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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 382 Journals sorted by number of followers
American Journal of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 342)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 284)
Annual Review of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167)
Social Forces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Social Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Information, Communication & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Anthropological Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
The British Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Qualitative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Sociological Methods & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
International Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
City & Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Critical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
AlterNative : An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
European Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Comparative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of European Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Mental Health and Social Inclusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
The Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Contemporary Sociology : A Journal of Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Victorian Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Games and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Critical Discourse Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sociology of Health & Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Sociological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Complexity in Leadership and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Health and Social Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Judgment and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Design and Culture : The Journal of the Design Studies Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Sociolinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ethnicities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Rural Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Social Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Sociology of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Sociological Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Social Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Middle East Women's Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
The Sociological Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Studies in Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Family & Community History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Identities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sociological Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Policy History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Sociology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Comparative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Philosophy & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Historical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Symbolic Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Berliner Journal für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Global Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Communication Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Classical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sociology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sociological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sociological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Review of Sociology / Revue Canadienne De Sociologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advertising & Society Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
East Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cultures & conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal for the Study of Radicalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Studies in Latin American Popular Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Sociologia Ruralis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Teaching Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sociological Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Anthropologie et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Political Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers canadiens de sociologie     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Sociology: Revue Internationale de Sociologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sociological Research Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bronte Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gender and Behaviour     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Race/Ethnicity : Multidisciplinary Global Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Sociology & Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Sociologie du Travail     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cross-cultural Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Mexicana de Sociologí­a     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Surveillance and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ateliers d'anthropologie     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nordic Journal of Migration Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Japanese Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Senses and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Pacific     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sociolinguistic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Critical Realism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista de Psicología Social, International Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Women and the Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Visitor Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Italian Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mathematical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Études françaises     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethnologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meridians : feminism, race, transnationalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studia Iranica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Group Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Indian Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aztlan : A Journal of Chicano Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Public and Professional Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sociological Spectrum: Mid-South Sociological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Historical Pragmatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Dynamics: A journal of African studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sociologie et sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Good Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamic Law and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lien social et Politiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recherches féministes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sociology Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Enfances, Familles, Générations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transatlantica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chrétiens et sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SociologieS - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue de la régulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Seminar : A Journal of Germanic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscapes of Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COnTEXTES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Política y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revue Internationale De Securite Sociale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Ethnic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access  
Studies in American Naturalism     Full-text available via subscription  
Southern Cultures     Full-text available via subscription  
Liinc em Revista     Open Access  
World Cultures eJournal     Open Access  
Spaces for Difference: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access  
Tracés     Open Access  
Socio-logos     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.848
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 15  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0265-4075 - ISSN (Online) 1460-3608
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • The development and preliminary validation of a measure of victimization
           within the friendships of emerging adults

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nicole S. J. Dryburgh, Alexa Martin-Storey, Wendy M. Craig, Melanie A. Dirks
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      For emerging adults, high-quality friendships can be an important source of companionship and support. The most commonly studied negative interaction between friends is conflict, yet work with youth suggests more serious victimization also occurs in friendship. In the current study, we developed and obtained preliminary psychometric evidence for the Friendship Victimization Scale, a measure that assesses physical, sexual, relational, and verbal forms of victimization in the friendships of emerging adults, as well as coercive and controlling behaviors. Emerging adults (N = 316, Mage = 21.27 years, SD = 1.47; 60.4% women, 37.0% men; 59.2% White) completed the Friendship Victimization Scale along with measures to examine construct validity. The majority of the sample reported experiencing at least one act of victimization by a friend, and men reported more victimization than did women. Results supported a 2-factor structure, with relational and verbal victimization loading on one factor and physical and sexual victimization and controlling behaviors loading on the other. Cronbach’s alphas exceeded .90 for the total score and both subscales. Greater friendship victimization was predicted by negative features in each of a best and a challenging friendship, even after accounting for negative features in a dating relationship, and was unrelated to positive features in any of these relationships. Overall, results indicate that victimization is common in emerging adults’ friendships. The findings provide preliminary evidence for the utility of the Friendship Victimization Scale as a measure of this understudied source of risk in the interpersonal lives of emerging adults.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-03T02:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221142631
       
  • A Space of Our Own: Exploring the Relationship Initiation Experiences of
           Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, and Asexual Dating
           App Users

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Liesel L Sharabi, Cassandra V Ryder, Lucy C Niess
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This mixed-methods study explores dating app use within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA+) community. LGBTQIA+ dating app users (N = 231) from across the U.S. were surveyed about their relationship initiation experiences. Thematic analysis was used to identify the benefits and challenges participants faced on dating apps and their motives for adopting (or avoiding) dating apps specifically for the LGBTQIA+ community (e.g., Grindr, Her, Butterfly). Participants described benefitting from dating apps, but also confronting significant challenges such as discrimination and the erasure of identity. Just over half (55.0%) of the sample reported using LGBTQIA+ dating apps, which functioned as safe spaces, reduced uncertainty about others’ identities, and were better adapted to community norms. Multiple logistic regression was also used to test predictions regarding user adoption. Findings have implications for understanding how people in historically thin dating markets are using mobile technology to expand their opportunities for relationship initiation.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T01:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221143790
       
  • Adolescents’ individual characteristics and intentions to seek help from
           types of peers and parents

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Heather A. Sears, Leslie J. MacIntyre
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescents’ relationships with friends and with parents provide them with access to potential sources of assistance when they are experiencing problems. However, we lack more nuanced information about the types of peers and parents they intend to approach and about the contributions their individual characteristics make to their plans. This study examined adolescents’ intentions to seek help for a personal/emotional problem from five types of peers and parents (female friend, male friend, romantic partner, mother, father) and evaluated the unique, common, and total contributions of youth’s individual characteristics (gender, adaptable temperament, negative affect, self-disclosure competence, and conformity to the emotional control, self-reliance, and nice in relationships gender norms) to their intentions. Participants were 358 Canadian adolescents (51% boys; Grades 9–12) who completed a survey at school. On average, adolescents reported moderate intentions to seek assistance from each type of peer and parent. Hierarchical regression and commonality analyses showed that adolescents’ gender, self-disclosure competence, and emotional control beliefs made the largest total contributions to help-seeking intentions for both types of friends; self-disclosure competence and emotional control and self-reliance beliefs were most salient for help-seeking intentions for a romantic partner; and self-reliance beliefs and negative affect were most salient for help-seeking intentions for each parent, with emotional control beliefs also contributing to help-seeking intentions for mother. These results highlight the need to include more precise terms for peers and parents in help-seeking models and in assessments of adolescents’ help-seeking intentions, and the benefit of examining the unique, common, and total contributions of adolescents’ individual characteristics to clarify their relevance to youth’s plans to seek help.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-30T06:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221143103
       
  • Parents’ loneliness in sole and joint physical custody families

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anja Steinbach, Lara Augustijn
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the relationship between post-separation physical custody arrangements – that is, sole physical custody (SPC), asymmetric, and symmetric joint physical custody (JPC) – and resident parents’ loneliness. The analyses were based on data from the Family Models in Germany (FAMOD) survey with an analytical sample of 1,146 resident parents living in post-separation families. Bivariate findings suggested that resident parents practicing asymmetric JPC reported fewer feelings of loneliness than resident parents practicing SPC. However, no differences were found between parents in symmetric JPC and SPC families. In the full multivariate model, the difference between resident parents in asymmetric JPC and SPC arrangements disappeared. Results showed that resident parents practicing asymmetric JPC had more time for friends and were less depressive and, thus, felt less lonely than parents with SPC arrangements.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T03:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221124123
       
  • Associations of mothers’ rejection sensitivity with children’s
           cognitions about peer rejection and social self-perceptions: The mediating
           role of maternal supportive behaviors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Esther Polachek, Nurit Gur-Yaish, Efrat Sher-Censor, Yair Ziv
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the associations between mothers’ predisposition to show rejection sensitivity and children’s cognitions regarding peer rejection and their social self-perceptions. It also explored whether these associations were mediated by mothers’ behaviors in situations that might suggest their children were rejected by peers. Participants were 122 Jewish Israeli mothers and their kindergarten children (50.82% female; MChild age in months = 67.52, SD = 6.35). Mothers completed the Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire and reported their likely behaviors in scenarios suggesting the rejection of their children by peers. Children were interviewed using the response evaluation scale for the rejection stories in the Social Information Processing Interview–Preschool Version and the peer acceptance subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Results revealed indirect links between mothers’ rejection sensitivity and children’s maladaptive response evaluations and lower social self-perceptions, through fewer supportive maternal behaviors. These findings highlight the need to consider parents’ dispositions and behaviors in the context of their children’s peer interactions for a more complete understanding of the development of children’s social competence.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-28T02:31:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131077
       
  • Enhanced Mood After a Getting-Acquainted Interaction with a Stranger: Do
           Shy People Benefit Too'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Susan Sprecher, Rowland Miller, Beverley Fehr, Jeremy B. Kanter, Daniel Perlman, Diane Felmlee
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      People report positive moods and enhanced well-being when they socialize with friends and other close ties. However, because most people routinely have more encounters with acquaintances and strangers (social connections known as weak ties) than with close friends or kin (strong ties), we deemed it important to examine whether interaction with weak ties also enhances happiness and well-being. This investigation, which analyzed data from two laboratory procedures, examined whether participants’ positive affect (PA) increased and negative affect (NA) decreased, from before to after a getting-acquainted interaction with a stranger. We also considered whether any benefits of the interaction were moderated by the participants’ level of shyness. Participants (N = 270; 135 dyads) from a U.S. university completed mood indices before and after a getting-acquainted task. Their PA significantly increased and their NA significantly decreased from before to after the interaction. Shy participants experienced greater NA both before and after the getting-acquainted interaction (relative to less shy participants), but the shyness level of our participants did not moderate the pattern of change in their PA and NA. Shy participants experienced increases in PA and decreases in NA that were similar to those of less shy participants. We discuss implications of the results regarding the important role of weak social connections for increasing one’s daily mood, including for those who are shy.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T10:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221141433
       
  • Parental negativity toward offspring’s minority sexual orientation
           disclosures: An inclusive fitness perspective

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Danielle J. DelPriore, Olivia Ronan
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescents and young adults who disclose a minority sexual orientation (“come out” as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) to their parents often are met with varied negative reactions. The current work builds on a growing literature aimed at understanding the myriad causes of negative parental reactions to these disclosures. Specifically, this work evaluates a hypothesis derived from evolutionary psychological logic: that variation in parental responses to offspring’s sexual orientation disclosures is driven, in part, by perceived costs to parents’ inclusive fitness (i.e., implicit or explicit concerns related to the reproductive success of genetic relatives). Across three studies (total N = 493), we examined whether daughters’ and sons’ perceptions of parents’ negative reactions to their sexual orientation disclosures systematically co-varied with inclusive fitness concerns, as indexed by parent gender, sexual orientation, and offspring number. This perspective received partial support among daughters, who reported more negative reactions from their mothers (vs. fathers), particularly in response to lesbian (vs. bisexual) disclosures. Reactions to sons’ disclosures did not vary across parent gender, sexual orientation, or offspring number. Taken together, this work provides preliminary evidence that perceived fitness costs may lead mothers to respond negatively to their daughters’ lesbian orientation disclosures.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T12:36:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221142630
       
  • Social support is a balancing act: Mitigating attachment anxiety by
           supporting independence and dependence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Brett K Jakubiak, Julian D Fuentes, Elina R Sun, Brooke C Feeney
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the personal and relationship costs associated with attachment anxiety, there has been substantial interest in identifying factors that reduce attachment anxiety over time and buffer attachment anxiety in the moment. We integrated the Attachment Security Enhancement Model (ASEM) and the dependency paradox based in attachment theory to derive novel predictions about how perceived partner support predicts attachment anxiety prospectively (one year later) and concurrently. Newlyweds (N = 326) reported their perceptions that their partners support their personal goals (i.e., perceived support for independence needs) and their perceptions that their partners provide reassurance/responsiveness (i.e., perceived support for dependence needs). We found that greater perceived support for personal goals predicted decreases in attachment anxiety over one year only among people who also perceived high partner reassurance/responsiveness, consistent with the idea that support for independence is most effective when partners also support dependence needs. We also observed evidence that this pattern was most pronounced among people with higher attachment anxiety. Regarding concurrent links, we found that perceiving greater partner reassurance/responsiveness predicted lower concurrent attachment anxiety, whereas perceived support for independent goals did not. Together, these findings extend the ASEM by highlighting that attachment anxiety declines over time when partners are perceived to support one’s needs for independence and dependence simultaneously.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T10:49:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221142000
       
  • Tradeoffs, constraints, and strategies in transgender and nonbinary young
           adults’ romantic relationships: The identity needs in relationships
           framework

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gabriel R. Murchison, Rose Eiduson, Madina Agénor, Allegra R. Gordon
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Prior research suggests that prejudice and structural disadvantage (e.g., cissexism, racism, sexism) put transgender and nonbinary (TNB) young adults at risk for adverse romantic relationship experiences, yet supportive romantic relationships may help TNB young adults cope with these stressors and promote their psychological wellbeing. Accordingly, there is a need to better understand how TNB young adults navigate romantic relationships in the context of prejudice and structural disadvantage. To address this topic, we analyzed in-depth interviews with TNB young adults (18–30 years; N = 30) using template-style thematic analysis, guided by intersectionality as an analytical framework. Our analysis resulted in three themes. Theme 1 describes how prejudice and structural disadvantage constrained the strategies that TNB young adults used to pursue fulfilling romantic relationships (e.g., leaving adverse relationships). Theme 2 addresses the tradeoffs that some participants faced in their romantic relationships, including tradeoffs between psychological needs related to their social identities (e.g., gender identity affirmation) and general psychological needs (e.g., intimacy). Theme 3 highlights individual and contextual factors (e.g., lessons from prior romantic relationships) that helped participants build fulfilling romantic relationship. These themes form the basis for the Identity Needs in Relationships Framework, a new conceptual framework addressing how TNB young adults navigate romantic relationships in the context of prejudice and structural disadvantage. The framework offers an explanation for why some TNB young adults maintain romantic relationships that seem to undermine their wellbeing, and it draws attention to strategies and resources that may help TNB young adults form fulfilling romantic relationships despite the prejudice and structural disadvantage they face.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T07:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221142183
       
  • “We keep it all here”: A dialogic approach to constructing the rural
           historically black colleges and universities among black students

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mick B. Brewer
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are both often assumed to offer students of color a safer and environment for learning than their primarily white institutional counterparts while also facing harsh suspicion in terms of their educational quality and cultural value. Interrogating these readings, this study uses the critical interpersonal and family communication (CIFC) framework and relational dialectics theory (RDT) 2.0 to identify competing discourses emergent within meaning-making processes of Black students attending rural iterations of such institutions. By interviewing twenty Black students currently enrolled in a rural HBCU, this work spotlights unique, power-laden interconnections across the competing discourses of rural whiteness, as marked by rugged individualism, conservative political ideology, and perceived hostility towards Black epistemologies, and the urban Blackness of students now occupying such spaces. This project identifies the dominant discourse that HBCUs are inferior, as well as two competing discourses students draw upon as they construct meaning of the rural HBCU: the discourse that these institutions celebrate Blackness, and the discourse that they problematically draw race into relief. This work uncloaks the themes constituting each of the two discourses, and highlights various forms of discursive interplay participants use to negotiate the meaning of these institutions, including entertaining, countering, negating, naturalization, and pacification.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T05:08:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221140359
       
  • Examining and understanding patterns of cognitive, emotional, and
           behavioral jealousy: Dispositional Mindfulness as a protective factor in
           romantic relationships

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      Authors: Valeria De Cristofaro, Valerio Pellegrini, Marco Salvati, Mauro Giacomantonio
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The present research proposes that dispositional mindfulness may play a key role in our understanding of romantic jealousy, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of three components: cognitive, emotional, and behavioral. All three components involve experiencing an outside threat, but diverse aspects of the experience are implied: cognitive jealousy entails thoughts and suspicions, emotional jealousy entails affective responses, and behavioral jealousy entails surveillance behaviors. Across five studies (N = 3275), using non-dyadic and dyadic data, different measurement scales for mindfulness, and different indicators of relationship functioning (couple satisfaction, relationship quality, occurrence of conflicts), we consistently found that mindfulness is negatively related to cognitive and behavioral jealousy. This is explained by increased self-esteem characterizing mindful individuals. In turn, decreased cognitive and behavioral jealousy resulted positively related to couple satisfaction and relationship quality, whereas negatively to occurrence of conflicts. We did not find significant relations between mindfulness, self-esteem, emotional jealousy, and relationship functioning. These results provided evidence, which was also confirmed by a mini meta-analysis, that mindfulness may constitute a protective factor against detrimental cognitive and behavioral (vs. emotional) romantic jealousy. We discuss how these results advance literature and open new research avenues for both theoretical and applied purposes.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T04:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221139631
       
  • Sibling estrangement in adulthood

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      Authors: Karsten Hank, Anja Steinbach
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Whereas interest in adult sibling relationships has been growing, we are not aware of any quantitative studies focusing on sibling estrangement (that is, lack of contact or emotional closeness). This gap in the literature seems unfortunate, because estrangement in close family relationships has been suggested to be momentous for family functioning and individuals’ well-being. Drawing on four waves of the German Family Panel (pairfam; n = 5,729), covering a 6-year observation period, we therefore assess respondents’ estrangement from up to four siblings in adulthood, focusing on the predictive role of core structural parameters of sibling dyads (especially genetic relatedness) and disruptive family events (particularly parental separation/divorce or death). Whereas 28% of respondents in our sample experienced at least one episode of estrangement from any sibling, estrangement occurred multiple times in only 14% of sibling dyads. Moreover, results derived from discrete-time event history models indicate (a) that genetic relatedness is the single most important risk factor, albeit strongly mediated by childhood co-residence, and (b) that sibling relations tend to become more “vulnerable” over the life course, when adverse family events accumulate.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T04:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221127863
       
  • Longitudinal associations between mindfulness and change in attachment
           orientations in couples: The role of relationship preoccupation and
           empathy

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      Authors: Taranah Gazder, Sarah C. E. Stanton
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment orientations predict relationship outcomes and health and well-being, making it important to illuminate factors which enhance attachment security. We investigated how general and relationship-specific mindfulness predict changes in attachment orientations in couples over time, testing relationship preoccupation and partner-focused empathy as mediators. We also explored whether the longitudinal links between general mindfulness and attachment are bidirectional. Couples reported their general and relationship mindfulness and attachment orientations in a baseline session (Phase 1). They then reported relationship preoccupation and empathy each day for 14 days (Phase 2). Lastly, they reported general mindfulness and attachment orientations 2 months later (Phase 3). Results revealed that higher Phase 1 actor general—but not relationship—mindfulness directly predicted Phase 1-3 decreases in actor attachment anxiety. Conversely, greater Phase 1 actor relationship—but not general—mindfulness indirectly predicted Phase 1-3 decreases in actor attachment avoidance via greater Phase 2 actor empathy. Finally, lower Phase 1 actor and partner attachment anxiety directly predicted Phase 1-3 increases in general mindfulness. This research provides the first dyadic longitudinal demonstration of the interplay between partners’ mindfulness and attachment.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T08:50:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221139654
       
  • The Role of Relationship Conflict for Momentary Loneliness and Affect in
           the Daily Lives of Older Couples

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      Authors: Elisa Weber, Gizem Hülür
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Intimate partner relationships foster individuals’ well-being throughout the lifespan. However, dissatisfying or conflict-laden relationships can have a detrimental impact on well-being and relationship quality. The majority of older adults live together with a spouse/partner, and intimate relationships are one of the most important social contexts in their daily lives. Purpose: Expanding on previous research, we examined the role of previous conflict on experiences of loneliness and affect in the daily lives of older partners from a dyadic perspective. Relationship duration and quality, personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion), conflict frequency during the measurement period, physical health as well as age were considered as moderators. Study Sample and Data Analysis: We used data from an experience sampling study with 151 older heterosexual couples (302 participants; 65+ years old) reporting on their positive and negative affect, loneliness, and previous experience of relationship conflict 6 times a day for 14 days. Data were analyzed using dyadic multilevel models. Results: For both men and women within couples, previous conflict was associated with an increased experience of negative affect and loneliness and a decreased experience of positive affect. Higher neuroticism predicted less positive and more negative affect following conflict for women and more loneliness for men. Higher relationship satisfaction predicted less increase in negative affect after conflict for female partners. Age, relationship duration, physical health, extraversion, and the number of conflict episodes showed no moderating effects. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that relationship conflict deteriorates emotional well-being in old age and renders older adults lonelier even in the context of intimate partner relationships.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T07:53:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221138022
       
  • Couple classes of depressive symptom trajectories and associations with
           relationship satisfaction

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      Authors: Preston C Morgan, Andrea K Wittenborn
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The literature indicates a robust negative relationship between depression and couple relationship satisfaction. However, less is known about the differential effects of romantic relationships on depression over time and whether one or both partners experience depression. Using data from 1215 couples across 4 years, we sought to examine couple classes of depressive symptom trajectories and investigate the degree to which relationship satisfaction predicted class membership. Using joint-probability growth mixture modeling, we found three couple classes of depressive symptom trajectories: women’s moderate, men’s low class, men’s moderate, women’s low class, and men’s and women’s low class. Logistic regression results revealed both men’s and women’s higher relationship satisfaction was associated with women’s moderate, men’s low class membership while both partners’ higher relationship satisfaction was not associated with men’s moderate, women’s low class membership, in comparison to the men’s and women’s low stable class. These findings contribute to the literature by identifying the heterogeneity of patterns of depressive symptom trajectories among couples and the association of relationship satisfaction with couple classes.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T02:04:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221138112
       
  • Transitions and transformations in sibling relationships: Characteristics
           of Turkish and US young adults’ sibling-related turning-point memories

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      Authors: Demet Kara, Patricia J Bauer, Başak Şahin-Acar
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the narrative characteristics of Turkish and U.S. young adults’ sibling-related turning-point memories across gender, age orders, and cultures. We conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 45 Turkish and 27 U.S. college students who had only one sibling. Participants were asked two main narrative questions: whether they have a close and personal relationship with their sibling and there is a turning point in their sibling relationships. Participants’ answers to these questions were coded on a number of narrative dimensions which are thematic categories, presence of personal relationship, direction of change in relationship quality, narrative style, transformativeness, and emotional valence. Three themes emerged in turning-point memories: developmental events, transitions, and growth; negative life events and challenges; and change in context. Results revealed no significant differences in turning-point memories between females and males, and between Turkish and U.S. populations. The findings indicated the unique role of siblings in the context of significant relationships regardless of gender and culture.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T08:36:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221116793
       
  • Daily stress, family functioning and mental health among Palestinian
           couples in Israel during COVID-19: A moderated mediation model

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      Authors: Niveen M. Hassan-Abbas
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic created a range of stressors, among them difficulties related to work conditions, financial changes, lack of childcare, and confinement or isolation due to social distancing. Among families and married individuals, these stressors were often expressed in additional daily hassles, with an influence on mental health. This study examined two moderated mediation models based on Bodenmann’s systemic-transactional stress model. Specifically, the models tested the hypothesis that intra-dyadic stress mediates the association between extra-dyadic stress and mental health, while two measures of family functioning, cohesion and flexibility, moderate the relationship between extra and intra-dyadic stress. Participants were 480 Palestinian adults in Israel who completed self-report questionnaires. All were in opposite-sex marriages and identified as either cisgender women or cisgender men. The results showed partial mediation patterns supporting both models, indicating that family cohesion and flexibility weakened the mediating effect of intra-dyadic stress on the relationship between extra-dyadic stress and mental health. These findings increase our understanding of the variables that affected mental health during the pandemic, and suggest that when faced with extra-dyadic stress, married individuals with good family environments are less likely to experience high levels of intra-dyadic stress, which is in turn associated with preserved mental health. Limitations and implications for planning interventions for couples and families during the pandemic are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T06:33:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221130785
       
  • Necessities and luxuries in satisfying single lives

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      Authors: Yoobin Park, Geoff MacDonald
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the growing interest in single (unpartnered) individuals’ well-being, there is a lack of descriptive research providing a comprehensive understanding of what singles value in their lives. In this research, we adopted a budget allocation methodology to examine what domains are prioritized in single individuals’ construal of a satisfying single life. We recruited two samples of participants, one primarily consisting of singles from Europe and America (N = 851) and the other from Korea (N = 1012). Across the two samples, we found that singles gave high priority to being mentally and physically healthy and having good family relationships. Only when those essentials were accounted for did single individuals turn significant attention to other life domains such as having good friendships, available romantic connections, and sexual opportunities. These findings have implications for understanding single individuals’ life priorities and well-being and set the groundwork for further research on singlehood.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T12:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221122887
       
  • Assessing dynamical associations in dyadic interactions across multiple
           time scales via a Bayesian hierarchical vector autoregressive model

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      Authors: Meng Chen, Emilio Ferrer
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Human behaviors are complex and composed of changes on multiple time scales. Recent advances in data collection technology contribute to a fast-growing number of studies with rich and intensive longitudinal data, allowing researchers to examine the underlying change processes on the time scale(s) of their choice. Processes unfolding across different time scales can be interrelated in different ways. One way is through reflecting the same underlying construct. For example, attachment styles in couples may lead to a pattern of dyadic coregulation that is reflected both in their physiological synchrony and in their daily affective coherence. Although previous research has examined romantic relationships both from a physiological and an affective perspective, the association between the two has seldom been formally evaluated. In this article, we describe a hierarchical Bayesian vector autoregressive model that enables researchers to examine whether two processes are associated by having coherent patterns. We demonstrate the specification and implementation of this model using data on two different processes between romantic partners: their second-by-second physiological synchrony and daily affect coregulation.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T10:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137865
       
  • Mindfulness and individual, relational, and parental outcomes during the
           transition to parenthood

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      Authors: Chelom E Leavitt, Jocelyn S Wikle, Erin Kramer Holmes, Hayley Pierce, JB Eyring, Ashley Larsen Gibby, Alyssa L Brown, Virgina Leiter
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      With more than one million couples transitioning to parenthood each year, finding ways to enable healthier transitions is salient. Trait mindful awareness and sexual mindfulness were examined in an Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) framework using 169 mixed-sex, married couples to evaluate their association with individual, relational, and parental outcomes. For couples who have transitioned to parenthood, mothers’ trait mindfulness was associated with their own higher mental health and fathers; trait mindfulness was associated with their own higher quality mental health; mothers’ and fathers’ sexually mindful nonjudgment, an ability to remain mindful during sex, was associated with fathers’ higher quality mental health and mothers’ sexually mindful nonjudgment was associated with their own higher quality mental health. Mothers’ trait mindfulness was also associated with their report of lower pregnancy and delivery stress. Higher reports of sexual nonjudgement by both mothers and father were also associated with higher parenting satisfaction for fathers. Thus, mindfulness and sexual mindfulness may be particularly important skills to support new parents’ mental health, relational satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and parenting satisfaction. Transition to parenthood scholars and practitioners have long been invested in understanding risk and protective factors for new parents and are commonly seeking important points of education and/or intervention to support this transition. Our study suggests mindfulness may both reduce risk and promote healthy behaviors that support mothers, fathers, and their relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T07:14:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137870
       
  • Childhood maltreatment and provision of support and strain to family
           relationships in adulthood: The role of social anxious and depressive
           symptoms

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      Authors: Michael Fitzgerald, Amy A Morgan
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Childhood maltreatment (CM) often occurs within the family system and can complicate familial relationships across the lifespan. Mental health problems may be one possible pathway linking CM to willingness to provide support and provisions of strain to family members. We advance this line of research by examining the degree to which CM shapes adults' understanding of how individual’s willingness to provide support to their family as well as enacted strain towards family members. Data were from the study of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Among the participants (n = 568), the majority were White (91.2%), female (56.9%), and had a mean age of 51.5. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship between CM, depressive and social anxiety symptoms, and support and strain. Results indicate two key findings: (1) Maltreatment is directly related to higher provisions of strain and lower perceived availability to support family members; (2) Symptoms of depression and social anxiety mediated the effect from maltreatment to enactments of strain towards family members, whereas the same finding did not hold for availability of support. Only depressive symptoms were identified as a pathway. Because families frequently are a source of CM, yet may remain connected in adulthood, these findings offer nuanced implications for addressing mental health and family wellbeing among who have experienced CM.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T09:42:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137320
       
  • “But You Don’t Look Sick:” Memorable Messages of Emerging Adulthood
           Autoimmune Disease

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      Authors: Jacqueline N. Gunning
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Experiencing the onset of autoimmune disease in emerging adulthood is disruptive and difficult to make sense of because youth and illness are not expected to co-exist. As a result, emerging adults with autoimmune disease are susceptible to messages that discredit and deny their health experiences. Though communication research has explored dismissive and disenfranchising communication in the face of chronic illness, a need for how to disrupt and replace this harmful or inadequate messaging remains. Purpose: Building upon prior memorable messages research that centers the call “I wish,” asking individuals not only about messages received but messages desired, the present study identifies harmful and helpful memorable messages in the face of autoimmune disease onset and diagnosis. Research Design: Guided by Cooke-Jackson & Rubinsky’s (2021) theory of memorable messages and call for research on message disruption, the present study explores the messages 25 assigned female at birth (AFAB) individuals with autoimmune disease received during their illness journeys using individual, semi-structured interviews. Results: Findings reveal messages of dismissal, blame, and presumed psychosis (e.g., “it’s all in your head,” “but you look healthy”) as characterizing the diagnostic journey. Participants identify messages of belief, support, and interest (e.g., “I believe you,” “you are not alone,” “help me understand”) as being helpful while navigating their disease. Conclusion: Findings illuminate how family members, friends, health care providers, intimate partners, and relational others can effectively support emerging adults navigating a difficult and disruptive health experience. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T07:15:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137548
       
  • Communication in Interfaith and Multiethnic-Racial Families: Navigating
           Identity and Difference in Family Relationships

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      Authors: Colleen Warner Colaner, Annabelle L. Atkin, Amnee Elkhalid, Mackensie Minniear, Jordan Soliz
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current manuscript provides a critical review of family communication in multiethnic-racial and interfaith families. The review specifically focuses on differences related to religious and ethnic-racial identity, given that both are salient aspects of self-concept tied to psychosocial well-being, exist in a sociocultural environment characterized by racialized structures and systems of privilege, have been problematized through a deficit approach, and have implications for how to constructively address religious and ethnic-racial differences outside of the family. We begin by defining the three core concepts: (a) interfaith, (b) multiethnic-racial, and (c) family. We then discuss our methodology for selecting and reviewing empirical research and provide a synthesis of findings for each family type. We specifically address how interfaith then multiethnic-racial families communicate to address socialization and identity development, integrate differences, and combat bias. We conclude with a critical summary, arguing that interfaith and multiethnic-racial families are more accurately characterized through their strengths rather than difficulties. We point to limitations of current work, namely that research is largely based on Western perspectives on race/ethnicity and Ibrahimic religious traditions, that children and adolescent perspectives are relatively absent, and that the research tends to primarily focus on communication between couples or in parent-child relationships rather than extended family networks. Trajectories for future research include a focus on the manner in which communication surrounding identity and difference impacts self-concept and psychosocial well-being as well as contextualizing experiences of multiethnic-racial and interfaith families within the sociocultural environment. Our articulated conceptual landscape and synthesis of the research shed light on these complex relationships and encourage ongoing scholarship on these relatively understudied family forms.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-29T12:54:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221137317
       
  • Links of daily shared appraisal and collaboration to support, mood, and
           self-care in type 2 diabetes

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      Authors: Melissa Zajdel, Jeanean B Naqvi, Nynke MD Niezink, Vicki S Helgeson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Research has increasingly recognized the links of communal coping—a shared appraisal of a stressor and collaborative action to manage it—to positive adjustment outcomes in chronic illness. However, past literature rarely examines if these two components have unique links to relationship and health outcomes, if one component is more strongly linked than the other component to these outcomes, or if the two components interact to influence outcomes. Additionally, the impact of shared appraisal and collaboration may depend on the source—the patient or the romantic partner. In a study of 200 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and their spouses, daily reports of shared appraisal and collaboration, mood, support interactions, and patient self-care were collected over 14 consecutive days. Multi-level modeling showed that both patient and spouse reports of shared appraisal and collaboration were linked independently to support interactions and better mood for patients and spouses, while collaboration alone was linked to self-care. Further, collaboration was generally more strongly linked to behavioral outcomes—support and self-care—than shared appraisal, while links to mood were similar for shared appraisal and collaboration. Shared appraisal and collaboration also interacted such that shared appraisal was particularly beneficial for those who reported low collaboration. Finally, results suggested one’s own reports of shared appraisal and collaboration were more strongly linked to outcomes than partner reports. Overall, these findings demonstrate unique impacts of daily shared appraisal and collaboration on adjustment to chronic illness for patients and spouses.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-25T10:19:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221135873
       
  • Spatial proximity in relationships research methods: The effect of
           partner’s presence during survey completion on shared reality in
           romantic couples’ daily lives

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      Authors: M Catalina Enestrom, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Yael Bar-Shachar, John E Lydon
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Spatial proximity may be an artifact of relationships research methodology; however, little work has explored how this feature of research designs influences perceptions of one’s relationship, particularly shared reality (i.e., experiencing a commonality of inner states). The present research tested whether spatial proximity would independently contribute to shared reality in couples’ daily lives. In 2 daily diary studies, each across 3–4 weeks (N1 = 76 couples, 3694 observations; N2 = 84 couples, 3073 observations), participants indicated whether or not their partner was spatially proximal, and also completed measures of shared reality and relationship satisfaction. Spatial proximity to one’s partner resulted in higher shared reality on the day of the survey completion and predicted increases in shared reality from the previous day, but this effect did not spillover into the following day. These findings held controlling for conflict, shared daily experiences (e.g., cooking together), and shared survey experiences (i.e., whether they completed the survey at the same time). In addition, this effect was unique to shared reality, whereby spatial proximity did not predict relationship satisfaction. However, shared reality was associated with increases in relationship satisfaction across the daily diary period. Thus, researchers should consider spatial proximity when developing their research design as it may influence shared reality, which has implications for relationship well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-22T10:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221136134
       
  • Sleep Efficiency and Naturalistically-Observed Social Behavior Following
           Marital Separation: The Critical Role of Contact With an Ex-Partner

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      Authors: Andrea M. Coppola, Matthias R. Mehl, Allison M. Tackman, Spencer C. Dawson, Karey L. O’Hara, David A. Sbarra
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Marital disruption is associated with increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes, including disturbed sleep. This report examines trajectories of actigraphy-assessed sleep efficiency following marital separation as well as the extent to which daily social behaviors and individual differences in attachment explain variability in these trajectories over time. One hundred twenty-two recently-separated adults (N = 122) were followed longitudinally for three assessment periods over 5 months. To objectively assess daily social behaviors and sleep efficiency, participants wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) during the day (for one weekend at each assessment period) and an actiwatch at night (for 7 days at each assessment period). Greater time spent with an ex-partner, as assessed by the EAR, was associated with decreased sleep efficiency between participants (p = .003). Higher attachment anxiety was also associated with decreased sleep efficiency (p = .03), as was the EAR-observed measure of “television on.” The latter effect operated both between (p = .004) and within participants (p = .005). Finally, study timepoint moderated the association between EAR-observed television on and sleep efficiency (p = .007). The current findings deepen our understanding of sleep disturbances following marital separation and point to contact with an ex-partner and time spent with the television on as behavioral markers of risk.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-22T03:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221135855
       
  • Community connectedness and depression in transgender populations: The
           role of self-focused attention

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      Authors: Jamie L Taber, Siyan (Stan) Gao, Savannah G Lynn, Daniel R Brusche, Christopher B Stults
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Transgender and nonbinary (TNB) individuals are at increased risk for depression, making it important to understand the factors that may contribute to or attenuate this disparity. Community connectedness is one such factor, but prior research regarding its effect on depression has been mixed. It is possible that these mixed findings may be because community connectedness leads to multiple types of self-focused attention (i.e., gender reflection, gender rumination, and preoccupation with others’ perceptions) which then have opposing effects on depression. To explore this possibility, the current study sought to test a mediation model in which the three types of self-focused attention would mediate the relationship between community connectedness and depression. Cross-sectional data were collected using online surveys with 309 TNB young adults aged 18–30 years old. As hypothesized, preoccupation with others’ perceptions was a significant mediator explaining 35.85% of the variance in depression. Contrary to expectations, gender reflection and gender rumination were not significant mediators. However, community connectedness significantly predicted greater gender reflection, while gender rumination predicted greater depression. The present results indicate that different types of self-focused attention have differing effects on depression in this population, suggesting that clinicians working with TNB young adults should target the ways that these clients think about their gender identity. Additionally, connection to the TNB community can have multiple effects on thought processes, and efforts should be made to maximize the benefits while minimizing the costs. Future research should test these relationships using longitudinal designs and at different ages, as well as assess whether aspects of the community connectedness itself (e.g., co-rumination in TNB spaces, online vs. in-person connection) may have different effects.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T12:14:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221135219
       
  • Perceived partner support and post-traumatic symptoms after an acute
           cardiac event:A longitudinal study

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      Authors: Sivan George-Levi, Keren Fait, Hanoch Hod, Shlomi Matezky, Noa Vilchinsky
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveCardiac disease induced post-traumatic stress symptoms (CDI-PTSS) have been associated with negative consequences for patients’ mental and physical health. Identifying risk factors as well as potential buffers is necessary for understanding the development and maintenance of CDI-PTSS. The current study focused on the mediating and moderating role played by patients’ perceptions of their partners’ ways of providing support (active engagement, overprotection, and protective buffering) in the development and stabilization of CDI-PTSS levels over time.MethodMale patients (N = 106) were recruited at hospitalization (T1) and completed the study’s questionnaires at two time points: approximately four months after hospital discharge (T2) and approximately eight months after discharge (T3).ResultsStructual equation modeling was used to test the study hypotheses. All three forms of T2 perceived partner support were positively associated with T2 CDI-PTSS levels which, in turn, were positively associated with T3 CDI-PTSS levels. The linear association between T2 and T3 CDI-PTSS was positive but decreased as perceived partner protective buffering levels increased.ConclusionsIn the context of CDI-PTSS, perceived partner support seems to have a different effect than it has in non-traumatic illness contexts. Interventions for couples coping with CDI-PTSS should be designed accordingly.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T09:57:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131902
       
  • Aging together: Dyadic profiles of older couples’ marital quality,
           psychological well-being, and physical health

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      Authors: Josh R Novak, Stephanie J Wilson, Ashley E Ermer, James M Harper
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined couple-level profiles to reveal systematic patterns of health and well-being in older couples. Using latent profile analysis, dyadic profiles were constructed in a national sample of 535 older, different-sex couples based on couples’ marital quality, psychological well-being, and physical health. Results revealed 4 distinct profiles: Maritally Satisfied and Healthy (63.5%), Maritally Dissatisfied and Moderately Healthy (14.7%), Maritally Satisfied with Unhealthy Wives (12.3%), and Maritally Satisfied with Unhealthy Husbands (9.3%). Husband age and education, wife education, and marriage length were significant predictors of class membership. Within-class partner concordance analyses confirmed that the latter two profiles featured the largest discordance between partners’ health and well-being. Most couples in this sample of older adults belonged to a class who demonstrated successful aging in all domains. A smaller group maintained high marital quality despite physical and psychological difficulties, and other couples were moderately healthy but maritally dissatisfied.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T03:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221135451
       
  • Positive affect as mediator: The socioemotional selectivity theory applied
           to the association between bonding social capital and wellbeing in later
           life

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      Authors: Marianne Simons, Jennifer Reijnders, Mayke Janssens, Johan Lataster, Nele Jacobs
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Bonding social capital was previously found as more strongly associated with wellbeing in later life than bridging social capital. The present study explored a theoretical explanation found in the socioemotional selectivity theory, by examining whether this association is mediated by the experience of positive affect. According to this theory older adults prefer intimate social relationships that contribute to the experience of positive emotions. A sample of older adults (50–93 years) filled out two online questionnaires, with an interval of 4 weeks, measuring bonding and bridging social capital and positive affect on T1 (N = 319, Mage(SD) = 61.28(7.65)) and social, emotional and psychological wellbeing on T2 (N = 202, Mage(SD) = 61.31(7.47)), as well as relevant covariates. Associations were found between bonding social capital and all sub-dimensions of wellbeing. Mediation analysis showed that these associations were (partly) mediated by the experience of positive affect. Bridging social capital was only associated with social wellbeing and no association with the experience of positive affect was found. These findings support the socioemotional selectivity theory and further illustrate the importance of bonding social capital in positive aging as a resource of opportunities to experience positive emotions, contributing to wellbeing in later life. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-14T10:23:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221134977
       
  • Tailoring dyadic coping strategies to attachment style: Emotion-focused
           and problem-focused dyadic coping differentially buffer anxiously and
           avoidantly attached partners

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      Authors: Lana Vedelago, Rhonda N Balzarini, Skye Fitzpatrick, Amy Muise
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment insecurity is associated with lower satisfaction and lower felt security in romantic relationships, especially during times of stress such as coping with a global pandemic. Heightened external stressors for couples are associated with poorer relationship quality, but how couples cope with stress together, or their dyadic coping strategies, is associated with the maintenance of relationship satisfaction. In the current study, we followed 184 couples living together during the COVID-19 pandemic to test whether specific coping strategies buffered people higher in attachment anxiety and avoidance from lower satisfaction and felt security in the early weeks and ensuing months of the pandemic. Our findings demonstrate that perceiving more emotion-focused dyadic coping—being affectionate and using intimacy—buffered the negative association between attachment anxiety and relationship satisfaction and felt security, both concurrently and over several months of the pandemic. In addition, problem-focused perceived dyadic coping backfired for people higher in attachment anxiety; they felt less satisfied when they perceived more problem-focused coping—which involves being solution-focused and using instrumental support—in their relationship. In contrast, people higher in attachment avoidance were buffered against lower relationship satisfaction when they perceived more problem-focused dyadic coping and were not buffered by emotion-focused coping. The current findings suggest the importance of tailoring coping strategies to a partner’s attachment style for relationship quality and felt security during times of stress.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T11:37:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221133575
       
  • Cognitive and personality variables as predictors of sexism against women
           in Spanish adolescents

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      Authors: Amparo Oliver, Jose-Javier Navarro-Perez, José M Tomás, Maria F Rodrigo
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research on the antecedents of sexism against women have not considered simultaneously the effects of sex, personality, and cognitive variables (need for closure and critical thinking disposition) in relation to sexism. We evaluated whether in adolescence, these indicators could predict sexist attitudes towards women using structural models. The sample comprised 709 Spanish high-school students (mean age = 16.79). 51.5% were female. Sex (being male), need for closure and critical thinking were the most relevant predictors of sexism. The disposition to think critically is as relevant as the motivational dimension of cognition (need for closure) to predict sexism. Multi-group structural models by sex were estimated, and a moderator effect was found between openness to experience and sexism. We suggest future lines of research to disentangle the effects of personality and cognition on sexism and to guide intervention programs to reduce sexist attitudes among adolescents.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T11:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221133062
       
  • Floppy foreskins, misogynoir and why Black women cannot give up on swiping

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      Authors: Jane E. M. Carter
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      It saddens me to admit that I feel safest on an app where men are simply not allowed to contact me until I express an interest in them. A quick review of online discussion platforms would suggest that many in society have just decided that men cannot be trusted with the first move. I get it, frankly, but it isn’t what I hope for. In this piece I argue that Black women who desire connection and community cannot afford to stop dating online. With personal narrative and a review of the literature, this paper takes an autoethnographic approach to online dating as a Black woman. I show that the risks of social isolation and mental health concerns leave women of color, particularly Black single women in a vulnerable position. Research is suggesting that people are meeting less new people IRL (in real life), and that this is especially true for romantic connections. Given the hostility of the online dating environment, I consider the role of courtesy, consciousness and awareness of virtual space as community for the Black woman. The paper requests that claims of anti-racism be replaced with demonstrations of this in dating practices, and I present suggested strategies for holding space in the current environment.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T03:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131929
       
  • The protective effects of perceived gratitude and expressed gratitude for
           relationship quality among African American couples

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      Authors: Allen W Barton, August Ida Christine Jenkins, Qiujie Gong, Naya C Sutton, Steven RH Beach
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of gratitude in romantic relationships. Particular attention was given to differentiating the beneficial effects of perceived gratitude (i.e., gratitude from one’s partner, or feeling appreciated) versus expressed gratitude (i.e., gratitude to one’s partner, or being appreciative) in mitigating the negative effects of ineffective arguing and financial strain on multiple indicators of relationship quality, both concurrently and longitudinally. The sample comprised 316 African American couples with three waves of data spanning approximately 16 months. Results indicated higher levels of perceived gratitude – but not expressed gratitude – weakened the association between relationship stressors and worsened outcomes (i.e., less satisfaction and confidence, more instability) at both between-person and within-person levels. Concurrently, perceived gratitude exhibited protective effects with respect to ineffective arguing and financial strain; longitudinal protective effects were observed only with respect to ineffective arguing. Results highlight the ways in which perceiving gratitude from one’s partner, both at a single instance and sustained over many months, can be protective for multiple facets of relationship quality. Collectively, findings underscore the importance of interpersonal gratitude for romantic relationships and its merit for increased attention in research and practice.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T02:50:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131288
       
  • Collective and collaborative actions among peers in school as a form of
           cultural resistance of Mapuche children in La Araucanía, Chile

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      Authors: Ana M. Alarcón, Paula Alonqueo, Carolina Hidalgo-Standen, Marcela Castro
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Based on a participant observation, this article reports children actions and activities that may identified as ways of cultural resistance in the school. Three elementary rural schools participated in this study. The research team visited each school taking field notes during school routines. The analysis consisted of textual and conceptual codification of the three contexts in which the mapuche children deployed their patterns of cultural interaction. The results demonstrated that despite the traditional school system, mapuche children display their own patterns of cultural interaction to promote collaboration, collective organization and supporting and care for others. This work invites us to questioning the ways in which the learning strategies of the western school, are suitable to the mapuche indigenous children. In order to be effective in education, we must integrate the cultural framework of family learning. Thus, may be necessary, to deconstruct hegemonic teaching practices that stimulate individualism instead cooperation.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T11:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221126543
       
  • Developmental trajectories of children’s sibling jealousy after the
           birth of a sibling: Strict parental control, parenting stress and parental
           depression as pre-birth predictors

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      Authors: Bin-Bin Chen, Min Ning, Jing Lv
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This longitudinal research identified the developmental trajectories of sibling jealousy in firstborn children (M age = 49.9 months; 55% boys) among 107 Chinese families from 1 to 12 months after the birth of a younger sibling. Four sibling jealousy trajectories were identified: (a) low-increasing, (b) middle-stable, (c) high-stable, and (d) sharp-increasing. Trajectory group membership varied as a function of pre-birth parental factors including strict parental control (i.e., tiger parenting), parenting stress, and parental depression. These results highlight the benefit of examining the development of sibling jealousy over the transition to siblinghood and the importance to recognize pre-birth parental characteristics, especially paternal factors, as determinants when identifying children who may be at greater risk of adjustment difficulties following the birth of a younger sibling.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T01:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221131079
       
  • Longitudinal associations of social support, everyday social interactions,
           and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Brian N. Chin, Thomas W. Kamarck, Robert E. Kraut, Siyan Zhao, Jason I. Hong, Emily Y. Ding
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Main effect models contend that perceived social support benefits mental health in the presence and the absence of stressful events, whereas stress-buffering models contend that perceived social support benefits mental health especially when individuals are facing stressful events. We tested these models of how perceived social support impacts mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluated whether characteristics of everyday social interactions statistically mediated this association – namely, (a) received support, the visible and deliberate assistance provided by others, and (b) pleasantness, the extent to which an interaction is positive, flows easily, and leads individuals to feel understood and validated. 591 United States adults completed a 3-week ecological momentary assessment protocol sampling characteristics of their everyday social interactions that was used to evaluate between-person average values and within-person daily fluctuations in everyday social interaction characteristics. Global measures of perceived social support and pandemic-related stressors were assessed at baseline. Psychiatric symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed at baseline, at the end of each day of ecological momentary assessment, and at 3-week follow-up. Consistent with a main effect model, higher baseline perceived social support predicted decreases in psychiatric symptoms at 3-week follow-up (β = −.09, p = .001). Contrary to a stress-buffering model, we did not find an interaction of pandemic-stressors × perceived social support. The main effect of perceived social support on mental health was mediated by the pleasantness of everyday social interactions, but not by received support in everyday social interactions. We found evidence for both main effects and stress-buffering effects of within-person fluctuations in interaction pleasantness on daily changes in mental health. Results suggest the importance of everyday social interaction characteristics, especially their pleasantness, in linking perceived social support and mental health.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T09:40:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221130786
       
  • The role of goal interdependence in couples’ relationship
           satisfaction: A meta-analysis

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      Authors: Ana M Toma, Petruța P Rusu, Ioana R Podina
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In the context of an increasingly egalitarian society, in which all genders are encouraged to be vocal about their goals and take equal growth opportunities, goal interdependence in couples has been repeatedly associated with relationship satisfaction. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide evidence for the association between goal interdependence and relationship satisfaction in couples. We performed a random-effects analysis for the 32 reports and 49 independent samples that investigated three types of goal interdependence (goal support, goal congruence, and goal conflict) in association with relationship satisfaction. We found significant medium effect sizes between goal interdependence in general (r = .23) and relationship satisfaction, as well as between each type of goal interdependence and relationship satisfaction. The strongest effect size emerged for the association between goal congruence and relationship satisfaction (r = .43), followed by the association between goal support and relationship satisfaction (r = .28) and by the negative association between goal conflict and relationship satisfaction (r = −.29). From a theoretical standpoint, these results provide support for a key claim from the Transactive Goal Dynamics Theory that goal coordination between partners impacts relationship functioning. From a practical standpoint, they emphasize the need to consider goal interdependence in couples’ therapy, particularly in the current sociocultural context.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T08:54:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221128994
       
  • Spouse and mother-in-law rejection and marital adjustment of Turkish women
           with child and adult marriage

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      Authors: Büşra Aslan Cevheroğlu, Şennur Tutarel-Kışlak
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Child marriages occur between a child under the age of 18 and an adult or another child and take place without children being physiologically or psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and having children. Child marriages among women are prevalent in Turkey and linked with number of negative outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictor role of spouse and mother-in-law rejection on marital adjustment and whether this relationship differs for Turkish women married under and above 18. Results revealed that women who were married as children had significantly higher scores for spouse and mother-in-law rejection and lower marital adjustment than women married above 18. Additionally, the marital adjustment of women married as children and by the marriage of choice was significantly lower than women who had married at an adult age and by the marriage of choice. Moderation analysis, which was made by Process macro, indicated that marital age and mother-in-law rejection had a moderator role in the relationship between overall spousal rejection and marital adjustment. In conclusion, this study provides a unique contribution to the relevant literature in Turkish culture in terms of comparing women married under the age of 18 and above 18.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T11:46:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221129833
       
  • Body dissatisfaction and romantic relationship quality: A meta-analysis

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      Authors: Dana L Stiles, Lijing Ma, Hannah F Fitterman-Harris, Eyad J Naseralla, Cort W Rudolph
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Research has shown that there is an association between body dissatisfaction (a person’s negative evaluation of their own physical body) and romantic relationship satisfaction. Some have suggested that individuals with higher levels of body dissatisfaction report less satisfaction with their romantic relationships. However, others have suggested that there is a positive relationship between these two variables. This meta-analysis sought to examine the relationship between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction. Possible moderators of this relationship were also examined. Fifty-six studies were meta-analyzed to quantitatively summarize the relationship between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction. Additionally, participant body mass index (BMI), relationship length, gender, sexual orientation, and age were considered as potential moderators of this relationship. Results confirmed previous findings, indicating that body dissatisfaction was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction (rxy = −0.24). Furthermore, moderation analyses found that this negative relationship between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction was attenuated as BMI increased. This relationship became stronger when the studies had higher female representation. Some sexual orientations also moderated the relationship. No moderating effects of age or relationship length were found.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T11:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221128504
       
  • Accurately detecting happy facial expressions associates with perceptions
           of flirtatiousness

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      Authors: Emily S Bibby, Allison M McKinnon, Michael Shaw, Richard E Mattson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Emotional facial expressions are relevant to flirtation because they provide information on an individual’s intentions or motivations. Individual differences in the ability to accurately detect and discriminate between normative facially expressed emotions could lead to misperceptions of the level of sexual interest being conveyed, which has been linked to sexual assault and harassment. To explore this notion, we recruited a national sample of college aged male and female participants (N = 219) who completed a novel facial expression recognition task used to detect accuracy in processing facial emotions of happiness, surprise, anger, and disgust. Participants also viewed multiple video clips of blind dates between two different-sex participants and rated each partner on their degree of flirtatiousness. Consistent with predictions, we found that individuals who misidentified other facial emotions for happiness appeared to overestimate flirtation. Though not predicted, participants who failed to accurately identify happy faces also overestimated flirtation, whereas individuals who took longer to respond to emotional facial expressions and misidentified an emotion as conveying happiness made greater errors in perceptions of flirtatiousness. Overall, these findings suggest that individual differences in the ability to detect and discriminate happiness through facial expressions are relevant to misperceptions of flirtatious behavior, and more broadly illuminates the role of basic emotion recognition on perceptions of flirtatiousness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T01:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221128259
       
  • “I don’t even know who i am”: Identity reconstruction
           after the loss of a spouse

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      Authors: Erin C. Wehrman
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Reconstructing identity after bereavement is an important element of managing grief. Using the context of spousal bereavement, the goals of this study were to understand how people reconstruct their identities following loss and to determine what role interaction plays during this process. Interviews with individuals who had lost a spouse (N = 35) were analyzed using grounded theory procedures. The results supported a model of reconciling past and present selves, which included managing changes to both personal and relational identities. The identity reconciliation process was hindered by several personal and interactional stressors and facilitated by social support from others. To reconstruct identity, individuals utilized six strategies that reduced stressors and built sources of social support. Theoretically, these findings provide nuance for identity reconstruction processes and highlight the various ways others can hinder or facilitate identity change following bereavement.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T09:50:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221127399
       
  • Changing the blame game: Associations between relationship mindfulness,
           loneliness, negative partner attributions, and subsequent conflict

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      Authors: Katherine L Morris, Jonathan G Kimmes, Crystal G Marroquin
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Given the important associations between couple conflict and various physical and mental health outcomes, it is essential to explore factors that may catalyze or exacerbate the frequency and impact of conflict in romantic relationships. One such factor may be relationship mindfulness, or the tendency to have a nonjudgmental awareness of one’s experiences in romantic relationships. Previous research has demonstrated a link between relationship mindfulness and various relational outcomes, but its association with relationship conflict has not yet been explored. Additionally, the current study sought to explore the mechanisms that link relationship mindfulness and relational outcomes. Based on previous research connecting conflict to negative partner attributions, the study examined how relationship mindfulness may predict conflict through negative partner attributions. Furthermore, the study aimed to incorporate loneliness as a potential mediator between relationship mindfulness and negative partner attributions. A sample of 116 different-sex middle-aged married couples were recruited to complete an online assessment. Using an actor–partner interdependence mediation model, the results indicated several significant associations among relationship mindfulness, negative partner attributions, loneliness, and relationship conflict. For example, a significant indirect effect was found; that is, female relationship mindfulness was associated with decreased relationship conflict via its prior association with both male loneliness and additionally through male loneliness and subsequent male negative partner attributions. The results indicate that by employing interventions that increase relationship mindfulness, it may be possible to both reduce loneliness and encourage more charitable partner attributions which, in turn, may reduce couple conflict.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T07:20:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221128502
       
  • Positive illusions about dyadic perspective-taking as a moderator of the
           association between attachment insecurity and marital satisfaction

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      Authors: Richard A Rigby, Rebecca J Cobb
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety or avoidance) puts people at risk for dissatisfying relationships. However, the dyadic regulation model of insecurity buffering suggests that an understanding and responsive partner may help insecure individuals to regulate emotions, thus improving couples’ relationships. It may also be that perceiving partners as understanding and empathic, especially in an exaggeratedly positive way (i.e., positive illusions) will buffer insecurity. In 196 mixed-gender newlywed couples, we investigated whether spouses’ positive illusions about partner’s dyadic perspective-taking moderated the association between spouses’ attachment insecurity and spouses’ and partners’ marital satisfaction over two years. Positive illusions generally predicted more satisfying relationships and attachment avoidance consistently predicted more dissatisfying relationships. There were also several instances where multilevel modeling indicated that positive illusions of dyadic perspective-taking buffered the negative effects of attachment avoidance on relationship satisfaction. However, there was also potentiation such that in two instances, positive illusions about dyadic perspective-taking strengthened the association between spouses’ insecurity (husbands’ attachment anxiety and wives’ attachment avoidance) and subsequent marital dissatisfaction. In the moment, positive illusions about dyadic perspective-taking may allow spouses to feel happy in their relationship despite fear of emotional intimacy; however, positive illusions may not continue to buffer effects of insecurity on subsequent relationship satisfaction and may even be harmful in the face of insecurity.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T07:49:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221127241
       
  • Friendship dynamics of young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations:
           Group diversity, physical intimacy and emotionality

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      Authors: Rory Magrath, Mark McCormack
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Non-exclusive sexuality identity labels such as “mostly straight” and “mostly gay” describe distinct sexualities. While research documents their existence and distinctiveness, little focus has been given to friendship dynamics with these groups and research on friendship has a heteronormative bias. In this study, we use data collected with 25 men with non-exclusive sexualities from a university in the northeastern United States to examine their friendship dynamics and intimacy practices in order to advance understanding of friendship beyond binary frameworks of straight and gay friendship groups. We document the friendship practices of men who are mostly straight, “bisexual-leaning,” and mostly gay, and develop understanding of bromance as a term that has extended to cross-sexuality and cross-gender friendships. We call for greater engagement with these sexuality labels and greater recognition of fluidity as a concept that extends beyond sexology and debates about heterosexual privilege to understand the complex dynamics of intimacy and friendship and a broader range of friendship practices among men that such understandings facilitate.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T03:22:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221127232
       
  • Workers’ individual and dyadic coping with the COVID-19 health
           emergency: A cross cultural study

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      Authors: Silvia Donato, Agostino Brugnera, Roberta Adorni, Sara Molgora, Eleonora Reverberi, Claudia Manzi, Maria Angeli, Anna Bagirova, Veronica Benet-Martinez, Liberato Camilleri, Frances Camilleri-Cassar, Evi Hatzivarnava Kazasi, Gerardo Meil, Maria Symeonaki, Ayça Aksu, Karina Batthyany, Ruta Brazienė, Natalia Genta, Annick Masselot, Suzy Morrissey
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to examine workers’ psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic as a function of their individual coping, dyadic coping, and work-family conflict. We also tested the moderating role of gender and culture in these associations. To achieve this aim, we run HLM analyses on data from 1521 workers cohabiting with a partner, coming from six countries (Italy, Spain, Malta, Cyprus, Greece, and Russia) characterized by various degrees of country-level individualism/collectivism. Across all six countries, findings highlighted that work-family conflict as well as the individual coping strategy social support seeking were associated with higher psychological distress for workers, while the individual coping strategy positive attitude and common dyadic coping were found to be protective against workers’ psychological distress. This latter association, moreover, was stronger in more individualistic countries.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T02:03:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221119066
       
  • Affective Reactions to daily interpersonal stressors: Moderation by family
           involvement and gender

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      Authors: Dakota D. Witzel, Kelly D. Chandler, Robert S. Stawski
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of this study was to examine whether family involvement and gender moderated daily changes in affect associated with interpersonal stressors. Adults (N = 2022; Mage = 56.25, Median = 56, SD = 12.20, Range = 33–84) from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences participated in eight consecutive daily diaries. Each day they reported whether a daily interpersonal stressor occurred, whether family was involved, and their positive and negative affect. Results from multilevel models indicated that family involvement did not significantly moderate daily interpersonal stressor-affect associations; however, gender was a significant moderator in some instances. Women showed greater increases in negative affective reactivity to arguments and avoided arguments compared to men. Further, compared to men, women reported larger decreases in positive affective reactivity, but only for avoided arguments. Neither family involvement, gender, nor the interaction between family involvement and gender predicted affective residue. Gender differences in daily interpersonal stressors and affective reactivity may be attributable to overarching gender norms and roles that are still salient in the U.S. Our results suggest that daily interpersonal stressors may be detrimental to affective well-being, regardless of family involvement. Future work should explore associations between daily interpersonal stressors and family involvement by specific relationship roles, such as mother or spouse, for a more comprehensive understanding of what stressor characteristics impact daily affective well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T05:07:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221125431
       
  • Remembering for Relationships: Brief Cognitive-Reminiscence Therapy
           Improves Young Adults’ Perceptions About Self and Others in Social
           Relationships

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      Authors: Pilon M. F., Hallford D. J., Hardgrove S., Sanam M., Oliveira S., Karantzas G. C., Tyler D.
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Reminiscence-based interventions involve the guided recall and interpretation of autobiographical memories to promote adaptive thinking. This study involved secondary analyses of a recent trial of a positively focused, group-based, three-session version of cognitive-reminiscence therapy (CRT) on perceptions of general relationship quality and interpersonally related psychological resources in young adults. A community sample (N = 62, Mage = 24.6 (SD = 3.1), 71% identified as cisgender women and 29% identified as cisgender men) of young adults were randomised into a CRT and wait-list condition. Participants completed assessments measuring perceived general relationship quality (relationship satisfaction, emotional intimacy, commitment, and trust) and perceptions of self and others within relationships (relationship self-esteem, relationship self-efficacy, relationship optimism and meaning in relationships). The CRT group, relative to the control group, scored significantly higher on perceived relationship quality (d = .62), and higher on generalized relationship self-efficacy (d = .70), relationship self-esteem (d = .59), and relationship optimism (d = .57) at the follow-up. Group differences for relationship meaning were not statistically significant (small to moderate). A brief, positive-focused intervention of guided recall of autobiographical memories led to more adaptive perceptions about self and others within the context of relationships in young adults. Replication studies with larger samples are needed, and outside of a pandemic lockdown context. Future research may expand CRT to target other relationship variables, assess the impacts of different doses, explore relationships in specific populations, and better understand the mechanisms for change.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T03:10:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221122943
       
  • (Re)discovering interpersonal relationships and self-authorship in STEM
           Graduate school through mindfulness

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      Authors: Sarah Lausch, Kelly Rossetto
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we utilized self-authorship theory to investigate how mindfulness practices support the connection between identity development and interpersonal relationships in STEM graduate students. In an 8-week self-led mindfulness intervention, 10 women from computer science and engineering graduate programs completed a variety of mindfulness exercises, including meditation, yoga, drawing and mindful daily activities (e.g., mindful dishwashing). We utilized a qualitative approach to gather an in-depth picture of each participant’s individual progress. Data analysis showed that students’ experiences, including supportive relationships and sense of identity in STEM, were influenced by interpersonal (dis)connections in and beyond academia. Mindfulness offered space and tools for students to reflect on their relationships and STEM identity and, if needed, modify them. Three themes are discussed: academic relationships with peers and advisors, including negotiating social comparisons; personal relationships with family and friends, including academia-life balance; and the relationship to their STEM identity.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T02:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221123964
       
  • Coping with uncertainty in mental illness: Associations among desired
           support, support seeking strategies, and received support from family
           members

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      Authors: Kai Kuang, Ningxin Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals with mental illness commonly experience uncertainty related to not only the condition itself but also personal and social implications surrounding mental illness. Support from family has the potential to alleviate uncertain feelings and reduce perceived stress. Drawing on the sensitive interaction systems theory, this longitudinal study investigated the support seeking processes and outcomes in mental illness. Results suggested that perceived uncertainty about mental illness was negatively associated with desired emotional and informational support from close family. Desired support predicted received support and reduced perceived stress 2 weeks later. The effect of desired support on received support was mediated by direct support seeking behaviors. Communication efficacy, relational trust, and motivation to seek support moderated the associations between desired support and support seeking behaviors. Findings offer theoretical and practical implications for support seeking from family members in mental illness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T09:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221123093
       
  • Do couple- and individual-level ambivalence predict later marital
           outcomes' The mediating role of marital conflict

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      Authors: Florensia F Surjadi, Kandauda AS Wickrama, Frederick O Lorenz
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Ambivalence is common in close relationships, but the implications of marital ambivalence for later relationship outcomes have been less well known. Using five waves of data from 370 long-term married couples over 8 years, we investigated the influence of couple-level and individual-level ambivalence on marital satisfaction, marital instability, and divorce 7 years later. We also examined the couple-level process—whether marital conflict mediated the association between couple-level ambivalence and couples’ relationship outcomes. We found that couple-level ambivalence (i.e., couples’ shared perceptions of ambivalence toward one another) was associated with higher marital conflict, which in turn predicted divorce. Among continuously married couples, individuals who were initially more ambivalent toward their spouses tended to be less satisfied with their marriages and were more likely to consider divorce than those who initially had lower degrees of ambivalence. Altogether, the findings provide insights into the role of ambivalence in marriage at different levels and highlight the need for specific strategies to help couples resolve their ambivalence and strengthen their marriages.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T04:48:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221122852
       
  • Dyadic coping and marital quality in same-sex and different-sex marriages

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      Authors: Yiwen Wang, Debra Umberson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Dyadic coping, the process through which couples manage stress together, is important for relationship well-being. However, very few studies have considered dyadic coping and its link with marital quality in same-sex marriages. We analyze dyadic data from a sample of midlife same- and different-sex married couples (N = 838 individuals, 418 couples) to assess gender differences in various forms of dyadic coping (i.e., received and provided positive and negative dyadic coping as well as common/collaborative dyadic coping) and the associations of dyadic coping with marital quality. Results suggest that women married to women are more likely to receive positive support and less likely to receive negative support compared to women married to men. Both men and women in same-sex marriages are more likely to cope with stress collaboratively than their counterparts in different-sex marriages. All forms of dyadic coping are equally important for the marital quality of men and women in same- and different-sex marriages.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T03:20:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221123096
       
  • Modeling social interaction dynamics measured with smartphone sensors: An
           ambulatory assessment study on social interactions and loneliness

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      Authors: Timon Elmer, Gerine Lodder
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      More and more data are being collected using combined active (e.g., surveys) and passive (e.g., smartphone sensors) ambulatory assessment methods. Fine-grained temporal data, such as smartphone sensor data, allow gaining new insights into the dynamics of social interactions in day-to-day life and how these are associated with psychosocial phenomena – such as loneliness. So far, however, smartphone sensor data have often been aggregated over time, thus, not doing justice to the fine-grained temporality of these data. In this article, we demonstrate how time-stamped sensor data of social interactions can be modeled with multistate survival models. We examine how loneliness is associated with (a) the time between social interaction (i.e., interaction rate) and (b) the duration of social interactions in a student population (Nparticipants = 45, Nobservations = 74,645). Before a 10-week ambulatory assessment phase, participants completed the UCLA loneliness scale, covering subscales on intimate, relational, and collective loneliness. Results from the multistate survival models indicated that loneliness subscales were not significantly associated with differences in social interaction rate and duration – only relational loneliness predicted shorter social interaction encounters. These findings illustrate how the combination of new measurement and modeling methods can advance knowledge on social interaction dynamics in daily life settings and how they relate to psychosocial phenomena such as loneliness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-20T08:20:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221122069
       
  • Narcissism and friendship quality: A longitudinal approach to long-term
           friendships

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      Authors: Caroline Wehner, Matthias Ziegler
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Narcissistic admiration and rivalry have been studied in various social relationship contexts, with findings indicating that the former is related to initial popularity while the latter tends to cause problems in the longer term. In particular, the social partners of individuals with high narcissism tend to have higher costs and fewer benefits. But how does narcissism affect the perception of a long-term friendship' To gain insight into perceived friendship quality in dependence on narcissism, NT1 = 831 individuals reported on their narcissism and relationship quality with a close friend at four measurement occasions (NT2 = 619, NT3 = 484, NT4 = 420). We analyzed bivariate relations and random intercepts cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPM) of narcissistic admiration and rivalry, and two positive (appreciation and intimacy) and two negative (conflict and dominance) indicators of friendship quality. Our results generally supported findings that narcissistic rivalry tends to lead to less positive and more negative experiences in social relationships. Narcissistic admiration and rivalry were both found to be positively related to conflict. Narcissistic rivalry was negatively related to appreciation and intimacy. At the within-person level, observed with the RI-CLPMs, appreciation influenced later narcissistic rivalry and was influenced by narcissistic admiration and rivalry. Thus, not feeling appreciated was related to subsequent increases in narcissistic rivalry, while more agentic and antagonistic behavior was related to subsequently lower perceptions of appreciation. We discuss that negative effects of narcissistic rivalry found in previous research for friendship formation also seem to emerge in the phase of friendship maintenance.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-20T05:02:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221122023
       
  • Parents’ views on facilitating and inhibiting factors in the development
           of attachment relationships with their children with severe disabilities

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      Authors: Sien Vandesande, Dorien Steegmans, Bea Maes
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Being confident as attachment figures is not self-evident for parents of children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (SPID) given the children’s limited clear communicative responses. The current study drew upon the Attachment Strengths and Needs Interview to get an overview of factors that parents identify as influencing their parent-child attachment relationships.Inductive semantic thematic analysis was conducted on 23 semi-structured interviews (including responses of 35 parents). These were the parents of children (1–9 years) with a severe or profound intellectual (or multiple) disability.The results showed that parents mentioned a large number of inhibiting and facilitating factors related to developing attachment relationships with their children. Adopting an ecological systems perspective, these influences were organised in a micro-, meso-, macro-, exo- and chrono-level. This implies that not only factors related to the child (and his/her disability) were mentioned, but also factors related to (amongst others) the parents, the parent-child and family interactions, the broader environment and policy.Concluding, from parents’ perspectives, it seemed that the factors influencing the (development of) attachment relationships can be positive and negative, are versatile, layered in different levels, interconnected and not necessarily linked to their children’s disability. Both generic factors across parents and specific factors, related to individual families, should be taken into account to provide tailored support.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-20T03:41:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221122717
       
  • The Role of Counter-narratives in Resisting the Deficit Model of Families
           for BIPOC Families

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      Authors: Mackensie J. Minniear
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) face discrimination institutionally and interpersonally in the United States. BIPOC parents and family members are placed in a position wherein they have to prepare children and other family members to face these issues while countering a deficit model of family that characterizes BIPOC families as inherently problematic and inferior to White families. This study uses Critical Race Theory to explore how BIPOC families use counternarratives to resist dominant narratives about ethnicity and race. Results indicate that BIPOC families engage in storying to create counternarratives. These counternarratives serve three functions: (1) creating narrative inheritance, (2) co-laboring moments of racial difficulty and discrimination, and (3) situating race and ethnicity historically and ancestrally.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-20T03:32:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221123095
       
  • Respiratory sinus arrhythmia moderates the interpersonal consequences of
           brooding rumination

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      Authors: Warren Caldwell, Sasha MacNeil, Carsten Wrosch, Jennifer J. McGrath, Thanh T. Dang-Vu, Alexandre J. S. Morin, Jean-Philippe Gouin
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Brooding rumination is an intrapersonal emotion regulation strategy associated with negative interpersonal consequences. Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a psychophysiological marker of self-regulatory capacity, may buffer the association between maladaptive emotion regulation and negative interpersonal behaviors. The current work examines the moderating effect of RSA on the association between brooding rumination and different negative interpersonal consequences. Across three convenience samples, individuals with lower RSA showed a stronger association between brooding rumination and more negative interpersonal behaviors as well as less perception of received instrumental social support (Study 1; n = 154), higher levels of interviewer-rated interpersonal stress (Study 2; n = 42) and a stronger indirect association between brooding rumination and depressive symptoms via daily interpersonal stress (Study 3; n = 222). These findings highlight the negative interpersonal consequences of brooding rumination, particularly among individuals with lower RSA.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-19T05:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221122059
       
  • Through mindful colored glasses' The role of trait mindfulness in
           evaluating interactions with strangers

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      Authors: Kim Lien van der Schans, Janne AM van Kraaij, Johan C Karremans
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Converging evidence shows that mindfulness is associated with various indicators of interpersonal behavior and well-being. Although promising, the effects of mindfulness should ultimately be expressed during interpersonal interactions and observed by interaction partners. The current study assessed the associations between trait mindfulness, interpersonal stress, and interpersonal perceptions during stressful interpersonal tasks between strangers. Sixty-seven same sex stranger dyads (134 individuals; all females) participated in a laboratory study. Trait mindfulness was measured via an online questionnaire. In the lab, participants were asked to engage in two tasks with a stranger: (1) a stressful interaction task (they were asked to introduce themselves standing only 27 cm apart) and (2) a joint coordination task. Afterwards, both partners’ levels of interpersonal stress and interpersonal perceptions (i.e. liking of the interaction, perceived attentiveness, and perceived coping) were assessed. Results of Actor Partner Interdependence Models (APIM) showed a negative association between trait mindfulness and experienced interpersonal distress. Trait mindfulness was positively associated with liking of the interaction, perceived attentiveness and perceived coping. Actors’ trait mindfulness was positively associated with the partners’ liking of the interaction (marginally significant), but no other partner effects were found. There was no association between trait mindfulness and performance on the joint coordination task. The current findings underscore the importance of studying trait mindfulness dyadically. In actual interpersonal interactions, trait mindfulness positively affects interaction experiences of actors, but we found little support for a transfer to experiences of interaction partners. We discuss the implications of these findings in light of several theoretical models.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-18T05:16:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221119770
       
  • Optimism, relationship quality, and problem solving discussions: A daily
           diary study

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      Authors: Katelin E Leahy, Deborah A Kashy, M Brent Donnellan, Jeewon Oh, Kimberly K Hardy
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Problem solving is a necessary part of all successful relationships. The current study examined how naturally occurring day-to-day problem solving discussions were related to daily reports of relationship quality. In addition, we investigated whether optimism was associated with the nature and occurrence of these problems and moderated the association between problem solving discussions and relationship quality. Multilevel modeling was applied to data from 112 couples who completed daily diaries over 14 days (Mage = 28.2, 95.5% heterosexual, 66.5% White). Relationship quality was higher on days when couples did not report a problem discussion, when couples reported at least somewhat solving the problem they discussed, and when the problem discussion did not involve conflict. More optimistic individuals and individuals with more optimistic partners were more likely to resolve problems, less likely to discuss problems specifically about their relationship, and less likely to have problem discussions involving conflict on days when problem discussions occurred. Individuals with partners who were high in optimism reported relatively high relationship quality regardless of whether a problem discussion occurred, whereas those with partners low in optimism reported significantly lower quality on days when such a discussion took place.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T06:53:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221118663
       
  • Longitudinal associations between Mexican-origin youth’s relationships
           with parents, siblings, and friends and individual adjustment

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      Authors: Jenny Padilla, Kimberly A. Updegraff, Susan M. McHale, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Justin Jager
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Across adolescence and into young adulthood, as youth experience both normative developmental and stressful life changes, close and supportive relationships are essential for healthy adjustment. Supportive relationships may be especially important for protecting Mexican-origin youth from developing depressive symptoms and engaging in risky behaviors given the emphasis within Mexican culture on close relationships, especially in families. With longitudinal data, we examined the associations between Mexican-origin youth’s relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, and best friends and their adjustment across adolescence and into young adulthood. Participants were 246 Mexican-origin families with a 7th grader (younger sibling) and at least one older sibling, a mother, and a father at Time 1 (T1). Youth participated in home interviews at T1 and again five (T2) and eight (T3) years later. At T1, younger siblings were 12.55 (SD = .60) and older siblings were 15.48 (SD = 1.57) years old. Findings indicated that, with sibling and friend characteristics in the models, mother and father acceptance and conflict were significantly linked to youth positive and negative adjustment, respectively. Both sibling conflict and, consistent with a “partners in crime” process (Slomkowski et al., 2001; p. 273), sibling intimacy (of younger adolescents only), were linked to risky behavior. Same-gender friend conflict also was linked to risky behavior, but neither sibling nor friend relationships were linked to depressive symptoms. Some relationship effects were moderated by gender and age. Together, our findings have implications for programs aimed at preventing adjustment problems.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-13T05:11:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221119428
       
  • Latinx adolescents’ perspectives on romantic relationships and
           sexuality: Exploring the roles of parents and siblings

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      Authors: Sarah E Killoren, María Len-Ríos, Eric Salinas, Cara E Streit, Gustavo Carlo
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Parents and siblings are critical sources of influence on adolescents’ ideas about and experiences with romantic relationships and sex. Using focus group data from 44 Latinx adolescents in the U.S. Midwest, we explored how family relationships shaped how Latinx teens learned about cultural norms and expectations concerning their romantic relationships and involvement in sexual behaviors. Parents expressed more protective behaviors toward their daughters than their sons, seemingly a result of gender-role expectations and cultural perceptions of family honor and respect. Mothers and siblings were sources of sexual information. Older siblings were seen to play protective roles, dependent on the quality of the sibling relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-12T09:42:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221118947
       
  • Bias, accuracy and assumed similarity in judging intimate partners’
           sexist attitudes

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      Authors: Nina Waddell, Nickola C. Overall
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Women and men are particularly vulnerable to the costs of sexism in intimate relationships, which may override relationship enhancement motives that produce positive biases. Inspired by error management principles, we propose that women and men should make biased judgments of intimate partners’ sexist attitudes to help avoid the harmful costs of sexism that occur within mixed-gender relationships. Women may overestimate partners’ hostile sexism because failing to detect men’s hostile sexism should render women especially vulnerable to the risk of maltreatment, whereas women may underestimate partners’ benevolent sexism because expecting special treatment that is unavailable is more costly than receiving unexpected benevolence. By contrast, men may overestimate partners’ benevolent sexism because failing to prevent women’s dissatisfaction and anger when men do not fulfill gallant gender roles would be most costly than providing more benevolence than expected. Comparing perceptions of partners’ attitudes to partners’ actual sexist attitudes in two studies of mixed-gender couples (N = 91 and 84 dyads) confirmed this gender-differentiated pattern. On average, women overestimated their partners’ hostile sexism and underestimated their partners’ benevolent sexism, whereas men overestimated their partners’ benevolent sexism. Although we did not make predictions about judgments of women’s hostile sexism, analyses also revealed that men underestimated their partners’ hostile sexism. The pattern of bias has important implications for understanding the ways sexist attitudes affect intimate relationships and sustain gender inequality.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-12T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221118546
       
  • Brazilian portuguese version of twin relationship questionnaire (TRQ-BR):
           Evidence of validity evidence of validity

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      Authors: Isabella F Ferreira, Tania K Lucci, Vinicius F David, Paula C Araújo Short, Ana C Crispim, Thais Reali, Elisa S Marty, Vanessa Rocha, Andréia Grinberg, Nancy L Segal, Hila Segal, Ariel Knafo-Noam, Emma Otta
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Our aim was to adapt and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Twin Relationship Questionnaire developed by Fortuna et al. (2010) and validated by H. Segal and Knafo-Noam (2019) in Israel. The respondents were 862 Brazilian mothers of twins (N = 1724 twins) with mean age of 35 years (SD = 6.1). The majority of the sample lived in the Southeast (61.8%) or in the South (24.5%) of Brazil. We conducted a Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis with the pair of twins as second level variable, and the five-factor structure (closeness, dependence, conflict, dominance, and rivalry) proposed by the original validation study of H. Segal and Knafo-Noam (2019) was confirmed. The final model retained 15 items out of 22 proposed in the original version of the questionnaire. Although the TRQ-BR has fewer items, the accuracy compared to the original questionnaire was maintained. Mixed Model Analysis (LMM) of TRQ scores were used to investigate twins’ relationships as a function of zygosity, age groups, and sex in order to provide evidence of convergent validity of the instrument. As expected, mothers perceived monozygotic twins (MZ) as more depedent than dizygotic twins (DZ). Furthermore, male twin pairs were considered more conflictive when compared to female twins. The present study showed that TRQ-BR is an adequate instrument for research purposes in the Brazilian population. It can also be useful for applied areas such as clinical and educational fields.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T07:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221117721
       
  • Self-disclosure in social media and psychological well-being: A
           meta-analysis

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      Authors: Tsz Hang Chu, Mengru Sun, Li Crystal Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Self-disclosure in social media and psychological well-being have been theorized to mutually influence each other. The vibrant research on this issue, however, presents mixed results, calling for a synthesis of the empirical evidence. To this end, we conducted a meta-analysis with 38 empirical studies to systematically examine the nature of the relationship between social media self-disclosure and psychological well-being. We adopted a multidimensional perspective of self-disclosure to scrutinize how the quantity (amount and depth) and quality (intent, valence, and honesty) dimensions of self-disclosure were associated with psychological well-being. The results indicated that valence and honesty of self-disclosure were moderately and positively associated with psychological well-being, but the quantity of self-disclosure was not significantly associated with psychological well-being. Participants’ gender, age, and cultural context of the studies significantly moderated the associations between some dimensions of self-disclosure and psychological well-being. Based on the meta-analysis results, we reassessed theoretical claims on self-disclosure in social media and suggested directions for future research.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T02:14:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221119429
       
  • Together–A couples’ program integrating relationship and financial
           education: A randomized controlled trial

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      Authors: Mariana K Falconier, Jinhee Kim, Mark J Lachowicz
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The present study evaluated the effectiveness of the TOGETHER program through a randomized controlled trial. A sample of community couples, predominantly African-American and low-income, was randomly assigned to either a no-intervention control group (N = 147) or the intervention group (N = 145) that participated in the program consisting of a 20-hour integrated relationship and financial education workshop and referrals to community services for family needs. Both groups completed self-report instruments upon enrollment (T1), 8 weeks later (workshop end = T2), and 6 months later (T3) regarding general and financial individual coping and well-being, general and financial relationship functioning, and financial self-efficacy and management. Dyadic multilevel models controlling for demographic variables and baseline measurement of outcome variables were used to test T1 – T2, T2 – T3, and T1 – T3 mean differences. Improvements in the intervention group were statistically significantly different from the control group at 6-month follow-up in the following areas: Stress levels, use of positive individual and dyadic strategies to manage financial and non-financial stress, conflict management, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and budgeting. Considering the reciprocal influence of individual/relational emotional and financial aspects, TOGETHER may be a particularly useful relationship education program for financially distressed couples. However, given the absence of significant differences between the intervention and control groups in financial stress, financial shared goals and values, cash and credit management, and savings/investment, future studies should continue evaluating whether the financial literacy component of the program may have a positive impact in such outcomes. Limitations and implications are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T04:46:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221118816
       
  • The moderating role of neighborhood social cohesion on the relationship
           between early mother-child attachment security and adolescent social
           skills: Brief report

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      Authors: Sunghyun Hong, Felicia Hardi, Kathryn Maguire-Jack
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Social skill is a critical asset for adolescents, and early mother-child attachment is an essential contributor to their development. While less secure mother-child attachment is a known risk factor for adolescent social development, the protective factor of neighborhood context in buffering this risk is still not well understood. Research Design: This study used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,876). Adolescent social skills (at age 15) were examined as a function of early attachment security and neighborhood social cohesion (age 3). Results: Children with higher mother-child attachment security at age three had higher adolescent social skills at age 15. The findings show that there was an interaction effect such that neighborhood social cohesion buffered the relationship between mother-child attachment security and adolescent social skills. Conclusion: Our study highlights that early mother-child attachment security can be promotive for cultivating adolescent social skills. Furthermore, neighborhood social cohesion can be protective among children with lower mother-child attachment security.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T11:06:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221118096
       
  • Lasting impact of relationships on caregiving difficulties, burden, and
           rewards

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      Authors: Meng Huo, Kyungmin Kim
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      A burgeoning literature considers caregiving in a relationship context and examines how the quality of caregivers’ relationships with care recipients influences their own appraisals of caregiving. Yet, extant research has mostly relied on cross-sectional data and utilized a unidimensional approach to examining relationship quality. This study extended prior research by examining (a) how positive and negative relationship qualities are associated with changes in caregiving appraisals over time, and (b) whether these associations vary by care recipients’ age and disabilities. We examined a longitudinal cohort of caregivers (N = 1,453, Mage = 62.11) from the National Study of Caregiving (wave 1: 2015, wave 2: 2017), in which caregivers rated positive and negative qualities of their relationships with care recipients aged 65+ (N = 1,047, Mage = 82.89), and reported on difficulties, burden, and rewards while serving as caregivers. Path analyses revealed that negative relationship quality at wave 1 was associated with increased difficulties and burden of caregiving over time, whereas positive relationship quality at wave 1 was associated with increased caregiver rewards. The associations between relationship qualities and caregiving difficulties as well as rewards varied depending on care recipients’ age and disabilities. Having negative relationships with care recipients was only associated with increased difficulties for caregivers who had younger care recipients, whereas having positive relationships was only linked to increased rewards for those with older care recipients. We also found that positive relationships were significantly associated with increased rewards in caregivers whose care recipients had fewer disabilities. This study refines our understanding of the role relationship quality plays in caregiving and highlights the lasting effects of relationships with care recipients on caregivers’ appraisals. Findings may help identify caregivers at greater risk for negative outcomes and suggest incorporation of relationship therapies in interventions to facilitate affection and attenuate conflicts in caregiving relationships.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T05:17:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221118095
       
  • The experience of late life remarriage and its meaning for older Arab
           Muslim widowed men in Israel

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      Authors: Chaya Koren, Hanan Ali-Morshed
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Late-life remarriage is one form of repartnering later in life, a phenomenon that has developed with the increase in life expectancy and other modernization processes, such as the shift from an extended to a nuclear family structure. Knowledge on the phenomenon of repartnering is based on research conducted mainly within Western societies living by individualistic values. It has also been studied in societies such as Israel, which value self-determination alongside familism. How the phenomenon is experienced within a more patriarchal, collectivist society undergoing modernization processes, such as the Arab Muslim society in Israel, is yet to be explored. The aim was to understand the meaning of late-life remarriage and how it is experienced among older Arab Muslim widowers in Israel who remarried at old age after a long-term marriage and raising a family. Using a phenomenological approach, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 14 Arab Muslim widowers aged 70–80 at time of remarriage, to never-married, middle-aged women. Three themes were identified: The first theme addresses motivations for remarriage, the second theme examines continuity and change from a lifelong marriage, and the third theme refers to the meaning they attribute to their current wife. Each theme addresses participants’ inner world, their relationship with spouse and offspring, and their perception of the society they belong to. Conclusions address late-life remarriage as a solution for older widowers to receive care within the extended collectivist family. Thus, the phenomenon reflects a reaction to modernization processes alongside a way to preserve patriarchal gender roles.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-07T04:12:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221113603
       
  • Dyadic analysis of very old parents’ and their children’s
           interdependence and self-perceptions of aging

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      Authors: Yijung K. Kim, Kyungmin Kim, Daniela S. Jopp, Kathrin Boerner
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The number of families with very old members is growing, and their intergenerational experiences may have significant ramifications for how the family members view their own aging. Using 114 dyads of very old parents (Mage = 93.31) and their “old” children (Mage = 67.78), we investigated whether one’s own (i.e., parents or children) and each other’s (i.e., children or parents) reports of relationship quality, care experiences, and health were associated with self-perceptions of aging. At the bivariate level, parents’ ratings of relationship quality and care experiences were related to some of the children’s health indicators, and vice versa. Very old parents reported less positive self-perceptions of aging than their children, and there was no within-dyad similarity in self-perceptions of aging. Individuals’ own health indicators (i.e., functional limitations, chronic conditions, and depressive symptoms) were associated with their self-perceptions of aging. For parents, their own report of more depressive symptoms was associated with less positive self-perceptions of aging. For children, their own report of more depressive symptoms as well as functional limitations was associated with less positive self-perceptions of aging. Care experiences demonstrated a partner effect for parents, such that children’s report of more caregiving burden was associated with parents’ less positive self-perceptions of aging. The findings provide initial evidence to assess the interdependence of self-perceptions of aging within parent-child ties in very late life. Despite the generational difference in the level of self-perceptions of aging, various facets of the informal care context may contribute to how older individuals view their own aging trajectory.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-07T02:21:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221118032
       
  • Support me in the good times too: Interpersonal emotion regulation,
           perceived social support, and loneliness among mothers of children with
           autism spectrum disorder

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      Authors: Roni Laslo-Roth, Sivan George-Levi, Lital Ben-Yaakov
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Although loneliness is an experience that mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may face, it has not been widely explored. Having a supportive social environment that is also effective in emotion regulation may provide feelings of security necessary for one to feel less lonely. The present study examined loneliness levels among mothers of children with ASD (vs. without ASD) and explored interpersonal resources (interpersonal emotion regulation and perceived social support) that might contribute to reduced loneliness. One-thousand-seven-hundred-and-83 mothers of children (546 with ASD, 1,237 without) completed a series of questionnaires. Mothers of children with ASD (vs. without ASD) reported higher levels of loneliness and lower levels of interpersonal emotion regulation efficacy for positive emotions and lower levels of perceived social support. A serial mediation model indicated that interpersonal factors fully mediated the association between being a mother of a child with ASD (vs. without) and loneliness. Moreover, a moderation mediation model showed that the tendency to approach others in order to regulate positive emotions moderated the association between perceived efficacy of such regulation and mothers’ loneliness. Interpersonal emotion regulation for positive emotions and perceived social support may contribute to reduced loneliness, especially among mothers of children with ASD.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T08:28:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221113031
       
  • Fluctuations in children’s self-regulation and parent-child interaction
           in everyday life: An ambulatory assessment study

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      Authors: Tomasz Moschko, Gertraud Stadler, Caterina Gawrilow
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Self-regulation has mostly been studied as an intrapersonal trait which fluctuates across time and impacts everyday behavior related to individual goal pursuit and achievement. Although it is plausible that self-regulation affects not only individuals but also their social network, there is less research on how self-regulation levels and fluctuations are linked to social processes in daily life, such as interactions between children and their parents. To this end, this study tracked children’s (aged 9 to 11 years; N = 70) self-regulation, and their daily interaction quality with parents, across 54 days, using child and parental self-reports. Participants reported higher interaction quality in dyads in which children showed higher self-regulation levels in comparison to others, as well as on days on which children showed higher self-regulation compared to their typical levels. The extent of this association varied between dyads, which needs to be addressed in future studies. As self-regulation and parent-child interaction quality fluctuate in parallel, this study suggests that researchers should aim to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to develop dynamic self-regulation interventions in family contexts and improve family well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T11:50:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221116788
       
  • The days add up: Daily marital discord and depressive reactivity linked to
           past-month depressed mood and marital risk across 10 years

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      Authors: Stephanie J. Wilson, Christina M. Marini
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Marital discord fuels depression, according to decades of research. Most prior studies in this area have focused on macro-longitudinal change in depression over the course of years, and on global ratings of marital satisfaction. Less work has examined fluctuations in depressed mood and marital discord in daily life, and none has investigated associations of short-term patterns with longer-term depressed mood and marital outcomes. Using data from participants in the Midlife in the U.S. project, the current study examined daily associations between marital discord and depressed mood, as well as their links to concurrent and prospective patterns of past-month depressed mood and marital risk. Results showed that, on average, depressed mood rose on days when individuals had an argument or tension with their spouse (i.e., marital discord), after accounting for the roles of other stressors. More frequent daily marital discord was also associated with greater past-month depressed mood and marital risk, above and beyond prior levels. Those with larger depressive mood responses to discord in daily life (i.e., greater reactivity) exhibited higher concurrent past-month depressed mood and greater 10-year increases in depressed mood. As the first study to link daily marital patterns to concurrent and prospective changes in depressed mood and marital outcomes, this investigation uncovered two novel processes—daily marital discord and depressive reactivity—as important for understanding long-term patterns of marital risk and depression.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T02:56:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221116277
       
  • A descriptive literature review of early research on COVID-19 and close
           relationships

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      Authors: Jennifer L Bevan, Madison K Murphy, Pamela J Lannutti, Richard B Slatcher, Rhonda N Balzarini
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This in-depth critical review investigates the impact of COVID-19 on personal relationships from the start of the pandemic in early 2020 to September 2021. Research examining six themes are identified and described in detail: the impact of COVID-19 on (1) family and intimate relationships; (2) LGBTQ+ relationships; (3) how COVID-19 is linked to technologically mediated communication and personal relationships; (4) potential shifts in sexual behaviors and desire; (5) potential shifts in relational conflict and intimate partner violence; and (6) constructive aspects of personal relationships, which is a broad theme that includes outcomes such as resilience, relational quality, coping, and social support. Findings for overarching patterns are offered to highlight implications for current research and identify future directions to consider when continuing to study personal relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic and similar future crises.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T02:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221115387
       
  • The effects of ideal standards and parental approval on mate choice among
           emerging adults

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      Authors: Ipek Guvensoy, Gizem Erdem
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examines how ideal standards and parental approval interplay in the decision to marry via three consecutive studies among Turkish emerging adults. The first study explored desirable traits for a potential spouse, and participants (N = 309) rated and rank-ordered 56 traits. Findings revealed that trustworthiness, honesty, and loyalty were the most desired traits. Informed by the first study’s findings, we designed vignettes, tested their validity via three pilot studies, and finalized scenarios for the experimental study. In Study 2 (N = 331), we recruited highly liberal (secular) emerging adults and randomly assigned them to one of the four experimental conditions (2x2 design; ideal standards high vs. low, parents approve vs. disapprove). Each participant read a vignette about a potential partner and responded whether they would be willing to marry that person (yes or no). Analysis revealed that participants were 13.93 times [CI (6.40, 30.32)] more willing to marry a partner who met ideal standards and 4.24 times [CI (1.93, 9.30)] more willing if the parents approved the partner. Study 3 replicated Study 2 with a conservative sample, using the same experimental design and vignettes. We recruited participants through theology departments and online religious groups (N = 484). Main effects of both having an ideal partner [OR = 5.00, CI (2.62, 9.54)] and parental approval [OR = 4.00, CI (2.12, 7.53)] were significant as well as the interaction term [OR= 7.38, CI (2.32, 23.51)]. The current study highlights the importance of parental approval and ideal standards on marriage decisions among secular and conservative emerging adults.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-16T03:06:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221114029
       
  • Operationalizing relational construal level to test relational turbulence
           theory: Linking relational turbulence in romantic relationships to
           interpersonal processes

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      Authors: Yuwei Li, Denise Haunani Solomon
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing upon construal level theory (CLT) and relational turbulence theory (RTT), two studies developed and assessed three operationalizations of relational construal level, defined as how concretely or abstractly people conceptualize their romantic relationship, and evaluated relational construal level as a mediator of the associations between relational turbulence and supportiveness, collaborative planning, and social network engagement using data reported by individuals in romantic relationships. In Study 1 (N = 405), preference for abstract versus concrete descriptions of relational activities and tendency to make extreme versus neutral judgments about a partner demonstrated desirable measurement properties and negative associations with relational turbulence, as predicted. A third measure indexing the accessibility of relational judgments was associated with neither relational turbulence nor the other measures of relational construal level. Study 2 used a more ethnically diverse sample (N = 414; Asian: n = 103, Black: n = 105, Hispanic: n = 102, White: n = 104) and identified preference for abstract versus concrete descriptions of relational activities as the most robust operationalization of relational construal level. Specifically, this measure was negatively associated with relational turbulence and mediated the associations between relational turbulence and supportiveness, collaborative planning, and social network engagement, as predicted by RTT.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T04:17:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221113360
       
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Canadian Social Connections: A Thematic
           Analysis

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      Authors: Catherine Lowe, Maliha Rafiq, Lyndsay Jerusha MacKay, Nicole Letourneau, Cheuk Fan Ng, Janine Keown-Gerrard, Trevor Gilbert, Kharah M Ross
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundOn March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic. Responses to the pandemic response disrupted Canadian social connections in complex ways; because social connections are determinants of health and well-being, their disruption could adversely affect health and well-being. Moreover, understanding how pandemics and public health responses affect social connections could inform pandemic recovery strategy and public health approaches designed for future pandemics. The purpose of this study is to understand experiences of pandemic impact on social connections over the pandemic.MethodsA sample of 343 Canadian adults was recruited through Athabasca University and social media. Participants were predominantly White (81%) and female (88%). After the pandemic onset, participants responded to open-ended questions about the impact of the pandemic on and any changes to social connections at three time points (baseline, and three- and 6 months from study entry). Responses were categorized into epochs by date (April-June 2020 [Spring]; July-August 2020 [Summer]; September 2020-January 2021 [Fall/Winter]). Qualitative thematic analysis was used to code themes for each epoch.ResultsNegative impact of the pandemic (37–45%), loss of social connections (32–36%), and alternative means of connection (26–32%) were prominent themes across the epochs. Restrictions to face-to-face connections were largest in spring (9%) and lowest in the Summer (4%). Conversely, participants increasingly reported limited contact or communication into the Fall and Winter (6–12%) as pandemic restrictions in Canada were reinstated.ConclusionsThe COVID-19 pandemic threatens social connections, with negative impacts that fluctuated with COVID-19 case rates and subsequent pandemic restrictions. These findings could be used to identify targets for social supports during the pandemic recovery, and to adjust public health strategies for future pandemics that minimize impact on social connections.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T12:25:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221113365
       
  • Ideal-perception consistency and regulation of best friends: Associations
           With attachment anxiety and avoidance

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      Authors: Ting Ai, Omri Gillath, Nickola C. Overall, Tara J. Collins
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Do people use ideal standards to evaluate and regulate their best friends' The current research examines whether the Ideal Standards Model captures dynamics in friendships, and what role attachment orientations play in these dynamics. Greater discrepancies between perceptions of best friends and ideal standards (low ideal-perception consistency) on the warmth/trustworthiness (Studies 1–3) and status/resources (Study 2) dimensions were associated with greater regulation attempts of best friends on these dimensions. Low ideal-perception consistency on the attractiveness/vitality dimension was not associated with regulation on this dimension (Study 2). Additionally, all studies illustrated that attachment avoidance was associated with lower ideal-perception consistency and, in turn, greater regulation attempts. By contrast, attachment anxiety was associated with higher regulation attempts of best friends, not because of lower ideal-perception consistency, but because of greater relationship maintenance motivations (Study 2) and an acute sensitivity to daily reductions in ideal-perception consistency (Study 3).
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T11:02:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221112600
       
  • An examination of visually impaired individuals’ communicative
           negotiation of face threats

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      Authors: Lynsey K. Romo, Cimmiaron Alvarez, Melissa R. Taussig
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Being visually impaired is an inherently face threatening and potentially stigmatizing experience that can greatly affect personal relationships. Those with a visual impairment frequently miss nonverbal cues, must rely on others for transportation and other assistance, and can be overtly marked as different through their use of a cane or a guide dog. Framed by the theoretical lens of facework and using in-depth interviews of 24 visually impaired individuals, this study uncovered how people with a visual impairment engaged in facework to mitigate and remediate the low-vision-related face threats they and others experienced. Participants reported using preventive facework, including politeness and humor, as well as corrective facework (avoidance, apologies, accounts, and humor) to manage face threats. Interviewees also engaged in a new type of facework that was simultaneously corrective and preventive: future facework (education and advocacy). Findings offer practical strategies visually impaired individuals can use to ward off or repair face threatening acts, contesting stigma and potentially improving relationships and fostering allyship among sighted individuals. The study also suggests that facework be incorporated into a biopsychosocial model of disability to help combat disabling social barriers.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T04:31:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221114048
       
  • “I’ve been cheated, been mistreated, when will I be loved”: Two
           decades of infidelity research through an intersectional lens

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      Authors: Dana A Weiser, M Rosie Shrout, Adam V Thomas, Adrienne L Edwards, Jaclyn Cravens Pickens
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Infidelity is a common experience within romantic relationships and is closely linked with relationship dissolution and well-being. Using an intersectionality theoretical framework, we undertook a systematic review of the infidelity literature in flagship journals associated with the disciplines of the International Association for Relationship Research. Our review includes findings from 162 published empirical articles. We identified several themes within the infidelity literature, including: individual, interpersonal, and contextual predictors; outcomes and reactions; beliefs and attitudes; prevalence; and conceptualization. We also found that the infidelity literature primarily utilizes participants who are White, heterosexual, cisgender individuals who reside in the United States or Canada. Moreover, researchers were limited in information they provided about participants’ identities so in most articles it was difficult to assess many dimensions of identity. Ultimately, these findings limit our ability to apply an intersectional framework. We argue that researchers should extend the research they cite, collect richer demographic data, expand their samples (especially beyond White heterosexual cisgender American college students), and consider the sociohistorical context of their participants (e.g., the particular social circumstances and historical forces which shape individuals’ lived experiences). For example, scholars using an intersectional framework would explain their participants’ relationship experiences through a lens which includes systems of sexism, racism, heterosexism, cissexism, classism, etc., in conjunction with individual and interpersonal factors.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T02:39:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221113032
       
  • Familism Values Embedded in U.S. Mexican Mother-Child Conversations About
           Sibling Conflicts

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      Authors: Joy Roos, Jean M Ispa, Fiorella L Carlos Chavez, Jennifer G Bohanek, Sahitya Maiya, Jihee Im
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study focused on familism-related content that emerged in a primarily qualitative analysis of U.S. Mexican mother-child conversations about sibling conflicts (Mage = 10.55; English = 43 (24 female); Spanish = 43 (19 female)). The study’s goals were to (1) describe how familism, a central Latinx value, is conveyed to children in late middle childhood, (2) uncover signs that children at this age actively or passively accept or reject mothers’ observations and expectations, and (3) determine if there are differences in conversation content based on language preference, child gender, or birth order. During discussions about sibling conflict, mothers’ and children’s comments revolved around four pillars of familism: establishing and maintaining harmony and devotion, recognizing the specialness of family ties (in this case sibling ties), accepting role obligations, and developing other-orientation. These values were expressed more implicitly than explicitly by a majority of the dyads. Most children accepted at least some of mothers’ statements, but resistance was also high. Chi-square tests indicated no gender-of-child or birth order differences in the content of the discussions, but dyads who spoke Spanish during the conversations were more likely than those who spoke English to speak in explicit familistic terms and to point to the specialness of the sibling tie. Our study is strengths-based as we demonstrate that in U.S. Mexican families, children’s conflicts with their siblings may serve as catalysts for “teaching moments” during which parents impart culturally relevant values.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T12:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221108453
       
  • Social Support and Positive Future Expectations, Hope, and Achievement
           among Latinx Students: Implications by Gender and Special Education

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      Authors: Ashley M Fraser, Crystal I Bryce, Karina M Cahill, Diana L Jenkins
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      A cultural-ecological approach posits that multiple sources of relational support can contribute to youths’ strengths development. Some such strengths are positive future expectations (PFE) and hope, both of which represent beneficial, future-oriented cognitive-motivational constructs; however, they have not been fully explored among Latinx youth. Furthermore, it is unknown how different socializing agents (i.e., family, teachers, friends) influence youths’ PFE, hope, and academic achievement, and if relations differ by gender and special education (SPED) designation. The present study (5th–12th grade Latinx students living in the Southwest U.S.; n = 748; 49% male; 15% SPED) investigated whether students’ relational supports longitudinally related to their PFE (for education/work, self-satisfaction, community involvement), hope, and academic achievement 1 year later. In the non-SPED designated sample, family support related to PFE for work/education and self-satisfaction for boys. Conversely, teacher support related to PFE for work/education and self-satisfaction for girls. PFE for community involvement was low across the sample. The same pattern emerged for hope, with family support significant for boys and teacher support for girls. For achievement, teacher support related positively across gender. Friend support had few significant associations overall, although a significant negative relation emerged between friend support and achievement for SPED students. SPED students had a positive path between family support and PFE for work/education. Findings support a multidimensional approach to increasing strengths and resilience through increased attention to family, teacher, and friend support across unique groups of Latinx youth.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T10:23:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221110626
       
  • Relationship maintenance among military couples

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      Authors: Leanne K. Knobloch, J. Kale Monk, Shelley M. MacDermid Wadsworth
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      A burgeoning body of research on the relationship maintenance of military couples over the past two decades suggests the time is right to organize, assimilate, and critique the literature. We conducted a systematic review informed by the integrative model of relationship maintenance that considered issues of intersectionality. Our literature search identified 81 relevant journal articles representing 62 unique samples. With respect to theory, 59.3% of the journal articles employed one or more formal theoretical frameworks. In terms of research design, 88.7% of the studies focused on the U.S. military, 83.9% of the studies recruited convenience samples, 54.8% of the studies utilized quantitative methods, and 30.6% of the studies collected longitudinal data. Among the studies reporting sample demographics, 96.8% of participants were married, 77.2% of participants identified as non-Hispanic White, and only one same-sex relationship was represented. Our narrative synthesis integrated findings about relationship maintenance from studies examining (a) relationship maintenance overtly, (b) communicating to stay connected across the deployment cycle, (c) disclosure and protective buffering, (d) support from a partner, (e) dyadic coping, and (f) caregiving and accommodating a partner’s symptoms. We interpret our results with an eye toward advancing theory, research, and practice.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T07:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221105025
       
  • A scoping review on couples’ stress and coping literature: Recognizing
           the need for inclusivity

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      Authors: Ashley K. Randall, Silvia Donato, Lisa A. Neff, Casey J. Totenhagen, Guy Bodenmann, Mariana Falconier
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The study of romantic partners’ experiences of stress and coping has exploded with nearly 11,000 empirical studies on this topic within the past two decades alone. Despite its prevalence, researchers, clinicians, and policy makers alike are questioning how inclusive is our current knowledge base on partners’ stress and coping' The purpose of this review is to examine literature on this topic from the past two decades to offer perspectives on whose vantage point has the research been conducted and what types of questions have been valued and for whom' To answer these questions, a scoping review was conducted of articles published in the last two decades (2002–2021) that focused on associations of partners’ stress, support, and/or coping with relationship quality and presented research questions on two or more demographic identities. Fifty-six empirical articles met the inclusion criteria. Results were not surprising given the lack of diversity in psychological science; most manuscripts used theories and models that were developed by Western scholars and the research questions focused on general processes independent of peoples’ identities or focused on a singular aspect of identity. Limitations and future directions of this review are presented, specifically as they pertain to the need for a more critical analysis of the types of stressors people may experience and how those with diverse identities, particularly multiple minoritized identities, may experience and cope with such stressors in the context of their relationship.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T06:25:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221101904
       
  • Associations among financial well-being, daily relationship tension, and
           daily affect in two adult cohorts separated by the great recession

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      Authors: August I. C. Jenkins, Yunying Le, Agus Surachman, David M. Almeida, Steffany J. Fredman
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Financial well-being may be an important context for daily emotional reactivity to relationship tension (e.g., arguments) whose salience varies across historical time or as a function of exposure to economic downturns. This study investigated how emotional reactivity, operationalized as daily fluctuations in negative and positive affect associated with the occurrence of daily relationship tension, varied by financial well-being among those who were and were not exposed to the Great Recession of 2008. Two matched, independent subsamples of partnered individuals from the National Study of Daily Experiences completed identical 8-day diary protocols, one before the Great Recession (n = 587) and one after (n = 351). Individuals reported higher negative affect and lower positive affect on days when relationship tension occurred. Further, results indicated that negative affect reactivity, but not positive affect reactivity, was moderated by both financial well-being and cohort status. For the pre-recession cohort, negative affect reactivity was stronger among those with lower financial well-being. However, among the post-recession cohort, financial well-being did not moderate negative affect reactivity to relationship tension. Findings highlight the utility of considering major societal events, such as economic downturns, to understand variability in emotional reactivity to day-to-day relationship tension in the context of financial well-being, as the salience of financial well-being in the ways relationship tension and negative affect are related on a daily basis appears to vary by historical context.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T03:35:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221105611
       
  • Computer-Mediated Communication and Well-Being in the Age of Social Media:
           A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Andrew C High, Erin K Ruppel, Bree McEwan, John P Caughlin
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The association between computer-mediated communication (CMC) and well-being is a complex, consequential, and hotly debated topic that has received significant attention from pundits, researchers, and the media. Conflicting research findings and fear over negative outcomes have spurred both moral panic and further research into these associations. To create a more comprehensive picture of trends, explanations, and future directions in this domain of research, we conducted a systematic meso-level review of 366 studies across 349 articles published since 2007 that report associations between CMC and well-being. Although most of this research is not explicitly theoretical, several potential theoretical mechanisms for positive and negative effects of CMC on well-being are utilized. The heterogeneity of effects in the studies we reviewed could be explained by the discipline in which the research is conducted, the methodology used, the types of CMC and well-being examined, and the population studied. Our evaluation of this body of research highlights the importance of attending to how we conceptualize communication and well-being, the questions we ask, and the populations and contexts we study when both reading and producing research on CMC and well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T10:07:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106449
       
  • Linking mean level and variability in affect to changes in perceived
           regard: A dyadic longitudinal burst study of African American couples

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      Authors: Betul Urganci, Anthony D. Ong, Anthony L. Burrow, Tracy DeHart
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      High positive affect and low negative affect have been repeatedly tied to better individual and interpersonal well-being. However, research has focused on mean levels whereas the day-to-day unfolding of affect and its impact on romantic relationships remain largely understudied. Here, we examined the links between mean levels and variability in affect and changes in perceptions of partner regard —the extent to which people believe that their partners value and accept them. One hundred twenty-five African American couples (N = 250 individuals) reported how positively they thought their partners viewed them across two sessions (T1 and T2), separated by a 3-week daily diary study in which participants reported on their positive and negative affect each day for 21 consecutive days. Using dyadic analysis, we found that higher actor negative affect variability was associated with lower perceived regard at T2 controlling for perceived regard at T1. This finding held when controlling for mean levels of actor and partner negative affect. By contrast, PA variability was curvilinearly associated with perceived regard, with moderate levels of variability associated with higher subsequent perceived regard. These results highlight the importance of accounting for mean levels and curvilinear effects when examining links between affect dynamics and relational well-being.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T04:07:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221103276
       
  • Connectedness and independence of young adults and parents in the digital
           world: Observing smartphone interactions at multiple timescales using
           Screenomics

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      Authors: Xiaoran Sun, Nilam Ram, Byron Reeves, Mu-Jung Cho, Andrew Fitzgerald, Thomas N. Robinson
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Young adults’ connectedness with and independence from parents have important implications for both their development and family relationships. Although technology plays an increasingly important role in these dynamics, there are few direct observations of how connectedness and independence unfold in the digital world. Little is known of between- and within-person differences in these dynamics.Purpose:This study uses Screenomics to directly observe smartphone interactions between young adults and their parents, and discover whether and how dimensions of connectedness and independence manifest in these interactions at multiple timescales.Research Design, Study Sample, and Data Collection:Screenshot sequences were collected from 10 ethnically diverse young adult (50% female) participants’ smartphones every 5 seconds for up to 1 month (total of 457,905 screenshots). We identified 1413 interaction instances between young adults and their parents (including 359 calls, 1032 messages, and 10 other communication instances).Analysis and ResultsDigital ethnographic analysis of screenshots revealed multiple themes related to connectedness (emotional support, logistical and financial support, consistent communication) and independence (parent fostering independence, parent intrusiveness/overinvolvement, and young adults’ psychological separation). Quantitative descriptions at different timescales (week, day, hour, moment) revealed within-person and between-person differences in active engagement, reciprocal communication, consistent communication, parent intrusiveness, young adults’ reliance on parents’ support, and young adults’ psychological separation.Conclusion:Findings highlight the need to examine family digital interactions at multiple timescales and the utility of temporally dense and comprehensive Screenomics data in studying social relations.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T10:27:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221104268
       
  • Sibling Relationships in Adolescence and Young Adulthood in Multiple
           Contexts: A Critical Review

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      Authors: Alexander C. Jensen, Sarah E. Killoren, Nicole Campione-Barr, Jenny Padilla, Bin-Bin Chen
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In many contexts worldwide, most people grow up with one or more siblings. The current paper reviews research on sibling relationship quality (closeness, communication, and conflict) in adolescence and young adulthood in four different contexts: primarily White North American and European samples (132 articles reviewed); ethnic minority families (26 articles reviewed); China (6 articles reviewed); and when one sibling has a disability (21 articles reviewed). Where the literature was available, within each context we addressed five questions: how does sibling relationship quality change from adolescence through young adulthood, how are demographic and structural characteristics linked to sibling relationship quality, how is sibling relationship quality linked to adjustment and behavior, how are familial relationships and processes linked to sibling relationship quality, and how is sibling relationship quality linked to non-familial relationships. Included articles were published between 2001 and 2021 and included aspects of sibling closeness, communication, or conflict in adolescence or young adulthood. Across all contexts, individual (e.g., gender) and dyadic characteristics (e.g., gender composition, birth order) play a role in siblings’ relationship qualities. In several contexts, the current literature suggests that sibling closeness and communication are linked to positive development, well-being, and healthy relationships with other social partners. In multiple contexts, sibling conflict is linked to poorer well-being and negative relationships with other social partners. These broad patterns, however, are qualified by each context and often multiple moderators.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T03:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221104188
       
  • Romantic Relationships and Mental Health: Investigating the Role of
           Self-Expansion on Depression Symptoms

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      Authors: Kevin P. McIntyre, Brent A. Mattingly, Sarah C. E. Stanton, Xiaomeng Xu, Timothy J. Loving, Gary W. Lewandowski
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Close relationships have the potential to fundamentally alter relationship partners’ self-concepts and, consequently, can impact individuals’ mental health. One type of relationship-induced self-concept change is self-expansion, which describes the cognitive reorganization of the self that can occur when individuals include aspects of their partner into the self, or when they share novel and challenging activities together. In the current research, we hypothesized that greater self-expansion would be associated with fewer depression symptoms. In support of this hypothesis, across four studies using cross-sectional, dyadic, daily diary, and longitudinal methodologies, we found that self-expansion was negatively associated with depression symptoms. This association was robust and remained a significant predictor of depression symptoms when controlling for demographic factors (gender, age, relationship length; Studies 1–4) and known risk factors of depression (dysfunctional attitudes, major life stressors, self-concept clarity; Study 2). Moreover, individuals’ self-expansion negatively predicted depression symptoms at the daily level (Study 3) and longitudinally over 9 months (Study 4). These results are the first to show the link between self-expansion and depression symptoms, suggesting that self-expansion may have robust benefits for individuals, beyond improving relationship dynamics.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T01:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221101127
       
  • Young Adults’ Intergroup Prosocial Behavior and its Associations With
           Social Dominance Orientation, Social Identities, Prosocial Moral
           Obligation, and Belongingness

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      Authors: Sonya Xinyue Xiao, Qinxin Shi, Jeffrey Liew
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In an increasingly diverse world, understanding young adults’ intergroup prosocial behavior toward diverse others may inform ways to reduce intergroup conflict and cultivate an equitable and inclusive society. The college years are often the first time that young adults begin to explore their social identities and intergroup relations independently from their parents. Thus, we focused on college students and examined social dominance orientation, social positions, prosocial obligation, and the sense of belongingness in relation to their intergroup prosocial behavior across four domains (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, and department affiliation). Participants were 1163 young adults aged 18–24 years (63.2% females, 34.5% males, and 2.3% gender diverse; 50.7% White, 19.6% Latino, 25% Asian, 2.3% Black) from a large public Southwestern university. Four profiles of intergroup prosocial behavior (self-serving, altruistic, selfish, and reverse ethnic racial bias) were identified and they were differentially related to the social, cognitive, and contextual correlates we examined. Overall, findings highlighted the need to foster intergroup prosocial behavior and the benefits of intergroup prosocial behavior to young adults’ sense of belongingness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T11:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221096398
       
  • Parents’ and older siblings’ socialization of younger siblings’
           empathy: a sample case in China

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      Authors: Chang Su-Russell, Luke T. Russell
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In 2016, China officially ended its One-Child policy and started allowing urban married couples to have up to two children. Beginning in 2021, Chinese policy officially began encouraging couples to have up to three children in response to low birth rates and increasing needs for workers and care providers in an aging country. Siblinghood in China has thus begun to re-emerge as a social phenomenon among urban Chinese. Given the important role sibling relationships have in the development of empathy, this relaxation and policy shift provides a unique context in which to investigate family dynamics among two-child families where there is a large age gap between children. Guided by family systems theory, the current study examined family level factors that help socialize younger sibling’s empathy in mainland China by testing direct associations between autonomy supportive parenting, marital quality, coparenting, and secondborn children’ (ages 3–5) empathy in mainland China. Direct and indirect associations with secondborn children’s empathy via older sibling’s relationship quality with their younger sibling were also tested. Results revealed coparent conflict and positive sibling relationship were directly associated with younger sibling’s empathy; further, marital quality and coparent support were indirectly associated with younger sibling’s empathy via positive sibling relationship. Parents, educators, and practitioners may consider addressing family level factors as an avenue for promoting younger sibling’s empathy development.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T11:25:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221099179
       
  • Daily stress and relationship quality: A two-decade scoping review from an
           intersectional lens

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      Authors: Casey J. Totenhagen, Ashley K. Randall, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Oyku Ciftci, Marci Gleason
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Within relationship research, a great deal of attention is given to emphasizing the interpersonal context related to daily stress and its association with relationship well-being. However, apart from the interpersonal context in which stress may occur, one must consider individual, sociocultural, and systemic factors associated with these daily experiences. Taking an intersectional focus, this systematic review aimed to critically examine the extant research on daily stress and romantic relationship quality from the past two decades, answering three guiding questions: (RQ1) From whose vantage point has the research been conducted' (RQ2) What types of questions have been valued' (RQ3) Whose voices have been included (and excluded)' Using a scoping review methodology, we identified 23 articles meeting inclusion criteria (empirical studies that used daily methodologies, focused on romantic relationships, and examined associations between stress or stressors and relationship quality). Findings revealed most of this research was conducted by researchers in Psychology and Family Studies (or related disciplines) working in the U.S. (RQ1). Studies were quantitative and largely dyadic, often adopting theoretical perspectives without particular theorizing on context and identity (RQ2). Samples were predominantly White, U.S.-based, and comprised of different-sex couples (RQ3). In addition, studies typically did not report (or excluded from analyses) demographics related to cisnormativity/cissexism, heteronormativity/heterosexism, ableism, and placeism/Western industrialized rich democratic samples. Finally, even though studies often included participants from different age groups, races, and social classes, minority and underserved identities were under-represented. We conclude with specific recommendations for future research aimed to remedy these limitations to advance further the decolonization of the research on daily stress and relationship quality.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T02:37:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095870
       
  • Fostering academic competence in Latinx youth: The role of cultural values
           and parenting behaviors

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      Authors: Maciel M. Hernández, Zoe E. Taylor, Blake L. Jones
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Although high school completion rates for Latinx adolescents have improved, rural Latinx youth experience more barriers to academic success than their urban counterparts. Using a culturally informed model, we tested prospective associations between adolescents’ Wave 1 familism values (cultural values emphasizing the importance of family relationships and connections) and Wave 2 academic competencies in a sample of predominantly rural Latinx adolescents (N = 123) in the U.S. Midwest. We also examined whether youth-reports of mother’s and father’s warm parenting at Wave 1 and 2 moderated these associations. Familism values predicted higher self-reported school attachment and academic aspirations and expectations. Neither maternal nor paternal warmth predicted school attachment, academic aspirations, or academic expectations. Maternal warmth at Wave 2, but not at Wave 1, moderated the positive associations between familism and academic aspirations and expectations. These associations were more pronounced under circumstances of low maternal warmth. Paternal warmth did not significantly moderate the proposed associations predicting academic aspirations and expectations. Paternal warmth at Wave 1, but not at Wave 2, moderated the positive association between familism and school attachment. This association was stronger in the context of low paternal warmth. Results emphasize the joint roles of culture and parenting context for fostering academic competence in Latinx youth living in primarily rural regions of the Midwest during a critical developmental stage.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T02:48:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095054
       
  • The Mediating Role of Empathy in the Links Between Relationships with
           Three Socialisation Agents and Adolescents’ Prosocial Behaviours

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      Authors: Alexia Carrizales, Zehra Gülseven, Lyda Lannegrand
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have mostly focused on the socialisation role of parents on adolescents’ prosocial behaviours and there is relatively less work focusing on peers who are important socialisation agents for the development of prosocial behaviours in adolescence. Further, simultaneously examining the socialisation roles of multiple socialisation agents in prosocial behaviours and empathy development is even rarer. Thus, in the current study, we examined supportive and poor relationships with three socialisation agents (i.e., parents, peers in class, and peers in extracurricular activities) on adolescents’ prosocial behaviours, considering whether empathy mediates these relations. Additionally, we examined the links between supportive and poor relationships with peers in the class and extracurricular activities and adolescents’ prosocial behaviours, and the mediating role of empathy. The sample was 676 French adolescents (50% female, Mage = 14.35 years). Supportive relationships and poor relationships models were tested separately. We examined the relative strengths of three socialisation agents using three-socialiser and two-socialiser models. In the three-socialiser model, supportive relationships with parents and peers in the extracurricular activities were positively linked to adolescents’ empathy a year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours. Additionally, poor relationships with parents were negatively linked to adolescents’ empathy a year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours. In the two-socialiser model, both supportive relationships with peers in class and extracurricular activities were positively linked to adolescents’ empathy 1 year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours but only for early adolescents. Lastly, in the two-socialiser model, poor relationships with peers in extracurricular activities were negatively linked to adolescents’ empathy 1 year later, which, in turn, was positively linked to helping and caring behaviours. In general, these results were robust across adolescents’ gender and age. Overall, results make several important contributions to the literature on the role of multiple socialisation agents and adolescents’ prosocial behaviours.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:20:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221099652
       
  • Prepandemic relationship satisfaction is related to postpandemic COVID-19
           anxiety: A four-wave study in China

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      Authors: Jingyi Ou, Hanqi Yun, Ke Zhang, Yuexiao Du, Yihang He, Yinan Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has had lasting impacts on people’s interpersonal relationship and mental health. Using four-wave data in China (N = 222, 54.50% female, Mage = 31.53, SD = 8.17), the current study examined whether prepandemic relationship satisfaction was related to postpandemic COVID-19 anxiety through midpandemic perceived social support and/or gratitude. The results showed that people’s COVID-19 anxiety decreased from the peak to the trough stage of the pandemic; perceived social support increased markedly from prepandemic to the peak and remained stable subsequently, while relationship satisfaction remained unchanged throughout. Further, it was midpandemic perceived social support, not gratitude, that mediated the association between prepandemic relationship satisfaction and postpandemic COVID-19 anxiety, indicating that perceived social support played a crucial role in this process. Finally, it is suggested that perceived social support should be distinguished from gratitude as two different components of social interactions.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T03:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221091993
       
  • The associated effects of parent, peer and teacher attachment and
           self-regulation on prosocial behaviors: A person-and variable-centered
           investigation

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      Authors: Pei-Jung Yang, Meredith McGinley
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescence is a critical juncture in the development of prosocial behaviors, which contribute to the overall well-being of youth. Thus, it is important to understand how multiple socialization agents and self-regulation simultaneously foster prosocial behaviors. Using both variable-centered and latent person-centered approaches, the current study examined the relative, concurrent contribution of multiple socialization agents (parent, peer, and teacher attachment) and self-regulation on Taiwanese adolescents’ global prosocial behaviors. This study included 1473 Taiwanese high school students (50.4% junior high schoolers, 57.9% females, Mage = 14.87 years) who completed measures of parent, peer, and teacher attachment, self-control, and prosocial behaviors. Four profiles emerged from the person-centered approach. The profile with highest scores on self-control and all measures of attachment reported the highest prosocial behaviors. The other three profiles differed in their attachment patterns but demonstrated roughly similar levels of self-control. Among the three profiles, the groups with the lowest scores on prosocial behaviors appeared to have low to moderate attachment quality, whereas the group with high peer attachment scored significantly higher in prosocial behaviors than the other two groups. Results from the variable-centered approach found no direct effects of parent attachment on prosocial behaviors, though effects of self-control and peer and teacher attachments were evident. Our findings suggest that the quality of attachment and self-regulation commonly promote prosocial behaviors in youth. Furthermore, peer and school-based relationships may serve as unique and salient socialization contexts for prosocial behaviors during adolescence. Limitations and recommendations for future research were discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T07:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221095268
       
  • Direct and indirect effects of maternal and sibling intimacy on
           adolescents’ volunteering via social responsibility values: A
           longitudinal study

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      Authors: Sahitya Maiya, Shawn D. Whiteman, Jenna C. Dayley, Sarfaraz Serang, Laura Wray-Lake, Brian C. Kelly, Jennifer L. Maggs, Sarah A. Mustillo
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the direct and indirect effects of maternal and sibling relational intimacy on adolescents’ volunteering behaviors via their social responsibility values. Participants included two adolescents (50% female; M age = 1 year) and one parent (85% female; M age = 45 years) from 682 families (N = 2046) from an ongoing longitudinal study. Adolescents self-reported their intimacy with mothers and siblings (Time 1), social responsibility values (Time 1), and volunteering (Times 1 and 2); parents reported on sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., gender, birth order, and family income). Results from a structural equation model indicated that after accounting for adolescents’ earlier volunteering, both maternal and sibling intimacy were indirectly related to greater volunteering via social responsibility values. There were no significant direct effects from maternal or sibling intimacy to adolescents’ volunteering. Results indicate that both mothers and siblings are important in socializing prosocial and civic values and behaviors during adolescence.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T04:56:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221083301
       
  • Too hunky to help: A person-centered approach to masculinity and prosocial
           behavior beliefs among adolescent boys

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      Authors: Matthew G. Nielson, Diana L. Jenkins, Ashley M. Fraser
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Boys’ beliefs about prosocial behavior toward other boys may be negatively affected by masculine norm adherence, and there is evidence that early adolescence is a time when boys feel heightened levels of pressure from multiple sources (e.g., friends, family, and self) to adhere to masculine norms like emotional restriction (e.g., appearing stoic and uncaring). However, the relation between boys’ masculinity and their prosocial behavior beliefs is likely further affected by boys’ social competency. Generally, boys’ social competency is positively associated with prosocial behavior, but this is not the case for “tough” boys (boys who adhere to many traditionally masculine norms). We expected that analyzing the relation between early adolescent boys’ pressure to adhere to masculine norms and boys’ unique social profiles (created using adherence to masculine norms and aspects of social competency) would further illuminate boys’ patterns of prosocial behavior beliefs toward other boys. A latent profile analysis estimated profiles of masculinity and social competence among 260 early adolescent boys (59% White, Mage = 11.45 years old, Rangeage = 10–12) in the southwestern U.S. Three profiles emerged which we labeled socially precarious (50%), socially self-confident (41%), and socially avoidant (9%). R3Step and BCH procedures indicated that higher levels of felt pressure from all three sources resulted in a significantly higher likelihood of being in the socially precarious profile compared to the socially self-confident profile and that boys in the socially self-confident profile had significantly higher mean levels of prosocial behavior beliefs toward other boys (M = 3.22) compared to boys in the socially precarious profile (M = 3.01). Overall, this study encourages the socialization of social competency while simultaneously discouraging the perpetuation of certain masculine norms among adolescent boys.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T05:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221084697
       
  • Feminist theory, method, and praxis: Toward a critical consciousness for
           family and close relationship scholars

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      Authors: Katherine R. Allen
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Feminism provides a worldview with innovative possibilities for scholarship and activism on behalf of families and intimate relationships. As a flexible framework capable of engaging with contentious theoretical ideas and the urgency of social change, feminism offers a simultaneous way to express an epistemology (knowledge), a methodology (the production of knowledge), an ontology (one’s subjective way of being in the world), and a praxis (the translation of knowledge into actions that produce beneficial social change). Feminist family science, in particular, advances critical, intersectional, and queer approaches to examine the uses and abuses of power and the multiple axes upon which individuals and families are privileged, marginalized, and oppressed in diverse social contexts. In this paper, I embrace feminism as a personal, professional (academic), and political project and use stories from my own life to illuminate broader social-historical structures, processes, and contexts associated with gender, race, class, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, nationality, and other systems of social stratification. I provide a brief history and reflections on contemporary feminist theory and activism, particularly from the perspective of my disciplinary affiliation of feminist family science. I address feminism as an intersectional perspective through three themes: (a) theory: defining a critical feminist approach, (b) method: critical feminist autoethnographic research, and (c) praxis: transforming feminist theory into action. I conclude with takeaway messages for incorporating reflexivity and critical consciousness raising to provoke thought and action in the areas of personal, professional, and political change.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T03:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075211065779
       
  • A communication and identity process that mediates parents’
           nonaccommodation and sexual minorities’ mental well-being

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      Authors: Haley Decker, Paul Schrodt
      First page: 3535
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This study tested sexual minorities’ (SM) surface acting with parents, identity gaps with family, and perceived stress as serial mediators of parents’ nonaccommodation and SM’s mental well-being (i.e., mental health and self-esteem). Participants included 205 sexual minorities who reported on their parents’ unwanted advice about their sexual identity and the degree to which they emphasized divergent values in conversations about LGBTQ+ issues. For both mental health and self-esteem, significant and negative indirect effects emerged for both mother’s and father’s nonaccommodation through a sequence of SM’s surface acting, to personal-enacted identity gap, to perceived stress. These indirect effects, however, were moderated by relational closeness with each parent. Consequently, unwanted advice about children’s SM identities and messages that emphasize divergent values may be harmful even if family relations do not appear overtly contentious or hostile.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-15T04:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221101902
       
  • Parents’ self-concept clarity, marital satisfaction and parent-child
           relationship quality: Actor-partner interdependence analyses

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      Authors: Yifan Jia, Qingmei Dai, Xiaoyu Deng, Xuelan Liu
      First page: 3558
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The family can be viewed as an integrated system consisting of interdependent subsystems, among which marital and parent–child subsystems are critical for family functioning. Given the dominance of parents in the family, it is important to investigate the associations between parents’ characteristics and these two subsystems. In addition, researchers have found a unidirectional effect of parents’ self-concept clarity on their children’s self-concept clarity. Exploring whether and how parents’ self-concept clarity is related to family relationships may provide insight into this intergenerational transmission since the family plays an important role in the development of children’s self-concept. Taken together, the main aim of this study was to examine the links across parents’ self-concept clarity and marital and parent–child relationships. A total of 363 Chinese parental dyads of primary and secondary students completed the self-concept clarity, relationship assessment, and child–parent relationship scales, and the data were analyzed by adopting the actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) and the actor–partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM). The APIM results indicated significant positive associations between parents’ self-concept clarity and parent–child relationship quality perceived by the parents (actor effects) and their partners (partner effects). The APIMeM results showed that fathers’ marital satisfaction partially mediated the actor effects from parents’ self-concept clarity to parent–child relationship quality. Moreover, after controlling for covariates (e.g., family income), parents’ self-concept clarity had significant indirect partner effects on parent–child relationship quality mediated completely via fathers’ marital satisfaction. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of family system processes and the intergenerational transmission of self-concept clarity and have implications for family interventions.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T06:00:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221102095
       
  • Determinants of loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United
           States: A one-year follow-up study

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      Authors: Colter D. Ray, Samantha J. Shebib
      First page: 3579
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      An initial study on loneliness during the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States found that those who were living alone or who were single experienced greater loneliness than those who lived with others or were in a romantic relationship. This study presents follow-up analyses using data collected from the same sample (N = 428) at a total of five points in time throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Unlike most studies using a longitudinal design to track loneliness throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the results of this study showed that loneliness scores generally decreased over this time period. However, additional analyses showed that when participants experienced a de-escalation in their romantic relationship status (e.g., transitioning from being in a dating relationship to being single or from being married to separated), loneliness scores increased. Because prior research shows a connection between living alone and loneliness, the researchers also tested whether decreases in the number of people one lives with predicted increases in loneliness. The data was inconsistent with this prediction. Overall, these findings join a minority of other longitudinal studies investigating loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic that found either a decrease or no change in loneliness, while also illustrating that increases in loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic occurred after people experienced a de-escalation in their romantic relationship status. These findings underscore the importance of life events during the COVID-19 pandemic that may increase loneliness—specifically transitioning out of romantic relationships. Thus, future research on predictors of loneliness should continue to use longitudinal designs to determine how changes in one’s life predict changes in loneliness.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T12:51:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221102632
       
  • Marital dissatisfaction, psychological control and parent-child conflict
           in chinese families - An actor–partner interdependence model analysis

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      Authors: Janet Tsin Yee Leung, Daniel Tan Lei Shek, Lydia Man Hang Kwok, Eunice Tsz Yan Yung
      First page: 3596
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Although family systems theories highlight the associations of marital quality with parenting practice and parent-child relationship, studies examining individual and inter-spousal linkages of marital dissatisfaction with psychological control and parent-child conflict among Chinese families are almost non-existent. Adopting the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), dyadic interdependence in the associations of marital dissatisfaction with psychological control and parent-child conflict were examined in a sample of 386 Chinese families in Hong Kong. Fathers, mothers and adolescent children were involved in the data collection (Mfather’s age = 48.7; Mmother’s age = 44.7; Mchildren’s age = 14.6; 53.1% of adolescents were boys). Results showed that while father-perceived marital dissatisfaction was positively associated with paternal and maternal psychological control, mother-perceived marital dissatisfaction was not. Moreover, marital dissatisfaction perceived by each parent was linked to greater conflict between their children and the other parent, but it was not associated with his/her own conflict with children. The findings showed that Chinese fathers who perceived greater marital dissatisfaction might spill over their stress and hostility from marital dissatisfaction to practicing paternal psychological control and trigger their spouse to exercise maternal psychological control for their children. Besides, poorer marital satisfaction might be linked to conflictual relationship between their children and their spouse, hence increasing the risk of family triangulation. The present study suggests the importance of adopting a family-based intervention approach in helping Chinese parents facing marital dissatisfaction.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T03:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221102634
       
  • Traumatic bonding in victims of intimate partner violence is intensified
           via empathy

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      Authors: James Edem Effiong, Peace N. Ibeagha, Steven Kator Iorfa
      First page: 3619
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an increasingly prevalent problem in most parts of the world including sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the bonding patterns of IPV victims who decide to remain with the perpetrator despite the molestation. This study investigated the mediating role of empathy in the relationship between partner molestation and traumatic bonding among victims of IPV in Nigeria. Participants were 345 women purposively selected from female clients who visited the Sexual Assault Referral Centre (SART) Awka, Anambra State (n = 145) and the Lagos State Domestic and Sexual Violence Response Team, Lagos (n = 200). Their age ranged from 18-61 years (M=35.79; SD=8.6 years). They responded to the Composite Abuse Scale, the Basic Empathy Scale, and the Stockholm Syndrome Scale. Results of data analysis using the Hayes regression-based PROCESS macro showed that partner molestation was not significantly associated with traumatic bonding. Affective and cognitive components of empathy were positively associated with increased traumatic bonding. Estimates of indirect effects indicated that affective empathy and cognitive empathy served as pathways through which IPV was linked to dimensions of traumatic bonding. Empathy may engender tendencies that increase the likelihood for traumatic bonding. Findings highlight the dynamics of empathy in building and sustaining traumatic bonding in victims of IPV.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T02:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106237
       
  • COVID-19 distress and interdependence of daily emotional intimacy,
           physical intimacy, and loneliness in cohabiting couples

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      Authors: Talea Cornelius, Ana DiGiovanni, Allie W Scott, Niall Bolger
      First page: 3638
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction: COVID-19 has had a profound impact on relationship functioning, though effects have been heterogeneous. Reasons for divergent effects on relationship functioning remain unclear. Theoretical models suggest that it is not just stress exposure that leads to adverse relationships outcomes, but also subjective response to these stressors. Using data from a 14-day intensive longitudinal study of romantic dyads, we hypothesized that COVID-19-related distress would adversely impact one’s own and one’s partner’s report of relationship functioning, on average. Interdependence at the trait level (random effects between couples) and day level (residuals within couples) was also examined. Methods: Participants were 104 female-male romantic couples cohabiting the New York metropolitan area (Mage = 28.86, SDage = 7.69) between August 2020 – April 2021. Couples reported COVID-19 distress during a baseline interview and daily relationship functioning for 14 days. Multilevel models were specified for six outcomes simultaneously: female and male partner daily physical intimacy, emotional intimacy, and loneliness. Interrelationships of the intercepts of the six outcomes were specified, reflecting trait-level associations of each partner’s stable outcome tendencies. Interrelationships of the daily residuals of the six outcomes were also specified, reflecting within-couple associations at the daily level. Results: Female partner COVID-19 distress was inversely associated with her own emotional and physical intimacy and positively associated with her own and her partner’s loneliness. Male COVID-19 distress was associated with his own loneliness only. There was significant interdependence at both levels, such that greater loneliness in either partner was associated with less intimacy in each member of the couple. Discussion: Only one partner effect for COVID-19 distress emerged, such that female partner distress was associated with male partner loneliness; however, trait- and day-level interdependence suggested that distress may adversely impact relational well-being over time. Future studies should examine reciprocal relationships between COVID-19-related distress and relationship functioning.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T02:39:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106391
       
  • Evidence of assortative mating for theory of mind via facial expressions
           but not language

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      Authors: Emily Jackson, John Galvin, Varun Warrier, Simon Baron-Cohen, Shanhong Luo, Robin IM Dunbar, Hannah Proctor, Eva Lee, Gareth Richards
      First page: 3660
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Assortative mating is a phenomenon in which romantic partners typically resemble each other at a level greater than chance. There is converging evidence that social behaviours are subject to assortative mating, though less is known regarding social cognition. Social functioning requires the ability to identify and understand the mental states of others, i.e., theory of mind. The present study recruited a sample of 102 heterosexual couples via an online survey to test if theory of mind as measured using facial expressions (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) or language (Stiller-Dunbar Stories Task) is associated with assortative mating. Results provide evidence of assortative mating for theory of mind via facial expressions, though there was no such effect for theory of mind via language. Assortative mating for theory of mind via facial expressions was not moderated by length of relationship nor by partner similarity in age, educational attainment, or religiosity, all variables relevant to social stratification. This suggests assortative mating for theory of mind via facial expressions is better explained by partners being alike at the start of their relationship (initial assortment) rather than becoming similar through sustained social interaction (convergence), and by people seeking out partners that are like themselves (active assortment) rather than simply pairing with those from similar demographic backgrounds (social homogamy).
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T10:54:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106451
       
  • Trajectories of coparenting quality across ethnically diverse and
           interethnic parents

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      Authors: Hali Kil, Jean-Michel Robichaud, Geneviève A Mageau
      First page: 3680
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The Interracial Couples’ Life Transitions (ICLT) model proposes that: i) interethnic parents experience more coparenting difficulties upon the birth of a child compared to same-ethnicity parents; and ii) there exists heterogeneity in interethnic parents’ coparenting quality, thus the coparenting experience cannot be generalized across all interethnic unions. In the present work, we examined these two propositions using a large-scale database of elevated risk, fragile families. In Study 1, we compared the longitudinal trajectories of coparenting in interethnic parents (n = 574 mother-father unions) and their matched same-ethnicity counterparts (n = 574 each mothers and fathers) and found that interethnic parents of Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White backgrounds consistently experienced lower and decreasing trajectories of coparenting compared to their counterparts across the first 9 years of a child’s life. In Study 2, we examined heterogeneity in coparenting trajectories for only interethnic mothers and fathers (n = 1148) and found a three-trajectory profile in which the majority (75.5%) of parents fall into a contented (stable and high) coparenting profile. Our findings confirm and extend on the ICLT model, showing that most interethnic parents experience more coparenting difficulties across time compared to their counterparts, and although there is some heterogeneity in interethnic parents’ coparenting trajectories, most interethnic parents appear to experience stable and content coparenting across time.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T11:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221106997
       
  • Daily dyadic coping: Associations with postpartum sexual desire and sexual
           and relationship satisfaction

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      Authors: Gracielle C Schwenck, Samantha J Dawson, David B Allsop, Natalie O Rosen
      First page: 3706
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The transition to parenthood involves numerous stressors. Consequently, many new parents report negative changes to their sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction relative to pre-pregnancy, with the most disruption reported at 3-months postpartum. While prior research suggests that dyadic coping—a couple’s capacity to deal with stress effectively and mutually—is positively linked with relationship satisfaction, little is known about how it relates to sexual and relational outcomes in new parents’ daily lives. This study examined how common and negative dyadic coping were associated with new parents’ own and their partner’s daily sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. New parent couples (N = 120) completed a baseline survey and 21 days of daily diaries between 3- and 4-months postpartum. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. After controlling for mood, for both women who gave birth and their partners, on days that they reported higher common dyadic coping, they reported greater sexual desire, and sexual and relationship satisfaction. On days when women reported lower negative dyadic coping, both they and their partner reported greater relationship satisfaction. When women reported higher common dyadic coping, their partners reported greater sexual desire. When women reported lower negative dyadic coping, they reported greater sexual desire. When partners reported lower negative dyadic coping, they reported greater relationship satisfaction. Focusing on strategies to encourage common and reduce negative daily dyadic coping may be beneficial for sexual and relationship well-being early in the postpartum when couples report experiencing a peak in sexual and relationship challenges.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:54:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221107393
       
  • The role of relational mobility in relationship quality and well-being

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      Authors: BoKyung Park, Minjae Kim, Liane Young
      First page: 3728
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examined the associations among: (1) the perceived freedom to initiate and end interpersonal relationships (relational mobility), (2) relationship quality, and (3) well-being. Across 38 nations, people in nations with higher relational mobility reported greater well-being, which was explained by higher-quality relationships with close others (Study 1A). This effect was replicated at the individual level, after controlling for extraversion and socio-economic status (Study 1B). Finally, first-year college students with higher relational mobility reported receiving more social support from new friends during the COVID-19 pandemic, which explained those students’ higher well-being during the pandemic (Study 2). Together, this work demonstrates that relational mobility can explain enhanced well-being across nations, individuals, and life circumstances, and indicates potential avenues for interventions that increase the well-being of individuals and societies.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T08:06:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221108760
       
  • Why do you have sex and does it make you feel better' Integrating
           attachment theory, sexual motives, and sexual well-being in long-term
           couples

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      Authors: Noémie Beaulieu, Audrey Brassard, Sophie Bergeron, Katherine Péloquin
      First page: 3753
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Attachment theory postulates that three behavioral systems are central to optimal couple functioning: attachment, caregiving, and sex. However, few studies have examined the concurrent contribution of these systems to understand sexual well-being. This daily diary study examined the intermediary role of attachment- and caregiving-related sexual motives in the associations linking attachment insecurities and positive and negative emotions during sexual activity in 149 long-term mixed-gender/sex couples. Multilevel analyses revealed that individuals higher in attachment avoidance endorsed less caregiving sexual motives, which was associated with their own more negative emotional experience during sexual activity. Individuals higher in attachment anxiety endorsed more attachment sexual motives, which was associated with their own and their partner’s more negative emotional experience during sex. However, individuals higher in attachment anxiety also concurrently endorsed more caregiving sexual motives, which predicted their own and their partner’s more positive emotional experience during sex. Overall, the findings support the associations between the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems and suggest that engaging in sex as a way to care for one’s partner might foster sexual well-being in long-term couples.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T02:43:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221108759
       
  • Adolescents’ social support networks and long-term psychosocial
           outcomes

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      Authors: Deborah Seok, Jenalee R. Doom
      First page: 3775
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined how adolescents’ social support networks are associated with long-term psychosocial outcomes (depressive symptoms and romantic relationship quality) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed into adulthood. Data were from 14,800 participants who completed in-home interviews during Wave I (grades 7–12) and Wave IV (24–32 years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using latent class analysis, we identified three profiles of adolescent social support across parents, friends, teachers, and adults: (1) high support from all sources, (2) low teacher support and high support from other sources, and (3) low teacher/adult and moderate parent/friend support. The third profile reported significantly higher increases in depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood and lower romantic relationship quality in young adulthood than the other two profiles, but the “low teacher/high other support” group did not significantly differ from the “high support from everyone” group. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses indicated that adult and teacher support each interacted with parent support to predict outcomes during adulthood. These results highlight the advantage of having multiple supports in one’s social network and emphasize the importance of understanding how adolescents’ overall profile of relationships promotes their well-being in young adulthood.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T07:14:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221109021
       
  • Actor and partner effects of positive affect on communal coping

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      Authors: Fiona S. Horner, Vicki S. Helgeson
      First page: 3799
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Positive affect (PA) has been shown to facilitate the accrual of social resources which, in turn, reduces stress and improves health. These social resources may encourage interpersonal coping strategies, but this effect has been understudied. The present research examined if PA facilitates the interpersonal coping style of communal coping, defined as the perception of a stressor as shared (shared appraisal) and collaborative action to manage the stressor (collaboration). We assessed whether trait and state PA predicted increased collaboration and shared appraisal on the same day, and whether state PA predicted increased collaboration and shared appraisal the following day. Participants were romantic partners in which one person had recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 198, 45% female, 44.9% Black, 72% married) and their significant others completed daily diary surveys that assessed PA, negative affect, and diabetes-specific shared appraisal and collaboration for 14 days. Multilevel modeling was used to differentiate the effects of within-person (state) and between-person (trait) PA. Actor Partner Interdependence Modeling was used to assess the effects of both couple member’s mood on one person’s coping. Results showed partner state PA was cross-sectionally linked to shared appraisal, but the link of actor PA to shared appraisal was accounted for by the inclusion of actor NA. Both actor and partner state and trait PA were cross-sectionally linked to collaboration. Importantly, actor state PA predicted next-day shared appraisal. Findings provide initial support for the role of affect in predicting communal coping.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T06:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221110628
       
  • Self-expansion motivation and inclusion of others in self: An updated
           review

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      Authors: Arthur Aron, Gary Lewandowski, Brittany Branand, Debra Mashek, Elaine Aron
      First page: 3821
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper we review the self-expansion model in the context of close relationships, focusing primarily on work in the last 20 years, considering throughout variation in our samples across cultures and other demographics—both in existing studies and in potential implications for future research. The self-expansion model has two key principles. The first half of the paper focuses on the motivational principle: The model theorizes that people have a fundamental desire to expand the self—that is, to increase their self-efficacy, perspectives, competence, and resources, and this often occurs through relationships in general. The second half of the paper focuses on the inclusion-of-other-in-the-self principle, in that a major means of self-expansion is through close relationships, when one’s partner’s identities, perspectives, skills, and resources become to some extent “included in the self” as also one’s own. For each principle we briefly describe its foundational research support and then explore the extensive, significant work of the last 20 years substantially expanding and deepening the implications of the model. The majority (although with some interesting exceptions) of studies have fallen short of testing the universal breadth of the model. As we review the research, we consider where the studies were conducted and with what kinds of populations. Where there are data from diverse populations, the overall pattern of results are generally similar. However, there were individual differences found within the populations studied, such as in attachment style, that affected the operation of both principles. Since there are well known differences in the distribution of such individual differences across populations of many types, it is quite likely that while the basic patterns may not differ, future research will show different degrees of operation in different populations.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T02:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221110630
       
  • Factors influencing peer referencing behavior during an online learning
           activity

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      Authors: Fu-Yun Yu, Shannon Sung
      First page: 3853
      Abstract: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Ahead of Print.
      Cultivating critical thinking skills in referencing a plethora of information epitomizes the learning objectives of technology in education. However, different social influences in a classroom, such as academic prestige, friendship, and gender, may impact students’ referencing behavior. Specifically, we investigated how various factors affect pupils’ referencing of peer-generated questions during an online test-construction learning activity and perceptions. Three fifth-grade classes (n = 75, Mage = 11.08, SDage = 0.28) participated in a two-stage mixed methods research for 12 weeks. We found significant effects of friendship and inferred task-specific ability on online referencing behavior based on the multiple regression quadratic assignment procedures, simple regressions, and two-step hierarchical linear regressions. The survey data further revealed that students considered the content of their peers' questions most frequently among a mixture of other factors influencing online referencing decisions. The implications and suggestions for instruction, future studies, and system designs involving behavior connoting intent to endorse are provided to help create meaningful, reflective, and impartial online learning spaces.
      Citation: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T09:21:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02654075221114288
       
 
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