-09T04:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221144716
       
  • ‘I remember where the galaxies are and you remember where the stocks
           are’: Older couples’ descriptions of transactive memory systems in
           everyday life

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      Authors: Sophia A. Harris, Amanda J. Barnier, Celia B. Harris
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Theoretical descriptions of transactive memory systems (TMSs) have postulated that intimate couples develop coordinated systems for sharing and distributing cognitive labour. Although such systems have been well-studied in research on organisational teams, little research has examined how TMSs operate in the context of intimate relationships. In the current study, we used semi-structured interviews to ask 39 older long-married couples to describe how they shared cognitive labour between them. We used qualitative analysis to examine themes relating to specialisation, credibility, and coordination – the key components of successful TMSs identified in organisational teams. We found that couples described their everyday memory sharing practices in ways that reflected these themes, with our findings revealing nuanced descriptions of sources of specialisation and the division of memory labour in relationships, as well as the impacts of ageing and cognitive decline on couples’ TMSs. We discuss these findings in terms of applications of transactive memory theory to intimate relationships, couples as a dyadic unit of analysis, and the role of intimate relationships in adapting to age-related change.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-08T09:44:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221144720
       
  • The development and preliminary validation of a measure of victimization
           within the friendships of emerging adults

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      Authors: Nicole S. J. Dryburgh, Alexa Martin-Storey, Wendy M. Craig, Melanie A. Dirks
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      For emerging adults, high-quality friendships can be an important source of companionship and support. The most commonly studied negative interaction between friends is conflict, yet work with youth suggests more serious victimization also occurs in friendship. In the current study, we developed and obtained preliminary psychometric evidence for the Friendship Victimization Scale, a measure that assesses physical, sexual, relational, and verbal forms of victimization in the friendships of emerging adults, as well as coercive and controlling behaviors. Emerging adults (N = 316, Mage = 21.27 years, SD = 1.47; 60.4% women, 37.0% men; 59.2% White) completed the Friendship Victimization Scale along with measures to examine construct validity. The majority of the sample reported experiencing at least one act of victimization by a friend, and men reported more victimization than did women. Results supported a 2-factor structure, with relational and verbal victimization loading on one factor and physical and sexual victimization and controlling behaviors loading on the other. Cronbach’s alphas exceeded .90 for the total score and both subscales. Greater friendship victimization was predicted by negative features in each of a best and a challenging friendship, even after accounting for negative features in a dating relationship, and was unrelated to positive features in any of these relationships. Overall, results indicate that victimization is common in emerging adults’ friendships. The findings provide preliminary evidence for the utility of the Friendship Victimization Scale as a measure of this understudied source of risk in the interpersonal lives of emerging adults.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-03T02:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221142631
       
  • A Space of Our Own: Exploring the Relationship Initiation Experiences of
           Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, and Asexual Dating
           App Users

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      Authors: Liesel L Sharabi, Cassandra V Ryder, Lucy C Niess
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This mixed-methods study explores dating app use within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA+) community. LGBTQIA+ dating app users (N = 231) from across the U.S. were surveyed about their relationship initiation experiences. Thematic analysis was used to identify the benefits and challenges participants faced on dating apps and their motives for adopting (or avoiding) dating apps specifically for the LGBTQIA+ community (e.g., Grindr, Her, Butterfly). Participants described benefitting from dating apps, but also confronting significant challenges such as discrimination and the erasure of identity. Just over half (55.0%) of the sample reported using LGBTQIA+ dating apps, which functioned as safe spaces, reduced uncertainty about others’ identities, and were better adapted to community norms. Multiple logistic regression was also used to test predictions regarding user adoption. Findings have implications for understanding how people in historically thin dating markets are using mobile technology to expand their opportunities for relationship initiation.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T01:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221143790
       
  • Adolescents’ individual characteristics and intentions to seek help from
           types of peers and parents

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      Authors: Heather A. Sears, Leslie J. MacIntyre
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescents’ relationships with friends and with parents provide them with access to potential sources of assistance when they are experiencing problems. However, we lack more nuanced information about the types of peers and parents they intend to approach and about the contributions their individual characteristics make to their plans. This study examined adolescents’ intentions to seek help for a personal/emotional problem from five types of peers and parents (female friend, male friend, romantic partner, mother, father) and evaluated the unique, common, and total contributions of youth’s individual characteristics (gender, adaptable temperament, negative affect, self-disclosure competence, and conformity to the emotional control, self-reliance, and nice in relationships gender norms) to their intentions. Participants were 358 Canadian adolescents (51% boys; Grades 9–12) who completed a survey at school. On average, adolescents reported moderate intentions to seek assistance from each type of peer and parent. Hierarchical regression and commonality analyses showed that adolescents’ gender, self-disclosure competence, and emotional control beliefs made the largest total contributions to help-seeking intentions for both types of friends; self-disclosure competence and emotional control and self-reliance beliefs were most salient for help-seeking intentions for a romantic partner; and self-reliance beliefs and negative affect were most salient for help-seeking intentions for each parent, with emotional control beliefs also contributing to help-seeking intentions for mother. These results highlight the need to include more precise terms for peers and parents in help-seeking models and in assessments of adolescents’ help-seeking intentions, and the benefit of examining the unique, common, and total contributions of adolescents’ individual characteristics to clarify their relevance to youth’s plans to seek help.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-30T06:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221143103
       
  • Parents’ loneliness in sole and joint physical custody families

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      Authors: Anja Steinbach, Lara Augustijn
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the relationship between post-separation physical custody arrangements – that is, sole physical custody (SPC), asymmetric, and symmetric joint physical custody (JPC) – and resident parents’ loneliness. The analyses were based on data from the Family Models in Germany (FAMOD) survey with an analytical sample of 1,146 resident parents living in post-separation families. Bivariate findings suggested that resident parents practicing asymmetric JPC reported fewer feelings of loneliness than resident parents practicing SPC. However, no differences were found between parents in symmetric JPC and SPC families. In the full multivariate model, the difference between resident parents in asymmetric JPC and SPC arrangements disappeared. Results showed that resident parents practicing asymmetric JPC had more time for friends and were less depressive and, thus, felt less lonely than parents with SPC arrangements.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T03:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221124123
       
  • Associations of mothers’ rejection sensitivity with children’s
           cognitions about peer rejection and social self-perceptions: The mediating
           role of maternal supportive behaviors

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      Authors: Esther Polachek, Nurit Gur-Yaish, Efrat Sher-Censor, Yair Ziv
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the associations between mothers’ predisposition to show rejection sensitivity and children’s cognitions regarding peer rejection and their social self-perceptions. It also explored whether these associations were mediated by mothers’ behaviors in situations that might suggest their children were rejected by peers. Participants were 122 Jewish Israeli mothers and their kindergarten children (50.82% female; MChild age in months = 67.52, SD = 6.35). Mothers completed the Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire and reported their likely behaviors in scenarios suggesting the rejection of their children by peers. Children were interviewed using the response evaluation scale for the rejection stories in the Social Information Processing Interview–Preschool Version and the peer acceptance subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Results revealed indirect links between mothers’ rejection sensitivity and children’s maladaptive response evaluations and lower social self-perceptions, through fewer supportive maternal behaviors. These findings highlight the need to consider parents’ dispositions and behaviors in the context of their children’s peer interactions for a more complete understanding of the development of children’s social competence.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-28T02:31:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131077
       
  • Enhanced Mood After a Getting-Acquainted Interaction with a Stranger: Do
           Shy People Benefit Too'

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      Authors: Susan Sprecher, Rowland Miller, Beverley Fehr, Jeremy B. Kanter, Daniel Perlman, Diane Felmlee
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      People report positive moods and enhanced well-being when they socialize with friends and other close ties. However, because most people routinely have more encounters with acquaintances and strangers (social connections known as weak ties) than with close friends or kin (strong ties), we deemed it important to examine whether interaction with weak ties also enhances happiness and well-being. This investigation, which analyzed data from two laboratory procedures, examined whether participants’ positive affect (PA) increased and negative affect (NA) decreased, from before to after a getting-acquainted interaction with a stranger. We also considered whether any benefits of the interaction were moderated by the participants’ level of shyness. Participants (N = 270; 135 dyads) from a U.S. university completed mood indices before and after a getting-acquainted task. Their PA significantly increased and their NA significantly decreased from before to after the interaction. Shy participants experienced greater NA both before and after the getting-acquainted interaction (relative to less shy participants), but the shyness level of our participants did not moderate the pattern of change in their PA and NA. Shy participants experienced increases in PA and decreases in NA that were similar to those of less shy participants. We discuss implications of the results regarding the important role of weak social connections for increasing one’s daily mood, including for those who are shy.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T10:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221141433
       
  • Parental negativity toward offspring’s minority sexual orientation
           disclosures: An inclusive fitness perspective

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      Authors: Danielle J. DelPriore, Olivia Ronan
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescents and young adults who disclose a minority sexual orientation (“come out” as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) to their parents often are met with varied negative reactions. The current work builds on a growing literature aimed at understanding the myriad causes of negative parental reactions to these disclosures. Specifically, this work evaluates a hypothesis derived from evolutionary psychological logic: that variation in parental responses to offspring’s sexual orientation disclosures is driven, in part, by perceived costs to parents’ inclusive fitness (i.e., implicit or explicit concerns related to the reproductive success of genetic relatives). Across three studies (total N = 493), we examined whether daughters’ and sons’ perceptions of parents’ negative reactions to their sexual orientation disclosures systematically co-varied with inclusive fitness concerns, as indexed by parent gender, sexual orientation, and offspring number. This perspective received partial support among daughters, who reported more negative reactions from their mothers (vs. fathers), particularly in response to lesbian (vs. bisexual) disclosures. Reactions to sons’ disclosures did not vary across parent gender, sexual orientation, or offspring number. Taken together, this work provides preliminary evidence that perceived fitness costs may lead mothers to respond negatively to their daughters’ lesbian orientation disclosures.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T12:36:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221142630
       
  • Social support is a balancing act: Mitigating attachment anxiety by
           supporting independence and dependence

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      Authors: Brett K Jakubiak, Julian D Fuentes, Elina R Sun, Brooke C Feeney
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the personal and relationship costs associated with attachment anxiety, there has been substantial interest in identifying factors that reduce attachment anxiety over time and buffer attachment anxiety in the moment. We integrated the Attachment Security Enhancement Model (ASEM) and the dependency paradox based in attachment theory to derive novel predictions about how perceived partner support predicts attachment anxiety prospectively (one year later) and concurrently. Newlyweds (N = 326) reported their perceptions that their partners support their personal goals (i.e., perceived support for independence needs) and their perceptions that their partners provide reassurance/responsiveness (i.e., perceived support for dependence needs). We found that greater perceived support for personal goals predicted decreases in attachment anxiety over one year only among people who also perceived high partner reassurance/responsiveness, consistent with the idea that support for independence is most effective when partners also support dependence needs. We also observed evidence that this pattern was most pronounced among people with higher attachment anxiety. Regarding concurrent links, we found that perceiving greater partner reassurance/responsiveness predicted lower concurrent attachment anxiety, whereas perceived support for independent goals did not. Together, these findings extend the ASEM by highlighting that attachment anxiety declines over time when partners are perceived to support one’s needs for independence and dependence simultaneously.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T10:49:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221142000
       
  • Tradeoffs, constraints, and strategies in transgender and nonbinary young
           adults’ romantic relationships: The identity needs in relationships
           framework

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      Authors: Gabriel R. Murchison, Rose Eiduson, Madina Agénor, Allegra R. Gordon
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Prior research suggests that prejudice and structural disadvantage (e.g., cissexism, racism, sexism) put transgender and nonbinary (TNB) young adults at risk for adverse romantic relationship experiences, yet supportive romantic relationships may help TNB young adults cope with these stressors and promote their psychological wellbeing. Accordingly, there is a need to better understand how TNB young adults navigate romantic relationships in the context of prejudice and structural disadvantage. To address this topic, we analyzed in-depth interviews with TNB young adults (18–30 years; N = 30) using template-style thematic analysis, guided by intersectionality as an analytical framework. Our analysis resulted in three themes. Theme 1 describes how prejudice and structural disadvantage constrained the strategies that TNB young adults used to pursue fulfilling romantic relationships (e.g., leaving adverse relationships). Theme 2 addresses the tradeoffs that some participants faced in their romantic relationships, including tradeoffs between psychological needs related to their social identities (e.g., gender identity affirmation) and general psychological needs (e.g., intimacy). Theme 3 highlights individual and contextual factors (e.g., lessons from prior romantic relationships) that helped participants build fulfilling romantic relationship. These themes form the basis for the Identity Needs in Relationships Framework, a new conceptual framework addressing how TNB young adults navigate romantic relationships in the context of prejudice and structural disadvantage. The framework offers an explanation for why some TNB young adults maintain romantic relationships that seem to undermine their wellbeing, and it draws attention to strategies and resources that may help TNB young adults form fulfilling romantic relationships despite the prejudice and structural disadvantage they face.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T07:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221142183
       
  • “We keep it all here”: A dialogic approach to constructing the rural
           historically black colleges and universities among black students

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      Authors: Mick B. Brewer
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are both often assumed to offer students of color a safer and environment for learning than their primarily white institutional counterparts while also facing harsh suspicion in terms of their educational quality and cultural value. Interrogating these readings, this study uses the critical interpersonal and family communication (CIFC) framework and relational dialectics theory (RDT) 2.0 to identify competing discourses emergent within meaning-making processes of Black students attending rural iterations of such institutions. By interviewing twenty Black students currently enrolled in a rural HBCU, this work spotlights unique, power-laden interconnections across the competing discourses of rural whiteness, as marked by rugged individualism, conservative political ideology, and perceived hostility towards Black epistemologies, and the urban Blackness of students now occupying such spaces. This project identifies the dominant discourse that HBCUs are inferior, as well as two competing discourses students draw upon as they construct meaning of the rural HBCU: the discourse that these institutions celebrate Blackness, and the discourse that they problematically draw race into relief. This work uncloaks the themes constituting each of the two discourses, and highlights various forms of discursive interplay participants use to negotiate the meaning of these institutions, including entertaining, countering, negating, naturalization, and pacification.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T05:08:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221140359
       
  • Examining and understanding patterns of cognitive, emotional, and
           behavioral jealousy: Dispositional Mindfulness as a protective factor in
           romantic relationships

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      Authors: Valeria De Cristofaro, Valerio Pellegrini, Marco Salvati, Mauro Giacomantonio
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The present research proposes that dispositional mindfulness may play a key role in our understanding of romantic jealousy, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of three components: cognitive, emotional, and behavioral. All three components involve experiencing an outside threat, but diverse aspects of the experience are implied: cognitive jealousy entails thoughts and suspicions, emotional jealousy entails affective responses, and behavioral jealousy entails surveillance behaviors. Across five studies (N = 3275), using non-dyadic and dyadic data, different measurement scales for mindfulness, and different indicators of relationship functioning (couple satisfaction, relationship quality, occurrence of conflicts), we consistently found that mindfulness is negatively related to cognitive and behavioral jealousy. This is explained by increased self-esteem characterizing mindful individuals. In turn, decreased cognitive and behavioral jealousy resulted positively related to couple satisfaction and relationship quality, whereas negatively to occurrence of conflicts. We did not find significant relations between mindfulness, self-esteem, emotional jealousy, and relationship functioning. These results provided evidence, which was also confirmed by a mini meta-analysis, that mindfulness may constitute a protective factor against detrimental cognitive and behavioral (vs. emotional) romantic jealousy. We discuss how these results advance literature and open new research avenues for both theoretical and applied purposes.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T04:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221139631
       
  • Sibling estrangement in adulthood

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      Authors: Karsten Hank, Anja Steinbach
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Whereas interest in adult sibling relationships has been growing, we are not aware of any quantitative studies focusing on sibling estrangement (that is, lack of contact or emotional closeness). This gap in the literature seems unfortunate, because estrangement in close family relationships has been suggested to be momentous for family functioning and individuals’ well-being. Drawing on four waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam; n = 5,729), covering a 6-year observation period, we therefore assess respondents’ estrangement from up to four siblings in adulthood, focusing on the predictive role of core structural parameters of sibling dyads (especially genetic relatedness) and disruptive family events (particularly parental separation/divorce or death). Whereas 28% of respondents in our sample experienced at least one episode of estrangement from any sibling, estrangement occurred multiple times in only 14% of sibling dyads. Moreover, results derived from discrete-time event history models indicate (a) that genetic relatedness is the single most important risk factor, albeit strongly mediated by childhood co-residence, and (b) that sibling relations tend to become more “vulnerable” over the life course, when adverse family events accumulate.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T04:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221127863
       
  • Longitudinal associations between mindfulness and change in attachment
           orientations in couples: The role of relationship preoccupation and
           empathy

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      Authors: Taranah Gazder, Sarah C. E. Stanton
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment orientations predict relationship outcomes and health and well-being, making it important to illuminate factors which enhance attachment security. We investigated how general and relationship-specific mindfulness predict changes in attachment orientations in couples over time, testing relationship preoccupation and partner-focused empathy as mediators. We also explored whether the longitudinal links between general mindfulness and attachment are bidirectional. Couples reported their general and relationship mindfulness and attachment orientations in a baseline session (Phase 1). They then reported relationship preoccupation and empathy each day for 14 days (Phase 2). Lastly, they reported general mindfulness and attachment orientations 2 months later (Phase 3). Results revealed that higher Phase 1 actor general—but not relationship—mindfulness directly predicted Phase 1-3 decreases in actor attachment anxiety. Conversely, greater Phase 1 actor relationship—but not general—mindfulness indirectly predicted Phase 1-3 decreases in actor attachment avoidance via greater Phase 2 actor empathy. Finally, lower Phase 1 actor and partner attachment anxiety directly predicted Phase 1-3 increases in general mindfulness. This research provides the first dyadic longitudinal demonstration of the interplay between partners’ mindfulness and attachment.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T08:50:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221139654
       
  • The Role of Relationship Conflict for Momentary Loneliness and Affect in
           the Daily Lives of Older Couples

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      Authors: Elisa Weber, Gizem Hülür
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Intimate partner relationships foster individuals’ well-being throughout the lifespan. However, dissatisfying or conflict-laden relationships can have a detrimental impact on well-being and relationship quality. The majority of older adults live together with a spouse/partner, and intimate relationships are one of the most important social contexts in their daily lives. Purpose: Expanding on previous research, we examined the role of previous conflict on experiences of loneliness and affect in the daily lives of older partners from a dyadic perspective. Relationship duration and quality, personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion), conflict frequency during the measurement period, physical health as well as age were considered as moderators. Study Sample and Data Analysis: We used data from an experience sampling study with 151 older heterosexual couples (302 participants; 65+ years old) reporting on their positive and negative affect, loneliness, and previous experience of relationship conflict 6 times a day for 14 days. Data were analyzed using dyadic multilevel models. Results: For both men and women within couples, previous conflict was associated with an increased experience of negative affect and loneliness and a decreased experience of positive affect. Higher neuroticism predicted less positive and more negative affect following conflict for women and more loneliness for men. Higher relationship satisfaction predicted less increase in negative affect after conflict for female partners. Age, relationship duration, physical health, extraversion, and the number of conflict episodes showed no moderating effects. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that relationship conflict deteriorates emotional well-being in old age and renders older adults lonelier even in the context of intimate partner relationships.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T07:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221138022
       
  • Couple classes of depressive symptom trajectories and associations with
           relationship satisfaction

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      Authors: Preston C Morgan, Andrea K Wittenborn
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The literature indicates a robust negative relationship between depression and couple relationship satisfaction. However, less is known about the differential effects of romantic relationships on depression over time and whether one or both partners experience depression. Using data from 1215 couples across 4 years, we sought to examine couple classes of depressive symptom trajectories and investigate the degree to which relationship satisfaction predicted class membership. Using joint-probability growth mixture modeling, we found three couple classes of depressive symptom trajectories: women’s moderate, men’s low class, men’s moderate, women’s low class, and men’s and women’s low class. Logistic regression results revealed both men’s and women’s higher relationship satisfaction was associated with women’s moderate, men’s low class membership while both partners’ higher relationship satisfaction was not associated with men’s moderate, women’s low class membership, in comparison to the men’s and women’s low stable class. These findings contribute to the literature by identifying the heterogeneity of patterns of depressive symptom trajectories among couples and the association of relationship satisfaction with couple classes.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T02:04:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221138112
       
  • Daily stress, family functioning and mental health among Palestinian
           couples in Israel during COVID-19: A moderated mediation model

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      Authors: Niveen M. Hassan-Abbas
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic created a range of stressors, among them difficulties related to work conditions, financial changes, lack of childcare, and confinement or isolation due to social distancing. Among families and married individuals, these stressors were often expressed in additional daily hassles, with an influence on mental health. This study examined two moderated mediation models based on Bodenmann’s systemic-transactional stress model. Specifically, the models tested the hypothesis that intra-dyadic stress mediates the association between extra-dyadic stress and mental health, while two measures of family functioning, cohesion and flexibility, moderate the relationship between extra and intra-dyadic stress. Participants were 480 Palestinian adults in Israel who completed self-report questionnaires. All were in opposite-sex marriages and identified as either cisgender women or cisgender men. The results showed partial mediation patterns supporting both models, indicating that family cohesion and flexibility weakened the mediating effect of intra-dyadic stress on the relationship between extra-dyadic stress and mental health. These findings increase our understanding of the variables that affected mental health during the pandemic, and suggest that when faced with extra-dyadic stress, married individuals with good family environments are less likely to experience high levels of intra-dyadic stress, which is in turn associated with preserved mental health. Limitations and implications for planning interventions for couples and families during the pandemic are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T06:33:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221130785
       
  • Assessing dynamical associations in dyadic interactions across multiple
           time scales via a Bayesian hierarchical vector autoregressive model

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      Authors: Meng Chen, Emilio Ferrer
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Human behaviors are complex and composed of changes on multiple time scales. Recent advances in data collection technology contribute to a fast-growing number of studies with rich and intensive longitudinal data, allowing researchers to examine the underlying change processes on the time scale(s) of their choice. Processes unfolding across different time scales can be interrelated in different ways. One way is through reflecting the same underlying construct. For example, attachment styles in couples may lead to a pattern of dyadic coregulation that is reflected both in their physiological synchrony and in their daily affective coherence. Although previous research has examined romantic relationships both from a physiological and an affective perspective, the association between the two has seldom been formally evaluated. In this article, we describe a hierarchical Bayesian vector autoregressive model that enables researchers to examine whether two processes are associated by having coherent patterns. We demonstrate the specification and implementation of this model using data on two different processes between romantic partners: their second-by-second physiological synchrony and daily affect coregulation.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T10:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137865
       
  • Mindfulness and individual, relational, and parental outcomes during the
           transition to parenthood

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      Authors: Chelom E Leavitt, Jocelyn S Wikle, Erin Kramer Holmes, Hayley Pierce, JB Eyring, Ashley Larsen Gibby, Alyssa L Brown, Virgina Leiter
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      With more than one million couples transitioning to parenthood each year, finding ways to enable healthier transitions is salient. Trait mindful awareness and sexual mindfulness were examined in an Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) framework using 169 mixed-sex, married couples to evaluate their association with individual, relational, and parental outcomes. For couples who have transitioned to parenthood, mothers’ trait mindfulness was associated with their own higher mental health and fathers; trait mindfulness was associated with their own higher quality mental health; mothers’ and fathers’ sexually mindful nonjudgment, an ability to remain mindful during sex, was associated with fathers’ higher quality mental health and mothers’ sexually mindful nonjudgment was associated with their own higher quality mental health. Mothers’ trait mindfulness was also associated with their report of lower pregnancy and delivery stress. Higher reports of sexual nonjudgement by both mothers and father were also associated with higher parenting satisfaction for fathers. Thus, mindfulness and sexual mindfulness may be particularly important skills to support new parents’ mental health, relational satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and parenting satisfaction. Transition to parenthood scholars and practitioners have long been invested in understanding risk and protective factors for new parents and are commonly seeking important points of education and/or intervention to support this transition. Our study suggests mindfulness may both reduce risk and promote healthy behaviors that support mothers, fathers, and their relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T07:14:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137870
       
  • Childhood maltreatment and provision of support and strain to family
           relationships in adulthood: The role of social anxious and depressive
           symptoms

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      Authors: Michael Fitzgerald, Amy A Morgan
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Childhood maltreatment (CM) often occurs within the family system and can complicate familial relationships across the lifespan. Mental health problems may be one possible pathway linking CM to willingness to provide support and provisions of strain to family members. We advance this line of research by examining the degree to which CM shapes adults' understanding of how individual’s willingness to provide support to their family as well as enacted strain towards family members. Data were from the study of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Among the participants (n = 568), the majority were White (91.2%), female (56.9%), and had a mean age of 51.5. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship between CM, depressive and social anxiety symptoms, and support and strain. Results indicate two key findings: (1) Maltreatment is directly related to higher provisions of strain and lower perceived availability to support family members; (2) Symptoms of depression and social anxiety mediated the effect from maltreatment to enactments of strain towards family members, whereas the same finding did not hold for availability of support. Only depressive symptoms were identified as a pathway. Because families frequently are a source of CM, yet may remain connected in adulthood, these findings offer nuanced implications for addressing mental health and family wellbeing among who have experienced CM.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T09:42:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137320
       
  • “But You Don’t Look Sick:” Memorable Messages of Emerging Adulthood
           Autoimmune Disease

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      Authors: Jacqueline N. Gunning
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Experiencing the onset of autoimmune disease in emerging adulthood is disruptive and difficult to make sense of because youth and illness are not expected to co-exist. As a result, emerging adults with autoimmune disease are susceptible to messages that discredit and deny their health experiences. Though communication research has explored dismissive and disenfranchising communication in the face of chronic illness, a need for how to disrupt and replace this harmful or inadequate messaging remains. Purpose: Building upon prior memorable messages research that centers the call “I wish,” asking individuals not only about messages received but messages desired, the present study identifies harmful and helpful memorable messages in the face of autoimmune disease onset and diagnosis. Research Design: Guided by Cooke-Jackson & Rubinsky’s (2021) theory of memorable messages and call for research on message disruption, the present study explores the messages 25 assigned female at birth (AFAB) individuals with autoimmune disease received during their illness journeys using individual, semi-structured interviews. Results: Findings reveal messages of dismissal, blame, and presumed psychosis (e.g., “it’s all in your head,” “but you look healthy”) as characterizing the diagnostic journey. Participants identify messages of belief, support, and interest (e.g., “I believe you,” “you are not alone,” “help me understand”) as being helpful while navigating their disease. Conclusion: Findings illuminate how family members, friends, health care providers, intimate partners, and relational others can effectively support emerging adults navigating a difficult and disruptive health experience. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T07:15:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137548
       
  • Communication in Interfaith and Multiethnic-Racial Families: Navigating
           Identity and Difference in Family Relationships

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      Authors: Colleen Warner Colaner, Annabelle L. Atkin, Amnee Elkhalid, Mackensie Minniear, Jordan Soliz
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current manuscript provides a critical review of family communication in multiethnic-racial and interfaith families. The review specifically focuses on differences related to religious and ethnic-racial identity, given that both are salient aspects of self-concept tied to psychosocial well-being, exist in a sociocultural environment characterized by racialized structures and systems of privilege, have been problematized through a deficit approach, and have implications for how to constructively address religious and ethnic-racial differences outside of the family. We begin by defining the three core concepts: (a) interfaith, (b) multiethnic-racial, and (c) family. We then discuss our methodology for selecting and reviewing empirical research and provide a synthesis of findings for each family type. We specifically address how interfaith then multiethnic-racial families communicate to address socialization and identity development, integrate differences, and combat bias. We conclude with a critical summary, arguing that interfaith and multiethnic-racial families are more accurately characterized through their strengths rather than difficulties. We point to limitations of current work, namely that research is largely based on Western perspectives on race/ethnicity and Ibrahimic religious traditions, that children and adolescent perspectives are relatively absent, and that the research tends to primarily focus on communication between couples or in parent-child relationships rather than extended family networks. Trajectories for future research include a focus on the manner in which communication surrounding identity and difference impacts self-concept and psychosocial well-being as well as contextualizing experiences of multiethnic-racial and interfaith families within the sociocultural environment. Our articulated conceptual landscape and synthesis of the research shed light on these complex relationships and encourage ongoing scholarship on these relatively understudied family forms.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-29T12:54:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137317
       
  • Links of daily shared appraisal and collaboration to support, mood, and
           self-care in type 2 diabetes

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      Authors: Melissa Zajdel, Jeanean B Naqvi, Nynke MD Niezink, Vicki S Helgeson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Research has increasingly recognized the links of communal coping—a shared appraisal of a stressor and collaborative action to manage it—to positive adjustment outcomes in chronic illness. However, past literature rarely examines if these two components have unique links to relationship and health outcomes, if one component is more strongly linked than the other component to these outcomes, or if the two components interact to influence outcomes. Additionally, the impact of shared appraisal and collaboration may depend on the source—the patient or the romantic partner. In a study of 200 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and their spouses, daily reports of shared appraisal and collaboration, mood, support interactions, and patient self-care were collected over 14 consecutive days. Multi-level modeling showed that both patient and spouse reports of shared appraisal and collaboration were linked independently to support interactions and better mood for patients and spouses, while collaboration alone was linked to self-care. Further, collaboration was generally more strongly linked to behavioral outcomes—support and self-care—than shared appraisal, while links to mood were similar for shared appraisal and collaboration. Shared appraisal and collaboration also interacted such that shared appraisal was particularly beneficial for those who reported low collaboration. Finally, results suggested one’s own reports of shared appraisal and collaboration were more strongly linked to outcomes than partner reports. Overall, these findings demonstrate unique impacts of daily shared appraisal and collaboration on adjustment to chronic illness for patients and spouses.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-25T10:19:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221135873
       
  • Spatial proximity in relationships research methods: The effect of
           partner’s presence during survey completion on shared reality in
           romantic couples’ daily lives

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      Authors: M Catalina Enestrom, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Yael Bar-Shachar, John E Lydon
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Spatial proximity may be an artifact of relationships research methodology; however, little work has explored how this feature of research designs influences perceptions of one’s relationship, particularly shared reality (i.e., experiencing a commonality of inner states). The present research tested whether spatial proximity would independently contribute to shared reality in couples’ daily lives. In 2 daily diary studies, each across 3–4 weeks (N1 = 76 couples, 3694 observations; N2 = 84 couples, 3073 observations), participants indicated whether or not their partner was spatially proximal, and also completed measures of shared reality and relationship satisfaction. Spatial proximity to one’s partner resulted in higher shared reality on the day of the survey completion and predicted increases in shared reality from the previous day, but this effect did not spillover into the following day. These findings held controlling for conflict, shared daily experiences (e.g., cooking together), and shared survey experiences (i.e., whether they completed the survey at the same time). In addition, this effect was unique to shared reality, whereby spatial proximity did not predict relationship satisfaction. However, shared reality was associated with increases in relationship satisfaction across the daily diary period. Thus, researchers should consider spatial proximity when developing their research design as it may influence shared reality, which has implications for relationship well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-22T10:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221136134
       
  • Sleep Efficiency and Naturalistically-Observed Social Behavior Following
           Marital Separation: The Critical Role of Contact With an Ex-Partner

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      Authors: Andrea M. Coppola, Matthias R. Mehl, Allison M. Tackman, Spencer C. Dawson, Karey L. O’Hara, David A. Sbarra
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Marital disruption is associated with increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes, including disturbed sleep. This report examines trajectories of actigraphy-assessed sleep efficiency following marital separation as well as the extent to which daily social behaviors and individual differences in attachment explain variability in these trajectories over time. One hundred twenty-two recently-separated adults (N = 122) were followed longitudinally for three assessment periods over 5 months. To objectively assess daily social behaviors and sleep efficiency, participants wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) during the day (for one weekend at each assessment period) and an actiwatch at night (for 7 days at each assessment period). Greater time spent with an ex-partner, as assessed by the EAR, was associated with decreased sleep efficiency between participants (p = .003). Higher attachment anxiety was also associated with decreased sleep efficiency (p = .03), as was the EAR-observed measure of “television on.” The latter effect operated both between (p = .004) and within participants (p = .005). Finally, study timepoint moderated the association between EAR-observed television on and sleep efficiency (p = .007). The current findings deepen our understanding of sleep disturbances following marital separation and point to contact with an ex-partner and time spent with the television on as behavioral markers of risk.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-22T03:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221135855
       
  • Community connectedness and depression in transgender populations: The
           role of self-focused attention

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      Authors: Jamie L Taber, Siyan (Stan) Gao, Savannah G Lynn, Daniel R Brusche, Christopher B Stults
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Transgender and nonbinary (TNB) individuals are at increased risk for depression, making it important to understand the factors that may contribute to or attenuate this disparity. Community connectedness is one such factor, but prior research regarding its effect on depression has been mixed. It is possible that these mixed findings may be because community connectedness leads to multiple types of self-focused attention (i.e., gender reflection, gender rumination, and preoccupation with others’ perceptions) which then have opposing effects on depression. To explore this possibility, the current study sought to test a mediation model in which the three types of self-focused attention would mediate the relationship between community connectedness and depression. Cross-sectional data were collected using online surveys with 309 TNB young adults aged 18–30 years old. As hypothesized, preoccupation with others’ perceptions was a significant mediator explaining 35.85% of the variance in depression. Contrary to expectations, gender reflection and gender rumination were not significant mediators. However, community connectedness significantly predicted greater gender reflection, while gender rumination predicted greater depression. The present results indicate that different types of self-focused attention have differing effects on depression in this population, suggesting that clinicians working with TNB young adults should target the ways that these clients think about their gender identity. Additionally, connection to the TNB community can have multiple effects on thought processes, and efforts should be made to maximize the benefits while minimizing the costs. Future research should test these relationships using longitudinal designs and at different ages, as well as assess whether aspects of the community connectedness itself (e.g., co-rumination in TNB spaces, online vs. in-person connection) may have different effects.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T12:14:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221135219
       
  • Perceived partner support and post-traumatic symptoms after an acute
           cardiac event:A longitudinal study

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      Authors: Sivan George-Levi, Keren Fait, Hanoch Hod, Shlomi Matezky, Noa Vilchinsky
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveCardiac disease induced post-traumatic stress symptoms (CDI-PTSS) have been associated with negative consequences for patients’ mental and physical health. Identifying risk factors as well as potential buffers is necessary for understanding the development and maintenance of CDI-PTSS. The current study focused on the mediating and moderating role played by patients’ perceptions of their partners’ ways of providing support (active engagement, overprotection, and protective buffering) in the development and stabilization of CDI-PTSS levels over time.MethodMale patients (N = 106) were recruited at hospitalization (T1) and completed the study’s questionnaires at two time points: approximately four months after hospital discharge (T2) and approximately eight months after discharge (T3).ResultsStructual equation modeling was used to test the study hypotheses. All three forms of T2 perceived partner support were positively associated with T2 CDI-PTSS levels which, in turn, were positively associated with T3 CDI-PTSS levels. The linear association between T2 and T3 CDI-PTSS was positive but decreased as perceived partner protective buffering levels increased.ConclusionsIn the context of CDI-PTSS, perceived partner support seems to have a different effect than it has in non-traumatic illness contexts. Interventions for couples coping with CDI-PTSS should be designed accordingly.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T09:57:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131902
       
  • Aging together: Dyadic profiles of older couples’ marital quality,
           psychological well-being, and physical health

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      Authors: Josh R Novak, Stephanie J Wilson, Ashley E Ermer, James M Harper
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined couple-level profiles to reveal systematic patterns of health and well-being in older couples. Using latent profile analysis, dyadic profiles were constructed in a national sample of 535 older, different-sex couples based on couples’ marital quality, psychological well-being, and physical health. Results revealed 4 distinct profiles: Maritally Satisfied and Healthy (63.5%), Maritally Dissatisfied and Moderately Healthy (14.7%), Maritally Satisfied with Unhealthy Wives (12.3%), and Maritally Satisfied with Unhealthy Husbands (9.3%). Husband age and education, wife education, and marriage length were significant predictors of class membership. Within-class partner concordance analyses confirmed that the latter two profiles featured the largest discordance between partners’ health and well-being. Most couples in this sample of older adults belonged to a class who demonstrated successful aging in all domains. A smaller group maintained high marital quality despite physical and psychological difficulties, and other couples were moderately healthy but maritally dissatisfied.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T03:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221135451
       
  • Positive affect as mediator: The socioemotional selectivity theory applied
           to the association between bonding social capital and wellbeing in later
           life

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      Authors: Marianne Simons, Jennifer Reijnders, Mayke Janssens, Johan Lataster, Nele Jacobs
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Bonding social capital was previously found as more strongly associated with wellbeing in later life than bridging social capital. The present study explored a theoretical explanation found in the socioemotional selectivity theory, by examining whether this association is mediated by the experience of positive affect. According to this theory older adults prefer intimate social relationships that contribute to the experience of positive emotions. A sample of older adults (50–93 years) filled out two online questionnaires, with an interval of 4 weeks, measuring bonding and bridging social capital and positive affect on T1 (N = 319, Mage(SD) = 61.28(7.65)) and social, emotional and psychological wellbeing on T2 (N = 202, Mage(SD) = 61.31(7.47)), as well as relevant covariates. Associations were found between bonding social capital and all sub-dimensions of wellbeing. Mediation analysis showed that these associations were (partly) mediated by the experience of positive affect. Bridging social capital was only associated with social wellbeing and no association with the experience of positive affect was found. These findings support the socioemotional selectivity theory and further illustrate the importance of bonding social capital in positive aging as a resource of opportunities to experience positive emotions, contributing to wellbeing in later life. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-14T10:23:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221134977
       
  • Tailoring dyadic coping strategies to attachment style: Emotion-focused
           and problem-focused dyadic coping differentially buffer anxiously and
           avoidantly attached partners

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      Authors: Lana Vedelago, Rhonda N Balzarini, Skye Fitzpatrick, Amy Muise
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment insecurity is associated with lower satisfaction and lower felt security in romantic relationships, especially during times of stress such as coping with a global pandemic. Heightened external stressors for couples are associated with poorer relationship quality, but how couples cope with stress together, or their dyadic coping strategies, is associated with the maintenance of relationship satisfaction. In the current study, we followed 184 couples living together during the COVID-19 pandemic to test whether specific coping strategies buffered people higher in attachment anxiety and avoidance from lower satisfaction and felt security in the early weeks and ensuing months of the pandemic. Our findings demonstrate that perceiving more emotion-focused dyadic coping—being affectionate and using intimacy—buffered the negative association between attachment anxiety and relationship satisfaction and felt security, both concurrently and over several months of the pandemic. In addition, problem-focused perceived dyadic coping backfired for people higher in attachment anxiety; they felt less satisfied when they perceived more problem-focused coping—which involves being solution-focused and using instrumental support—in their relationship. In contrast, people higher in attachment avoidance were buffered against lower relationship satisfaction when they perceived more problem-focused dyadic coping and were not buffered by emotion-focused coping. The current findings suggest the importance of tailoring coping strategies to a partner’s attachment style for relationship quality and felt security during times of stress.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T11:37:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221133575
       
  • Cognitive and personality variables as predictors of sexism against women
           in Spanish adolescents

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      Authors: Amparo Oliver, Jose-Javier Navarro-Perez, José M Tomás, Maria F Rodrigo
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research on the antecedents of sexism against women have not considered simultaneously the effects of sex, personality, and cognitive variables (need for closure and critical thinking disposition) in relation to sexism. We evaluated whether in adolescence, these indicators could predict sexist attitudes towards women using structural models. The sample comprised 709 Spanish high-school students (mean age = 16.79). 51.5% were female. Sex (being male), need for closure and critical thinking were the most relevant predictors of sexism. The disposition to think critically is as relevant as the motivational dimension of cognition (need for closure) to predict sexism. Multi-group structural models by sex were estimated, and a moderator effect was found between openness to experience and sexism. We suggest future lines of research to disentangle the effects of personality and cognition on sexism and to guide intervention programs to reduce sexist attitudes among adolescents.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T11:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221133062
       
  • Floppy foreskins, misogynoir and why Black women cannot give up on swiping

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      Authors: Jane E. M. Carter
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      It saddens me to admit that I feel safest on an app where men are simply not allowed to contact me until I express an interest in them. A quick review of online discussion platforms would suggest that many in society have just decided that men cannot be trusted with the first move. I get it, frankly, but it isn’t what I hope for. In this piece I argue that Black women who desire connection and community cannot afford to stop dating online. With personal narrative and a review of the literature, this paper takes an autoethnographic approach to online dating as a Black woman. I show that the risks of social isolation and mental health concerns leave women of color, particularly Black single women in a vulnerable position. Research is suggesting that people are meeting less new people IRL (in real life), and that this is especially true for romantic connections. Given the hostility of the online dating environment, I consider the role of courtesy, consciousness and awareness of virtual space as community for the Black woman. The paper requests that claims of anti-racism be replaced with demonstrations of this in dating practices, and I present suggested strategies for holding space in the current environment.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T03:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131929
       
  • The protective effects of perceived gratitude and expressed gratitude for
           relationship quality among African American couples

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      Authors: Allen W Barton, August Ida Christine Jenkins, Qiujie Gong, Naya C Sutton, Steven RH Beach
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of gratitude in romantic relationships. Particular attention was given to differentiating the beneficial effects of perceived gratitude (i.e., gratitude from one’s partner, or feeling appreciated) versus expressed gratitude (i.e., gratitude to one’s partner, or being appreciative) in mitigating the negative effects of ineffective arguing and financial strain on multiple indicators of relationship quality, both concurrently and longitudinally. The sample comprised 316 African American couples with three waves of data spanning approximately 16 months. Results indicated higher levels of perceived gratitude – but not expressed gratitude – weakened the association between relationship stressors and worsened outcomes (i.e., less satisfaction and confidence, more instability) at both between-person and within-person levels. Concurrently, perceived gratitude exhibited protective effects with respect to ineffective arguing and financial strain; longitudinal protective effects were observed only with respect to ineffective arguing. Results highlight the ways in which perceiving gratitude from one’s partner, both at a single instance and sustained over many months, can be protective for multiple facets of relationship quality. Collectively, findings underscore the importance of interpersonal gratitude for romantic relationships and its merit for increased attention in research and practice.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T02:50:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131288
       
  • Collective and collaborative actions among peers in school as a form of
           cultural resistance of Mapuche children in La Araucanía, Chile

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      Authors: Ana M. Alarcón, Paula Alonqueo, Carolina Hidalgo-Standen, Marcela Castro
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Based on a participant observation, this article reports children actions and activities that may identified as ways of cultural resistance in the school. Three elementary rural schools participated in this study. The research team visited each school taking field notes during school routines. The analysis consisted of textual and conceptual codification of the three contexts in which the mapuche children deployed their patterns of cultural interaction. The results demonstrated that despite the traditional school system, mapuche children display their own patterns of cultural interaction to promote collaboration, collective organization and supporting and care for others. This work invites us to questioning the ways in which the learning strategies of the western school, are suitable to the mapuche indigenous children. In order to be effective in education, we must integrate the cultural framework of family learning. Thus, may be necessary, to deconstruct hegemonic teaching practices that stimulate individualism instead cooperation.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T11:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221126543
       
  • Developmental trajectories of children’s sibling jealousy after the
           birth of a sibling: Strict parental control, parenting stress and parental
           depression as pre-birth predictors

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      Authors: Bin-Bin Chen, Min Ning, Jing Lv
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This longitudinal research identified the developmental trajectories of sibling jealousy in firstborn children (M age = 49.9 months; 55% boys) among 107 Chinese families from 1 to 12 months after the birth of a younger sibling. Four sibling jealousy trajectories were identified: (a) low-increasing, (b) middle-stable, (c) high-stable, and (d) sharp-increasing. Trajectory group membership varied as a function of pre-birth parental factors including strict parental control (i.e., tiger parenting), parenting stress, and parental depression. These results highlight the benefit of examining the development of sibling jealousy over the transition to siblinghood and the importance to recognize pre-birth parental characteristics, especially paternal factors, as determinants when identifying children who may be at greater risk of adjustment difficulties following the birth of a younger sibling.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T01:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131079
       
  • Longitudinal associations of social support, everyday social interactions,
           and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Brian N. Chin, Thomas W. Kamarck, Robert E. Kraut, Siyan Zhao, Jason I. Hong, Emily Y. Ding
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Main effect models contend that perceived social support benefits mental health in the presence and the absence of stressful events, whereas stress-buffering models contend that perceived social support benefits mental health especially when individuals are facing stressful events. We tested these models of how perceived social support impacts mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluated whether characteristics of everyday social interactions statistically mediated this association – namely, (a) received support, the visible and deliberate assistance provided by others, and (b) pleasantness, the extent to which an interaction is positive, flows easily, and leads individuals to feel understood and validated. 591 United States adults completed a 3-week ecological momentary assessment protocol sampling characteristics of their everyday social interactions that was used to evaluate between-person average values and within-person daily fluctuations in everyday social interaction characteristics. Global measures of perceived social support and pandemic-related stressors were assessed at baseline. Psychiatric symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed at baseline, at the end of each day of ecological momentary assessment, and at 3-week follow-up. Consistent with a main effect model, higher baseline perceived social support predicted decreases in psychiatric symptoms at 3-week follow-up (β = −.09, p = .001). Contrary to a stress-buffering model, we did not find an interaction of pandemic-stressors × perceived social support. The main effect of perceived social support on mental health was mediated by the pleasantness of everyday social interactions, but not by received support in everyday social interactions. We found evidence for both main effects and stress-buffering effects of within-person fluctuations in interaction pleasantness on daily changes in mental health. Results suggest the importance of everyday social interaction characteristics, especially their pleasantness, in linking perceived social support and mental health.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T09:40:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221130786
       
  • The role of goal interdependence in couples’ relationship
           satisfaction: A meta-analysis

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      Authors: Ana M Toma, Petruța P Rusu, Ioana R Podina
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In the context of an increasingly egalitarian society, in which all genders are encouraged to be vocal about their goals and take equal growth opportunities, goal interdependence in couples has been repeatedly associated with relationship satisfaction. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide evidence for the association between goal interdependence and relationship satisfaction in couples. We performed a random-effects analysis for the 32 reports and 49 independent samples that investigated three types of goal interdependence (goal support, goal congruence, and goal conflict) in association with relationship satisfaction. We found significant medium effect sizes between goal interdependence in general (r = .23) and relationship satisfaction, as well as between each type of goal interdependence and relationship satisfaction. The strongest effect size emerged for the association between goal congruence and relationship satisfaction (r = .43), followed by the association between goal support and relationship satisfaction (r = .28) and by the negative association between goal conflict and relationship satisfaction (r = −.29). From a theoretical standpoint, these results provide support for a key claim from the Transactive Goal Dynamics Theory that goal coordination between partners impacts relationship functioning. From a practical standpoint, they emphasize the need to consider goal interdependence in couples’ therapy, particularly in the current sociocultural context.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T08:54:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221128994
       
  • Spouse and mother-in-law rejection and marital adjustment of Turkish women
           with child and adult marriage

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      Authors: Büşra Aslan Cevheroğlu, Şennur Tutarel-Kışlak
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Child marriages occur between a child under the age of 18 and an adult or another child and take place without children being physiologically or psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and having children. Child marriages among women are prevalent in Turkey and linked with number of negative outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictor role of spouse and mother-in-law rejection on marital adjustment and whether this relationship differs for Turkish women married under and above 18. Results revealed that women who were married as children had significantly higher scores for spouse and mother-in-law rejection and lower marital adjustment than women married above 18. Additionally, the marital adjustment of women married as children and by the marriage of choice was significantly lower than women who had married at an adult age and by the marriage of choice. Moderation analysis, which was made by Process macro, indicated that marital age and mother-in-law rejection had a moderator role in the relationship between overall spousal rejection and marital adjustment. In conclusion, this study provides a unique contribution to the relevant literature in Turkish culture in terms of comparing women married under the age of 18 and above 18.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T11:46:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221129833
       
  • Body dissatisfaction and romantic relationship quality: A meta-analysis

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      Authors: Dana L Stiles, Lijing Ma, Hannah F Fitterman-Harris, Eyad J Naseralla, Cort W Rudolph
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Research has shown that there is an association between body dissatisfaction (a person’s negative evaluation of their own physical body) and romantic relationship satisfaction. Some have suggested that individuals with higher levels of body dissatisfaction report less satisfaction with their romantic relationships. However, others have suggested that there is a positive relationship between these two variables. This meta-analysis sought to examine the relationship between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction. Possible moderators of this relationship were also examined. Fifty-six studies were meta-analyzed to quantitatively summarize the relationship between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction. Additionally, participant body mass index (BMI), relationship length, gender, sexual orientation, and age were considered as potential moderators of this relationship. Results confirmed previous findings, indicating that body dissatisfaction was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction (rxy = −0.24). Furthermore, moderation analyses found that this negative relationship between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction was attenuated as BMI increased. This relationship became stronger when the studies had higher female representation. Some sexual orientations also moderated the relationship. No moderating effects of age or relationship length were found.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T11:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221128504
       
  • Accurately detecting happy facial expressions associates with perceptions
           of flirtatiousness

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      Authors: Emily S Bibby, Allison M McKinnon, Michael Shaw, Richard E Mattson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Emotional facial expressions are relevant to flirtation because they provide information on an individual’s intentions or motivations. Individual differences in the ability to accurately detect and discriminate between normative facially expressed emotions could lead to misperceptions of the level of sexual interest being conveyed, which has been linked to sexual assault and harassment. To explore this notion, we recruited a national sample of college aged male and female participants (N = 219) who completed a novel facial expression recognition task used to detect accuracy in processing facial emotions of happiness, surprise, anger, and disgust. Participants also viewed multiple video clips of blind dates between two different-sex participants and rated each partner on their degree of flirtatiousness. Consistent with predictions, we found that individuals who misidentified other facial emotions for happiness appeared to overestimate flirtation. Though not predicted, participants who failed to accurately identify happy faces also overestimated flirtation, whereas individuals who took longer to respond to emotional facial expressions and misidentified an emotion as conveying happiness made greater errors in perceptions of flirtatiousness. Overall, these findings suggest that individual differences in the ability to detect and discriminate happiness through facial expressions are relevant to misperceptions of flirtatious behavior, and more broadly illuminates the role of basic emotion recognition on perceptions of flirtatiousness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T01:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221128259
       
  • “I don’t even know who i am”: Identity reconstruction
           after the loss of a spouse

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      Authors: Erin C. Wehrman
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Reconstructing identity after bereavement is an important element of managing grief. Using the context of spousal bereavement, the goals of this study were to understand how people reconstruct their identities following loss and to determine what role interaction plays during this process. Interviews with individuals who had lost a spouse (N = 35) were analyzed using grounded theory procedures. The results supported a model of reconciling past and present selves, which included managing changes to both personal and relational identities. The identity reconciliation process was hindered by several personal and interactional stressors and facilitated by social support from others. To reconstruct identity, individuals utilized six strategies that reduced stressors and built sources of social support. Theoretically, these findings provide nuance for identity reconstruction processes and highlight the various ways others can hinder or facilitate identity change following bereavement.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T09:50:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221127399
       
  • Changing the blame game: Associations between relationship mindfulness,
           loneliness, negative partner attributions, and subsequent conflict

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      Authors: Katherine L Morris, Jonathan G Kimmes, Crystal G Marroquin
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Given the important associations between couple conflict and various physical and mental health outcomes, it is essential to explore factors that may catalyze or exacerbate the frequency and impact of conflict in romantic relationships. One such factor may be relationship mindfulness, or the tendency to have a nonjudgmental awareness of one’s experiences in romantic relationships. Previous research has demonstrated a link between relationship mindfulness and various relational outcomes, but its association with relationship conflict has not yet been explored. Additionally, the current study sought to explore the mechanisms that link relationship mindfulness and relational outcomes. Based on previous research connecting conflict to negative partner attributions, the study examined how relationship mindfulness may predict conflict through negative partner attributions. Furthermore, the study aimed to incorporate loneliness as a potential mediator between relationship mindfulness and negative partner attributions. A sample of 116 different-sex middle-aged married couples were recruited to complete an online assessment. Using an actor–partner interdependence mediation model, the results indicated several significant associations among relationship mindfulness, negative partner attributions, loneliness, and relationship conflict. For example, a significant indirect effect was found; that is, female relationship mindfulness was associated with decreased relationship conflict via its prior association with both male loneliness and additionally through male loneliness and subsequent male negative partner attributions. The results indicate that by employing interventions that increase relationship mindfulness, it may be possible to both reduce loneliness and encourage more charitable partner attributions which, in turn, may reduce couple conflict.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T07:20:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221128502
       
  • Positive illusions about dyadic perspective-taking as a moderator of the
           association between attachment insecurity and marital satisfaction

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      Authors: Richard A Rigby, Rebecca J Cobb
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety or avoidance) puts people at risk for dissatisfying relationships. However, the dyadic regulation model of insecurity buffering suggests that an understanding and responsive partner may help insecure individuals to regulate emotions, thus improving couples’ relationships. It may also be that perceiving partners as understanding and empathic, especially in an exaggeratedly positive way (i.e., positive illusions) will buffer insecurity. In 196 mixed-gender newlywed couples, we investigated whether spouses’ positive illusions about partner’s dyadic perspective-taking moderated the association between spouses’ attachment insecurity and spouses’ and partners’ marital satisfaction over two years. Positive illusions generally predicted more satisfying relationships and attachment avoidance consistently predicted more dissatisfying relationships. There were also several instances where multilevel modeling indicated that positive illusions of dyadic perspective-taking buffered the negative effects of attachment avoidance on relationship satisfaction. However, there was also potentiation such that in two instances, positive illusions about dyadic perspective-taking strengthened the association between spouses’ insecurity (husbands’ attachment anxiety and wives’ attachment avoidance) and subsequent marital dissatisfaction. In the moment, positive illusions about dyadic perspective-taking may allow spouses to feel happy in their relationship despite fear of emotional intimacy; however, positive illusions may not continue to buffer effects of insecurity on subsequent relationship satisfaction and may even be harmful in the face of insecurity.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T07:49:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221127241
       
  • Friendship dynamics of young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations:
           Group diversity, physical intimacy and emotionality

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      Authors: Rory Magrath, Mark McCormack
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Non-exclusive sexuality identity labels such as “mostly straight” and “mostly gay” describe distinct sexualities. While research documents their existence and distinctiveness, little focus has been given to friendship dynamics with these groups and research on friendship has a heteronormative bias. In this study, we use data collected with 25 men with non-exclusive sexualities from a university in the northeastern United States to examine their friendship dynamics and intimacy practices in order to advance understanding of friendship beyond binary frameworks of straight and gay friendship groups. We document the friendship practices of men who are mostly straight, “bisexual-leaning,” and mostly gay, and develop understanding of bromance as a term that has extended to cross-sexuality and cross-gender friendships. We call for greater engagement with these sexuality labels and greater recognition of fluidity as a concept that extends beyond sexology and debates about heterosexual privilege to understand the complex dynamics of intimacy and friendship and a broader range of friendship practices among men that such understandings facilitate.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T03:22:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221127232
       
  • (Re)discovering interpersonal relationships and self-authorship in STEM
           Graduate school through mindfulness

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      Authors: Sarah Lausch, Kelly Rossetto
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we utilized self-authorship theory to investigate how mindfulness practices support the connection between identity development and interpersonal relationships in STEM graduate students. In an 8-week self-led mindfulness intervention, 10 women from computer science and engineering graduate programs completed a variety of mindfulness exercises, including meditation, yoga, drawing and mindful daily activities (e.g., mindful dishwashing). We utilized a qualitative approach to gather an in-depth picture of each participant’s individual progress. Data analysis showed that students’ experiences, including supportive relationships and sense of identity in STEM, were influenced by interpersonal (dis)connections in and beyond academia. Mindfulness offered space and tools for students to reflect on their relationships and STEM identity and, if needed, modify them. Three themes are discussed: academic relationships with peers and advisors, including negotiating social comparisons; personal relationships with family and friends, including academia-life balance; and the relationship to their STEM identity.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T02:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221123964
       
  • Through mindful colored glasses' The role of trait mindfulness in
           evaluating interactions with strangers

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      Authors: Kim Lien van der Schans, Janne AM van Kraaij, Johan C Karremans
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Converging evidence shows that mindfulness is associated with various indicators of interpersonal behavior and well-being. Although promising, the effects of mindfulness should ultimately be expressed during interpersonal interactions and observed by interaction partners. The current study assessed the associations between trait mindfulness, interpersonal stress, and interpersonal perceptions during stressful interpersonal tasks between strangers. Sixty-seven same sex stranger dyads (134 individuals; all females) participated in a laboratory study. Trait mindfulness was measured via an online questionnaire. In the lab, participants were asked to engage in two tasks with a stranger: (1) a stressful interaction task (they were asked to introduce themselves standing only 27 cm apart) and (2) a joint coordination task. Afterwards, both partners’ levels of interpersonal stress and interpersonal perceptions (i.e. liking of the interaction, perceived attentiveness, and perceived coping) were assessed. Results of Actor Partner Interdependence Models (APIM) showed a negative association between trait mindfulness and experienced interpersonal distress. Trait mindfulness was positively associated with liking of the interaction, perceived attentiveness and perceived coping. Actors’ trait mindfulness was positively associated with the partners’ liking of the interaction (marginally significant), but no other partner effects were found. There was no association between trait mindfulness and performance on the joint coordination task. The current findings underscore the importance of studying trait mindfulness dyadically. In actual interpersonal interactions, trait mindfulness positively affects interaction experiences of actors, but we found little support for a transfer to experiences of interaction partners. We discuss the implications of these findings in light of several theoretical models.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T05:16:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221119770
       
  • Longitudinal associations between Mexican-origin youth’s relationships
           with parents, siblings, and friends and individual adjustment

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      Authors: Jenny Padilla, Kimberly A. Updegraff, Susan M. McHale, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Justin Jager
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Across adolescence and into young adulthood, as youth experience both normative developmental and stressful life changes, close and supportive relationships are essential for healthy adjustment. Supportive relationships may be especially important for protecting Mexican-origin youth from developing depressive symptoms and engaging in risky behaviors given the emphasis within Mexican culture on close relationships, especially in families. With longitudinal data, we examined the associations between Mexican-origin youth’s relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, and best friends and their adjustment across adolescence and into young adulthood. Participants were 246 Mexican-origin families with a 7th grader (younger sibling) and at least one older sibling, a mother, and a father at Time 1 (T1). Youth participated in home interviews at T1 and again five (T2) and eight (T3) years later. At T1, younger siblings were 12.55 (SD = .60) and older siblings were 15.48 (SD = 1.57) years old. Findings indicated that, with sibling and friend characteristics in the models, mother and father acceptance and conflict were significantly linked to youth positive and negative adjustment, respectively. Both sibling conflict and, consistent with a “partners in crime” process (Slomkowski et al., 2001; p. 273), sibling intimacy (of younger adolescents only), were linked to risky behavior. Same-gender friend conflict also was linked to risky behavior, but neither sibling nor friend relationships were linked to depressive symptoms. Some relationship effects were moderated by gender and age. Together, our findings have implications for programs aimed at preventing adjustment problems.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-13T05:11:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221119428
       
  • Latinx adolescents’ perspectives on romantic relationships and
           sexuality: Exploring the roles of parents and siblings

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      Authors: Sarah E Killoren, María Len-Ríos, Eric Salinas, Cara E Streit, Gustavo Carlo
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Parents and siblings are critical sources of influence on adolescents’ ideas about and experiences with romantic relationships and sex. Using focus group data from 44 Latinx adolescents in the U.S. Midwest, we explored how family relationships shaped how Latinx teens learned about cultural norms and expectations concerning their romantic relationships and involvement in sexual behaviors. Parents expressed more protective behaviors toward their daughters than their sons, seemingly a result of gender-role expectations and cultural perceptions of family honor and respect. Mothers and siblings were sources of sexual information. Older siblings were seen to play protective roles, dependent on the quality of the sibling relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-12T09:42:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221118947
       
  • The days add up: Daily marital discord and depressive reactivity linked to
           past-month depressed mood and marital risk across 10 years

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      Authors: Stephanie J. Wilson, Christina M. Marini
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Marital discord fuels depression, according to decades of research. Most prior studies in this area have focused on macro-longitudinal change in depression over the course of years, and on global ratings of marital satisfaction. Less work has examined fluctuations in depressed mood and marital discord in daily life, and none has investigated associations of short-term patterns with longer-term depressed mood and marital outcomes. Using data from participants in the Midlife in the U.S. project, the current study examined daily associations between marital discord and depressed mood, as well as their links to concurrent and prospective patterns of past-month depressed mood and marital risk. Results showed that, on average, depressed mood rose on days when individuals had an argument or tension with their spouse (i.e., marital discord), after accounting for the roles of other stressors. More frequent daily marital discord was also associated with greater past-month depressed mood and marital risk, above and beyond prior levels. Those with larger depressive mood responses to discord in daily life (i.e., greater reactivity) exhibited higher concurrent past-month depressed mood and greater 10-year increases in depressed mood. As the first study to link daily marital patterns to concurrent and prospective changes in depressed mood and marital outcomes, this investigation uncovered two novel processes—daily marital discord and depressive reactivity—as important for understanding long-term patterns of marital risk and depression.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T02:56:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221116277
       
  • Familism Values Embedded in U.S. Mexican Mother-Child Conversations About
           Sibling Conflicts

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      Authors: Joy Roos, Jean M Ispa, Fiorella L Carlos Chavez, Jennifer G Bohanek, Sahitya Maiya, Jihee Im
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study focused on familism-related content that emerged in a primarily qualitative analysis of U.S. Mexican mother-child conversations about sibling conflicts (Mage = 10.55; English = 43 (24 female); Spanish = 43 (19 female)). The study’s goals were to (1) describe how familism, a central Latinx value, is conveyed to children in late middle childhood, (2) uncover signs that children at this age actively or passively accept or reject mothers’ observations and expectations, and (3) determine if there are differences in conversation content based on language preference, child gender, or birth order. During discussions about sibling conflict, mothers’ and children’s comments revolved around four pillars of familism: establishing and maintaining harmony and devotion, recognizing the specialness of family ties (in this case sibling ties), accepting role obligations, and developing other-orientation. These values were expressed more implicitly than explicitly by a majority of the dyads. Most children accepted at least some of mothers’ statements, but resistance was also high. Chi-square tests indicated no gender-of-child or birth order differences in the content of the discussions, but dyads who spoke Spanish during the conversations were more likely than those who spoke English to speak in explicit familistic terms and to point to the specialness of the sibling tie. Our study is strengths-based as we demonstrate that in U.S. Mexican families, children’s conflicts with their siblings may serve as catalysts for “teaching moments” during which parents impart culturally relevant values.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T12:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221108453
       
  • Social Support and Positive Future Expectations, Hope, and Achievement
           among Latinx Students: Implications by Gender and Special Education

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      Authors: Ashley M Fraser, Crystal I Bryce, Karina M Cahill, Diana L Jenkins
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      A cultural-ecological approach posits that multiple sources of relational support can contribute to youths’ strengths development. Some such strengths are positive future expectations (PFE) and hope, both of which represent beneficial, future-oriented cognitive-motivational constructs; however, they have not been fully explored among Latinx youth. Furthermore, it is unknown how different socializing agents (i.e., family, teachers, friends) influence youths’ PFE, hope, and academic achievement, and if relations differ by gender and special education (SPED) designation. The present study (5th–12th grade Latinx students living in the Southwest U.S.; n = 748; 49% male; 15% SPED) investigated whether students’ relational supports longitudinally related to their PFE (for education/work, self-satisfaction, community involvement), hope, and academic achievement 1 year later. In the non-SPED designated sample, family support related to PFE for work/education and self-satisfaction for boys. Conversely, teacher support related to PFE for work/education and self-satisfaction for girls. PFE for community involvement was low across the sample. The same pattern emerged for hope, with family support significant for boys and teacher support for girls. For achievement, teacher support related positively across gender. Friend support had few significant associations overall, although a significant negative relation emerged between friend support and achievement for SPED students. SPED students had a positive path between family support and PFE for work/education. Findings support a multidimensional approach to increasing strengths and resilience through increased attention to family, teacher, and friend support across unique groups of Latinx youth.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T10:23:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221110626
       
  • Associations among financial well-being, daily relationship tension, and
           daily affect in two adult cohorts separated by the great recession

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      Authors: August I. C. Jenkins, Yunying Le, Agus Surachman, David M. Almeida, Steffany J. Fredman
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Financial well-being may be an important context for daily emotional reactivity to relationship tension (e.g., arguments) whose salience varies across historical time or as a function of exposure to economic downturns. This study investigated how emotional reactivity, operationalized as daily fluctuations in negative and positive affect associated with the occurrence of daily relationship tension, varied by financial well-being among those who were and were not exposed to the Great Recession of 2008. Two matched, independent subsamples of partnered individuals from the National Study of Daily Experiences completed identical 8-day diary protocols, one before the Great Recession (n = 587) and one after (n = 351). Individuals reported higher negative affect and lower positive affect on days when relationship tension occurred. Further, results indicated that negative affect reactivity, but not positive affect reactivity, was moderated by both financial well-being and cohort status. For the pre-recession cohort, negative affect reactivity was stronger among those with lower financial well-being. However, among the post-recession cohort, financial well-being did not moderate negative affect reactivity to relationship tension. Findings highlight the utility of considering major societal events, such as economic downturns, to understand variability in emotional reactivity to day-to-day relationship tension in the context of financial well-being, as the salience of financial well-being in the ways relationship tension and negative affect are related on a daily basis appears to vary by historical context.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T03:35:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221105611
       
  • Linking mean level and variability in affect to changes in perceived
           regard: A dyadic longitudinal burst study of African American couples

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      Authors: Betul Urganci, Anthony D. Ong, Anthony L. Burrow, Tracy DeHart
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      High positive affect and low negative affect have been repeatedly tied to better individual and interpersonal well-being. However, research has focused on mean levels whereas the day-to-day unfolding of affect and its impact on romantic relationships remain largely understudied. Here, we examined the links between mean levels and variability in affect and changes in perceptions of partner regard —the extent to which people believe that their partners value and accept them. One hundred twenty-five African American couples (N = 250 individuals) reported how positively they thought their partners viewed them across two sessions (T1 and T2), separated by a 3-week daily diary study in which participants reported on their positive and negative affect each day for 21 consecutive days. Using dyadic analysis, we found that higher actor negative affect variability was associated with lower perceived regard at T2 controlling for perceived regard at T1. This finding held when controlling for mean levels of actor and partner negative affect. By contrast, PA variability was curvilinearly associated with perceived regard, with moderate levels of variability associated with higher subsequent perceived regard. These results highlight the importance of accounting for mean levels and curvilinear effects when examining links between affect dynamics and relational well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T04:07:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221103276
       
  • Connectedness and independence of young adults and parents in the digital
           world: Observing smartphone interactions at multiple timescales using
           Screenomics

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      Authors: Xiaoran Sun, Nilam Ram, Byron Reeves, Mu-Jung Cho, Andrew Fitzgerald, Thomas N. Robinson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Young adults’ connectedness with and independence from parents have important implications for both their development and family relationships. Although technology plays an increasingly important role in these dynamics, there are few direct observations of how connectedness and independence unfold in the digital world. Little is known of between- and within-person differences in these dynamics.Purpose:This study uses Screenomics to directly observe smartphone interactions between young adults and their parents, and discover whether and how dimensions of connectedness and independence manifest in these interactions at multiple timescales.Research Design, Study Sample, and Data Collection:Screenshot sequences were collected from 10 ethnically diverse young adult (50% female) participants’ smartphones every 5 seconds for up to 1 month (total of 457,905 screenshots). We identified 1413 interaction instances between young adults and their parents (including 359 calls, 1032 messages, and 10 other communication instances).Analysis and ResultsDigital ethnographic analysis of screenshots revealed multiple themes related to connectedness (emotional support, logistical and financial support, consistent communication) and independence (parent fostering independence, parent intrusiveness/overinvolvement, and young adults’ psychological separation). Quantitative descriptions at different timescales (week, day, hour, moment) revealed within-person and between-person differences in active engagement, reciprocal communication, consistent communication, parent intrusiveness, young adults’ reliance on parents’ support, and young adults’ psychological separation.Conclusion:Findings highlight the need to examine family digital interactions at multiple timescales and the utility of temporally dense and comprehensive Screenomics data in studying social relations.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T10:27:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221104268
       
  • Young Adults’ Intergroup Prosocial Behavior and its Associations With
           Social Dominance Orientation, Social Identities, Prosocial Moral
           Obligation, and Belongingness

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      Authors: Sonya Xinyue Xiao, Qinxin Shi, Jeffrey Liew
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In an increasingly diverse world, understanding young adults’ intergroup prosocial behavior toward diverse others may inform ways to reduce intergroup conflict and cultivate an equitable and inclusive society. The college years are often the first time that young adults begin to explore their social identities and intergroup relations independently from their parents. Thus, we focused on college students and examined social dominance orientation, social positions, prosocial obligation, and the sense of belongingness in relation to their intergroup prosocial behavior across four domains (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, and department affiliation). Participants were 1163 young adults aged 18–24 years (63.2% females, 34.5% males, and 2.3% gender diverse; 50.7% White, 19.6% Latino, 25% Asian, 2.3% Black) from a large public Southwestern university. Four profiles of intergroup prosocial behavior (self-serving, altruistic, selfish, and reverse ethnic racial bias) were identified and they were differentially related to the social, cognitive, and contextual correlates we examined. Overall, findings highlighted the need to foster intergroup prosocial behavior and the benefits of intergroup prosocial behavior to young adults’ sense of belongingness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T11:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221096398
       
  • Parents’ and older siblings’ socialization of younger siblings’
           empathy: a sample case in China

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      Authors: Chang Su-Russell, Luke T. Russell
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In 2016, China officially ended its One-Child policy and started allowing urban married couples to have up to two children. Beginning in 2021, Chinese policy officially began encouraging couples to have up to three children in response to low birth rates and increasing needs for workers and care providers in an aging country. Siblinghood in China has thus begun to re-emerge as a social phenomenon among urban Chinese. Given the important role sibling relationships have in the development of empathy, this relaxation and policy shift provides a unique context in which to investigate family dynamics among two-child families where there is a large age gap between children. Guided by family systems theory, the current study examined family level factors that help socialize younger sibling’s empathy in mainland China by testing direct associations between autonomy supportive parenting, marital quality, coparenting, and secondborn children’ (ages 3–5) empathy in mainland China. Direct and indirect associations with secondborn children’s empathy via older sibling’s relationship quality with their younger sibling were also tested. Results revealed coparent conflict and positive sibling relationship were directly associated with younger sibling’s empathy; further, marital quality and coparent support were indirectly associated with younger sibling’s empathy via positive sibling relationship. Parents, educators, and practitioners may consider addressing family level factors as an avenue for promoting younger sibling’s empathy development.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T11:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221099179
       
  • Fostering academic competence in Latinx youth: The role of cultural values
           and parenting behaviors

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      Authors: Maciel M. Hernández, Zoe E. Taylor, Blake L. Jones
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Although high school completion rates for Latinx adolescents have improved, rural Latinx youth experience more barriers to academic success than their urban counterparts. Using a culturally informed model, we tested prospective associations between adolescents’ Wave 1 familism values (cultural values emphasizing the importance of family relationships and connections) and Wave 2 academic competencies in a sample of predominantly rural Latinx adolescents (N = 123) in the U.S. Midwest. We also examined whether youth-reports of mother’s and father’s warm parenting at Wave 1 and 2 moderated these associations. Familism values predicted higher self-reported school attachment and academic aspirations and expectations. Neither maternal nor paternal warmth predicted school attachment, academic aspirations, or academic expectations. Maternal warmth at Wave 2, but not at Wave 1, moderated the positive associations between familism and academic aspirations and expectations. These associations were more pronounced under circumstances of low maternal warmth. Paternal warmth did not significantly moderate the proposed associations predicting academic aspirations and expectations. Paternal warmth at Wave 1, but not at Wave 2, moderated the positive association between familism and school attachment. This association was stronger in the context of low paternal warmth. Results emphasize the joint roles of culture and parenting context for fostering academic competence in Latinx youth living in primarily rural regions of the Midwest during a critical developmental stage.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T02:48:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095054
       
  • The Mediating Role of Empathy in the Links Between Relationships with
           Three Socialisation Agents and Adolescents’ Prosocial Behaviours

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      Authors: Alexia Carrizales, Zehra Gülseven, Lyda Lannegrand
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have mostly focused on the socialisation role of parents on adolescents’ prosocial behaviours and there is relatively less work focusing on peers who are important socialisation agents for the development of prosocial behaviours in adolescence. Further, simultaneously examining the socialisation roles of multiple socialisation agents in prosocial behaviours and empathy development is even rarer. Thus, in the current study, we examined supportive and poor relationships with three socialisation agents (i.e., parents, peers in class, and peers in extracurricular activities) on adolescents’ prosocial behaviours, considering whether empathy mediates these relations. Additionally, we examined the links between supportive and poor relationships with peers in the class and extracurricular activities and adolescents’ prosocial behaviours, and the mediating role of empathy. The sample was 676 French adolescents (50% female, Mage = 14.35 years). Supportive relationships and poor relationships models were tested separately. We examined the relative strengths of three socialisation agents using three-socialiser and two-socialiser models. In the three-socialiser model, supportive relationships with parents and peers in the extracurricular activities were positively linked to adolescents’ empathy a year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours. Additionally, poor relationships with parents were negatively linked to adolescents’ empathy a year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours. In the two-socialiser model, both supportive relationships with peers in class and extracurricular activities were positively linked to adolescents’ empathy 1 year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours but only for early adolescents. Lastly, in the two-socialiser model, poor relationships with peers in extracurricular activities were negatively linked to adolescents’ empathy 1 year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours. In general, these results were robust across adolescents’ gender and age. Overall, results make several important contributions to the literature on the role of multiple socialisation agents and adolescents’ prosocial behaviours.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:20:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221099652
       
  • The associated effects of parent, peer and teacher attachment and
           self-regulation on prosocial behaviors: A person-and variable-centered
           investigation

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      Authors: Pei-Jung Yang, Meredith McGinley
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescence is a critical juncture in the development of prosocial behaviors, which contribute to the overall well-being of youth. Thus, it is important to understand how multiple socialization agents and self-regulation simultaneously foster prosocial behaviors. Using both variable-centered and latent person-centered approaches, the current study examined the relative, concurrent contribution of multiple socialization agents (parent, peer, and teacher attachment) and self-regulation on Taiwanese adolescents’ global prosocial behaviors. This study included 1473 Taiwanese high school students (50.4% junior high schoolers, 57.9% females, Mage = 14.87 years) who completed measures of parent, peer, and teacher attachment, self-control, and prosocial behaviors. Four profiles emerged from the person-centered approach. The profile with highest scores on self-control and all measures of attachment reported the highest prosocial behaviors. The other three profiles differed in their attachment patterns but demonstrated roughly similar levels of self-control. Among the three profiles, the groups with the lowest scores on prosocial behaviors appeared to have low to moderate attachment quality, whereas the group with high peer attachment scored significantly higher in prosocial behaviors than the other two groups. Results from the variable-centered approach found no direct effects of parent attachment on prosocial behaviors, though effects of self-control and peer and teacher attachments were evident. Our findings suggest that the quality of attachment and self-regulation commonly promote prosocial behaviors in youth. Furthermore, peer and school-based relationships may serve as unique and salient socialization contexts for prosocial behaviors during adolescence. Limitations and recommendations for future research were discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T07:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095268
       
  • Direct and indirect effects of maternal and sibling intimacy on
           adolescents’ volunteering via social responsibility values: A
           longitudinal study

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      Authors: Sahitya Maiya, Shawn D. Whiteman, Jenna C. Dayley, Sarfaraz Serang, Laura Wray-Lake, Brian C. Kelly, Jennifer L. Maggs, Sarah A. Mustillo
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the direct and indirect effects of maternal and sibling relational intimacy on adolescents’ volunteering behaviors via their social responsibility values. Participants included two adolescents (50% female; M age = 1 year) and one parent (85% female; M age = 45 years) from 682 families (N = 2046) from an ongoing longitudinal study. Adolescents self-reported their intimacy with mothers and siblings (Time 1), social responsibility values (Time 1), and volunteering (Times 1 and 2); parents reported on sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., gender, birth order, and family income). Results from a structural equation model indicated that after accounting for adolescents’ earlier volunteering, both maternal and sibling intimacy were indirectly related to greater volunteering via social responsibility values. There were no significant direct effects from maternal or sibling intimacy to adolescents’ volunteering. Results indicate that both mothers and siblings are important in socializing prosocial and civic values and behaviors during adolescence.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T04:56:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221083301
       
  • Too hunky to help: A person-centered approach to masculinity and prosocial
           behavior beliefs among adolescent boys

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      Authors: Matthew G. Nielson, Diana L. Jenkins, Ashley M. Fraser
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Boys’ beliefs about prosocial behavior toward other boys may be negatively affected by masculine norm adherence, and there is evidence that early adolescence is a time when boys feel heightened levels of pressure from multiple sources (e.g., friends, family, and self) to adhere to masculine norms like emotional restriction (e.g., appearing stoic and uncaring). However, the relation between boys’ masculinity and their prosocial behavior beliefs is likely further affected by boys’ social competency. Generally, boys’ social competency is positively associated with prosocial behavior, but this is not the case for “tough” boys (boys who adhere to many traditionally masculine norms). We expected that analyzing the relation between early adolescent boys’ pressure to adhere to masculine norms and boys’ unique social profiles (created using adherence to masculine norms and aspects of social competency) would further illuminate boys’ patterns of prosocial behavior beliefs toward other boys. A latent profile analysis estimated profiles of masculinity and social competence among 260 early adolescent boys (59% White, Mage = 11.45 years old, Rangeage = 10–12) in the southwestern U.S. Three profiles emerged which we labeled socially precarious (50%), socially self-confident (41%), and socially avoidant (9%). R3Step and BCH procedures indicated that higher levels of felt pressure from all three sources resulted in a significantly higher likelihood of being in the socially precarious profile compared to the socially self-confident profile and that boys in the socially self-confident profile had significantly higher mean levels of prosocial behavior beliefs toward other boys (M = 3.22) compared to boys in the socially precarious profile (M = 3.01). Overall, this study encourages the socialization of social competency while simultaneously discouraging the perpetuation of certain masculine norms among adolescent boys.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T05:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221084697
       
 
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