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Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.848
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0265-4075 - ISSN (Online) 1460-3608
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Support me in the good times too: Interpersonal emotion regulation,
           perceived social support, and loneliness among mothers of children with
           autism spectrum disorder

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      Authors: Roni Laslo-Roth, Sivan George-Levi, Lital Ben-Yaakov
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Although loneliness is an experience that mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may face, it has not been widely explored. Having a supportive social environment that is also effective in emotion regulation may provide feelings of security necessary for one to feel less lonely. The present study examined loneliness levels among mothers of children with ASD (vs. without ASD) and explored interpersonal resources (interpersonal emotion regulation and perceived social support) that might contribute to reduced loneliness. One-thousand-seven-hundred-and-83 mothers of children (546 with ASD, 1,237 without) completed a series of questionnaires. Mothers of children with ASD (vs. without ASD) reported higher levels of loneliness and lower levels of interpersonal emotion regulation efficacy for positive emotions and lower levels of perceived social support. A serial mediation model indicated that interpersonal factors fully mediated the association between being a mother of a child with ASD (vs. without) and loneliness. Moreover, a moderation mediation model showed that the tendency to approach others in order to regulate positive emotions moderated the association between perceived efficacy of such regulation and mothers’ loneliness. Interpersonal emotion regulation for positive emotions and perceived social support may contribute to reduced loneliness, especially among mothers of children with ASD.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T08:28:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221113031
       
  • Fluctuations in children’s self-regulation and parent-child interaction
           in everyday life: An ambulatory assessment study

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      Authors: Tomasz Moschko, Gertraud Stadler, Caterina Gawrilow
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Self-regulation has mostly been studied as an intrapersonal trait which fluctuates across time and impacts everyday behavior related to individual goal pursuit and achievement. Although it is plausible that self-regulation affects not only individuals but also their social network, there is less research on how self-regulation levels and fluctuations are linked to social processes in daily life, such as interactions between children and their parents. To this end, this study tracked children’s (aged 9 to 11 years; N = 70) self-regulation, and their daily interaction quality with parents, across 54 days, using child and parental self-reports. Participants reported higher interaction quality in dyads in which children showed higher self-regulation levels in comparison to others, as well as on days on which children showed higher self-regulation compared to their typical levels. The extent of this association varied between dyads, which needs to be addressed in future studies. As self-regulation and parent-child interaction quality fluctuate in parallel, this study suggests that researchers should aim to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to develop dynamic self-regulation interventions in family contexts and improve family well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T11:50:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221116788
       
  • The days add up: Daily marital discord and depressive reactivity linked to
           past-month depressed mood and marital risk across 10 years

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      Authors: Stephanie J. Wilson, Christina M. Marini
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Marital discord fuels depression, according to decades of research. Most prior studies in this area have focused on macro-longitudinal change in depression over the course of years, and on global ratings of marital satisfaction. Less work has examined fluctuations in depressed mood and marital discord in daily life, and none has investigated associations of short-term patterns with longer-term depressed mood and marital outcomes. Using data from participants in the Midlife in the U.S. project, the current study examined daily associations between marital discord and depressed mood, as well as their links to concurrent and prospective patterns of past-month depressed mood and marital risk. Results showed that, on average, depressed mood rose on days when individuals had an argument or tension with their spouse (i.e., marital discord), after accounting for the roles of other stressors. More frequent daily marital discord was also associated with greater past-month depressed mood and marital risk, above and beyond prior levels. Those with larger depressive mood responses to discord in daily life (i.e., greater reactivity) exhibited higher concurrent past-month depressed mood and greater 10-year increases in depressed mood. As the first study to link daily marital patterns to concurrent and prospective changes in depressed mood and marital outcomes, this investigation uncovered two novel processes—daily marital discord and depressive reactivity—as important for understanding long-term patterns of marital risk and depression.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T02:56:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221116277
       
  • Self-expansion motivation and inclusion of others in self: An updated
           review

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      Authors: Arthur Aron, Gary Lewandowski, Brittany Branand, Debra Mashek, Elaine Aron
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper we review the self-expansion model in the context of close relationships, focusing primarily on work in the last 20 years, considering throughout variation in our samples across cultures and other demographics—both in existing studies and in potential implications for future research. The self-expansion model has two key principles. The first half of the paper focuses on the motivational principle: The model theorizes that people have a fundamental desire to expand the self—that is, to increase their self-efficacy, perspectives, competence, and resources, and this often occurs through relationships in general. The second half of the paper focuses on the inclusion-of-other-in-the-self principle, in that a major means of self-expansion is through close relationships, when one’s partner’s identities, perspectives, skills, and resources become to some extent “included in the self” as also one’s own. For each principle we briefly describe its foundational research support and then explore the extensive, significant work of the last 20 years substantially expanding and deepening the implications of the model. The majority (although with some interesting exceptions) of studies have fallen short of testing the universal breadth of the model. As we review the research, we consider where the studies were conducted and with what kinds of populations. Where there are data from diverse populations, the overall pattern of results are generally similar. However, there were individual differences found within the populations studied, such as in attachment style, that affected the operation of both principles. Since there are well known differences in the distribution of such individual differences across populations of many types, it is quite likely that while the basic patterns may not differ, future research will show different degrees of operation in different populations.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T02:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221110630
       
  • Factors influencing peer referencing behavior during an online learning
           activity

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      Authors: Fu-Yun Yu, Shannon Sung
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Cultivating critical thinking skills in referencing a plethora of information epitomizes the learning objectives of technology in education. However, different social influences in a classroom, such as academic prestige, friendship, and gender, may impact students’ referencing behavior. Specifically, we investigated how various factors affect pupils’ referencing of peer-generated questions during an online test-construction learning activity and perceptions. Three fifth-grade classes (n = 75, Mage = 11.08, SDage = 0.28) participated in a two-stage mixed methods research for 12 weeks. We found significant effects of friendship and inferred task-specific ability on online referencing behavior based on the multiple regression quadratic assignment procedures, simple regressions, and two-step hierarchical linear regressions. The survey data further revealed that students considered the content of their peers' questions most frequently among a mixture of other factors influencing online referencing decisions. The implications and suggestions for instruction, future studies, and system designs involving behavior connoting intent to endorse are provided to help create meaningful, reflective, and impartial online learning spaces.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T09:21:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221114288
       
  • A descriptive literature review of early research on COVID-19 and close
           relationships

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      Authors: Jennifer L Bevan, Madison K Murphy, Pamela J Lannutti, Richard B Slatcher, Rhonda N Balzarini
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This in-depth critical review investigates the impact of COVID-19 on personal relationships from the start of the pandemic in early 2020 to September 2021. Research examining six themes are identified and described in detail: the impact of COVID-19 on (1) family and intimate relationships; (2) LGBTQ+ relationships; (3) how COVID-19 is linked to technologically mediated communication and personal relationships; (4) potential shifts in sexual behaviors and desire; (5) potential shifts in relational conflict and intimate partner violence; and (6) constructive aspects of personal relationships, which is a broad theme that includes outcomes such as resilience, relational quality, coping, and social support. Findings for overarching patterns are offered to highlight implications for current research and identify future directions to consider when continuing to study personal relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic and similar future crises.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T02:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221115387
       
  • The effects of ideal standards and parental approval on mate choice among
           emerging adults

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      Authors: Ipek Guvensoy, Gizem Erdem
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examines how ideal standards and parental approval interplay in the decision to marry via three consecutive studies among Turkish emerging adults. The first study explored desirable traits for a potential spouse, and participants (N = 309) rated and rank-ordered 56 traits. Findings revealed that trustworthiness, honesty, and loyalty were the most desired traits. Informed by the first study’s findings, we designed vignettes, tested their validity via three pilot studies, and finalized scenarios for the experimental study. In Study 2 (N = 331), we recruited highly liberal (secular) emerging adults and randomly assigned them to one of the four experimental conditions (2x2 design; ideal standards high vs. low, parents approve vs. disapprove). Each participant read a vignette about a potential partner and responded whether they would be willing to marry that person (yes or no). Analysis revealed that participants were 13.93 times [CI (6.40, 30.32)] more willing to marry a partner who met ideal standards and 4.24 times [CI (1.93, 9.30)] more willing if the parents approved the partner. Study 3 replicated Study 2 with a conservative sample, using the same experimental design and vignettes. We recruited participants through theology departments and online religious groups (N = 484). Main effects of both having an ideal partner [OR = 5.00, CI (2.62, 9.54)] and parental approval [OR = 4.00, CI (2.12, 7.53)] were significant as well as the interaction term [OR= 7.38, CI (2.32, 23.51)]. The current study highlights the importance of parental approval and ideal standards on marriage decisions among secular and conservative emerging adults.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-16T03:06:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221114029
       
  • Operationalizing relational construal level to test relational turbulence
           theory: Linking relational turbulence in romantic relationships to
           interpersonal processes

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      Authors: Yuwei Li, Denise Haunani Solomon
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing upon construal level theory (CLT) and relational turbulence theory (RTT), two studies developed and assessed three operationalizations of relational construal level, defined as how concretely or abstractly people conceptualize their romantic relationship, and evaluated relational construal level as a mediator of the associations between relational turbulence and supportiveness, collaborative planning, and social network engagement using data reported by individuals in romantic relationships. In Study 1 (N = 405), preference for abstract versus concrete descriptions of relational activities and tendency to make extreme versus neutral judgments about a partner demonstrated desirable measurement properties and negative associations with relational turbulence, as predicted. A third measure indexing the accessibility of relational judgments was associated with neither relational turbulence nor the other measures of relational construal level. Study 2 used a more ethnically diverse sample (N = 414; Asian: n = 103, Black: n = 105, Hispanic: n = 102, White: n = 104) and identified preference for abstract versus concrete descriptions of relational activities as the most robust operationalization of relational construal level. Specifically, this measure was negatively associated with relational turbulence and mediated the associations between relational turbulence and supportiveness, collaborative planning, and social network engagement, as predicted by RTT.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T04:17:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221113360
       
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Canadian Social Connections: A Thematic
           Analysis

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      Authors: Catherine Lowe, Maliha Rafiq, Lyndsay Jerusha MacKay, Nicole Letourneau, Cheuk Fan Ng, Janine Keown-Gerrard, Trevor Gilbert, Kharah M Ross
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundOn March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic. Responses to the pandemic response disrupted Canadian social connections in complex ways; because social connections are determinants of health and well-being, their disruption could adversely affect health and well-being. Moreover, understanding how pandemics and public health responses affect social connections could inform pandemic recovery strategy and public health approaches designed for future pandemics. The purpose of this study is to understand experiences of pandemic impact on social connections over the pandemic.MethodsA sample of 343 Canadian adults was recruited through Athabasca University and social media. Participants were predominantly White (81%) and female (88%). After the pandemic onset, participants responded to open-ended questions about the impact of the pandemic on and any changes to social connections at three time points (baseline, and three- and 6 months from study entry). Responses were categorized into epochs by date (April-June 2020 [Spring]; July-August 2020 [Summer]; September 2020-January 2021 [Fall/Winter]). Qualitative thematic analysis was used to code themes for each epoch.ResultsNegative impact of the pandemic (37–45%), loss of social connections (32–36%), and alternative means of connection (26–32%) were prominent themes across the epochs. Restrictions to face-to-face connections were largest in spring (9%) and lowest in the Summer (4%). Conversely, participants increasingly reported limited contact or communication into the Fall and Winter (6–12%) as pandemic restrictions in Canada were reinstated.ConclusionsThe COVID-19 pandemic threatens social connections, with negative impacts that fluctuated with COVID-19 case rates and subsequent pandemic restrictions. These findings could be used to identify targets for social supports during the pandemic recovery, and to adjust public health strategies for future pandemics that minimize impact on social connections.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T12:25:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221113365
       
  • Ideal-perception consistency and regulation of best friends: Associations
           With attachment anxiety and avoidance

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      Authors: Ting Ai, Omri Gillath, Nickola C. Overall, Tara J. Collins
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Do people use ideal standards to evaluate and regulate their best friends' The current research examines whether the Ideal Standards Model captures dynamics in friendships, and what role attachment orientations play in these dynamics. Greater discrepancies between perceptions of best friends and ideal standards (low ideal-perception consistency) on the warmth/trustworthiness (Studies 1–3) and status/resources (Study 2) dimensions were associated with greater regulation attempts of best friends on these dimensions. Low ideal-perception consistency on the attractiveness/vitality dimension was not associated with regulation on this dimension (Study 2). Additionally, all studies illustrated that attachment avoidance was associated with lower ideal-perception consistency and, in turn, greater regulation attempts. By contrast, attachment anxiety was associated with higher regulation attempts of best friends, not because of lower ideal-perception consistency, but because of greater relationship maintenance motivations (Study 2) and an acute sensitivity to daily reductions in ideal-perception consistency (Study 3).
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T11:02:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221112600
       
  • An examination of visually impaired individuals’ communicative
           negotiation of face threats

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      Authors: Lynsey K. Romo, Cimmiaron Alvarez, Melissa R. Taussig
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Being visually impaired is an inherently face threatening and potentially stigmatizing experience that can greatly affect personal relationships. Those with a visual impairment frequently miss nonverbal cues, must rely on others for transportation and other assistance, and can be overtly marked as different through their use of a cane or a guide dog. Framed by the theoretical lens of facework and using in-depth interviews of 24 visually impaired individuals, this study uncovered how people with a visual impairment engaged in facework to mitigate and remediate the low-vision-related face threats they and others experienced. Participants reported using preventive facework, including politeness and humor, as well as corrective facework (avoidance, apologies, accounts, and humor) to manage face threats. Interviewees also engaged in a new type of facework that was simultaneously corrective and preventive: future facework (education and advocacy). Findings offer practical strategies visually impaired individuals can use to ward off or repair face threatening acts, contesting stigma and potentially improving relationships and fostering allyship among sighted individuals. The study also suggests that facework be incorporated into a biopsychosocial model of disability to help combat disabling social barriers.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T04:31:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221114048
       
  • “I’ve been cheated, been mistreated, when will I be loved”: Two
           decades of infidelity research through an intersectional lens

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      Authors: Dana A Weiser, M Rosie Shrout, Adam V Thomas, Adrienne L Edwards, Jaclyn Cravens Pickens
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Infidelity is a common experience within romantic relationships and is closely linked with relationship dissolution and well-being. Using an intersectionality theoretical framework, we undertook a systematic review of the infidelity literature in flagship journals associated with the disciplines of the International Association for Relationship Research. Our review includes findings from 162 published empirical articles. We identified several themes within the infidelity literature, including: individual, interpersonal, and contextual predictors; outcomes and reactions; beliefs and attitudes; prevalence; and conceptualization. We also found that the infidelity literature primarily utilizes participants who are White, heterosexual, cisgender individuals who reside in the United States or Canada. Moreover, researchers were limited in information they provided about participants’ identities so in most articles it was difficult to assess many dimensions of identity. Ultimately, these findings limit our ability to apply an intersectional framework. We argue that researchers should extend the research they cite, collect richer demographic data, expand their samples (especially beyond White heterosexual cisgender American college students), and consider the sociohistorical context of their participants (e.g., the particular social circumstances and historical forces which shape individuals’ lived experiences). For example, scholars using an intersectional framework would explain their participants’ relationship experiences through a lens which includes systems of sexism, racism, heterosexism, cissexism, classism, etc., in conjunction with individual and interpersonal factors.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T02:39:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221113032
       
  • Familism Values Embedded in U.S. Mexican Mother-Child Conversations About
           Sibling Conflicts

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      Authors: Joy Roos, Jean M Ispa, Fiorella L Carlos Chavez, Jennifer G Bohanek, Sahitya Maiya, Jihee Im
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study focused on familism-related content that emerged in a primarily qualitative analysis of U.S. Mexican mother-child conversations about sibling conflicts (Mage = 10.55; English = 43 (24 female); Spanish = 43 (19 female)). The study’s goals were to (1) describe how familism, a central Latinx value, is conveyed to children in late middle childhood, (2) uncover signs that children at this age actively or passively accept or reject mothers’ observations and expectations, and (3) determine if there are differences in conversation content based on language preference, child gender, or birth order. During discussions about sibling conflict, mothers’ and children’s comments revolved around four pillars of familism: establishing and maintaining harmony and devotion, recognizing the specialness of family ties (in this case sibling ties), accepting role obligations, and developing other-orientation. These values were expressed more implicitly than explicitly by a majority of the dyads. Most children accepted at least some of mothers’ statements, but resistance was also high. Chi-square tests indicated no gender-of-child or birth order differences in the content of the discussions, but dyads who spoke Spanish during the conversations were more likely than those who spoke English to speak in explicit familistic terms and to point to the specialness of the sibling tie. Our study is strengths-based as we demonstrate that in U.S. Mexican families, children’s conflicts with their siblings may serve as catalysts for “teaching moments” during which parents impart culturally relevant values.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T12:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221108453
       
  • Social Support and Positive Future Expectations, Hope, and Achievement
           among Latinx Students: Implications by Gender and Special Education

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      Authors: Ashley M Fraser, Crystal I Bryce, Karina M Cahill, Diana L Jenkins
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      A cultural-ecological approach posits that multiple sources of relational support can contribute to youths’ strengths development. Some such strengths are positive future expectations (PFE) and hope, both of which represent beneficial, future-oriented cognitive-motivational constructs; however, they have not been fully explored among Latinx youth. Furthermore, it is unknown how different socializing agents (i.e., family, teachers, friends) influence youths’ PFE, hope, and academic achievement, and if relations differ by gender and special education (SPED) designation. The present study (5th–12th grade Latinx students living in the Southwest U.S.; n = 748; 49% male; 15% SPED) investigated whether students’ relational supports longitudinally related to their PFE (for education/work, self-satisfaction, community involvement), hope, and academic achievement 1 year later. In the non-SPED designated sample, family support related to PFE for work/education and self-satisfaction for boys. Conversely, teacher support related to PFE for work/education and self-satisfaction for girls. PFE for community involvement was low across the sample. The same pattern emerged for hope, with family support significant for boys and teacher support for girls. For achievement, teacher support related positively across gender. Friend support had few significant associations overall, although a significant negative relation emerged between friend support and achievement for SPED students. SPED students had a positive path between family support and PFE for work/education. Findings support a multidimensional approach to increasing strengths and resilience through increased attention to family, teacher, and friend support across unique groups of Latinx youth.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T10:23:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221110626
       
  • Relationship maintenance among military couples

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      Authors: Leanne K. Knobloch, J. Kale Monk, Shelley M. MacDermid Wadsworth
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      A burgeoning body of research on the relationship maintenance of military couples over the past two decades suggests the time is right to organize, assimilate, and critique the literature. We conducted a systematic review informed by the integrative model of relationship maintenance that considered issues of intersectionality. Our literature search identified 81 relevant journal articles representing 62 unique samples. With respect to theory, 59.3% of the journal articles employed one or more formal theoretical frameworks. In terms of research design, 88.7% of the studies focused on the U.S. military, 83.9% of the studies recruited convenience samples, 54.8% of the studies utilized quantitative methods, and 30.6% of the studies collected longitudinal data. Among the studies reporting sample demographics, 96.8% of participants were married, 77.2% of participants identified as non-Hispanic White, and only one same-sex relationship was represented. Our narrative synthesis integrated findings about relationship maintenance from studies examining (a) relationship maintenance overtly, (b) communicating to stay connected across the deployment cycle, (c) disclosure and protective buffering, (d) support from a partner, (e) dyadic coping, and (f) caregiving and accommodating a partner’s symptoms. We interpret our results with an eye toward advancing theory, research, and practice.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T07:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221105025
       
  • Why do you have sex and does it make you feel better' Integrating
           attachment theory, sexual motives, and sexual well-being in long-term
           couples

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      Authors: Noémie Beaulieu, Audrey Brassard, Sophie Bergeron, Katherine Péloquin
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment theory postulates that three behavioral systems are central to optimal couple functioning: attachment, caregiving, and sex. However, few studies have examined the concurrent contribution of these systems to understand sexual well-being. This daily diary study examined the intermediary role of attachment- and caregiving-related sexual motives in the associations linking attachment insecurities and positive and negative emotions during sexual activity in 149 long-term mixed-gender/sex couples. Multilevel analyses revealed that individuals higher in attachment avoidance endorsed less caregiving sexual motives, which was associated with their own more negative emotional experience during sexual activity. Individuals higher in attachment anxiety endorsed more attachment sexual motives, which was associated with their own and their partner’s more negative emotional experience during sex. However, individuals higher in attachment anxiety also concurrently endorsed more caregiving sexual motives, which predicted their own and their partner’s more positive emotional experience during sex. Overall, the findings support the associations between the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems and suggest that engaging in sex as a way to care for one’s partner might foster sexual well-being in long-term couples.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T02:43:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221108759
       
  • Actor and partner effects of positive affect on communal coping

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      Authors: Fiona S. Horner, Vicki S. Helgeson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Positive affect (PA) has been shown to facilitate the accrual of social resources which, in turn, reduces stress and improves health. These social resources may encourage interpersonal coping strategies, but this effect has been understudied. The present research examined if PA facilitates the interpersonal coping style of communal coping, defined as the perception of a stressor as shared (shared appraisal) and collaborative action to manage the stressor (collaboration). We assessed whether trait and state PA predicted increased collaboration and shared appraisal on the same day, and whether state PA predicted increased collaboration and shared appraisal the following day. Participants were romantic partners in which one person had recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 198, 45% female, 44.9% Black, 72% married) and their significant others completed daily diary surveys that assessed PA, negative affect, and diabetes-specific shared appraisal and collaboration for 14 days. Multilevel modeling was used to differentiate the effects of within-person (state) and between-person (trait) PA. Actor Partner Interdependence Modeling was used to assess the effects of both couple member’s mood on one person’s coping. Results showed partner state PA was cross-sectionally linked to shared appraisal, but the link of actor PA to shared appraisal was accounted for by the inclusion of actor NA. Both actor and partner state and trait PA were cross-sectionally linked to collaboration. Importantly, actor state PA predicted next-day shared appraisal. Findings provide initial support for the role of affect in predicting communal coping.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T06:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221110628
       
  • A scoping review on couples’ stress and coping literature: Recognizing
           the need for inclusivity

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      Authors: Ashley K. Randall, Silvia Donato, Lisa A. Neff, Casey J. Totenhagen, Guy Bodenmann, Mariana Falconier
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The study of romantic partners’ experiences of stress and coping has exploded with nearly 11,000 empirical studies on this topic within the past two decades alone. Despite its prevalence, researchers, clinicians, and policy makers alike are questioning how inclusive is our current knowledge base on partners’ stress and coping' The purpose of this review is to examine literature on this topic from the past two decades to offer perspectives on whose vantage point has the research been conducted and what types of questions have been valued and for whom' To answer these questions, a scoping review was conducted of articles published in the last two decades (2002–2021) that focused on associations of partners’ stress, support, and/or coping with relationship quality and presented research questions on two or more demographic identities. Fifty-six empirical articles met the inclusion criteria. Results were not surprising given the lack of diversity in psychological science; most manuscripts used theories and models that were developed by Western scholars and the research questions focused on general processes independent of peoples’ identities or focused on a singular aspect of identity. Limitations and future directions of this review are presented, specifically as they pertain to the need for a more critical analysis of the types of stressors people may experience and how those with diverse identities, particularly multiple minoritized identities, may experience and cope with such stressors in the context of their relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T06:25:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221101904
       
  • The role of relational mobility in relationship quality and well-being

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      Authors: BoKyung Park, Minjae Kim, Liane Young
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examined the associations among: (1) the perceived freedom to initiate and end interpersonal relationships (relational mobility), (2) relationship quality, and (3) well-being. Across 38 nations, people in nations with higher relational mobility reported greater well-being, which was explained by higher-quality relationships with close others (Study 1A). This effect was replicated at the individual level, after controlling for extraversion and socio-economic status (Study 1B). Finally, first-year college students with higher relational mobility reported receiving more social support from new friends during the COVID-19 pandemic, which explained those students’ higher well-being during the pandemic (Study 2). Together, this work demonstrates that relational mobility can explain enhanced well-being across nations, individuals, and life circumstances, and indicates potential avenues for interventions that increase the well-being of individuals and societies.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T08:06:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221108760
       
  • Associations among financial well-being, daily relationship tension, and
           daily affect in two adult cohorts separated by the great recession

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      Authors: August I. C. Jenkins, Yunying Le, Agus Surachman, David M. Almeida, Steffany J. Fredman
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Financial well-being may be an important context for daily emotional reactivity to relationship tension (e.g., arguments) whose salience varies across historical time or as a function of exposure to economic downturns. This study investigated how emotional reactivity, operationalized as daily fluctuations in negative and positive affect associated with the occurrence of daily relationship tension, varied by financial well-being among those who were and were not exposed to the Great Recession of 2008. Two matched, independent subsamples of partnered individuals from the National Study of Daily Experiences completed identical 8-day diary protocols, one before the Great Recession (n = 587) and one after (n = 351). Individuals reported higher negative affect and lower positive affect on days when relationship tension occurred. Further, results indicated that negative affect reactivity, but not positive affect reactivity, was moderated by both financial well-being and cohort status. For the pre-recession cohort, negative affect reactivity was stronger among those with lower financial well-being. However, among the post-recession cohort, financial well-being did not moderate negative affect reactivity to relationship tension. Findings highlight the utility of considering major societal events, such as economic downturns, to understand variability in emotional reactivity to day-to-day relationship tension in the context of financial well-being, as the salience of financial well-being in the ways relationship tension and negative affect are related on a daily basis appears to vary by historical context.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T03:35:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221105611
       
  • Adolescents’ social support networks and long-term psychosocial
           outcomes

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      Authors: Deborah Seok, Jenalee R. Doom
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined how adolescents’ social support networks are associated with long-term psychosocial outcomes (depressive symptoms and romantic relationship quality) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed into adulthood. Data were from 14,800 participants who completed in-home interviews during Wave I (grades 7–12) and Wave IV (24–32 years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using latent class analysis, we identified three profiles of adolescent social support across parents, friends, teachers, and adults: (1) high support from all sources, (2) low teacher support and high support from other sources, and (3) low teacher/adult and moderate parent/friend support. The third profile reported significantly higher increases in depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood and lower romantic relationship quality in young adulthood than the other two profiles, but the “low teacher/high other support” group did not significantly differ from the “high support from everyone” group. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses indicated that adult and teacher support each interacted with parent support to predict outcomes during adulthood. These results highlight the advantage of having multiple supports in one’s social network and emphasize the importance of understanding how adolescents’ overall profile of relationships promotes their well-being in young adulthood.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T07:14:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221109021
       
  • Trajectories of coparenting quality across ethnically diverse and
           interethnic parents

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      Authors: Hali Kil, Jean-Michel Robichaud, Geneviève A Mageau
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The Interracial Couples’ Life Transitions (ICLT) model proposes that: i) interethnic parents experience more coparenting difficulties upon the birth of a child compared to same-ethnicity parents; and ii) there exists heterogeneity in interethnic parents’ coparenting quality, thus the coparenting experience cannot be generalized across all interethnic unions. In the present work, we examined these two propositions using a large-scale database of elevated risk, fragile families. In Study 1, we compared the longitudinal trajectories of coparenting in interethnic parents (n = 574 mother-father unions) and their matched same-ethnicity counterparts (n = 574 each mothers and fathers) and found that interethnic parents of Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White backgrounds consistently experienced lower and decreasing trajectories of coparenting compared to their counterparts across the first 9 years of a child’s life. In Study 2, we examined heterogeneity in coparenting trajectories for only interethnic mothers and fathers (n = 1148) and found a three-trajectory profile in which the majority (75.5%) of parents fall into a contented (stable and high) coparenting profile. Our findings confirm and extend on the ICLT model, showing that most interethnic parents experience more coparenting difficulties across time compared to their counterparts, and although there is some heterogeneity in interethnic parents’ coparenting trajectories, most interethnic parents appear to experience stable and content coparenting across time.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T11:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106997
       
  • Computer-Mediated Communication and Well-Being in the Age of Social Media:
           A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Andrew C High, Erin K Ruppel, Bree McEwan, John P Caughlin
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The association between computer-mediated communication (CMC) and well-being is a complex, consequential, and hotly debated topic that has received significant attention from pundits, researchers, and the media. Conflicting research findings and fear over negative outcomes have spurred both moral panic and further research into these associations. To create a more comprehensive picture of trends, explanations, and future directions in this domain of research, we conducted a systematic meso-level review of 366 studies across 349 articles published since 2007 that report associations between CMC and well-being. Although most of this research is not explicitly theoretical, several potential theoretical mechanisms for positive and negative effects of CMC on well-being are utilized. The heterogeneity of effects in the studies we reviewed could be explained by the discipline in which the research is conducted, the methodology used, the types of CMC and well-being examined, and the population studied. Our evaluation of this body of research highlights the importance of attending to how we conceptualize communication and well-being, the questions we ask, and the populations and contexts we study when both reading and producing research on CMC and well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T10:07:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106449
       
  • Daily dyadic coping: Associations with postpartum sexual desire and sexual
           and relationship satisfaction

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      Authors: Gracielle C Schwenck, Samantha J Dawson, David B Allsop, Natalie O Rosen
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The transition to parenthood involves numerous stressors. Consequently, many new parents report negative changes to their sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction relative to pre-pregnancy, with the most disruption reported at 3-months postpartum. While prior research suggests that dyadic coping—a couple’s capacity to deal with stress effectively and mutually—is positively linked with relationship satisfaction, little is known about how it relates to sexual and relational outcomes in new parents’ daily lives. This study examined how common and negative dyadic coping were associated with new parents’ own and their partner’s daily sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. New parent couples (N = 120) completed a baseline survey and 21 days of daily diaries between 3- and 4-months postpartum. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. After controlling for mood, for both women who gave birth and their partners, on days that they reported higher common dyadic coping, they reported greater sexual desire, and sexual and relationship satisfaction. On days when women reported lower negative dyadic coping, both they and their partner reported greater relationship satisfaction. When women reported higher common dyadic coping, their partners reported greater sexual desire. When women reported lower negative dyadic coping, they reported greater sexual desire. When partners reported lower negative dyadic coping, they reported greater relationship satisfaction. Focusing on strategies to encourage common and reduce negative daily dyadic coping may be beneficial for sexual and relationship well-being early in the postpartum when couples report experiencing a peak in sexual and relationship challenges.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:54:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221107393
       
  • Evidence of assortative mating for theory of mind via facial expressions
           but not language

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      Authors: Emily Jackson, John Galvin, Varun Warrier, Simon Baron-Cohen, Shanhong Luo, Robin IM Dunbar, Hannah Proctor, Eva Lee, Gareth Richards
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Assortative mating is a phenomenon in which romantic partners typically resemble each other at a level greater than chance. There is converging evidence that social behaviours are subject to assortative mating, though less is known regarding social cognition. Social functioning requires the ability to identify and understand the mental states of others, i.e., theory of mind. The present study recruited a sample of 102 heterosexual couples via an online survey to test if theory of mind as measured using facial expressions (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) or language (Stiller-Dunbar Stories Task) is associated with assortative mating. Results provide evidence of assortative mating for theory of mind via facial expressions, though there was no such effect for theory of mind via language. Assortative mating for theory of mind via facial expressions was not moderated by length of relationship nor by partner similarity in age, educational attainment, or religiosity, all variables relevant to social stratification. This suggests assortative mating for theory of mind via facial expressions is better explained by partners being alike at the start of their relationship (initial assortment) rather than becoming similar through sustained social interaction (convergence), and by people seeking out partners that are like themselves (active assortment) rather than simply pairing with those from similar demographic backgrounds (social homogamy).
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T10:54:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106451
       
  • COVID-19 distress and interdependence of daily emotional intimacy,
           physical intimacy, and loneliness in cohabiting couples

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      Authors: Talea Cornelius, Ana DiGiovanni, Allie W Scott, Niall Bolger
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction: COVID-19 has had a profound impact on relationship functioning, though effects have been heterogeneous. Reasons for divergent effects on relationship functioning remain unclear. Theoretical models suggest that it is not just stress exposure that leads to adverse relationships outcomes, but also subjective response to these stressors. Using data from a 14-day intensive longitudinal study of romantic dyads, we hypothesized that COVID-19-related distress would adversely impact one’s own and one’s partner’s report of relationship functioning, on average. Interdependence at the trait level (random effects between couples) and day level (residuals within couples) was also examined. Methods: Participants were 104 female-male romantic couples cohabiting the New York metropolitan area (Mage = 28.86, SDage = 7.69) between August 2020 – April 2021. Couples reported COVID-19 distress during a baseline interview and daily relationship functioning for 14 days. Multilevel models were specified for six outcomes simultaneously: female and male partner daily physical intimacy, emotional intimacy, and loneliness. Interrelationships of the intercepts of the six outcomes were specified, reflecting trait-level associations of each partner’s stable outcome tendencies. Interrelationships of the daily residuals of the six outcomes were also specified, reflecting within-couple associations at the daily level. Results: Female partner COVID-19 distress was inversely associated with her own emotional and physical intimacy and positively associated with her own and her partner’s loneliness. Male COVID-19 distress was associated with his own loneliness only. There was significant interdependence at both levels, such that greater loneliness in either partner was associated with less intimacy in each member of the couple. Discussion: Only one partner effect for COVID-19 distress emerged, such that female partner distress was associated with male partner loneliness; however, trait- and day-level interdependence suggested that distress may adversely impact relational well-being over time. Future studies should examine reciprocal relationships between COVID-19-related distress and relationship functioning.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T02:39:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106391
       
  • Traumatic bonding in victims of intimate partner violence is intensified
           via empathy

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      Authors: James Edem Effiong, Peace N. Ibeagha, Steven Kator Iorfa
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an increasingly prevalent problem in most parts of the world including sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the bonding patterns of IPV victims who decide to remain with the perpetrator despite the molestation. This study investigated the mediating role of empathy in the relationship between partner molestation and traumatic bonding among victims of IPV in Nigeria. Participants were 345 women purposively selected from female clients who visited the Sexual Assault Referral Centre (SART) Awka, Anambra State (n = 145) and the Lagos State Domestic and Sexual Violence Response Team, Lagos (n = 200). Their age ranged from 18-61 years (M=35.79; SD=8.6 years). They responded to the Composite Abuse Scale, the Basic Empathy Scale, and the Stockholm Syndrome Scale. Results of data analysis using the Hayes regression-based PROCESS macro showed that partner molestation was not significantly associated with traumatic bonding. Affective and cognitive components of empathy were positively associated with increased traumatic bonding. Estimates of indirect effects indicated that affective empathy and cognitive empathy served as pathways through which IPV was linked to dimensions of traumatic bonding. Empathy may engender tendencies that increase the likelihood for traumatic bonding. Findings highlight the dynamics of empathy in building and sustaining traumatic bonding in victims of IPV.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T02:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106237
       
  • Linking mean level and variability in affect to changes in perceived
           regard: A dyadic longitudinal burst study of African American couples

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      Authors: Betul Urganci, Anthony D. Ong, Anthony L. Burrow, Tracy DeHart
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      High positive affect and low negative affect have been repeatedly tied to better individual and interpersonal well-being. However, research has focused on mean levels whereas the day-to-day unfolding of affect and its impact on romantic relationships remain largely understudied. Here, we examined the links between mean levels and variability in affect and changes in perceptions of partner regard —the extent to which people believe that their partners value and accept them. One hundred twenty-five African American couples (N = 250 individuals) reported how positively they thought their partners viewed them across two sessions (T1 and T2), separated by a 3-week daily diary study in which participants reported on their positive and negative affect each day for 21 consecutive days. Using dyadic analysis, we found that higher actor negative affect variability was associated with lower perceived regard at T2 controlling for perceived regard at T1. This finding held when controlling for mean levels of actor and partner negative affect. By contrast, PA variability was curvilinearly associated with perceived regard, with moderate levels of variability associated with higher subsequent perceived regard. These results highlight the importance of accounting for mean levels and curvilinear effects when examining links between affect dynamics and relational well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T04:07:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221103276
       
  • Connectedness and independence of young adults and parents in the digital
           world: Observing smartphone interactions at multiple timescales using
           Screenomics

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      Authors: Xiaoran Sun, Nilam Ram, Byron Reeves, Mu-Jung Cho, Andrew Fitzgerald, Thomas N. Robinson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Young adults’ connectedness with and independence from parents have important implications for both their development and family relationships. Although technology plays an increasingly important role in these dynamics, there are few direct observations of how connectedness and independence unfold in the digital world. Little is known of between- and within-person differences in these dynamics.Purpose:This study uses Screenomics to directly observe smartphone interactions between young adults and their parents, and discover whether and how dimensions of connectedness and independence manifest in these interactions at multiple timescales.Research Design, Study Sample, and Data Collection:Screenshot sequences were collected from 10 ethnically diverse young adult (50% female) participants’ smartphones every 5 seconds for up to 1 month (total of 457,905 screenshots). We identified 1413 interaction instances between young adults and their parents (including 359 calls, 1032 messages, and 10 other communication instances).Analysis and ResultsDigital ethnographic analysis of screenshots revealed multiple themes related to connectedness (emotional support, logistical and financial support, consistent communication) and independence (parent fostering independence, parent intrusiveness/overinvolvement, and young adults’ psychological separation). Quantitative descriptions at different timescales (week, day, hour, moment) revealed within-person and between-person differences in active engagement, reciprocal communication, consistent communication, parent intrusiveness, young adults’ reliance on parents’ support, and young adults’ psychological separation.Conclusion:Findings highlight the need to examine family digital interactions at multiple timescales and the utility of temporally dense and comprehensive Screenomics data in studying social relations.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T10:27:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221104268
       
  • Determinants of loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United
           States: A one-year follow-up study

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      Authors: Colter D. Ray, Samantha J. Shebib
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      An initial study on loneliness during the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States found that those who were living alone or who were single experienced greater loneliness than those who lived with others or were in a romantic relationship. This study presents follow-up analyses using data collected from the same sample (N = 428) at a total of five points in time throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Unlike most studies using a longitudinal design to track loneliness throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the results of this study showed that loneliness scores generally decreased over this time period. However, additional analyses showed that when participants experienced a de-escalation in their romantic relationship status (e.g., transitioning from being in a dating relationship to being single or from being married to separated), loneliness scores increased. Because prior research shows a connection between living alone and loneliness, the researchers also tested whether decreases in the number of people one lives with predicted increases in loneliness. The data was inconsistent with this prediction. Overall, these findings join a minority of other longitudinal studies investigating loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic that found either a decrease or no change in loneliness, while also illustrating that increases in loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic occurred after people experienced a de-escalation in their romantic relationship status. These findings underscore the importance of life events during the COVID-19 pandemic that may increase loneliness—specifically transitioning out of romantic relationships. Thus, future research on predictors of loneliness should continue to use longitudinal designs to determine how changes in one’s life predict changes in loneliness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T12:51:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221102632
       
  • Marital dissatisfaction, psychological control and parent-child conflict
           in chinese families - An actor–partner interdependence model analysis

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      Authors: Janet Tsin Yee Leung, Daniel Tan Lei Shek, Lydia Man Hang Kwok, Eunice Tsz Yan Yung
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Although family systems theories highlight the associations of marital quality with parenting practice and parent-child relationship, studies examining individual and inter-spousal linkages of marital dissatisfaction with psychological control and parent-child conflict among Chinese families are almost non-existent. Adopting the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), dyadic interdependence in the associations of marital dissatisfaction with psychological control and parent-child conflict were examined in a sample of 386 Chinese families in Hong Kong. Fathers, mothers and adolescent children were involved in the data collection (Mfather’s age = 48.7; Mmother’s age = 44.7; Mchildren’s age = 14.6; 53.1% of adolescents were boys). Results showed that while father-perceived marital dissatisfaction was positively associated with paternal and maternal psychological control, mother-perceived marital dissatisfaction was not. Moreover, marital dissatisfaction perceived by each parent was linked to greater conflict between their children and the other parent, but it was not associated with his/her own conflict with children. The findings showed that Chinese fathers who perceived greater marital dissatisfaction might spill over their stress and hostility from marital dissatisfaction to practicing paternal psychological control and trigger their spouse to exercise maternal psychological control for their children. Besides, poorer marital satisfaction might be linked to conflictual relationship between their children and their spouse, hence increasing the risk of family triangulation. The present study suggests the importance of adopting a family-based intervention approach in helping Chinese parents facing marital dissatisfaction.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T03:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221102634
       
  • Same habitus in new field' How mobile phone communication reproduces
           masculinities and gender inequality in intimate relationships in Mwanza,
           Tanzania

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      Authors: Gerry Mshana, Donati Malibwa, Diana Aloyce, Esther Peter, Zaina Mchome, Saidi Kapiga, Heidi Stöckl
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The use of mobile phones and other communication technologies is booming in low-income contexts. Yet there is lack of detailed analyses of their impact to social interactions, including intimate relationships between men and women and gender-based violence. Drawing on Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field, we argue that mobile phones reproduce gender inequality and negative masculinities in these relationships. This happens through the diverse use of phones, and the interactive interface of the physical, electronic and social spaces within the broader social and economic context. We analyzed 48 in-depth interviews with men and women in Mwanza, Tanzania to explore how mobile phone use reproduces entrenched masculinities, gender norms, and power struggles in their daily lives and social interactions. Intimate partners navigate these complexities in several ways, including by creating ‘private spaces’ through their phones and concealing their communications. Men draw on negative masculinities to dominate their partner’s phone use, while women engage social recognition and family custodianship to influence their partner’s behaviour. These endeavours redefine concepts such as love and care, trust and faithfulness in the relationships. It is crucial to assess how technological advances are transforming intimate relationships and impacting gender-based violence in low-income countries.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T01:56:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221097936
       
  • Sibling Relationships in Adolescence and Young Adulthood in Multiple
           Contexts: A Critical Review

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      Authors: Alexander C. Jensen, Sarah E. Killoren, Nicole Campione-Barr, Jenny Padilla, Bin-Bin Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In many contexts worldwide, most people grow up with one or more siblings. The current paper reviews research on sibling relationship quality (closeness, communication, and conflict) in adolescence and young adulthood in four different contexts: primarily White North American and European samples (132 articles reviewed); ethnic minority families (26 articles reviewed); China (6 articles reviewed); and when one sibling has a disability (21 articles reviewed). Where the literature was available, within each context we addressed five questions: how does sibling relationship quality change from adolescence through young adulthood, how are demographic and structural characteristics linked to sibling relationship quality, how is sibling relationship quality linked to adjustment and behavior, how are familial relationships and processes linked to sibling relationship quality, and how is sibling relationship quality linked to non-familial relationships. Included articles were published between 2001 and 2021 and included aspects of sibling closeness, communication, or conflict in adolescence or young adulthood. Across all contexts, individual (e.g., gender) and dyadic characteristics (e.g., gender composition, birth order) play a role in siblings’ relationship qualities. In several contexts, the current literature suggests that sibling closeness and communication are linked to positive development, well-being, and healthy relationships with other social partners. In multiple contexts, sibling conflict is linked to poorer well-being and negative relationships with other social partners. These broad patterns, however, are qualified by each context and often multiple moderators.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T03:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221104188
       
  • Romantic Relationships and Mental Health: Investigating the Role of
           Self-Expansion on Depression Symptoms

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      Authors: Kevin P. McIntyre, Brent A. Mattingly, Sarah C. E. Stanton, Xiaomeng Xu, Timothy J. Loving, Gary W. Lewandowski
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Close relationships have the potential to fundamentally alter relationship partners’ self-concepts and, consequently, can impact individuals’ mental health. One type of relationship-induced self-concept change is self-expansion, which describes the cognitive reorganization of the self that can occur when individuals include aspects of their partner into the self, or when they share novel and challenging activities together. In the current research, we hypothesized that greater self-expansion would be associated with fewer depression symptoms. In support of this hypothesis, across four studies using cross-sectional, dyadic, daily diary, and longitudinal methodologies, we found that self-expansion was negatively associated with depression symptoms. This association was robust and remained a significant predictor of depression symptoms when controlling for demographic factors (gender, age, relationship length; Studies 1–4) and known risk factors of depression (dysfunctional attitudes, major life stressors, self-concept clarity; Study 2). Moreover, individuals’ self-expansion negatively predicted depression symptoms at the daily level (Study 3) and longitudinally over 9 months (Study 4). These results are the first to show the link between self-expansion and depression symptoms, suggesting that self-expansion may have robust benefits for individuals, beyond improving relationship dynamics.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T01:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221101127
       
  • Effects of information and communication technology on the quality of
           family relationships: A systematic review

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      Authors: Kristiina Tammisalo, Anna Rotkirch
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Information and communication technology (ICT) facilitates communication within families but may also displace face-to-face communication and intimacy. The aims of this systematic review were to investigate what positive and negative relationship outcomes are associated with ICT use in families, and whether and how the outcomes differ depending on relationship type (romantic relationship, parent–child relationship, or sibling). Included in the review were research published in English between 2009 and 2019 studying the effects of ICT on family relationships with quantitative data. 70 peer-reviewed articles (73 studies) were retrieved and categorized based on four types of ICT variables: personal use, personal use in the presence of a family member (technoference), communication between family members, and co-use with family members. Personal use and technoference were mostly related to negative outcomes due to, for example, displaced attention and more frequent conflicts. Romantic partners were especially strongly negatively affected displaying stressors unique to romantic relationships, such as infidelity. By contrast, communication and co-use showed mostly positive effects across all relationship types. In particular, “rich” communication media resembling face-to-face interaction were strongly associated with positive outcomes. We conclude that ICT impacts family relations in different ways, depending on both the type of relationship and type of ICT use. Personal ICT use tends to weaken both parenting and romantic relationships in ways that can partly be mitigated by co-use and communication. Directions for future research include, assessing how often ICT is used in relationship-strengthening versus relationship-interfering ways, investigating causal pathways between ICT use and relationship quality, and focusing on understudied relationship types, such as siblings and grandparents.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T10:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221087942
       
  • Parents’ self-concept clarity, marital satisfaction and parent-child
           relationship quality: Actor-partner interdependence analyses

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      Authors: Yifan Jia, Qingmei Dai, Xiaoyu Deng, Xuelan Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The family can be viewed as an integrated system consisting of interdependent subsystems, among which marital and parent–child subsystems are critical for family functioning. Given the dominance of parents in the family, it is important to investigate the associations between parents’ characteristics and these two subsystems. In addition, researchers have found a unidirectional effect of parents’ self-concept clarity on their children’s self-concept clarity. Exploring whether and how parents’ self-concept clarity is related to family relationships may provide insight into this intergenerational transmission since the family plays an important role in the development of children’s self-concept. Taken together, the main aim of this study was to examine the links across parents’ self-concept clarity and marital and parent–child relationships. A total of 363 Chinese parental dyads of primary and secondary students completed the self-concept clarity, relationship assessment, and child–parent relationship scales, and the data were analyzed by adopting the actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) and the actor–partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM). The APIM results indicated significant positive associations between parents’ self-concept clarity and parent–child relationship quality perceived by the parents (actor effects) and their partners (partner effects). The APIMeM results showed that fathers’ marital satisfaction partially mediated the actor effects from parents’ self-concept clarity to parent–child relationship quality. Moreover, after controlling for covariates (e.g., family income), parents’ self-concept clarity had significant indirect partner effects on parent–child relationship quality mediated completely via fathers’ marital satisfaction. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of family system processes and the intergenerational transmission of self-concept clarity and have implications for family interventions.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T06:00:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221102095
       
  • A communication and identity process that mediates parents’
           nonaccommodation and sexual minorities’ mental well-being

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      Authors: Haley Decker, Paul Schrodt
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study tested sexual minorities’ (SM) surface acting with parents, identity gaps with family, and perceived stress as serial mediators of parents’ nonaccommodation and SM’s mental well-being (i.e., mental health and self-esteem). Participants included 205 sexual minorities who reported on their parents’ unwanted advice about their sexual identity and the degree to which they emphasized divergent values in conversations about LGBTQ+ issues. For both mental health and self-esteem, significant and negative indirect effects emerged for both mother’s and father’s nonaccommodation through a sequence of SM’s surface acting, to personal-enacted identity gap, to perceived stress. These indirect effects, however, were moderated by relational closeness with each parent. Consequently, unwanted advice about children’s SM identities and messages that emphasize divergent values may be harmful even if family relations do not appear overtly contentious or hostile.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-15T04:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221101902
       
  • Young Adults’ Intergroup Prosocial Behavior and its Associations With
           Social Dominance Orientation, Social Identities, Prosocial Moral
           Obligation, and Belongingness

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      Authors: Sonya Xinyue Xiao, Qinxin Shi, Jeffrey Liew
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In an increasingly diverse world, understanding young adults’ intergroup prosocial behavior toward diverse others may inform ways to reduce intergroup conflict and cultivate an equitable and inclusive society. The college years are often the first time that young adults begin to explore their social identities and intergroup relations independently from their parents. Thus, we focused on college students and examined social dominance orientation, social positions, prosocial obligation, and the sense of belongingness in relation to their intergroup prosocial behavior across four domains (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, and department affiliation). Participants were 1163 young adults aged 18–24 years (63.2% females, 34.5% males, and 2.3% gender diverse; 50.7% White, 19.6% Latino, 25% Asian, 2.3% Black) from a large public Southwestern university. Four profiles of intergroup prosocial behavior (self-serving, altruistic, selfish, and reverse ethnic racial bias) were identified and they were differentially related to the social, cognitive, and contextual correlates we examined. Overall, findings highlighted the need to foster intergroup prosocial behavior and the benefits of intergroup prosocial behavior to young adults’ sense of belongingness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T11:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221096398
       
  • Developmental changes in best friendship quality during emerging adulthood

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      Authors: Stéphanie Langheit, François Poulin
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to examine change in four features of best friendship quality (intimacy, companionship, reliable alliance and conflict) from age 19 to 30 by gender and investment in romantic life. To this end, 363 participants (58% women) were asked about the quality of the relationship with their best friend and their level of investment in romantic life at ages 19, 20, 21, 22, 25 and 30. Latent growth curve analysis revealed a slight increase in reliable alliance and companionship and a slight decrease in intimacy in the early 20s followed by a steeper drop for these three features (quadratic trajectories), while conflict declined linearly. Women reported higher levels of intimacy and companionship and less conflict than men did at 19 years old. Also, their intimacy diminished throughout their 20s, slightly at first but more strongly thereafter. For men, it was lower early on and remained stable afterwards. Finally, investment in romantic life at age 19 was associated with change in intimacy levels shared with their best friend. This study confirms that features of best friendship quality change differently from one another during emerging adulthood and demonstrates the influence of gender and investment in romantic life on these changes.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T05:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221097993
       
  • Are you happy for me': Responses to sharing good news in North America
           and East Asia

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      Authors: Harry T Reis, Sisi Li, Yan Ruan, David C de Jong, Fen-Fang Tsai
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has shown that enthusiastic responses to personal good news are associated with positive relationship qualities, whereas more muted or ambivalent responses tend to have negative effects on relationships. This process, called capitalization, has been studied almost exclusively in Western cultures. The present research examined capitalization in three East Asian cultural groups (Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), as well as in the United States. Whereas enthusiastic responses were associated with positive relationship outcomes in all groups, muted and critical responses showed significant moderation by culture. In three North American samples, these responses were negatively associated with relationship qualities. However, muted and critical responses revealed strong and positive correlations with relationship outcomes in Mainland China, non-significant associations in Hong Kong, and significant negative (but still weaker than in North America) associations in Taiwan. These findings point to the importance of examining relationship processes in the context of culture.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T11:45:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221098634
       
  • Parents’ and older siblings’ socialization of younger siblings’
           empathy: a sample case in China

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      Authors: Chang Su-Russell, Luke T. Russell
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In 2016, China officially ended its One-Child policy and started allowing urban married couples to have up to two children. Beginning in 2021, Chinese policy officially began encouraging couples to have up to three children in response to low birth rates and increasing needs for workers and care providers in an aging country. Siblinghood in China has thus begun to re-emerge as a social phenomenon among urban Chinese. Given the important role sibling relationships have in the development of empathy, this relaxation and policy shift provides a unique context in which to investigate family dynamics among two-child families where there is a large age gap between children. Guided by family systems theory, the current study examined family level factors that help socialize younger sibling’s empathy in mainland China by testing direct associations between autonomy supportive parenting, marital quality, coparenting, and secondborn children’ (ages 3–5) empathy in mainland China. Direct and indirect associations with secondborn children’s empathy via older sibling’s relationship quality with their younger sibling were also tested. Results revealed coparent conflict and positive sibling relationship were directly associated with younger sibling’s empathy; further, marital quality and coparent support were indirectly associated with younger sibling’s empathy via positive sibling relationship. Parents, educators, and practitioners may consider addressing family level factors as an avenue for promoting younger sibling’s empathy development.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T11:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221099179
       
  • Daily stress and relationship quality: A two-decade scoping review from an
           intersectional lens

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      Authors: Casey J. Totenhagen, Ashley K. Randall, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Oyku Ciftci, Marci Gleason
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Within relationship research, a great deal of attention is given to emphasizing the interpersonal context related to daily stress and its association with relationship well-being. However, apart from the interpersonal context in which stress may occur, one must consider individual, sociocultural, and systemic factors associated with these daily experiences. Taking an intersectional focus, this systematic review aimed to critically examine the extant research on daily stress and romantic relationship quality from the past two decades, answering three guiding questions: (RQ1) From whose vantage point has the research been conducted' (RQ2) What types of questions have been valued' (RQ3) Whose voices have been included (and excluded)' Using a scoping review methodology, we identified 23 articles meeting inclusion criteria (empirical studies that used daily methodologies, focused on romantic relationships, and examined associations between stress or stressors and relationship quality). Findings revealed most of this research was conducted by researchers in Psychology and Family Studies (or related disciplines) working in the U.S. (RQ1). Studies were quantitative and largely dyadic, often adopting theoretical perspectives without particular theorizing on context and identity (RQ2). Samples were predominantly White, U.S.-based, and comprised of different-sex couples (RQ3). In addition, studies typically did not report (or excluded from analyses) demographics related to cisnormativity/cissexism, heteronormativity/heterosexism, ableism, and placeism/Western industrialized rich democratic samples. Finally, even though studies often included participants from different age groups, races, and social classes, minority and underserved identities were under-represented. We conclude with specific recommendations for future research aimed to remedy these limitations to advance further the decolonization of the research on daily stress and relationship quality.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T02:37:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095870
       
  • Fostering academic competence in Latinx youth: The role of cultural values
           and parenting behaviors

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      Authors: Maciel M. Hernández, Zoe E. Taylor, Blake L. Jones
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Although high school completion rates for Latinx adolescents have improved, rural Latinx youth experience more barriers to academic success than their urban counterparts. Using a culturally informed model, we tested prospective associations between adolescents’ Wave 1 familism values (cultural values emphasizing the importance of family relationships and connections) and Wave 2 academic competencies in a sample of predominantly rural Latinx adolescents (N = 123) in the U.S. Midwest. We also examined whether youth-reports of mother’s and father’s warm parenting at Wave 1 and 2 moderated these associations. Familism values predicted higher self-reported school attachment and academic aspirations and expectations. Neither maternal nor paternal warmth predicted school attachment, academic aspirations, or academic expectations. Maternal warmth at Wave 2, but not at Wave 1, moderated the positive associations between familism and academic aspirations and expectations. These associations were more pronounced under circumstances of low maternal warmth. Paternal warmth did not significantly moderate the proposed associations predicting academic aspirations and expectations. Paternal warmth at Wave 1, but not at Wave 2, moderated the positive association between familism and school attachment. This association was stronger in the context of low paternal warmth. Results emphasize the joint roles of culture and parenting context for fostering academic competence in Latinx youth living in primarily rural regions of the Midwest during a critical developmental stage.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T02:48:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095054
       
  • The association between financial distress, conflict management, and
           co-parenting support for couples receiving child welfare

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      Authors: Yiyi Dai, Ted G. Futris, William D. Stanford, Evin W. Richardson, Kalsea J. Koss
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined financial distress, conflict management, and co-parenting support among 254 couples receiving child welfare services. Using an actor-partner interdependence model, this study tested the indirect association between couples’ financial distress and their perceptions of co-parenting support through the use of positive conflict management strategies. Indirect actor effects were found for both mothers and fathers such that financial distress was associated with reports of less positive conflict management behaviors, and in turn less co-parenting support. When mothers reported that they and their partner engaged in less positive conflict management behaviors, they were more likely to be perceived as less supportive by their co-parent. Model results did not differ for married versus unmarried couples. For couples experiencing financial distress, findings imply that how effectively couples experiencing financial distress manage conflict in their relationship could potentially spillover and influence how well they support each other in co-parenting their children. Implications for practice are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T06:42:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221096783
       
  • Relationship difficulties and “technoference” during the
           COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Giulia Zoppolat, Francesca Righetti, Rhonda N. Balzarini, María Alonso-Ferres, Betul Urganci, David L. Rodrigues, Anik Debrot, Juthatip Wiwattanapantuwong, Christoffer Dharma, Peilian Chi, Johan C. Karremans, Dominik Schoebi, Richard B. Slatcher
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has touched many aspects of people’s lives around the world, including their romantic relationships. While media outlets have reported that the pandemic is difficult for couples, empirical evidence is needed to test these claims and understand why this may be. In two highly powered studies (N = 3271) using repeated measure and longitudinal approaches, we found that people who experienced COVID-19 related challenges (i.e., lockdown, reduced face-to-face interactions, boredom, or worry) also reported greater self and partner phone use (Study 1) and time spent on social media (Study 2), and subsequently experienced more conflict and less satisfaction in their romantic relationship. The findings provide insight into the struggles people faced in their relationships during the pandemic and suggest that the increase in screen time – a rising phenomenon due to the migration of many parts of life online – may be a challenge for couples.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T02:52:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221093611
       
  • Genetic causal beliefs and developmental context: Parents’ beliefs
           predict psychologically controlling approaches to parenting

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      Authors: Tristin Nyman, Matthew Stichter, Grace N Rivera, Joseph Maffly-Kipp, Rebecca J Brooker, Matthew Vess
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the association of parents’ genetic causal beliefs and parenting behaviors, hypothesizing a positive association between parents’ genetic causal beliefs and their use of psychological control. Study 1 (N = 394) was a cross-sectional survey and revealed that parents’ genetic essentialism beliefs were positively associated with their self-reported use of harsh psychological control, but only for parents who reported relatively high levels of problem behaviors in their children. Study 2 (N = 293) employed a 4-day longitudinal design and revealed that parents’ genetic causal beliefs positively predicted the use of psychological control, especially on days when they perceived relatively high problem behaviors in children. Overall, the studies demonstrated that parents’ genetic causal beliefs about character positively predicted psychologically controlling and harsh responses to child problem behaviors, which may ultimately be detrimental to child development.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T05:05:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221099188
       
  • Adaptive communication and perceptions in long-distance dating: Evidence
           from self-reported and behavioral data

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      Authors: Li Crystal Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Romantic partners in long-distance relationships tend to adapt their communication and their perceptions of the relationship to suit their relational goals. Guided by this premise, the aim of this study was to provide a more nuanced understanding of how communication and perceptions are adapted. For this purpose, self-reports and behavioral data pertaining to 61 heterosexual dating couples were gathered, who all kept a diary for a week, while communicating via a texting platform. By comparing the daily communication and perceptions of the relationship of couples in long-distance relationships to those of couples in geographically close relationships, the study offered solid evidence of behavioral adaption, as the former self-reported greater self-disclosure and greater self-responsiveness to their partners. These findings were supported by human coding and linguistic analysis results. Moreover, while relative to geographically close partners, long-distance partners demonstrated larger differences between partner perceptions and the partner’s self-report for both self-disclosure and responsiveness. The effect of long-distance status on perceived differences was mediated by relationship uncertainty and one’s own adaptive behaviors. The findings suggest that long-distance relationships are maintained through behavioral and perceptual adaptations, which are also meaningful for maintaining geographically close relationships.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:38:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221092107
       
  • The Mediating Role of Empathy in the Links Between Relationships with
           Three Socialisation Agents and Adolescents’ Prosocial Behaviours

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      Authors: Alexia Carrizales, Zehra Gülseven, Lyda Lannegrand
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have mostly focused on the socialisation role of parents on adolescents’ prosocial behaviours and there is relatively less work focusing on peers who are important socialisation agents for the development of prosocial behaviours in adolescence. Further, simultaneously examining the socialisation roles of multiple socialisation agents in prosocial behaviours and empathy development is even rarer. Thus, in the current study, we examined supportive and poor relationships with three socialisation agents (i.e., parents, peers in class, and peers in extracurricular activities) on adolescents’ prosocial behaviours, considering whether empathy mediates these relations. Additionally, we examined the links between supportive and poor relationships with peers in the class and extracurricular activities and adolescents’ prosocial behaviours, and the mediating role of empathy. The sample was 676 French adolescents (50% female, Mage = 14.35 years). Supportive relationships and poor relationships models were tested separately. We examined the relative strengths of three socialisation agents using three-socialiser and two-socialiser models. In the three-socialiser model, supportive relationships with parents and peers in the extracurricular activities were positively linked to adolescents’ empathy a year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours. Additionally, poor relationships with parents were negatively linked to adolescents’ empathy a year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours. In the two-socialiser model, both supportive relationships with peers in class and extracurricular activities were positively linked to adolescents’ empathy 1 year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours but only for early adolescents. Lastly, in the two-socialiser model, poor relationships with peers in extracurricular activities were negatively linked to adolescents’ empathy 1 year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours. In general, these results were robust across adolescents’ gender and age. Overall, results make several important contributions to the literature on the role of multiple socialisation agents and adolescents’ prosocial behaviours.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:20:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221099652
       
  • The role of exteroceptive and interoceptive awareness in executing
           socially relevant bodily actions: A naturalistic investigation of greeting
           behaviour in the UK and Spain

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      Authors: Kieran J Payne-Allen, Gaby Pfeifer
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Body awareness is tightly linked to motor action. Non-verbal greetings constitute a behaviour through which an awareness of both socio-cultural habits (exteroceptive awareness) and internal bodily states (interoceptive awareness) play out to influence the structure of action. To establish the effect of culture on non-verbal greeting behaviours, naturalistic observations were carried out in two countries (Britain and Spain) that are purported to exhibit differences in greeting types. Interoceptive awareness (IA) was subsequently measured in a proportion of observed participants (N = 33) who filled in the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, Version 2 (MAIA-2). As expected, a significant difference in greeting type was observed between British (N = 252) and Spanish (N = 244) greeters. Scores of greeting intimacy and competency did not differ significantly between Britain and Spain. However, independent of culture, several moderate and strong relationships emerged between selective dimensions of the MAIA-2 and scores of intimacy and competency. Specifically, intimacy and competency scores were positively correlated with the ‘Awareness of Mind-Body Integration’ dimension. Greeting intimacy yielded additional positive relationships with the Not Distracting and Trusting subscales, and a negative relationship with the Not Worrying subscale. These relationships suggest that IA facilitates healthy social approach behaviour as expressed through greetings, irrespective of cultural greeting differences. We discuss IA and greeting behaviour in the context of attachment, consider the clinical implications for social anxiety and the future implications for social interactions in a post-COVID-19 era.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:09:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221099654
       
  • Stressful family contexts and health in divorced and married mothers:
           Biopsychosocial process

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      Authors: Kandauda AS Wickrama, Eric T Klopack, Catherine W O’Neal
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Past research suggests that social, psychological and biological processes underlying common health problems are highly interrelated and may be comonents of a larger biopsychosocial process. This process may be influenced by marital status. The current study investigated a biopsychosocial process involving social, psychological and physcial health problems over the second half of the life course, comparing women who were mothers with different marital histories (e.g., consistently married, married to divorced) and investigated the association between this biopsychosocial process and marital stress for consistantly maried women over the middle years. The current study used structural equation modeling to assess this biopsychosocial process longitudinally using prospective data over 25 years from a sample of 416 women. The results showed that compared to being married, divorcing in early midlife contributed to an adverse biopsychosocial process for women, including physical pain, physical limitations, and depressive symptoms over their mid-later years, regardless of later recoupling. For consistently married mothers, both marital stress and financial stress uniquely influenced biological and psychological problems throughout their mid-later years, and these health problems also selected mothers into further escalating financial and marital stress. Elucidating differential short- and long-term health influences of competing marital and financial stressors for divorced and married mothers provides valuable information for targeted economic and relationship intervention efforts and policy formation. Such interventions can reduce family stressors and develop resiliency factors, thereby preventing the escalation of biopsychosocial processes in middle-aged mothers.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T06:27:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221098627
       
  • The impact of COVID-19-related anti-Asian discrimination on sexual
           communication and relationships among Asian individuals in the United
           States

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      Authors: Yachao Li, Jennifer A Samp
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Asian individuals in the United States have experienced heightened racial discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may reduce positive relationship processes and damage intimate relationships, including their sexual behaviors and quality. Guided by the chilling effect and Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction, this study explores how COVID-19-related anti-Asian discrimination moderates the relationships between sexual relationship power, sexual self-disclosure, and sexual satisfaction. Results (N = 294 partnered Asian adults) showed that as racial discrimination increased, the positive relationship between sexual relationship power and sexual self-disclosure decreased. As people experienced more racial discrimination, the positive effects of sexual self-disclosure on sexual satisfaction also decreased. Sexual power positively predicted sexual satisfaction via sexual communication, only when COVID-19-related discrimination was low or moderate. This study demonstrates how racial discrimination interacts with relational factors to predict Asian individuals’ sexual communication and, in turn, sexual satisfaction. More public attention and efforts should be devoted to combating anti-Asian discrimination during the pandemic and beyond.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T02:27:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221098420
       
  • Effects of mindful emotion regulation on parents’ loneliness and social
           support: A longitudinal study during the coronavirus disease 2019
           (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States

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      Authors: Na Zhang, Beth Russell, Crystal Park, Michael Fendrich
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced unprecedented challenges and demands for parents or caregivers of children who experienced disruptions in social support and feelings of isolation. Mindful emotion regulation may be a resilient factor for parents’ psychosocial outcomes. Mindful emotion regulation refers to individuals’ inherent capacities to regulate emotions mindfully, i.e., through paying attention to one’s experiences in the present moment nonjudgmentally. Based on the theoretical and empirical literature associating mindful emotion regulation with loneliness and perceived social support, the current study tested the effects of mindful emotion regulation on later changes in perceived social support and loneliness in U.S. parents during the pandemic. Participants were 147 parents/caregivers who were living with at least one child or adolescent in their household during the pandemic in the USA. Data were collected from a national online sample at four time points: baseline (April 7–21, 2020), 30-, 60-, and 90-days later. Results of longitudinal mediational structural equation modeling showed that mindful emotion regulation was directly associated with increased perceived social support and decreased loneliness. Moreover, mindful emotion regulation was also associated with perceived social support indirectly through its effects on loneliness. Focusing on the needs of parents is important for promoting family and child wellbeing to ameliorate negative health consequences. More research is needed to elucidate whether and how mindful emotion regulation may be beneficial for parents in the social relationship domain.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T10:02:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221098419
       
  • Enduring COVID-19 lockdowns: Risk versus resilience in parents’ health
           and family functioning across the pandemic

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      Authors: Nickola C. Overall, Rachel S. T. Low, Valerie T. Chang, Annette M. E. Henderson, Caitlin S. McRae, Paula R. Pietromonaco
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Have the demands of the COVID-19 pandemic risked declines in parents’ health and family functioning, or have most parents been resilient and shown no changes in health and family functioning' Assessing average risk versus resilience requires examining how families have fared across the pandemic, beyond the initial months examined in prior investigations. The current research examines changes in parents’ health and functioning over the first 1.5 years of the pandemic. Parents (N = 272) who had completed general pre-pandemic assessments completed reassessments of psychological/physical health, couple/family functioning, and parenting within two mandatory lockdowns in New Zealand: at the beginning of the pandemic (26 March–28 April 2020) and 17 months later (18 August–21 September 2021). Parents exhibited average declines in psychological/physical health (greater depressive symptoms; reduced well-being, energy and physical health) and in couple/family functioning (reduced commitment and family cohesion; greater problem severity and family chaos). By contrast, there were no average differences in parent-child relationship quality and parenting practices across lockdowns. Declines in health and couple/family functioning occurred irrespective of pre-pandemic health and functioning, but partner support buffered declines in couple/family functioning. The results emphasize that attending to the challenges parents and couples face in the home will be important to mitigate and recover from the impact of the pandemic on parents’ and children’s well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T10:00:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095781
       
  • Adolescent Aspirations, Compromise, and Conflict-Resolution

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      Authors: Daniel G. Lannin, Luke T. Russell, Ani Yazedjian, Leandra N. Parris
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Whereas adolescents’ intrinsic aspirations are indicative of attending to internal need-satisfaction and may motivate mutually beneficial compromise and conflict-resolution, extrinsic aspirations focus on attaining more concrete external rewards and may exacerbate relational conflict. The present study examined an indirect association between aspirations and positive conflict-resolution via engagement (or anticipated engagement) in compromising behaviors among 364 adolescents (Age in years, M = 15.99, SD = 1.17) experiencing low income and economic marginalization. Results supported our hypothesis. Intrinsic aspirations were directly and positively associated with positive conflict-resolution, and indirectly associated via increased engagement (or anticipated engagement) in compromising behaviors. Conversely, extrinsic aspirations exhibited an indirect negative association. Intrinsic aspirations may cultivate positive conflict-resolution, in part because they may motivate mutually beneficial compromises.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T09:52:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095777
       
  • Risk and resilience in couple’s adjustment to the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Ellen Xiang, Xiaotao Zhang, Syed A. Raza, Abiodun Oluyomi, Christopher I. Amos, Hoda Badr
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic’s global scope and resulting social distancing measures have caused unprecedented economic, lifestyle, and social impacts to personal and relationship well-being. While lockdowns have prompted individuals to increase reliance on intimate partners for support, stressful external contexts can also interfere with partners’ capacity to request and provide support, resulting in relationship dissatisfaction and even dissolution. Guided by a risk and resilience framework, this study examined the impact of perceived stress, social contextual factors, and dyadic coping on self-reported relationship satisfaction changes during the initial United States COVID-19 lockdown period. Participants were adults in romantic relationships who completed an online survey between April 13 and June 8, 2020. Overall, survey respondents (N = 1106) reported higher perceived stress levels than established population norms, and small but significant decrements in relationship satisfaction. Multivariable models revealed that higher perceived stress levels were associated with lower relationship satisfaction levels. Additionally, dyadic coping was found to moderate the impact of perceived stress on relationship satisfaction (B = .05, 95% CI = .02– .07), suggesting that engaging in dyadic coping buffered individuals from adverse effects of perceived stress on their relationships. Findings emphasize heightened stress experienced by individuals during the pandemic, potential detrimental effects of stress on couple relationships, and suggest dyadic coping may help buffer couples from adverse effects of the pandemic on their relationships. As such, dyadic coping may be an important target for future interventions designed to assist couples during the ongoing pandemic and future pandemics/natural disasters.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T07:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221094556
       
  • Dynamic associations between stress and relationship functioning in the
           wake of COVID-19: Longitudinal data from the German family panel (pairfam)
           

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      Authors: Theresa Pauly, Janina Lüscher, Corina Berli, Urte Scholz
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals all across the world experienced significant disruptions in their personal and family life with the outbreak of the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The current study investigated dynamic associations between stress and relationship functioning over time in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived stress, relationship satisfaction, and relationship quality (appreciation, intimacy, conflict) were reported by 1483 young to middle-aged participants who were in a romantic relationship and lived with their partner in 2018/2019 and in May–July 2020 (a few months after the onset of COVID-19). Data were analyzed using bivariate latent change score models. Relationship functioning (satisfaction, appreciation, intimacy) showed small decreases from before to during the pandemic. Contrary to expectations, levels of perceived stress also decreased on average from before to during the pandemic. Changes in relationship functioning were correlated with changes in stress over time, so that participants with greater decreases in relationship satisfaction, appreciation, and intimacy and greater increases in conflict from before to during the pandemic showed lesser decreases/greater increases in stress. Higher pre-pandemic relationship satisfaction was associated with greater decreases/lesser increases in stress from before to during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic levels of other measures of relationship functioning or stress were not associated with changes in outcomes over time. Results add to the literature demonstrating that stress is closely intertwined with the functioning of intimate relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that greater relationship satisfaction may serve as a protective factor for stressful life events.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T04:29:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221092360
       
  • The enrich marital satisfaction scale: Adaptation and psychometric
           properties among at-risk and community Portuguese parents

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      Authors: Cristina Nunes, Laura I. Ferreira, Cátia Martins, Pedro Pechorro, Lara Ayala-Nunes
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Marital satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that encompasses the satisfaction with marital interactions and with the emotional and the practical aspects of marriage. Marital satisfaction has a great impact on personal well-being and affects the family as a whole; low marital satisfaction has been associated with unhappiness and with higher divorce rates. Furthermore, marital satisfaction is related with family functioning and is an indicator of the quality of the parenting relationship. The Enrich Marital Satisfaction (EMS) scale is a two-factor and 15-items self-report measure that assesses satisfaction with the marital relationship. This study analysed the psychometric properties of the EMS among two samples: at-risk (N = 273, M = 37.05 years, 82.05% women) and community (N = 205, M = 38.38 years, 52.2% women) Portuguese parents. Participants completed the EMS and measures of parenting sense of competence, parenting stress, and parenting alliance. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the revised two-factor model obtained the best fit, after removing a few items. Measurement invariance across the two samples was demonstrated. The EMS showed good psychometric properties, namely internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity. The EMS is a time-efficient tool for both researchers and practitioners who need to assess marital satisfaction, a relevant dimension for family functioning and parenting.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T02:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095052
       
  • Prepandemic relationship satisfaction is related to postpandemic COVID-19
           anxiety: A four-wave study in China

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      Authors: Jingyi Ou, Hanqi Yun, Ke Zhang, Yuexiao Du, Yihang He, Yinan Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has had lasting impacts on people’s interpersonal relationship and mental health. Using four-wave data in China (N = 222, 54.50% female, Mage = 31.53, SD = 8.17), the current study examined whether prepandemic relationship satisfaction was related to postpandemic COVID-19 anxiety through midpandemic perceived social support and/or gratitude. The results showed that people’s COVID-19 anxiety decreased from the peak to the trough stage of the pandemic; perceived social support increased markedly from prepandemic to the peak and remained stable subsequently, while relationship satisfaction remained unchanged throughout. Further, it was midpandemic perceived social support, not gratitude, that mediated the association between prepandemic relationship satisfaction and postpandemic COVID-19 anxiety, indicating that perceived social support played a crucial role in this process. Finally, it is suggested that perceived social support should be distinguished from gratitude as two different components of social interactions.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T03:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221091993
       
  • A test of the process model for predicting parenting satisfaction and
           self-efficacy of low- income nonresidential fathers

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      Authors: Jay Fagan, Rebecca Kaufman
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study tested Belsky's (1984) process model of parenting to examine predictors of self-reported parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy among a sample of low-income, nonresidential fathers attending fatherhood programs (n = 222 fathers) and a sample of men who were not in fatherhood programs but reside in high poverty neighborhoods (n = 336 fathers). The process model included father involvement with children as a predictor of satisfaction and self-efficacy, coparenting alliance instead of marital quality, child age instead of temperament, identity centrality and psycho-social challenges in place of personality, and unemployment as a measure of work. The fit of this model was acceptable when child age was omitted, indicating that the process model may be appropriate when applied to low-income, nonresidential fathers. Implications for fatherhood programs are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T03:30:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221093817
       
  • How gender role stereotypes affect attraction in an online dating
           scenario: A replication and extension

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      Authors: Kelsey C. Chappetta, Joan M. Barth
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies with racially diverse samples examined the effects of gender role congruence on romantic interest in online dating profiles. Study 1 (N = 429, 55% male) was a replication and extension of Chappetta, K. C., & Barth, J. M. (2016). How gender role stereotypes affect attraction in an online dating scenario. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 738–746 and examined the effects of profile gender role congruence, physical attractiveness, and a person’s own gender stereotypical characteristics on romantic interest in young adults. Participants viewed online dating profiles that varied in physical attractiveness and adherence to gender role norms. Attractive and gender role incongruent profiles were preferred over average-looking and gender role congruent profiles, but the latter effect was driven by women. The difference in preference for attractive and average-looking profiles was greater for women than for men. Women’s preferences for incongruent profiles were associated with self-reported feminine traits, but preference for congruent profiles was associated with self-reported masculine traits. Study 2 (N = 958, 50.6% male) removed the profile photos to provide a better test of the influence of gender role congruence. Study 1 results replicated: Incongruent profiles were preferred over congruent profiles, primarily for women, and women’s masculine and feminine traits were associated with preferences for congruent and incongruent profiles, respectively, supporting the idea that attraction is based on perceived similarities. Men’s preference for both congruent and incongruent profiles was related to holding feminine communal traits and egalitarian gender role beliefs. Women’s preference for gender role incongruent profiles was robust across three studies. There was no support for predictions from social role theory that people prefer gender role congruence.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T01:18:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221090494
       
  • The associated effects of parent, peer and teacher attachment and
           self-regulation on prosocial behaviors: A person-and variable-centered
           investigation

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      Authors: Pei-Jung Yang, Meredith McGinley
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescence is a critical juncture in the development of prosocial behaviors, which contribute to the overall well-being of youth. Thus, it is important to understand how multiple socialization agents and self-regulation simultaneously foster prosocial behaviors. Using both variable-centered and latent person-centered approaches, the current study examined the relative, concurrent contribution of multiple socialization agents (parent, peer, and teacher attachment) and self-regulation on Taiwanese adolescents’ global prosocial behaviors. This study included 1473 Taiwanese high school students (50.4% junior high schoolers, 57.9% females, Mage = 14.87 years) who completed measures of parent, peer, and teacher attachment, self-control, and prosocial behaviors. Four profiles emerged from the person-centered approach. The profile with highest scores on self-control and all measures of attachment reported the highest prosocial behaviors. The other three profiles differed in their attachment patterns but demonstrated roughly similar levels of self-control. Among the three profiles, the groups with the lowest scores on prosocial behaviors appeared to have low to moderate attachment quality, whereas the group with high peer attachment scored significantly higher in prosocial behaviors than the other two groups. Results from the variable-centered approach found no direct effects of parent attachment on prosocial behaviors, though effects of self-control and peer and teacher attachments were evident. Our findings suggest that the quality of attachment and self-regulation commonly promote prosocial behaviors in youth. Furthermore, peer and school-based relationships may serve as unique and salient socialization contexts for prosocial behaviors during adolescence. Limitations and recommendations for future research were discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T07:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095268
       
  • On guard: Public versus private affection-sharing experiences in same-sex,
           gender-diverse, and mixed-sex relationships

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      Authors: Karen L. Blair, Odessa McKenna, Diane Holmberg
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study compared public versus private affection-sharing experiences of individuals in mixed-sex (N = 1018), same-sex (N = 561), and gender-diverse (N = 96) relationships. Private affection-sharing was similar across groups, except those in mixed-sex relationships reported somewhat less comfort doing so. Despite having a stronger desire to engage in public affection-sharing, those in same-sex and gender-diverse relationships shared public affection less frequently, were less comfortable doing so, refrained from doing so more often, and experienced much higher levels of vigilance related to public affection-sharing, compared to those in mixed-sex relationships. Heightened PDA-related vigilance may have health consequences, as higher levels were associated with worse psychological and physical well-being in all groups. However, individuals in same-sex relationships showed weaker associations between vigilance and well-being than those in mixed-sex relationships, suggesting possible resilience. Still, engaging in vigilance may take its toll, potentially serving as a mechanism through which minority stress works its effects. When we controlled for PDA-related vigilance, psychological and physical well-being levels in same-sex relationships increased relative to mixed-sex peers.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T07:06:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221090678
       
  • Parent–child cohesion, loneliness, and prosocial behavior:
           Longitudinal relations in children

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      Authors: Weixia Chen, Xiaoyu Li, E. Scott Huebner, Lili Tian
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the longitudinal relations among parent–child cohesion (i.e., father–child and mother–child cohesion), loneliness, and prosocial behavior (PB) in children, using a four-wave longitudinal design with 6-month intervals. A total of 678 elementary school students from Grades 4–5 in China (Mage = 10.11 years, 45.6% girls) completed a multi-measure questionnaire, including parent–child cohesion, loneliness, and PB. The results revealed (a) both father–child cohesion and mother–child cohesion predicted children’s PB, and vice versa; (b) both father–child cohesion and mother–child cohesion predicted children’s loneliness and vice versa; (c) loneliness predicted children’s PB and vice versa; and (d) father–child cohesion and mother–child cohesion indirectly predicted children’s PB via children’s loneliness and vice versa. Thus, parent–child cohesion, loneliness, and PB form a complex, dynamic system, suggesting the need for family-based interventions to promote PB in children.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T06:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221091178
       
  • Exploring the nature and variation of the stigma associated with
           loneliness

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      Authors: Manuela Barreto, Jolien van Breen, Christina Victor, Claudia Hammond, Alice Eccles, Matthew T Richins, Pamela Qualter
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study uses data from The British Broadcasting Corporation Loneliness Experiment to explore the social stigma of loneliness and how it varies by gender, age and cultural individualism. We examined stigmatizing judgements of people who are lonely (impressions of those who feel lonely and attributions for loneliness), perceived stigma in the community and self-stigma (shame for being lonely and inclination to conceal loneliness), while controlling for participants’ own feelings of loneliness. The scores on most measures fell near the mid-point of the scales, but stigmatizing perceptions depended on the measure of stigmatization that was used and on age, gender and country-level individualism. Multilevel analyses revealed that men had more stigmatizing perceptions, more perceived community stigma, but less self-stigma than women; young people had higher scores than older people on all indicators except for internal versus external attributions and people living in collectivist countries perceived loneliness as more controllable and perceived more stigma in the community than people living in individualistic countries. Finally, young men living in individualistic countries made the most internal (vs. external) attributions for loneliness. We discuss the implications of these findings for understandings of loneliness stigma and interventions to address loneliness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T06:37:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221087190
       
  • You just don’t get it: The impact of misunderstanding on psychological
           and physiological health

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      Authors: Erin E Crockett, Monique MH Pollmann, Ana P Olvera
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the effects of felt (mis)understanding on satisfaction, stress, and motivation in two different studies. In Study 1, we used an experimental design in which 72 participants (54 women, 18 men) engaged in understanding or misunderstanding interactions. Afterward, we measured their satisfaction with the interaction and their motivation for and performance on a subsequent task. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that people who had a misunderstanding interaction reported lower interaction satisfaction, motivation, and poorer performance than those who were given no instructions. In Study 2, we used diary methodology and measured diurnal cortisol slopes (N = 86; 63 women, 21 men) to determine how day to day fluctuations in understanding and misunderstanding were associated with daily feelings of motivation, satisfaction, and perceived stress. Consistent with our hypotheses, the results found that feeling misunderstood predicted higher perceived stress, lower life satisfaction and motivation as well as less healthy cortisol slopes. Felt understanding predicted higher life satisfaction and higher motivation in Study 2 (not Study 1). Similar to other relationship constructs, our findings suggest that the physical and psychological impact of misunderstanding is important to consider distinct from understanding. Further, they suggest that not feeling misunderstood by our close others may matter more than feeling understood by them.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T06:12:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221089903
       
  • “Perfectly supportive in theory…”: Women’s perceptions of partner
           support while breastfeeding

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      Authors: Katherine M. Johnson, Kathleen S. Slauson-Blevins
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Breastfeeding is an important public health issue that significantly intersects with work, gender, and family relationships. Prior research has focused on partner dynamics in the breastfeeding family and specifically shown that male partners heavily influence women’s breastfeeding decisions and experiences. Much of this research emphasizes net gains of men’s involvement in breastfeeding. While acknowledging the importance of involved fathers early on, we argue for recognizing the dual potential for men’s involvement in breastfeeding to be both affirming and undermining to their breastfeeding partners. As part of a workplace case study, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 32 women who were currently or recently breastfeeding. We identified four major themes: (1) encouraging/discouraging breastfeeding, (2) acknowledging/overlooking breastfeeding labor, (3) supporting/undermining breastfeeding decisions and goals, and (4) assisting with/avoiding domestic labor. Education directed at men should address the issue that not all intended support actions may be perceived as supportive by breastfeeding women and should provide concrete guidance on how men can be supportive, centering the needs of breastfeeding women.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T05:20:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221090185
       
  • Intergenerational effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms in family: The
           roles of parenting behavior, feelings of safety, and self-disclosure

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      Authors: Xiao Zhou, Jiali Huang, Rui Zhen
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the effects of parents’ posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and parenting behaviors, children’s feelings of safety, and children’s self-disclosure on children’s PTSS, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying intergenerational effect of PTSS. Three months after the Super Typhoon Lekima occurred in China, August 2019, self-report questionnaires were used to investigate 866 Chinese parent–child dyads (children’s mean age was 10.55 years, 52.2% were boys; parents’ mean age was 37.99 years, 23.2% were fathers) in the area most affected by the typhoon. The results found that parents’ PTSS may have disrupted the provision of emotionally warm parenting, in turn reducing children’s feelings of safety and limiting their self-disclosure, ultimately increasing the severity of children’s PTSS. This suggested that the mechanisms underlying the intergenerational effect of PTSS between parents and children involve the combined role of parents’ emotionally warm parenting, children’s feelings of safety, and children’s self-disclosure.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T05:08:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221088923
       
  • Conflicts over the division of domestic work: A matter of gender-specific
           expectations and needs

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      Authors: Miriam Trübner
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the frequency of conflicts over the division of domestic labor among heterosexual couples with dependent children (N = 1597), considering the actual division of labor, perceived fairness about the division of labor, spouses’ levels of general appreciation for one another, varying preferences for housework and housekeeping standards, and role expectations. By applying actor–partner interdependence models (APIMs) to data from the representative German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam) (wave 11), we analyze actor and cross-partner effects simultaneously, allowing us to consider the concept of dyadic interdependency derived from social exchange and gender theories. Results indicate that it is not the division of labor that is decisive for conflicts in relationships, but what is perceived to be fair. While men require approval from their spouses when they deviate from normative gender standards, women need housework to not be merely thought of as their natural responsibility. The results are used to suggest how conflicts over domestic labor can be avoided among parents during the intense life phase of childcare.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-16T01:15:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221089043
       
  • “Hero,” a virtual program for promoting prosocial behaviors toward
           strangers and empathy among adolescents: A cluster randomized trial

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      Authors: Belén Mesurado, Santiago Resett, María E Oñate, Claudia Vanney
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the virtual Hero program on the promotion of empathy (emotional contagion, emotional recognition, and perspective taking) and prosocial behavior toward strangers. Moreover, we studied whether promoting empathy strengthened the program’s impact on adolescents’ prosocial behavior. The study included 431 adolescents in the intervention group (Mage = 13.64, 47% of participants identified as cisgender men, and 53% of participants identified as cisgender women) and 325 participants in the waitlist control group (Mage = 13.22, 47% of participants identified as cisgender men, and 53% of participants identified as cisgender women). The adolescents lived in the urban zone of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants completed measures of prosocial behavior and empathy. The intervention included seven weekly online sessions (a pretest evaluation, five intervention sessions, and a posttest evaluation) of approximately 40 minutes each, while the control group completed only the pretest and posttest evaluations. The research findings show that the Hero virtual program was effective in promoting prosociality directly (when not mediated by emotional contagion and emotional recognition) and indirectly through emotional contagion and emotional recognition. In addition, the Hero program promoted emotional contagion and emotional recognition, but it was not effective at promoting perspective taking. In conclusion, internet-based interventions could play a prominent role in promoting positive behavior among young adolescents.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T12:42:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221083227
       
  • Emotion suppression on relationship and life satisfaction: Taking culture
           and emotional valence into account

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      Authors: Da Eun Han, Haeyoung Gideon Park, Un Ji An, So Eun Kim, Young-Hoon Kim
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Despite a general consensus on the negative consequences of emotion suppression in Western cultures, cross-cultural explorations to date have yielded many inconsistencies on whether such phenomena can be generalized to Eastern cultures. A set of two studies were conducted to examine the role of emotional valence in resolving such inconsistencies on both relationship satisfaction and subjective well-being. In accordance with our hypotheses, our results consistently revealed that the habitual suppression of emotions was associated with lower relationship satisfaction and subjective well-being, regardless of valence, for American participants. However, the effects of emotion suppression significantly varied by valence for Korean participants, such that suppressing negative emotions was less detrimental than suppressing positive emotions. Overall, the present study highlights the importance of considering the nature of different emotions and cultural contexts when examining the adaptiveness of emotion regulation strategies on individuals’ interpersonal and intrapersonal well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T06:23:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221088521
       
  • Associations Between Distress Tolerance and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms
           Among Combat Veterans and Their Parents: The Mediating Role of Parents’
           Accommodation

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      Authors: Gadi Zerach, Tamar Gordon-Shalev
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might negatively impact the mental health of veterans’ family members. Nevertheless, nearly no research has examined secondary PTSD symptoms (PTSS) in veterans’ parents, and still to be explored are the mechanisms by which distress tolerance (DT) contributes to veterans’ PTSS and parents’ secondary PTSS (SPTSS). In the present study, we aimed to use a dyadic approach to explore the association between veterans’ and parents’ DT and their PTSS/SPTSS, as well as to examine the mediating role of parents’ accommodation of veterans’ behaviors in these associations. Method: A volunteer sample of 102 dyads of Israeli combat veterans and their parents responded to online validated self-report questionnaires in a cross-sectional study. Analysis included actor–partner interdependence modeling (APIM) and mediation analyses. Results: Veterans’ PTSS was positively correlated with parents’ SPTSS. Moreover, veterans’ DT and parents’ DT negatively predicted their own PTSS and SPTSS, respectively. Furthermore, veterans’ DT negatively predicted their parents’ SPTSS. Importantly, parents’ accommodation mediated the links between veterans’ DT and both veterans’ PTSS and parents’ SPTSS, as well as between parents’ DT and veterans’ PTSS with parents’ SPTSS. Conclusion: Parents of combat veterans might be indirectly traumatized by their offspring’s military experiences and suffer from secondary PTSS. Among both veterans and parents, low DT is associated with higher levels of parents’ accommodation, which in turn is related to more posttraumatic symptoms.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T06:12:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221089046
       
  • Direct and indirect effects of maternal and sibling intimacy on
           adolescents’ volunteering via social responsibility values: A
           longitudinal study

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      Authors: Sahitya Maiya, Shawn D. Whiteman, Jenna C. Dayley, Sarfaraz Serang, Laura Wray-Lake, Brian C. Kelly, Jennifer L. Maggs, Sarah A. Mustillo
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the direct and indirect effects of maternal and sibling relational intimacy on adolescents’ volunteering behaviors via their social responsibility values. Participants included two adolescents (50% female; M age = 1 year) and one parent (85% female; M age = 45 years) from 682 families (N = 2046) from an ongoing longitudinal study. Adolescents self-reported their intimacy with mothers and siblings (Time 1), social responsibility values (Time 1), and volunteering (Times 1 and 2); parents reported on sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., gender, birth order, and family income). Results from a structural equation model indicated that after accounting for adolescents’ earlier volunteering, both maternal and sibling intimacy were indirectly related to greater volunteering via social responsibility values. There were no significant direct effects from maternal or sibling intimacy to adolescents’ volunteering. Results indicate that both mothers and siblings are important in socializing prosocial and civic values and behaviors during adolescence.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T04:56:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221083301
       
  • Resisting and reifying meaning in everyday life: Using relational
           dialectics theory to understand the meaning of heterosexual dating

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      Authors: Brooke H Wolfe, Kristina M Scharp
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Heterosexual women have intersecting identities that are privileged (i.e., sexuality) and marginalized (i.e., gender), suggesting a complicated site to examine power in the process of dating where meaning has become taken-for-granted over time. In this study, we utilized relational dialectics theory’s (RDT’s) corresponding method, contrapuntal analysis, to examine a group that holds fluctuating societal power in the context of heterosexuality and dating. Findings from the responses of women (n = 104) revealed two discourses that competed to illuminate the meaning of heterosexual dating from the perspective of women: the dominant Discourse that Dating is Romantic and Necessary (DDRN) and the marginal Discourse that Dating is Restrictive and Unrealistic (DDRU). These discourses interplayed through contractive practices (i.e., disqualification and naturalization), diachronic separation, synchronic interplay (i.e., entertaining, countering, and negating), and dialogic transformation (i.e., discursive hybridization and aesthetic moment), illuminating a discursive struggle that both reified and resisted the DDRN.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T10:40:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221087462
       
  • Too hunky to help: A person-centered approach to masculinity and prosocial
           behavior beliefs among adolescent boys

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      Authors: Matthew G. Nielson, Diana L. Jenkins, Ashley M. Fraser
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Boys’ beliefs about prosocial behavior toward other boys may be negatively affected by masculine norm adherence, and there is evidence that early adolescence is a time when boys feel heightened levels of pressure from multiple sources (e.g., friends, family, and self) to adhere to masculine norms like emotional restriction (e.g., appearing stoic and uncaring). However, the relation between boys’ masculinity and their prosocial behavior beliefs is likely further affected by boys’ social competency. Generally, boys’ social competency is positively associated with prosocial behavior, but this is not the case for “tough” boys (boys who adhere to many traditionally masculine norms). We expected that analyzing the relation between early adolescent boys’ pressure to adhere to masculine norms and boys’ unique social profiles (created using adherence to masculine norms and aspects of social competency) would further illuminate boys’ patterns of prosocial behavior beliefs toward other boys. A latent profile analysis estimated profiles of masculinity and social competence among 260 early adolescent boys (59% White, Mage = 11.45 years old, Rangeage = 10–12) in the southwestern U.S. Three profiles emerged which we labeled socially precarious (50%), socially self-confident (41%), and socially avoidant (9%). R3Step and BCH procedures indicated that higher levels of felt pressure from all three sources resulted in a significantly higher likelihood of being in the socially precarious profile compared to the socially self-confident profile and that boys in the socially self-confident profile had significantly higher mean levels of prosocial behavior beliefs toward other boys (M = 3.22) compared to boys in the socially precarious profile (M = 3.01). Overall, this study encourages the socialization of social competency while simultaneously discouraging the perpetuation of certain masculine norms among adolescent boys.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T05:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221084697
       
  • Co-developmental trajectories of interpersonal relationships in middle
           childhood to early adolescence: Associations with traditional bullying and
           cyberbullying

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      Authors: Chenghao Deng, Xue Gong, Wang Liu, E. Scott Huebner, Lili Tian
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study explored the co-developmental trajectories of three different interpersonal relationship types (parent, teacher, and peer) and their relations to bullying behaviors (i.e., traditional bullying perpetration/victimization and cyberbullying perpetration/victimization) during middle childhood to early adolescence. A total of 4154 Chinese elementary school students in grades 3 and 4 (54.8% boy; Mage = 9.90, SD = 0.72) participated in assessments at five time points, using 6-month assessment intervals. Analyses were conducted using parallel process latent class growth modeling. Five distinct interpersonal relationship groups were identified: congruent-low group, congruent-high increasing group, congruent-moderate group, low mother–child relationships group, and low decreasing teacher–student relationships group. The identification of these patterns yielded a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of the developmental patterns of interpersonal relationships during this age period. Furthermore, the five co-developmental patterns of interpersonal relationships differentially associated with traditional bullying and cyberbullying, implying the need for intervention programs to be tailored to members of specific groups to reduce traditional bullying and cyberbullying.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-02T05:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221087618
       
  • Close TIES in relationships: A dynamic systems approach for modeling
           physiological linkage

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      Authors: Ashley Kuelz, Savannah Boyd, Emily Butler
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      We explore complex dynamic patterns of autonomic physiological linkage (i.e., statistical interdependence of partner’s physiology; PL), within the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (SNS and PNS), as potential correlates of emotional and regulatory dynamics in close relationships. We include electrodermal activity (EDA) as an indicator of SNS activation and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as an indicator of regulatory and/or homeostatic processes within the PNS. Measures of EDA and RSA were collected in 10-second increments from 53 heterosexual couples during a mixed-emotion conversation in the laboratory. We used the R statistical package, rties (Butler & Barnard, 2019), to model the dynamics of EDA and RSA with a coupled oscillator model and then categorized couples into qualitatively distinct profiles based on the set of parameters that emerged. We identified two patterns for EDA and three patterns for RSA. We then investigated associations between the PL patterns and self-report measures of relationship and conversation quality and emotional valence using Bayesian multilevel and logistic regression models. Overall, we found robust results indicating that PL profiles were credibly predicted by valence and relationship quality reported prior to the conversations. In contrast, we found very little evidence suggesting that PL patterns predict self-reported conversation quality or valence following the conversation. Together, these results suggest that PL across autonomic subsystems may reflect different processes and therefore have different implications when considering interpersonal dynamics.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T07:22:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221082594
       
  • PowerLAPIM: An application to conduct power analysis for linear and
           quadratic longitudinal actor–partner interdependence models in intensive
           longitudinal dyadic designs

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      Authors: Ginette Lafit, Laura Sels, Janne K. Adolf, Tom Loeys, Eva Ceulemans
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The longitudinal actor–partner interdependence model (L-APIM) is used to study actor and partner effects, both linear and curvilinear, in dyadic intensive longitudinal data. A burning question is how to conduct power analyses for different L-APIM variants. In this paper, we introduce an accessible power analysis application, called PowerLAPIM, and provide a hands-on tutorial for conducting simulation-based power analyses for 32 L-APIM variants. With PowerLAPIM, we target the number of dyads needed, but not the number of repeated measurements for both partners (which is often fixed in longitudinal studies). PowerLAPIM allows to study moderation of linear and quadratic actor and partner effects by incorporating time-varying covariates or a categorical dyad-level predictor to test group differences. We also provide the functionality to account for serial dependency in the outcome variable by including autoregressive effects. Building on existing study that can yield estimates and thus plausible values of relevant model parameters, we illustrate how to perform a power analysis for a future study. In this illustration, we also demonstrate how to run a sensitivity analysis, to assess the impact of uncertainty about the model parameters, and of changes in the number of repeated measurements.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T12:14:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221080128
       
  • The predictive significance of fluctuations in early maternal sensitivity
           for secure base script knowledge and relationship effectiveness in
           adulthood

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      Authors: Jami Eller, Sophia W Magro, Glenn I Roisman, Jeffry A Simpson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment theory suggests that both the quality and consistency of early sensitive care should shape an individual’s attachment working models and relationship outcomes across the lifespan. To date, most research has focused on the quality of early sensitive caregiving, finding that receiving higher quality care predicts more secure working models and better long-term relationship outcomes than receiving lower quality care. However, it remains unclear whether or how the consistency of early sensitive care impacts attachment working models and adult relationship functioning. In this research, we utilized data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation to examine to what extent the quality (i.e., mean levels) and consistency (i.e., within-person fluctuations) in behaviorally coded maternal sensitive care assessed 7 times from 3 months to 13 years prospectively predicts secure base script knowledge and relationship effectiveness (i.e., interpersonal competence in close relationships) in adulthood. We found that larger fluctuations and lower mean levels of early maternal sensitivity jointly predict lower relationship effectiveness in adulthood via lower secure base script knowledge. These findings reveal that nonlinear models of early caregiving experiences more completely account for relationship outcomes across the lifespan, beyond what traditional linear models have documented. Implications for attachment theory and longitudinal methods are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T04:05:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221077640
       
  • Introducing change point detection analysis in relationship research: An
           investigation of couples’ emotion dynamics

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      Authors: Laura Sels, Evelien Schat, Lesley Verhofstadt, Eva Ceulemans
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Many relationship theories assume some form of interdependence between relationship partners. Partners are thought to continuously influence each other and to be influenced by each other over time. These influences are not expected to be constant, but dynamic (sometimes partners influence each other a lot, and sometimes they do not influence each other). To investigate such changes in interpersonal dynamics, we showcase the value of using a change point detection approach, which can be used to monitor virtually any preferred quantification of interpersonal dynamics across time. Concretely, we introduce the KCP-RS method, which scans times series for changes in user-specified statistics, in interpersonal emotion dynamic research. We used KCP-RS to investigate changes in 96 couples’ emotional experiences during two 10-minute conversations, which were meant to elicit a negative and a positive interaction context. Based on participants’ continuous reports of the valence of their emotional experience, we looked for changes in three statistical measures, aiming to capture emotional similarity between partners (i.e., does their valence fluctuate together). Specifically, we investigated the occurrence, frequency, and direction of change in partners’ linear correlations, instantaneous derivative matching (IMD), and signal matching (SM). While correlation changes were only observed in 2% of the couples, IDM changes were detected for about one third of the couples (34%), and SM changes were detected in about half of them (49%). Most couples demonstrated one change point, and the direction of the change differed depending on the specific emotional similarity measure. In a first validation of this method, we demonstrated how such change points can pinpoint to subtle but meaningful dynamic processes in couples. We end by discussing the added value of change point detection analyses for relationship research and interpersonal research in general.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T06:12:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075211070558
       
  • Using Sequence Analysis to Identify Conversational Motifs in Supportive
           Interactions

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      Authors: Denise Haunani Solomon, Susanne Jones, Miriam Brinberg, Graham D. Bodie, Nilam Ram
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study demonstrates how sequence analysis, which is a method for identifying common patterns in categorical time series data, illuminates the nonlinear dynamics of dyadic conversations by describing chains of behavior that shift categorically, rather than incrementally. When applied to interpersonal interactions, sequence analysis supports the identification of conversational motifs, which can be used to test hypotheses linking patterns of interaction to conversational antecedents or outcomes. As an illustrative example, this study evaluated 285 conversations involving stranger, friend, and dating dyads in which one partner, the discloser, communicated about a source of stress to a partner in the role of listener. Using sequence analysis, we identified three five-turn supportive conversational motifs that had also emerged in a previous study of stranger dyads: discloser problem description, discloser problem processing, and listener-focused dialogue. We also observed a new, fourth motif: listener-focused, discloser questioning. Tests of hypotheses linking the prevalence and timing of particular motifs to the problem discloser’s emotional improvement and perceptions of support quality, as moderated by the discloser’s pre-interaction stress, offered a partial replication of previous findings. The discussion highlights the value of using sequence analysis to illuminate dynamic patterns in dyadic interactions.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T01:51:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075211066618
       
  • Grateful expectations: Cultural differences in the curvilinear association
           between age and gratitude

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      Authors: William J. Chopik, Rebekka Weidmann, Jeewon Oh, Mariah F. Purol
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research suggests that the association between age and gratitude might be curvilinear—despite gratitude ostensibly being higher in middle-age, it might be lower in older adulthood. It is unclear if this curvilinear pattern of age differences in gratitude is found in other samples and whether its manifestation depends on contextual (i.e., national/cultural) characteristics. The current study examined cultural variation in the curvilinear effect of age on gratitude in a sample of over 4.5 million participants from 88 countries. Participants from countries with lower levels of human development, a shorter-term orientation, and higher levels of indulgence reported higher levels of gratitude. Cultural moderation effects were very small, suggesting that curvilinear effects of age on gratitude may be relatively comparable across cultures.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T04:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075211054391
       
  • Feminist theory, method, and praxis: Toward a critical consciousness for
           family and close relationship scholars

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      Authors: Katherine R. Allen
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Feminism provides a worldview with innovative possibilities for scholarship and activism on behalf of families and intimate relationships. As a flexible framework capable of engaging with contentious theoretical ideas and the urgency of social change, feminism offers a simultaneous way to express an epistemology (knowledge), a methodology (the production of knowledge), an ontology (one’s subjective way of being in the world), and a praxis (the translation of knowledge into actions that produce beneficial social change). Feminist family science, in particular, advances critical, intersectional, and queer approaches to examine the uses and abuses of power and the multiple axes upon which individuals and families are privileged, marginalized, and oppressed in diverse social contexts. In this paper, I embrace feminism as a personal, professional (academic), and political project and use stories from my own life to illuminate broader social-historical structures, processes, and contexts associated with gender, race, class, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, nationality, and other systems of social stratification. I provide a brief history and reflections on contemporary feminist theory and activism, particularly from the perspective of my disciplinary affiliation of feminist family science. I address feminism as an intersectional perspective through three themes: (a) theory: defining a critical feminist approach, (b) method: critical feminist autoethnographic research, and (c) praxis: transforming feminist theory into action. I conclude with takeaway messages for incorporating reflexivity and critical consciousness raising to provoke thought and action in the areas of personal, professional, and political change.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T03:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075211065779
       
  • Changes in global and relationship-specific attachment working models

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      Authors: Keely A. Dugan, R. Chris Fraley, Omri Gillath, Pascal R. Deboeck
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment theorists suggest that people construct a number of distinct working models throughout life. People develop global working models, which reflect their expectations and beliefs concerning relationships in general, as well as relationship-specific working models of close others—their mothers, fathers, romantic partners, and friends. The present research investigated the interplay of these different working models over time. We analyzed longitudinal data collected from 4,904 adults (mean age = 35.24 years; SD = 11.63) who completed between 3 and 24 online survey assessments (median test–retest interval = 35 days). Using latent growth curve modeling, we examined the associations among both long-term changes and short-term fluctuations in participants’ working models. Our findings suggest that different working models not only change together over the long run, but also exhibit co-occurring, short-term fluctuations. This was true concerning the associations between global and relationship-specific models as well as among different relationship-specific models.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T02:58:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075211051408
       
  • Affectionate touch in satisfying and dissatisfying romantic relationships

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      Authors: Brett K Jakubiak
      First page: 2287
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Past research has shown consistent benefits associated with and resulting from affectionate touch, though past research is based almost exclusively on highly satisfied and otherwise non-representative samples. The current research used two nationally representative samples to test correlates (Study 1) and anticipated consequences (Study 2) of affectionate touch in romantic relationships. In Study 1, greater kissing frequency was associated with greater individual well-being, and these links were especially pronounced in the most satisfying relationships. In Study 2, participants who were randomly assigned to imagine receiving affectionate touch from their spouse anticipated greater individual well-being (less stress and greater life satisfaction) and relational benefits (greater perceived partner affection, state security, cognitive interdependence, and relationship quality). These benefits were stronger among people with moderate or high relationship satisfaction but observed even for the subset of individuals (approximately one-third of the sample) who rated their relationships as “distressed.” Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T04:27:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221077280
       
  • Maternal Attitudes Toward Child Interethnic Relations in the Netherlands:
           Facilitating Intergroup Contact Effects'

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      Authors: Ymke de Bruijn, Rosanneke A. G. Emmen, Judi Mesman
      First page: 2316
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Ethnic diversity and interethnic contact are increasing in Europe. Intergroup contact theory suggests interethnic contact to improve interethnic attitudes, but for young children, parental attitudes toward child interethnic relations might be an important factor determining whether they are exposed to these potentially positive contact effects. This study therefore examined maternal attitudes toward child contact with different ethnic outgroups among 251 mothers (137 White Dutch, 69 Turkish-Dutch, and 45 Afro-Dutch) of a 6- to 10-year-old child (M = 7.51, SD = 0.98). Furthermore, associations between maternal attitudes toward child interethnic relations and child outgroup rejection were examined, as well as mediation effects of child actual outgroup contact. Neutral to positive maternal attitudes toward child interethnic relations were found, with relatively more negative attitudes among Turkish-Dutch than White Dutch and Afro-Dutch mothers, and toward child relations with Muslims as compared to another outgroup among White Dutch and Afro-Dutch mothers. Furthermore, results did not indicate that maternal attitudes were related to child actual outgroup contact or child outgroup prejudice and no support for the intergroup contact theory was found. These results suggest that intergroup contact theory does not easily apply, highlighting the need for more research on children in various populations and contexts using different measures and informants. Patterns from the present study suggest that most improvement in terms of maternal attitudes fostering child interethnic relations can be made in the interethnic relations including ethnic groups in the Netherlands that predominantly identify as Muslim.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T04:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221077235
       
  • Give yourself a break: Self-compassion mediates insecure attachment and
           divorce maladjustment among Iranian women

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      Authors: Omran Davarinejad, Azin Ghasemi, Scott S. Hall, Lawrence S. Meyers, Mehdi Shirzadifar, Maryam Shirzadi, Arash Rahro Mehrabani, Tahereh Ramezanzadeh Rostami, Hassan Shahi
      First page: 2340
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that multiple psychological factors are associated with divorce adjustment (DA). However, the mechanisms by which these factors affect DA lack clarity. Accordingly, this study examined associations between attachment styles and divorce adjustment with self-compassion as a potential mediator. Cultural context of DA is considered. A total of 304 Iranian divorced women completed a series of self-rating questionnaires covering levels of adult attachment styles, self-compassion components, and indicators of divorce adjustment. Higher scores of attachment security and lower levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance were associated with higher levels of divorce adjustment and self-compassion, and higher levels of self-compassion were associated with better DA. Through Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Structural Equation Modeling, the trimmed model showed that self-compassion partially mediated attachment anxiety and fully mediated attachment avoidance as predictors of poorer divorce adjustment (or greater maladjustment, based on feelings of self-worth, grief, and self-anger subscales of DA). Self-compassion appears to be a key factor in how Iranian women adjusted to divorce, particularly those women with insecure adult attachment styles. Cultivating self-compassion could be an effective way to help counter negative attachment patterns. The role of Iranian cultural characteristics in perceptions and stress related to marriage and post-divorce adjustment is discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T04:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221077971
       
  • Inventory of Dating Stress: Initial psychometric evaluation and construct
           validity

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      Authors: Timothy J. Sullivan, Joanne Davila
      First page: 2366
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      There is limited research on dating stress, or stressful experiences related to the dating process (e.g., inconsistent communication, sudden lack of response, and rude behavior). Little attention has been given to classifying stressors involved with the pursuit of potential partners from initial contact to relationship formation. In the current study, we developed a novel measure for such experiences, the Inventory of Dating Stress (IDS). We investigated the factor structure and preliminary construct validity for the IDS in an online sample of adults (n = 478). Results revealed a reliable four-factor structure (Mixed Signals, Mismatch, Ambiguous Rejection, and Harassment) across 18 items and the IDS demonstrated initial construct validity. Overall, the current study offers evidence of preliminary psychometric support for the IDS as a measure of dating stress.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T11:42:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221078295
       
  • When We’re Asked to Change: The Role of Suppression and Reappraisal
           in Partner Change Outcomes

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      Authors: Natalie M. Sisson, Grace A. Wang, Bonnie M. Le, Jennifer E. Stellar, Emily A. Impett
      First page: 2388
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Receiving a request to change from a romantic partner can evoke intense emotional responses that hinder change progress and conflict resolution. As such, investigating how those being asked to change (i.e., change targets) regulate their emotions through key intrapersonal strategies (i.e., suppression and reappraisal) will lend crucial insight into promoting change success. Utilizing laboratory-interaction (Study 1; N = 111 couples) and experience-sampling methods (Study 2; N = 2178 weekly reports from an 8-week diary), we assessed targets’ regulation strategies, change progress, and the extent to which they met their partner’s ideals. Preregistered analyses demonstrated that targets’ use of suppression was not linked to better or worse change outcomes. However, targets’ use of reappraisal was linked to better change outcomes as rated by both partners. Additional analyses revealed that targets’ suppression was linked to targets meeting their partner’s ideals more in the short term but less over time, whereas targets’ reappraisal was linked to targets meeting their partner’s ideals more in both the short term and over time. These findings highlight reappraisal as a key strategy for promoting successful partner change.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T10:43:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221078881
       
  • Perceived barriers and rewards to sexual consent communication: A
           qualitative analysis

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      Authors: Jessica Edwards, Uzma S Rehman, E Sandra Byers
      First page: 2408
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Increasingly, affirmative consent – direct, unambiguous and voluntary agreement to engage in sexual activity (Craig & McKinley, 2015) – is the standard being adopted by educational institutions in North America (Bennett, 2016). Yet, studies show that most individuals continue to communicate consent through nonresistance (Jozkowski et al., 2014a). Given this discrepancy, it is critical to understand what factors prevent individuals from engaging in affirmative consent. Furthermore, a better understanding of the perceived rewards of consent communication could incentivize the adoption of affirmative consent. To understand the range of perceived barriers and rewards, we conducted an online, qualitative study where 231 participants answered two open-ended questions. We used inductive content analysis to categorize participants’ perceptions of sexual consent barriers and rewards into four general content areas: (1) Communication Quality, (2) Relational and Emotional Experiences, (3) Sexual Quality and (4) Safety and Coercion. These perceived rewards and barriers were examined through the lens of the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills Model. Participants viewed consent communication not only as a means of ensuring safety but also as away to enhance relational and sexual quality. However, they also perceived barriers in all three of these domains as well as barriers to ensuring that sexual consent communication is fluid and easily understood. These findings provide important avenues for future research investigating how individuals reconcile perceived rewards and costs of affirmative consent communication. We also suggest ways to enhance sexual education by discussing potential rewards and validating the normative nature of fears and anxieties around affirmative consent.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-13T05:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221080744
       
  • Relational turbulence and social network engagement during the summer of
           COVID-19: A repeated measures, dyadic analysis

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      Authors: Kellie S. Brisini, Denise H. Solomon
      First page: 2435
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background/Purpose: Relational turbulence theory suggests that changes in and around relationships create the potential for relational turbulence when everyday routines and scripts are upended and communication becomes polarized. In turn, perceptions of a romantic relationship as chaotic or tumultuous can influence a person’s engagement with their social network. Alternately, previous research also suggests that engagement with friends and family has the potential to influence married partner’s relationship quality. Research Design: This study examined these propositions among a sample of married couples (N = 64, 128 individuals) whose daily experiences and relationship dynamics changed during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Results/Conclusions: Based on a 10-week, weekly diary repeated measures design, results suggest that relational turbulence and the valence of social network engagement may be mutually influential, such that (a) relational turbulence may influence the way in which married partners interpret communication with social network members and (b) the valence of communication with social network members may influence experiences of relational turbulence.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T03:07:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221080760
       
  • Will you be happy for me' Associations between self-reported,
           perceived, and observed responses to positive events and sexual well-being
           in cohabiting couples

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      Authors: Myriam Bosisio, Natalie O. Rosen, Justin Dubé, Marie-Pier Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Ève Daspe, Sophie Bergeron
      First page: 2454
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Whereas greater levels of intimacy have been shown to promote couples’ sexual well-being, recent theories suggest that satisfying sex is maintained via the capacity to encourage the partner’s individuality, while remaining intimately connected. Responses to capitalization attempts (i.e., the disclosure of a positive personal event) provide an opportunity to strengthen both the couple’s intimacy and each partner’s autonomy. Although responses to capitalization attempts are linked to couples’ greater relationship adjustment, very little is known about their relation to couples’ sexual well-being. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between self-reported, perceived, and observed responses to capitalization attempts and sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and sexual function in 151 cohabiting couples who participated in a filmed discussion in the laboratory. They also completed self-report questionnaires pertaining to their responsiveness and to that of the partner during the discussion, as well as their sexual well-being. Results indicated that one’s higher levels of self-reported and partner-perceived active–constructive responses (enthusiasm/elaboration) during the discussion were associated with one’s own greater sexual satisfaction. Higher levels of perceived passive–constructive responses (quiet but interested) from one’s partner were associated with one’s own lower sexual satisfaction, and one’s higher levels of self-reported and perceived passive–destructive responses (lack of interest/self-focus) were associated with one’s own greater sexual distress. Finally, higher levels of observed active–destructive responses (undermines/denies the positive nature of the event) were associated with one’s own lower sexual function, while in women, they were associated with their lower sexual satisfaction. Findings contribute to a growing body of literature underscoring the importance of intimacy for sexual well-being in long-term relationships.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T02:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221080581
       
  • Feeling Close and Seeing a Partner in a New Light: How Self-Expansion Is
           Associated With Sexual Desire

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      Authors: Sophie C. Goss, Stephanie Raposo, Rhonda Balzarini, Natalie O. Rosen, Veronica Benyamin, Amy Muise
      First page: 2478
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual desire is associated with romantic relationship satisfaction and maintenance, yet desire for a partner often declines over time. Self-expansion (new experiences that facilitate growth) with a partner boosts desire, but how this occurs is not well-understood. Across three studies—a 21-day daily experience study, a one-month weekly experience study, and an experimental study—we tested whether closeness, and a new construct otherness (seeing a partner in a new light), accounted for the association between self-expansion and desire. Across studies, self-expansion was associated with higher closeness and otherness, and, in turn, higher sexual desire (indirect effect through otherness significant in Studies 1 and 3). The findings provide evidence for the importance of fostering closeness, as well as otherness, in the maintenance of desire.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T02:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221081137
       
  • Beyond reciprocity: Relational sacrifices in romantic partners

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      Authors: Ke Yan, Xin Wang, Xiaomei Wang, Federico d’Oleire Uquillas, Qinghua He, Li Cheng, Zhiling Zou
      First page: 2507
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Reciprocity is often considered a precondition for sacrificial behaviors, with people being willing to make sacrifices in their relationships to better their collective interests and expecting their partners to do the same. However, whether relational sacrifices exist in a zero-sum game, wherein reciprocity cannot be established, remains unclear. Therefore, this study utilized the cold pressor task (CPT) to explore communal sacrificial behavior among romantic partners and to examine any possible gender differences in these behaviors in a laboratory setting. Seventy-two college students (36 men and 36 women, all currently in romantic relationships) were instructed to place their sub-dominant hand into cold water (2°C) as long as possible (baseline), for their romantic partners (romantic partner-beneficiary condition) or for their opposite-sex friends (friend-beneficiary condition; enduring it longer so that their friend/romantic partners may endure it for a shorter duration) in a counterbalanced order. Data on pain tolerance time were collected in the CPTs, with sacrificial behaviors indexed by how much longer participants endured pain for their romantic partners or friends than the baseline. The data indicated that participants demonstrated a longer pain tolerance time in partner-beneficiary condition than the baseline (and friend-beneficiary). No significant difference was found between friend-beneficiary condition and baseline. Moreover, a gender difference was noted, with male participants having a longer pain tolerance increment rate than female participants. These results provide a foundation for experimental research of relational sacrificial behaviors and suggest that relational sacrifices exist beyond reciprocity in romantic relationships, but not within opposite-sex friendships.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-02T06:48:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221080997
       
  • Attachment in the time of COVID-19: Insecure attachment orientations are
           

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      Authors: Joel Gruneau Brulin, Phillip R. Shaver, Mario Mikulincer, Pehr Granqvist
      First page: 2528
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has linked people’s relational attachment orientations to emotional reactions and coping during crises, and to social trust and trust in societal institutions. The COVID-19 pandemic is a global crisis for which collective efforts, such as social distancing, are necessary to stop the spread of the virus. During previous pandemics, people high in trust have typically adhered to such efforts. In the present study, we investigated whether attachment orientations were related to people’s adherence to authorities’ guidelines to stop the spread of COVID-19. We also tested whether previous mediational findings—linking attachment-related avoidance to welfare state trust via social trust—would replicate. We used a web-based survey of 620 participants. Our findings showed that attachment-related anxiety was linked to low adherence to social distancing regulations. This finding was especially noteworthy because high attachment-anxious participants also experienced more negative emotions, yet negative emotions were generally linked to high adherence. Thus, people higher in attachment anxiety seem to have more difficulties in avoiding social situations despite heightened risk of catching and spreading the virus. In addition, attachment-related avoidance was negatively related to adherence and to welfare state trust, and its effects on welfare state trust were statistically mediated by low social trust.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-12T01:38:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221082602
       
  • The role of sensory processing sensitivity in the longitudinal
           associations between relationship qualities with parents and peers and
           externalizing behavior in adolescence

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      Authors: Karen Fischer, Helle Larsen, Alithe van den Akker, Geertjan Overbeek
      First page: 2549
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Some adolescents may be more likely to be influenced by parents and peers in their development of externalizing behavior than others. Recent research indicates that sensory processing sensitivity may underlie such differences in sensitivity to environmental influences, and specifically that individuals with higher sensory processing sensitivity may be similarly highly reactive to both negative and positive social contexts. Data from a two-wave, two-year longitudinal questionnaire study with 177 adolescents (Mage = 13.34 years, SDage = 1.05) were used to test the hypothesis that the associations between negative relationship quality with parents and best friend and later increased adolescents’ externalizing behavior and between support from parents and best friend and later decreased adolescents’ externalizing behavior would be stronger for adolescents with higher sensory processing sensitivity. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed, with results showing that a stronger negative relationship quality with best friend was only predictive of a subsequent increase in externalizing behavior for adolescents who scored higher on sensory processing sensitivity. More research is needed to investigate whether sensory processing sensitivity functions as a trait that is associated with increased sensitivity to environmental stimuli regardless of valence, especially in the context of negative and positive social exposures such as peer and parent environments.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T12:00:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221083962
       
  • Reconsider the triangle: Effects of birth parents’ communicative
           practices on Chinese hidden children’s identification with family of
           origin

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      Authors: Hui Xiong, Zehui Dai, Yinxue Xie
      First page: 2572
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Employing the theoretical approach of discourse dependence, the present study investigates the effects of birth parents’ communicative practices upon Chinese hidden children’s identification with family of origin before and after family reunification. Semi-structured interviews with 10 hidden children presented a birth parent-centered triangle of communication among birth parents, hidden children, and foster caregivers. The birth parents’ open communication with hidden children and foster caregivers, display of affections, along with the representation of family membership, affected hidden children’s birth family identification. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T10:51:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221084349
       
  • Projecting current feelings into the past and future: Better current
           relationship quality reduces negative retrospective bias and increases
           positive forecasting bias

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      Authors: Johanna Peetz, Justin P. K. Shimizu, Courtney Royle
      First page: 2595
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      We examine bias in how people perceive their romantic relationship over time. Participants appraised their relationship 6 months and 1 year ago on average more negatively than they had done at the time (retrospective bias) but showed no significant mean-level forecasting bias. Higher relationship quality at the time of appraisal was linked to less negative retrospective bias but to more positive forecasting bias (Study 1). Similarly, participants who were experimentally manipulated to focus on the high relationship quality aspects in their relationship (vs. considering challenging aspects of their relationship) showed more forecasting bias and less retrospective bias (Study 2). This pattern occurred due to participants’ projecting positive current feelings onto predicted relationship quality in the future and remembered relationship quality in the past. This projection reduced the overall negative bias in recalled relationship quality for those currently perceiving higher relationship quality but increased positive bias in forecasted relationship quality.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T10:35:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221084280
       
  • Dyadic links between health changes and well-being: The role of
           non-spousal confidants

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      Authors: Lynn M Martire, Ruixue Zhaoyang, Christina M Marini, Suyoung Nah
      First page: 2617
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Although the marital relationship is often the primary source of emotional support in adulthood, sole reliance on the spouse to discuss health-related issues may be harmful to the well-being of both partners. The first aim of this study was to examine whether declines in health during later life would be associated with poorer psychological well-being in self and partner. We further investigated whether declining health would have a stronger impact on own and partner psychological well-being in the absence of non-spousal health confidants. Longitudinal actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) were used to test both hypotheses with dyadic data from Wave 2 (2010–2011) and Wave 3 (2015–2016) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). Contrary to prediction, increased anxiety following spousal declines in gait speed and cognitive function occurred for those whose spouse did (rather than did not) have additional health confidants. A much fuller understanding is needed in regard to whether close relationships provide resources or present unwanted complications to dyadic coping, and the processes by which effects occur.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T05:13:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221086509
       
 
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Heriot-Watt University
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