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International Journal of Comparative Sociology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.643
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0020-7152 - ISSN (Online) 1745-2554
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Students and protests: A quantitative cross-national analysis

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      Authors: Vadim V Ustyuzhanin, Patrick S Sawyer, Andrey V Korotayev
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have found a positive relationship between the youth and the educated with protest number, but the form that these protests take needs further research. We argue that students are a unique group, acting neither as an educated nor a young population, and three possible mechanisms push students toward non-violent rather than violent forms of protest. By promoting values of tolerance, higher levels of human capital, and social mobility, education serves as a factor that pacifies destructive tendencies in protest movements. At the same time, universities are a platform for cooperation, and the large amounts of free time and energy make the costs of participating in protests for students minimal compared with other groups. Using a negative binomial regression and a rare events logistic regression, we find that the proportion of students is a strong and consistently significant predictor of the number of nonviolent demonstrations. However, the share of students in the total population does not turn out to be significantly associated with violent protests/armed uprisings.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-11-19T08:42:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221136042
       
  • How do political opportunities impact protest potential' A multilevel
           cross-national assessment

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      Authors: Dana M Williams
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      This article tests the general explanatory power of political opportunity theory for cross-national variations in protest throughout the world, and considers how opportunities influence individual-level characteristics crucial for coalition-formation and campaigns. This study constructs a multilevel model of protest potential, using survey data from individuals across 43 countries, drawn from the fifth and sixth waves of the World Values Survey, combined with political, economic, and cultural factors measured for each country. While many individual factors predicted individuals’ protest potential, a mixture of country-level factors—including select political opportunities—are of general importance. Country-level regime durability and empowerment rights moderated the effect of organization membership, social trust, and political ideology on protest, demonstrating how political opportunity interacts to enhance the impact of individual characteristics relevant to coalition-building and campaigns.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-11-03T08:41:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221133059
       
  • Financialization goes South: Foreign capital flows and financial
           accumulation in emerging markets

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      Authors: Matthew Soener
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Has global financial integration allowed firms in the so-called “Global South” to profit from financial activity' Financialization researchers have either neglected these countries and the international economic order in general or neglected firm-level dynamics, a broad sample of emerging markets, and a theoretical and historical explanation for this trend. I attempt to fill these gaps using data on all non-financial corporations across 31 emerging market economies to answer this question. To theorize and explain the recent historical origins of this process in a more sociological and global lens, I draw on the work of Giovanni Arrighi. My results show that financial inflows, but not outflows, increase financial accumulation in Global South firms—specifically short-term investments and cross-border lending. Moreover, nearly all financial income is generated by the largest firms. These results help explain how financial power undermines development in the Global South yet simultaneously empowers local economic elites who benefit from financial integration.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T06:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221133058
       
  • Leaving out of necessity or out of ambition' The impact of
           socio-economic development on factors of youth emigration from countries
           of South Eastern Europe

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      Authors: Andrej Naterer, Miran Lavrič
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Based on survey data from representative national samples of young people, we compared the impact of nine different factors of emigration desire among young people from 10 countries of Southeast Europe. The results show that (1) the impact of factors of necessity decreases with higher levels of Human Development Index (HDI), while factors of ambition tend to have stronger impact. We also found that across all 10 countries, (2) the experience of having been abroad is the strongest predictor of higher emigration desire, and that (3) the emigration desire of young people tends to decrease with higher levels of HDI.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T08:11:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221126375
       
  • Life satisfaction, skills diffusion, and the Japan Paradox: Toward
           multidisciplinary research on the skills trap

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      Authors: Satoshi Araki
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research argues skills are the key to socio-economic success for individuals and societies, ranging from labor market outcomes to non-economic well-being. Drawing on these arguments, this study re-examines the linkage between the skills level of societies and people’s life satisfaction (LS), using the joint European Values Study–World Values Survey data for 48,930 individuals in 32 countries. Multilevel regressions confirm the positive association between these two variables, as suggested by the literature. However, there exists one outlier where the average LS score is markedly low despite its high skills level: Japan. Examining the mechanism behind this overall cross-national trend and Japan’s peculiar position—Japan Paradox—is a promising agenda for future multidisciplinary research, as it may reflect not only the favorable link between skills and LS but the hidden socio-economic structure—Skills Trap—that prevents highly skilled people from enjoying better well-being even under seemingly well-developed social conditions.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T09:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221124812
       
  • Religion as a factor in cultural consumption: Religious denomination and
           its impact on reading practices and ballet-opera attendance in Europe

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      Authors: Joaquim Rius-Ulldemolins, Alejandro Pizzi, Raul Paya
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      The influence of social and educational factors has often been used to explain social differences in consumption and cultural practices. Without denying the value of such an approach, this article examines the impact of religious denomination and its influence in shaping cultural practices. Our article argues the need for a macro-social, longue durée [long-term] perspective to shed light on cultural differences and why these linger notwithstanding the market and political convergence found in Europe today. The diverse cultural consumption patterns found in European Union (EU) Member States as evidenced by Eurobarometer surveys are examined through our logistic regression analysis. The findings show the explanatory power of the religion variables used by classical historical sociology. These variables have been largely overlooked by modern studies—a shortcoming this article seeks to redress. We see a link between a country’s historical religion (the religious “factor”) and its cultural consumption.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T05:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221118627
       
  • The impact of INGO ties on flows of aid for women’s health in the
           developing world

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      Authors: Eunhye Yoo
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent literature on international development aid has emphasized the role of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) in determining who receives international development assistance. However, few analyses have investigated the specific sectors of international aid and the influence of INGOs by INGO type. Using panel data from 94 countries from 1996 to 2015, this study tests the effects of general INGOs, women’s international non-governmental organizations (WINGOs), and health international non-governmental organizations (HINGOs) on the flows of aid for women’s reproductive health, family planning, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) control/HIV/AIDS. The results show that general INGOs, WINGOs, and HINGOs are an important source of women’s health aid. However, the effects of these organizations are conditioned by recipients’ levels of political and economic development. These findings provide supporting evidence for the idea that INGO ties are important in women’s health aid, but also suggest that the size and significance of INGO effects should be considered cautiously.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T05:24:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221118624
       
  • Contrasting perspectives: Belief in national superiority in relation to
           countries’ performance

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      Authors: Marharyta Fabrykant, Vladimir Magun
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines cross-country differences in the strength of individuals’ belief that their country is better than most others and the dependence of this belief on their country’s performance in various spheres. The research design consists of a series of multilevel ordinal logistic regression models estimated using the data of the most recent thematic wave of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP)—National Identity module. Our research finds that these effects are mostly nonlinear U-shaped: people from both high- and low-performing countries express a strong belief in their country’s superiority, while people from average-performing countries do not. These findings suggest a bifurcated nature of belief in national superiority—an interplay between a grounded estimation of a country’s actual achievements and the social norms and individual motivations that prescribe holding one’s own country in high esteem regardless of its actual performance. These norms are found to be the strongest in underperforming countries, while in average- and high-performing countries, people making these evaluations are under weaker normative pressure and therefore more attuned to country achievements. As a result, the weakest belief in national superiority is found not in underperforming, but in average-performing countries. The latter also have the highest diversity on this belief, probably because different segments of the population compare their country’s performance against different benchmarks.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T10:06:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221115631
       
  • Pro-integration policies and the occupational expectations of immigrant
           youth

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      Authors: Volha Chykina
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Europe is experiencing heightened public attention toward anti-immigration policy reforms and restrictions. Despite the potential importance of these policy changes, we do not know whether these policies influence how immigrant children perceive their futures in their host countries. Employing secondary data analysis of the Program for International Student Assessment and the Migrant Integration Policy Index data, I show that a decrease in policy support for immigrant integration is associated with a decrease in how good of a job immigrant children expect to have when they are adults. Since students’ occupational expectations influence their eventual status attainment, this article shows that a decrease in pro-integration policies has important implications for the integration of immigrants into their host countries and for their life trajectories.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T09:58:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221115620
       
  • The perception and interpretation of conflicting mnemonic narratives:
           Post-communist remembrance in East Germany and Poland

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      Authors: Anke Fiedler, Tomasz Rawski, Krzysztof Świrek, Julia Traunspurger
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Every society is marked by memory gaps. Taking Poland and (East) Germany as examples, we use a social constructivist-poststructuralist approach and conduct focus groups and qualitative interviews to investigate how the communist past is remembered in private everyday discourse and its differentiation from the hegemonic public memory discourse. Both countries exhibit striking parallels in their everyday and hegemonic memory practices, but they differ in how the memory gap is interpreted: in Poland along class lines, in Germany according to quasi-ethnic lines. Thus, the study shows that private–public memory gaps may determine the societal (re)production of group-specific identities in mnemonic conflicts.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T09:56:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221115434
       
  • Couple disagreements and partnership stability in 10 European countries:
           Could differences in gender equality explain cross-national
           variations'

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      Authors: Petr Fučík
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      This article focuses on the association between couple disagreement and partnership stability. In particular, we explore the mediating role of macrostructural gender inequality on the effect of couple disagreements on partnership stability in a cross-national comparative perspective. We analyzed data from two waves of the Gender and Generations Survey (fielded between 2004 and 2011) to explore the varied effects of couple disagreements on thoughts about breaking up and on the dissolution of cohabiting unions. As we expected, the effect of disagreements on thoughts about dissolution was present in all of the countries, but its strength varied significantly. Surprisingly, only moderate effects were found on dissolution itself. The second step of our analysis showed that the strength of the link between disagreement and stability does not decrease systematically with the level of gender inequality in a given country. This means that an egalitarian environment does not play a mitigating role in the process of transforming conflict into a decision to divorce. Our findings support the argument of gender revolution theory that the unfinished and stalled transformation of gender roles increases rather than relieves the tensions in intimate lives.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T10:07:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221111437
       
  • Animals in world society: Constitutional and legislative incorporation,
           1972–2020

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      Authors: Mike Zapp, David John Frank, Marcelo Marques
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyzes cross-national and longitudinal variations in the incorporation of nonhuman animals into country constitutions and legislation. We argue that incorporation follows from the scientific rationalization and human rights-based ontological elaboration of nonhuman animals in world society, carried by a growing number of intergovernmental agreements and international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs). To test our ideas, we use event-history analyses on original data from 195 countries for the period 1972–2020. The models of constitutional incorporation show mixed results, with positive effects from human rights and INGOs but negative effects from science and intergovernmental agreements. The models of legislative incorporation show consistent positive effects from world factors, even when controlling for a range of domestic factors. Legal incorporation suggests an extension of the boundaries of “society,” driven by the rising prominence of highly rationalized and elaborated models of nonhuman animals, replete with dignity, sentience, and even tentative forms of rights and personhood.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T11:43:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221112850
       
  • Union brokerage and the gender gap in the labor market: A cross-national
           comparative study of associational networks and gendered labor force
           participation in OECD countries

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      Authors: Cheol-Sung Lee, Taekyeong Goh
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the role of union-centered brokerage in promoting women’s labor force participation in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries for the last three decades. Using two measures of brokerage, a union’s core brokerage role, and its general brokerage role, we attempted to capture the processes by which union activists mobilize and extend women’s rights in associational fields. Then, we tested our key argument that union-centered brokerage plays the most effective role among the different brokerage types in channeling women’s interests by transforming them into wider class-linked or cross-class concerns. Cross-national and comparative case studies demonstrate that union-led brokerage promotes greater presence of women in the economy. Our findings revealed that, when controlling for economic, regional, and cultural factors, both types of brokerage roles impact women’s participation in the labor market and their participation compared to that of men. The overall findings underscore the importance of creating and utilizing solidarity structures through effective channeling mechanisms in civic associational fields between labor-based organizations and other reform-oriented civic groups in achieving egalitarian socioeconomic goals.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T05:44:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221108139
       
  • Global out-of-home childcare and world culture

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      Authors: Olga Ulybina
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      The focus of this article is the link between the modern world culture and national public policy commitments. Drawing on world society theory and using data for 193 countries between 1990 and 2020—1411 documents in total—we analyze the global pattern of policy commitments to out-of-home childcare deinstitutionalization. Deinstitutionalization refers to the policy of moving children from institutional residential care (e.g. orphanages) to family-based and family-like care in the community. Using the reports by state parties of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, we find that 85 percent of countries make at least some commitment to deinstitutionalization. At the same time, the data reveal significant variation in the interpretation of deinstitutionalization. We also find that similar policy commitments are underpinned by diverse motives that reflect different normative frames within the dominant world culture—human rights, scientization, and cost efficiency. This diversity does not fit the standard world society concepts of convergence, resistance, or decoupling. We argue that countries can selectively adopt specific aspects of world culture, with important policy implications.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T05:12:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221110090
       
  • Can the social dimension of time contribute to explain the public
           evaluation of political change' The case of European integration

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      Authors: Thomas Malang
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      According to social theorists of time, the way societies structure and value different aspects of time plays an important role in people’s perception and evaluation of economic, political, and cultural change. I explore if two dimensions of social time—social acceleration and long-term orientation—have an effect on the public evaluation of the speed of European integration. Combining Eurobarometer data for 27 societies with measures for social acceleration and time horizons, the results show distinct patterns for the perception and preferences of European integration. Whereas I find no connection between dimensions of social time and the perceived speed of integration, more social acceleration and cultural long-term orientation lead to a desire for a slower speed of European integration. Even when controlled for other economic and political macro-factors, temporal structures can play a key role in the evaluation of political change in European societies.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T07:23:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221108641
       
  • Explaining when older persons are perceived as a burden: A cross-national
           analysis of ageism

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      Authors: Andreas Hövermann, Steven F Messner
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to shed further light on the emergence of ageist attitudes by introducing a theoretically grounded mechanism that helps explain why older persons appear as burdensome by segments of society. We introduce the concept of “marketized mentality” (MM), which depicts a strong personal commitment to the principal values associated with the market economy, to the research on ageism. The results of multilevel regression analyses with World Values Survey data (N = 70,456 individuals in 59 nations) reveal that MM yields the hypothesized, positive relationship with our burden-focused indicator of ageism. Moreover, we observe that countries with high levels of MM—which might be conceptualized as “marketized anomic cultures”—exhibit particularly high levels of this form of ageism.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T07:21:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221102841
       
  • Violated entitlement and the nation: How feelings of relative deprivation
           shape nationalism and constructive patriotism

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      Authors: Steffen Wamsler
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Perceptions of violated entitlement resulting from group-based relative deprivation shape attitudes and behaviors decisively. Drawing on social identity theory, I hypothesize that nationalism and constructive patriotism portray divergent relationships with subjective feelings of being disadvantaged due to different coping strategies to overcome status inferiority. Employing an original, large-scale survey from six European countries, the results clearly show that group-based relative deprivation is positively linked to nationalism, whereas the reverse holds for constructive patriotism. These results hold irrespective of a wide array of robustness checks. Thus, the present study adds to extant literature by identifying feelings of disadvantage as crucial for predicting nationalism and constructive patriotism, two key manifestations of group membership and in-group identification.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T05:25:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221103123
       
  • Corruption in the public schools of Europe: A cross-national multilevel
           analysis of education system characteristics

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      Authors: Ilona Wysmułek
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have long theorized that characteristics of education systems impact both perceived and experienced corruption in public schools. However, due to insufficient cross-national survey data with measures on corruption in education and unassembled yet publicly available institutional data, there are few empirical tests of this theory. This article provides the rare direct test of the relationship between corruption in European public schools and three education system factors: government expenditure on education, education staff compensation, and teacher workload (pupil–teacher ratio). With a newly constructed harmonized data set for European countries, and controlling for national economic factors and individual characteristics, results of multilevel analyses suggest partial support for the theory that specific institutional characteristics of education systems impact public school corruption. The theorized institutional factors have different effects that depend on whether we examine bribe-giving experience or corruption perception. Results show that bribe-giving experience in public schools of Europe is weakly yet significantly related to education staff compensation. For corruption perception, low levels of government expenditure on education and a lopsided pupil–teacher ratio (too few teachers per student) increase the probability that people view corruption as prevalent.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T10:19:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221096841
       
  • Institutional characteristics of education systems and inequalities:
           Introduction II

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      Authors: Christiane Gross, Andreas Hadjar, Laura Zapfe
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      This is the second special issue of the International Journal of Comparative Sociology on the role of education systems as institutional settings on the reproduction of inequalities. The first was published in January 2021 and included papers that explored the role of shadow education and country characteristics during early childhood on educational inequalities. This special issue includes three papers that focus on stratification of the education system as a key driver of educational inequalities, cumulative (dis)advantage in the access to higher education, and student experiences in national educational systems. While we already elaborated on the research program, conceptual framework, and methodological challenges in the first introduction, we will deal with the current state-of-research in this second introduction.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T05:23:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221094558
       
  • Shifting surrogacies: Comparative ethnographies

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      Authors: Anika König, Andrea Whittaker, Trudie Gerrits, Virginie Rozée
      First page: 235
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Gestational surrogacy is a reproductive arrangement where a woman gestates a child for others—the “intended parents”—in order to be handed over to them after birth. Since the turn of the millennium, demands for surrogacy have continuously increased due to social and demographic changes, rising rates of infertility, and the normalization of new, non-heteronormative, family forms. Many countries prohibit surrogacy, and others that previously permitted this reproductive arrangement closed down as a result of political decisions or surrogacy scandals. Moreover, surrogacy is offered at greatly varying costs, ranging from approximately US$50,000 in countries like the Republic of Georgia to US$200,000 in fertility clinics in California. Accordingly, many of these arrangements are transnational, with intended parents who cannot access surrogacy or afford surrogacy in their home country commissioning it in countries such as the United States, until recently Ukraine, and today increasingly in the Republic of Georgia. Existing research has focused on surrogacy from different angles, such as practices of kinning and de-kinning, inequality and stratification, the political economy of the fertility industry, and its gender dimensions. We engage in, but further these debates by drawing attention to settings, accounts, experiences, and new theoretical notions that diverge from “mainstream” presentations of surrogacy. Moreover, in this Special Issue, we experimented with writing joint papers with a deliberative aim to provide comparative analyses and emphasize the links between and diversity of different cases of surrogacy. Therefore, all papers have an explicit comparative character and are all based on empirical studies from more than one field site. They provide nuanced understandings of surrogacy arrangements, grounded in empirical data rather than ideological, political, or moral assessments.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T10:21:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221110088
       
  • Paperwork: Following the trail of (identity) papers in transnational
           commercial surrogacy

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      Authors: Anika König, Anindita Majumdar
      First page: 247
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Transnational surrogacy—the carrying of a child by a woman in one country on behalf of persons in another—is strongly shaped by documents. Of these, identity documents are particularly crucial as they establish the belonging of a child born through such an arrangement both to its parents (birth certificate) and to a country (passport). However, the acquisition of these documents is subject to national laws that may contradict one another in transnational settings where citizens of more than one country are involved. As a result, in the last few years, there have been several cases of children stuck in legal limbo without clear parenthood and citizenship. Based on ethnographic research in India and Germany, we analyze how in such a transnational setting, documents and documentation become part of the making and unmaking of persons and belonging.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T11:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221102843
       
  • Individual responsibility or trust in the state: A comparison of
           surrogates’ legal consciousness

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      Authors: Elly Teman, Zsuzsa Berend
      First page: 265
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing on ethnographic research in the United States and Israel, two countries that have long-term experience with surrogacy, we compare surrogates’ understanding of, approaches to, and expectations about regulation. Women who become surrogates in these two countries hold opposite views about regulation. US surrogates formulate their rejection of standardized regulation—including standardized screening and contracts—by emphasizing their own responsibility for the legal, relational, and medical aspects of surrogate pregnancy. They want more oversight of fertility clinics and surrogacy agencies but ultimately argue for individual accountability. Israeli surrogates, conversely, support centralized government regulation of the practice and even defend Israel’s centralized regulation of surrogacy; many advocate for the extension of the law and the state to assume more responsibility for these arrangements. We discuss these differing formations of legal consciousness in terms of Engel’s conceptualization of “individualism emphasizing personal responsibility” versus “rights-oriented individualism.”
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T06:39:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221094252
       
  • Inequalities in (trans)national surrogacy: A call for examining complex
           lived realities with an empirical lens

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      Authors: Heather Jacobson, Virginie Rozée
      First page: 285
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Income disparity has become a mainstay of the international critique and public discourse on commercial surrogacy. Using existing empirical data, including our two respective field studies in India and the United States, we analyze surrogacy from a gender perspective and show how the visibility of gender disparities in a transnational context encourages assumptions at the local and national context. In doing so, we highlight the narrative of inequality, explore the complexity of surrogacy outside of a one-note narrative, and show how that narrative operates to overshadow the complex, lived experiences of those engaged in surrogacy.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T08:55:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221098336
       
  • Emerging “repronubs” and “repropreneurs”: Transnational surrogacy
           in Ghana, Kazakhstan, and Laos

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      Authors: Andrea Whittaker, Trudie Gerrits, Christina Weis
      First page: 304
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we offer an analysis of the development of “repronubs”: less-known locations offering small-scale, niche cross-border gestational surrogacy or surrogacy services for a regional market. This analytical category of “repronubs” is useful to describe the formation of the industry from small local sites to those offering cross-border services. Based on our work in these locations, we compare the markets, regulatory contexts, and organization of the industry in Ghana, Kazakhstan, and Laos, focusing on the “repropreneurs” or surrogacy facilitation agents as pivotal in the emergence of these sites. These “repronubs” highlight the surrogacy trade between countries of the Global South and are established next to or instead of the more well-known North–South destinations. We document how surrogacy itself is increasingly stratified between higher cost and better-regulated environments such as in certain states of the United States or Canada and lower cost, less well regulated, and regionally focused environments in the settings we describe. These locations are characterized by poor or liberal regulations, the existence of local in vitro fertilization (IVF) expertise, and the emergence of local repropreneurs driving the trade using their social networks. The growth of demand from China and the growing affluent middle class in Africa is creating further markets for such regional “nubs.” Studying surrogacy in such locations is made difficult by the secrecy and confidentiality surrounding it.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T01:10:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221097600
       
  • Queer decisions: Racial matching among gay male intended parents

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      Authors: Marcin Smietana, France Winddance Twine
      First page: 324
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      How does race and location shape the reproductive decisions of gay men who are intended parents' In this article, we propose the concept of strategic racialization to characterize the ways in which gay male parents employ racial matching in their selection of egg donors and surrogates in the United States and United Kingdom. We argue that racial matching is a strategy of stigma management. This study draws upon interview data from 40 gay male couples who formed families through surrogacy. We find that pre-conception fathers seek racialized resemblance to reinforce kinship between themselves and their children. In California and England, gay men seeking donor eggs engage in racial matching, which reveals that the racialized biogenetic model of kinship remains dominant. This study makes a significant contribution to the literature on race and queer family formation.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-18T09:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221102837
       
  • Genetic identity as a regime of truth: Same sex and transnational
           surrogacy parenthood in the United States and Israel

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli, Sharmila Rudrappa
      First page: 345
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Through examining cases of cross-border surrogacy in Israel and the United States, we offer the concept of genetic kinning defined as the narratives deployed by individuals that give prominence to genetic relatedness between offspring and parents to highlight immutable similarities between parents, and by extension, grandparents and ancestors. The deployment of genetic kinning narratives does not happen in a vacuum; instead, nation-state bodies emphasize genetic relatedness within the family unit, especially accentuated in cases of cross-border surrogacy where intended parents need to receive travel documents, including passports, and subsequently citizenship, for their children birthed through surrogacy. Genetic kinning is more emphasized for queer couples, where only one (or neither) of the fathers, or mothers as the case may be, is genetically related to the infant. We examine cases in Israel and the United States that we selected due to their wide media coverage and studied through their press presentations. We show that far from becoming less relevant, genetic relatedness becomes increasingly salient because of assisted reproductive technologies, including gamete donation and surrogacy, especially when families move across borders, presenting states bodies with the need to parse out descendance, family status/parentage, and national membership/citizenship.
      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T12:21:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221118930
       
  • Book review: Caring on the Clock: The Complexities and Contradictions of
           Paid Care Work

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      Authors: Krista Lynn Minnotte
      First page: 360
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T05:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221120624
       
  • Book review: The Business of Birth: Malpractice and Maternity Care in the
           United States

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      Authors: Rebekah Getman
      First page: 362
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T05:32:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221120627
       
  • Book review: Empires: A Historical and Political Sociology

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      Authors: Richard Lachmann
      First page: 364
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T05:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221120625
       
  • Book review: The limits of universal rule: Eurasian empires compared

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      Authors: Krishan Kumar
      First page: 366
      Abstract: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Journal of Comparative Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T05:32:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00207152221120626
       
 
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