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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
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American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.909
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9432 - ISSN (Online) 1939-0025
Published by APA Homepage  [89 journals]
  • Predictors of maternal distress among mothers in economic hardship: A
           classification and regression tree analysis (CART).

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      Abstract: A recurrent observation in poverty research is the association between many attendant stress factors and the high incidence of maternal distress. In this study, we reason that such risk factors do not preclude mothers from possessing adaptive capacities, through perceived parenting efficacy and family hardiness, as buffers against two common distress sources in low socioeconomic status (SES) households—perceived children’s emotional and behavioral problems, and family’s economic hardship. Using classification and regression tree analysis, we examined the moderating roles of these maternal factors in emotional distress with 513 Singaporean mothers of elementary school-age children on government financial scheme. The study affirmed that this low-resource population is not homogeneous in their perceived levels of distress and adaptive resources. These factors moderated mothers’ distress along different pathways. Parenting efficacy emerged as the most important predictor across different maternal distress levels. Perceived family hardiness behaved in a unique way, evident only with mothers who reported moderate–severe distress levels. Almost half the respondents reported normal–mild distress levels. Economic hardship did not emerge as a significant predictor. The findings reiterate the usefulness of attending to both situation-specific personal efficacy beliefs and trait-like family hardiness in their potential values to buffer mothers living under economic strain. Research and practice implications were identified. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Transgender and gender diverse individuals’ daily experiences of
           rumination.

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      Abstract: Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people face a myriad of daily stressors because of the hegemonic gender norms embedded within U.S. society. Due to these minority stressors, TGD people report elevated anxiety, depression, stress, and suicidality, among other health issues. One mechanism through which stigma may lead to these negative mental health outcomes is through increased rumination. In this intensive daily diary study with 181 TGD individuals (ages 16–40), we gathered qualitative data on their ruminative thoughts over the course of 56 days. There were a total of 2,431 responses across participants, with individuals providing a range of 1–53 responses (M = 15 responses). Using an experiential framework and an inductive approach to thematic analysis, we generated the following themes: (a) interpersonal relationships as a site of struggle, (b) fear and worry in response to contextual factors, (c) the weight of basic needs and safety, (d) gender as experienced through self and others, (e) intersections of health and rumination, and (f) the occasional reprieve. Using a deductive approach, we also placed these data within the context of Bronfenbrenner’s Person–Process–Context–Time model to provide a conceptual model for future research in this area. These ruminative experiences revealed significant adversities and challenges weighing on participants’ minds that spanned many areas of life. These findings also highlight the nuanced nature of rumination for TGD individuals and areas that may be overlooked in current assessments of this construct. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Differentiation of self, proximal minority stress, and life satisfaction
           among sexual minorities: Intrapersonal and interpersonal pathways to life
           satisfaction.

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      Abstract: Differentiation of self (DoS) is the self-regulatory capacity to balance intimacy and autonomy in relationships. Accumulating evidence suggests that DoS is fundamental to achieving a satisfying and fulfilling life. The ability may be even more relevant to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals who are often in a continual struggle between disclosing their sexual identity and gaining social acceptance. However, less is known about whether and how DoS influences their experiences of proximal minority stress and life satisfaction. The present study proposed a dual-process model to explain the association between DoS and life satisfaction among sexual minorities. A total of 219 sexual minority individuals participated in the study and completed a self-report questionnaire on DoS, proximal minority stress, self-esteem, loneliness, and satisfaction in life. The results revealed the intrapersonal and interpersonal processes underlying DoS and life satisfaction, such that the association between DoS and life satisfaction was mediated by self-esteem and loneliness, respectively. Moreover, the results identified a minority stress-specific pathway through which DoS was linked to life satisfaction through reduced levels of proximal minority stress and loneliness. The findings provide empirical evidence for the role of DoS as a crucial factor in shaping how sexual minority individuals negotiate their boundaries and relationships with other people, which may affect their life satisfaction. Implications on social–emotional learning and LGB-affirmative psychological interventions for fostering DoS among sexual minority individuals were discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Resilience and empowerment in immigrant experiences: A look through the
           transconceptual model of empowerment and resilience.

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      Abstract: Resilience and empowerment are both strengths-based processes, which, while sharing commonalities, describe different goals, actions, and outcomes—one aimed at status quo; the other at status quake. The Transconceptual Model of Empowerment and Resilience (TMER; Brodsky & Cattaneo, 2013) outlines these similarities and differences in order to uncover the circumstances that lead to one or the other process. This study utilized TMER to explore resilience and empowerment in qualitative interviews of 99 first- and second-generation Latinx, Moroccan, and Albanian immigrants in the U.S. and Italy. Setting-based, macrolevel political and social issues, along with generational and locale variations, provided contextual counterpoints in participants’ reported risks, resources, goals, actions, and outcomes. Individually held resources were the most common and were found to support resilience and empowerment actions. All participants, regardless of generation, locale, or context, reported more individually focused resilient actions than empowering ones. This study illustrates the difference between goals and actions that are resilient, thus maintaining the status quo, and empowerment goals and actions, which disrupt the status quo and thus are “status quake.” It also adds to the evidence of TMER’s contribution to understanding the processes by which immigrants’ experiences, resources, and goals lead to resilience and empowering actions. Findings suggest how stronger coalitions might be built across community membership, which could use shared resources to address common concerns to benefit all. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Minority stressors and their associations with severe psychological
           distress among gender-diverse people.

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      Abstract: People whose gender does not align with assigned sex often experience negative mental health outcomes related to cisnormative societal expectations and oppression, including familial rejection, threat of harm, and identity invalidation (e.g., misgendering). This study merged two cross-sectional data sets of trans and gender-diverse people (N = 363; Mage = 22.02) investigating how various types of distal minority stress experiences impact psychological distress. We tested the associations between three minority stressors (i.e., family rejection, threat of harm, and identity invalidation) and psychological distress using unadjusted and adjusted regression models, including gender-stratified models. In the overall unadjusted model, all three stressors were significantly, positively associated with psychological distress, with identity invalidation having the highest standardized β value. In the adjusted overall model, only identity invalidation was significantly associated with distress. Results varied in gender-stratified models. Additionally, participants who experienced any of the three stressors had predicted mean distress scores at or above the cutoff for severe psychological distress, while those who did not fell below that cutoff. Results highlight the differential impact of minority stress experiences on gender-diverse young adults and provide directions for clinical competency, interventions, and future research toward understanding mental health disparities for trans people. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Rethinking primary prevention of child trafficking: Recommendations from
           the Human Trafficking Task Force of the Global Alliance for Behavioral
           Health and Social Justice.

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      Abstract: Child trafficking is one of the most egregious violations of children’s rights and well-being. In 2014, the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice formed a task force to focus on the issue. After completing two comprehensive reviews and consultations with experts in the field, the task force identified the need for a coherent framework, which conceptualized the primary prevention of child trafficking, which includes children vulnerable to being trafficked and becoming traffickers. This article describes the process undertaken to develop the primary prevention framework, an innovative, aspirational plan for communities to be absent of trafficking. It describes the framework in detail, including the theories that underlie it and the principles that guide it. The framework’s flexibility is evident in its application to such worldwide challenges as racism, inequities, and a pandemic. Although the full consequences of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children are not yet known, this article describes certain trends, which have been identified and discusses critical lessons for applying a dynamic framework, as global disruptors will continue. The article ends with examples of how the framework could be implemented by all stakeholders in the community, to address the primary prevention of child trafficking in both the physical and the virtual world. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The effect of a school-based creative expression program on immigrant and
           refugee children’s mental health and classroom social relationships: A
           cluster randomized trial in elementary school.

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      Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of a school-based creative expression program on mental health and classroom social relationships in elementary school children with refugee and nonrefugee migration backgrounds. It was hypothesized that children receiving the intervention would report less externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors, less posttraumatic functioning, and more positive classroom social relationships at posttest than children receiving education as usual, particularly for refugee children. Classes in three multiethnic Belgian elementary schools were randomly assigned to a creative intervention (7 classes, 68 students) or control condition (6 classes, 52 students). All participants (8–12 years old) had a migration background. Almost half (47%) were refugees, 53% were first- to third-generation nonrefugee immigrants. Data collection included pre- and posttest assessment with children, parents, and teachers. Multilevel analysis was used to assess outcomes. Children in the intervention condition rated the classroom climate at posttest more positive than their control peers (d = .33). Children who received the intervention did not show less symptomatic functioning than children in the education-as-usual condition. However, post hoc analysis by baseline severity showed that students with high baseline levels of posttraumatic stress reported less trauma symptoms at posttest in the intervention group than in the control group (d = −.97). This effect was moderated by children’s refugee background, indicating a differential effect in which refugee children show more reduction of trauma symptoms as compared to nonrefugee immigrant children. The intervention supported classroom climate and alleviated posttraumatic stress in children with increased posttraumatic symptomatology. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Racial differences in the psychosocial response to the COVID-19 pandemic
           in veterans with psychosis or recent homelessness.

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      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to disproportionately impact people of color and individuals experiencing psychosis and homelessness. However, it is unclear whether there are differences by race in psychosocial responses to the pandemic in vulnerable populations. The double jeopardy hypothesis posits that multiply marginalized individuals would experience worse psychosocial outcomes. The present study investigated the clinical and functional initial responses to the pandemic in both Black (n = 103) and White veterans (n = 98) with psychosis (PSY), recent homelessness (RHV), and in a control group (CTL) enrolled in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare services. Clinical interviews were administered via phone at two time points: baseline (mid-May through mid-August 2020) and follow-up (mid-August through September 2020). The baseline interview also included retrospective measures of pre-COVID status from January 2020. There were no significant differences between Black and White veterans in depression, anxiety, or loneliness. However, Black veterans did endorse more fears of contamination, F(1, 196.29) = 9.48, p = .002. Across all groups, Black veterans had better family integration compared to White veterans, F(1, 199.98) = 7.62, p = .006. There were no significant differences by race in social integration, work/role productivity, or independent living. In sum, there were few significant differences between Black and White veterans in initial psychosocial response to the pandemic. The lack of racial disparities might reflect the presence of VA’s wrap-around services. The findings also highlight the robust nature of social support in Black veterans, even in the context of a global pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Material deprivation and subjective poverty association with subjective
           well-being reported by children: Religiosity as a protective factor.

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      Abstract: This study explores the association between material deprivation and subjective poverty with children’s subjective well-being (SWB) as well as the possible moderating effect of religiosity on this correlation among a representative sample of 2,733 Israeli fourth and sixth graders, Jews, and Arabs. All measures were based on children’s reports, using a survey. The findings show that religiosity plays a protective role in this association. For children with stronger religious beliefs, the association between material deprivation and subjective poverty with subjective well-being is weaker and even insignificant in some of the models, which explains 28%–33% of the variance. Religious practice is not found to have a significant moderating effect on the association between material well-being and subjective well-being, suggesting that religiosity manifests differently among children and adults. These results show the significance that religiosity can play among children at risk as a protective factor. In light of the findings, we emphasize the importance of developing culturally sensitive interventions when tackling child poverty, taking into consideration the role of religiosity in their lives and its impact on children’s well-being. More studies are needed, aiming at explaining the effect of religiosity on children’s well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A longitudinal examination of cultural risk factors of suicide and emotion
           regulation.

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      Abstract: The present study is a secondary analysis that tested whether difficulties with emotion regulation (DER) would statistically mediate cultural risk factors of suicide and depression symptoms or suicidal behaviors among (a) Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) and (b) lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals. BIPOC (n = 246), and LGBTQ (n = 203) participants completed measures on cultural risk factors of suicide, DER, depression symptoms, and suicidal behaviors at three time points from a larger remote randomized controlled trial (RCT). Simple and parallel mediation explored whether there were indirect effects of cultural risk of suicide on depression or suicidal behaviors via DER. Hypotheses were partially supported: simple mediation revealed that cultural risk factors of suicide at Time 1 predicted only depression symptoms at Time 3 via DER at Time 2 among BIPOC (indirect effect = .09, SE = .04, 95% CI [.01, .17]) and LGBTQ individuals (indirect effect = .05, SE = .02, 95% CI [.02, 08]). Parallel mediation revealed an indirect effect of cultural stressors of suicide and depression via lack of emotional awareness, difficulty with goal-directed behavior, and difficulty accessing emotion regulation strategies for BIPOC, whereas it was via difficulties with goal-directed behavior for LGBTQ persons. With replication, these findings support the importance of cultural risk factors when screening for suicide and inform tailoring of psychosocial interventions targeting emotion regulation with BIPOC and LGBTQ individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 26 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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