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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 382 Journals sorted by number of followers
American Journal of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 340)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283)
Annual Review of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167)
Social Forces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Social Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Information, Communication & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Anthropological Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
The British Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Qualitative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Sociological Methods & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
International Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
City & Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Critical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
AlterNative : An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
European Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Comparative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of European Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Mental Health and Social Inclusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
The Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Victorian Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Contemporary Sociology : A Journal of Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Games and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Critical Discourse Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Sociology of Health & Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Complexity in Leadership and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Sociological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Health and Social Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Judgment and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Design and Culture : The Journal of the Design Studies Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Sociolinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ethnicities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Rural Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Social Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Sociology of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Sociological Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Social Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Middle East Women's Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
The Sociological Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Studies in Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Family & Community History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
African Identities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sociological Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Cognition and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Policy History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Health Sociology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Comparative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Philosophy & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Historical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Symbolic Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Berliner Journal für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Global Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Communication Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Classical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sociology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sociological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sociological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Review of Sociology / Revue Canadienne De Sociologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advertising & Society Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
East Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cultures & conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal for the Study of Radicalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Studies in Latin American Popular Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Sociologia Ruralis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Teaching Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sociological Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Anthropologie et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Political Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers canadiens de sociologie     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Sociology: Revue Internationale de Sociologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sociological Research Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Bronte Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gender and Behaviour     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Race/Ethnicity : Multidisciplinary Global Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Sociology & Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Sociologie du Travail     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cross-cultural Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Mexicana de Sociologí­a     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Surveillance and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ateliers d'anthropologie     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nordic Journal of Migration Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Japanese Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Senses and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Pacific     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sociolinguistic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Critical Realism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista de Psicología Social, International Journal of Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Women and the Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Visitor Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Italian Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mathematical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Études françaises     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ethnologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Meridians : feminism, race, transnationalism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studia Iranica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Group Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contributions to Indian Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aztlan : A Journal of Chicano Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Public and Professional Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sociological Spectrum: Mid-South Sociological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Historical Pragmatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Dynamics: A journal of African studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sociologie et sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Good Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamic Law and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lien social et Politiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recherches féministes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sociology Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Enfances, Familles, Générations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transatlantica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chrétiens et sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SociologieS - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue de la régulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Seminar : A Journal of Germanic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscapes of Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COnTEXTES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Política y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revue Internationale De Securite Sociale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Ethnic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access  
Studies in American Naturalism     Full-text available via subscription  
Southern Cultures     Full-text available via subscription  
Liinc em Revista     Open Access  
World Cultures eJournal     Open Access  
Spaces for Difference: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access  
Tracés     Open Access  
Socio-logos     Open Access  

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American Behavioral Scientist
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.982
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-7642 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3381
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Big Shots: A Social Media Campaign to Honor Local Heroes who Promote
           COVID-19 Vaccine Literacy and Increase Vaccine Acceptance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tanja Schub, Lauren Swan-Potras, Kenneth Rabin
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Big Shots is a graduate student-developed social media campaign that aims to promote COVID-19 vaccine literacy and build vaccine confidence through the power of storytelling. Here we describe the development of the partnerships underlying the campaign and detail the campaign’s achievements thus far, including its recognition and celebration (to date) of 12 individuals and groups who have broken down barriers to COVID-19 vaccination in their communities. The ongoing campaign may serve as a model to guide future “grassroots” social media campaigns aimed at addressing public health issues.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-12-01T05:22:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221138272
       
  • China in and out of World Anthropologies: Epistemic Politics Amidst
           Historical Ironies and Contemporary Realities

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      Authors: Yang Zhan
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Since the early 2000s, scholars have proposed the notion of “world anthropologies” to expose the pluralistic nature of anthropology, and to counter the colonial legacy embedded in knowledge production. This paper discusses how anthropological knowledge in and of China contributes to, is distant from, and challenges, such intellectual movement at both intellectual and institutional levels. First, unlike Western anthropology which shifts from colonialism to liberalism and then to postcolonialism, anthropology in China began with a progressive agenda of anti-colonialism, and then leaned toward liberalism. In the context of China’s rise, “China” has been further embroiled in a puzzle of imperialism. This reversed ideological tendency contributes to the disorientation of the critical energy in anthropology focused on China. Second, just as China has taken an active role in the competition for education and research in a globalized, yet uneven academia through discipline construction, anthropology in the West, particularly the United States, has become fff in terms of its intellectual agendas. Many of the younger generation of Chinese anthropologists have become stuck in the disjuncture, struggling to channel their critical energy through engaged scholarship, both within and beyond academic institutions. The epistemic politics in and of China, at both the intellectual and institutional levels, reveals that the post-socialist condition deserves to be reference points in world anthropologies. If decolonization posits treating plural standpoints as equal, then being counted in the decolonizing efforts necessitates subscribing to the dominant framework. Thus, more attention to the post-socialist condition, and ultimately the pluralization of the reference points of political potency, should truly pluralize, and ultimately decolonize, anthropology.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-30T06:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221134846
       
  • Are People Hesitating—Or Just Postponing—to Get the Covid-19
           Vaccine' Vaccine Outreach in Marginalized Urban Communities

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      Authors: Lauren Kogen, Deborai A. Cai, Cornelius Pitts, Patricia Imms, Mitch Perkins, Kathleen Reeves
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Across Philadelphia, approximately 80% of adults are fully vaccinated against Covid-19. However, many zip codes in the city remain far below the city-wide vaccination rate. These zip codes correspond to marginalized sections of the city and to neighborhoods with a high proportion of residents of color and high levels of poverty. In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives from 15 community-based organizations (CBOs) that serve such communities in the city to (1) learn why people are not yet vaccinated and (2) evaluate methods for encouraging vaccination. A qualitative thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted to evaluate why people are not getting vaccinated. Together, the findings suggest that distrust toward the vaccine, the government, and the healthcare system, combined with a host of matters considered by residents to be more urgent—such as missing work, cost concerns, and concerns around presenting identification—result in what might be better described as vaccine postponement rather than vaccine refusal. For many, vaccination is simply not a priority. The findings from this analysis illuminate some of the lesser discussed reasons for vaccination delay and provide insights into how to promote vaccinations both for the current Covid pandemic and for future vaccination efforts.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-26T07:47:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221138279
       
  • Using Health Behavior Theory to Address COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: A
           Scoping Review of Communication and Messaging Interventions

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      Authors: Caroline A. Orr, Ruthanna Gordon
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Vaccine hesitancy has been among the most vexing challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, ultimately leading to maladaptive health behaviors such as vaccine delay and refusal. A variety of approaches have been employed to address this problem, including communication and messaging interventions targeting the underlying determinants of vaccine hesitancy. However, there exists no published evidence synthesis examining how such interventions are using health behavior theory to address COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of health communication and messaging interventions aimed at addressing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and to systematically evaluate the use of health behavior theory in the design of these interventions. The review followed a five-step iterative framework proposed by Levac and colleagues. Comprehensive searches using an exhaustive list of keyword combinations were used across three online databases to identify articles to screen for inclusion. A structured, validated coding scheme was then applied to assess the use of health behavior theory. Additional study data were extracted using a separate structured form. A total of 36 articles published between January 2020 and February 2022 met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Ten studies (27.7%) did not mention or use health behavior theory at all. Most studies (n = 26) at least mentioned theory or theory-relevant constructs, with 26 different theories and 52 different theoretical constructs represented in the sample. Although theory and theoretical determinants of vaccination behavior were often mentioned, few studies used theory to specify and target causal pathways of behavior change, and only one study targeted misinformation as a determinant of vaccine hesitancy. The findings from this review provide critical insight into the state of theory-based intervention design and point to significant gaps in the literature to prioritize in future research.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T12:26:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221138274
       
  • How Communication Impacts the Right to Health: COVID-19 Seen Through a
           Lens of Vulnerability

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      Authors: Timothy Affonso
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the global community in a sudden and unpredictable manner. As such, it becomes essential that States engage in immediate effective communication of public health messaging to ensure that persons are aware of the ways in which they can protect themselves from contracting the virus. In this vein, guidance has been offered to States on how to effectively engage in public health communication strategies by the international human rights regime which sets out the standards for right to health. These standards recognize that the right to health includes a dimension for health communication. However, the vulnerabilities, which exist in some groups in society, make generic health communication ineffective in achieving the goal of protection from COVID-19. Furthermore, the pandemic highlighted the lack of compliance by States with their right to health obligations. It is this disconnect between the de jure human rights obligations and the de facto compliance by States with those obligations that will be explored in this paper. The paper will set out the different formulations of the right to health in specific international human rights treaties and compare the text of the treaties with the actual health messaging initiatives by States during the pandemic. There will also be an identification of ways in which States may more appropriately tailor their communications strategies to align with the international standards for the right to health. This exercise will highlight the connection between effective public health communication and improved health outcomes for the public and the important role the international human rights framework plays in this paradigm. The paper will demonstrate the need for a tailored approach to health communication when dealing with socially vulnerable groups using the guidance which can be offered by the international human rights treaties in realizing the right to health for the public.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-14T07:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221138277
       
  • Rescuing Public Health From the Global Capitalist Regime: The Public
           Health Liberation Movement in Taiwan

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      Authors: Chengpang Lee, Meei-Shia Chen
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In the past, scholars of academic dependency have tended to focus their discussions on social sciences while treating other fields as separate. They suggest that in order to escape dependency, alternative discourse and autonomy should be developed. In this paper, we examine the Public Health Liberation (PHL) movement in Taiwan and theorize on the marketization and medicalization of the healthcare system since the 1980s as a dependency syndrome. The PHL was initiated by a group of public health scholars—with the second author of this paper being one of its key protagonists—and frontline public health practitioners after the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in 2003. Inspired by the mass mobilization model in public health in Asian and Latin American countries, particularly China, the Philippines, and Nicaragua, PHL trains grassroots public health educators, nurtures critical research, and has built a network of activists for radical public health reform in Taiwan. Based on participatory action research, this paper analyzes the emergence of this influential public health movement and situates it within the global context of neoliberal health reforms.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-14T07:22:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221134845
       
  • Contested Sinicization in the Tianxia All-Under-Heaven: Civilization Envy
           in Vietnam’s “Principal Graduates of the Two Kingdoms” Literary
           Trope, the 15th Century to the Present

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      Authors: Yufen Chang
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      A rising China has upended the academia in many fronts. One of the challenges has been the reinvented ideal of Tianxia All-Under-Heaven, which first appeared in the eighth century BCE and has been offered by China as the alternative to the Westphalia system of nation-states on the basis that it will bring peace and harmony to the war-ridden international world. Nevertheless, ongoing international controversies regarding the “forced Sinicization” of the Uyghurs, the Tibetans, and the Mongols under its rule has given rise to the questions of the nature of both Tianxia and Sinicization. Analyzing a famous Vietnamese literary trope of the “principal graduates of the two kingdoms” that emerged no later than the 15th century, this essay proposes a concept of civilization envy to discuss the nuances of Sinicization. Civilization envy is a competitive mentality that desires to prove one’s civilizational parity with or even superiority over China, the center of Tianxia. This mentality of civilization envy continues to modern era, and the “principal graduates of the two kingdoms” have been promoted to national heroes to show that Vietnam is a “Domain of Literature.” The evolution of the trope shows that China and Vietnam had different understanding of civilizing missions. For China, it involved transforming mores and customs of the peoples under its direct control. For Vietnam, when dealing with China, it involved acquiring literary competence, especially the skills in mastering Sinitic script and poetry composition.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-14T07:18:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221134841
       
  • Information Exposure and Information Overload as Antecedents of Crisis
           Communicative Responses and Coping: A Cross-Country Comparison

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      Authors: Chih-Hui Lai, Tang Tang
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines information exposure as the antecedent of different types of crisis response outcomes as well as the moderating influence of message quality and information overload in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that the pandemic has impacted the countries worldwide, we conducted a cross-country, two-wave survey in the United States and Taiwan. The results identified three types of media users based on their differential patterns of crisis information exposure—selective users, inclusive users, and cravers. Compared to selective users, inclusive users and cravers were more likely to engage in different types of communicative responses (i.e., information seeking and sharing, and information sharing without verification [ISWV]), which then helped them with support-seeking coping. In addition, information overload was the condition that influenced the extent to which inclusive users engaged in information seeking and sharing, and the subsequent coping. Cross-country differences were found such that information overload and ISWV played important roles in influencing crisis outcomes in the United States and Taiwan, respectively.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T07:28:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132805
       
  • In the Mode. . .Text-to-Web Survey Data Collection: An Exploratory Study
           in Preelection Polling of the U.S. Presidential Election

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      Authors: Spencer Kimball, Isabel Holloway
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      As our society rapidly employs new forms of communication, new modes of data collection are challenging the best practices developed over years of polling. Preelection polling must simultaneously evolve, as new modes have emerged in the past few decades, including computer-mediated communication, mobile texting, and the use of touch tone keypads to communicate information. A tension exists between traditional and novel means of interpersonal communication, and researchers are struggling to determine which traditional methods of data collection still have a place in the modern industry. This study examined three relatively new modes of preelection poll data collection, online, mobile, and IVR (interactive voice recognition) to determine what relationships exist, if any, between the mode of data collection and the composition of a sample across eight demographic variables: age, education, gender, political affiliation, race, region, 2016 Vote History, and 2020 Vote Intention. Twenty-six preelection polls were used in the study, with each poll ranging in collection dates between August 30 and October 31, 2020. The total combined sample size for this study is n = 19,886; 49% were IVR respondents (n = 9,795), 25% was collected from online panels (n = 5,039), and 25% was collected from short message service (SMS)-to-web respondents (n = 5,052). A χ2 (chi-square) test for association was conducted using a significance level of p < .05 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) and found a significant difference between each mode of data collection across the eight aforementioned variables. A significant difference between political party affiliation/registration and mode of data collection was attributed to the educational attainment of individuals participating in each preelection polls based on the mode of data collection. This study suggests that underlying variables within the sample composition of different modes of data collection can have an impact on the accuracy of preelection polls.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T07:22:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132801
       
  • Mobilizing During the Covid-19 Pandemic: From Democratic Innovation to the
           Political Weaponization of Disinformation

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      Authors: Cristina Flesher Fominaya
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Political scholars express concern for the continued resilience of democracy in the face of multiple crises. In times of crisis, social movements articulate grievances and make demands of political leaders and policymakers. In contrast to the wave of pro-democracy movements following the 2008 global financial crash where protesters demanded accountability from elites, mobilization during the COVID-19 pandemic has defied expectations in several key ways. First, the expectation for protesters to mobilize primarily online in the face of the restrictions and risk associated with large gatherings has not been upheld. Instead, we have witnessed widespread “offline” mass protests. Second, despite high mortality rates and significant disparities in the effectiveness of national public health responses, we have not witnessed widespread mobilizations demanding governments do better to protect citizens from the virus. Instead, we have seen two radically different responses: At one extreme, veterans of “pro-democracy” movements have “pivoted,” using their skills and experience to either make up for weak government responses to COVID-19 (Hong Kong) or to reinforce government efforts to contain it (Taiwan). At the other extreme, “antidemocratic” and predominantly far right-wing movements have mobilized against public health measures, circulating COVID negationist and conspiracy messages. Indeed, the political weaponization of disinformation has been a notable feature of pandemic mobilization. I analyze these contrasting trends, highlighting the challenges they pose for the effective handling of the pandemic, and their broader implications for democratic legitimacy and resilience. In so doing, I call attention to the ways that mobilization during the pandemic challenges scholars to revisit some of our assumptions about the dynamics of social movements in times of crisis, and how they can foster or erode democracy. The analysis also suggests that scholars analyzing the impact of information disorders on democracy need to pay careful attention to offline protest as well as online transmission.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T07:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132178
       
  • Risk Governance in the Early Pandemic: Governance Roles and Coleman’s
           Taxonomy of Social Actors

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      Authors: Jeremy Schulz
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article takes the ongoing conversation around risk governance in the context of the early stages of the COVID pandemic in a new direction. It does so by connecting public health risk governance to James Coleman’s formulation of social actorhood in the contemporary US. Risk governance across a variety of social settings can be fruitfully conceptualized according to Coleman’s taxonomy of natural and constructed social actors. Unveiling the risk governance schemes operating within distinct social settings is a matter of teasing out the governance roles played by the three primary types of social actor introduced by Coleman: natural persons, agents/principals, and citizen-sovereigns. The parts played by these types of actors are examined within distinct meso-level settings such as households, employment settings, public-facing retail settings, and colleges. In this way, the study is able to distinguish specific governance schemes in terms of how they mobilize particular kinds of social actors characterized according to Coleman’s taxonomy. The study represents a step toward developing an account of risk governance which can accommodate a wide variety of actors, settings, and dynamics within a coherent theoretical framework. In carrying out this exercise, this study applies sociological theories to open a window into crucial aspects of risk governance during the pandemic era.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T07:14:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132175
       
  • Seeing Like a Native Anthropologist: A Post-Postcolonial Reflection on the
           Native Turn in Asian Academia

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      Authors: Jinba Tenzin
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article aims to delve into the “native turn” emerging in anthropology and broad academia in Asia and the Global South in the last two decades, represented by their growing momentum in decolonization, autonomy, and “indigenization.” There, however, exists a tendency in anthropology, especially among non-Western and “mixed” anthropologists, to dismiss the idea of native(s) or native anthropologists and sometimes replace it with the amorphous notion of “halfies.” I contend that many of the “halfies” scholars, informed by postcolonial and postmodern thoughts, tend to misread the de facto postcolonial conditions in which the West continues to dominate in the existing world-systems. I argue that it is vital to acknowledge the native turn as an ethnographical fact because this recognition is closely associated with the prospect of decolonizing anthropology and Western-dominated knowledge production. Next, I use my experience of the native turn(s) to Tibetan and Chinese sociocultural institutions and political sensibilities to better contextualize and exemplify the examined broad native turn in anthropology and social science in Asia. Furthermore, I propose a multifaceted view of natives or nativeness as a necessary step to engage more constructively with the idea of native(s) and the native turn. In so doing, I advocate a post-postcolonial critique to make a timely and necessary intellectual intervention.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T09:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221134844
       
  • Dependency as Situated Knowledge: A Reflexive Politics of Location on the
           Positionalities of Chinese Feminist Scholars

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      Authors: Ling Han
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      While feminist knowledge has historical roots in China, the academic knowledge production about women’s and gender studies (WGS) as situated knowledge has always been a contestation between opposing forces. The Fourth United Nations World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, marked the critical discursive and organizational moment for grounding the feminist concept of gender as an analytical and action framework. Since then, WGS have flourished, but the label of feminism has been ambivalent. To examine the complicated state of academic dependency and the politics of location in this interdisciplinary academic field, I interrogate researchers’ positionalities in some recent publications on feminism and gender studies about China by pointing out the interplay of diasporic and domestic positionalities in English and Chinese publication outlets. This article argues that for an interdisciplinary program like WGS, with its inextricable connection to the political state of China and socialist state feminism, the theory of academic dependency cannot adequately capture the often contested, strategic, and situated standpoints of feminist scholars. While diasporic and domestic scholars are deeply aware of their own positionalities in the channel of publications that grant them voices, they are also caught in the current hegemonic political economy of knowledge. This article interrogates the contested positionalities of overseas and domestic feminist scholars in creating a feminist academic field about China.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T09:22:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221134843
       
  • Syncretism of Tradition and Modernity in Education: A Case Study of a
           Tibetan Vocational School in Qinghai

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      Authors: Rouzhuo (Rigdrol) Jikar
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The notion of educational development has merit in defining the nature of Tibetan school education in China, which operates under the Chinese centralized educational model. However, it would be simplistic to see all types of schools in Tibetan regions operating in a single dependency relationship regarding the educational content, teaching mode, and school management. Consequently, the author proposes considering the more complex situation of a syncretism of Tibetan and Chinese education systems. His proposition derives from his long-time participation, observation, and extensive interviews with school teachers, students, and administrators in a Tibetan private vocational high school in Amdo (Qinghai). This school has pioneered experimentation with a syncretic education model to resolve the tension and seek a balance between cultural continuity and social change by capitalizing on its interdependency situation. His research shows that promoting this syncretic education model in a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural country like China is worthwhile.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T09:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221134839
       
  • Growth Communication Strategies in the Digital Age

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      Authors: Patricia Coll-Rubio, Josep Maria Carbonell
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyzes growth strategies in the context of digital transformation in all political, social, and economic scopes that were accelerated by the pandemic. The article also focuses on the specific case of digital native brands which have emerged in a disruptive way. The study was carried out by using electronic surveys from April 2020 to November 2021 of 50 professionals in leading technology companies and startups. The study takes into account the results obtained in research carried out during the last 8 years by combining both the methods of in-depth interviews and documentary analysis in tracking the strategies of technology companies. The results show that growth strategies in digital economy are focused on decision making based on data combined with creative actions such as digital content, influencer marketing, media, events, and newsjacking. This growth strategy is applicable to all areas, especially politics.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T09:15:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132798
       
  • Attitudinal and Emotional Reactions to the Insurrection at the U.S.
           Capitol on January 6, 2021

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      Authors: Jennifer Anderson, Kathryn D. Coduto
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports on two online surveys concerning reactions to the insurrection at the U.S. Capitol on January 6, 2021. Study 1 occurred between January 8 and 11, 2021; Study 2 took place between July 8 and 15, 2021. In both studies, both Trump and Biden voters reported negative attitudes toward the rioters, but those attitudes became significantly more positive from Study 1 to Study 2 in both groups. As expected, in both studies, Trump/Pence voters had less confidence in, and satisfaction with, the election results, which correlated with more positive attitudes toward the rioters and the president. Biden/Harris voters held more positive beliefs about the election, which correlated with more negative attitudes toward the rioters and the president. In both studies, Biden voters were more likely to report feeling fear, disgust, anger, and sadness than Trump voters, who were more likely to report feeling joy and surprise. Unexpectedly, across all voters and within voting groups, more people in Study 2 reported feeling each emotion, compared with Study 1.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T09:09:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132796
       
  • Rethinking Dependency and Knowledge Production Amid China’s Rise

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      Authors: Jinba Tenzin, Chengpang Lee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      There remains a serious lack of a comprehensive examination of academic dependency, decolonization, and indigenization in China and East Asia. Our special issue is intended to fill this gap by situating this issue in the Chinese context, thanks to China’s extraordinary leaps in its economy and higher education and enhanced indigenizing movements. In particular, we hope to open a new dialog on the dynamic relationship between the rise of China, academic (and other) dependency, and global knowledge production. Our findings show that China’s rise complicates and enriches our understanding of dependency. For instance, despite the state-orchestrated indigenization in Chinese academia and China’s potential role as a new global hub of knowledge production, its academia, especially social science, is still highly dependent upon the Western academic center for ideas and recognition. This is partly exemplified by the fact that Chinese universities attach great importance to Western-acknowledged academic excellence through the global university rankings. However, we argue that the existing academic dependency theory fails to capture and explain this complex situation. In so doing, we call for a paradigm shift in rethinking academic dependency by placing it in the multilayered and multi-domain dependency circumstances and conditions. In advancing this agenda, we advocate a field-grounded and cross-disciplinary approach.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T10:58:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221134842
       
  • Health Messaging During a Pandemic: How Information Type and Individual
           Factors Influence Responses to COVID-19 Messages

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      Authors: Elisabeth Bigsby, Ethan Morrow
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional approaches to public health messaging suggest successful COVID-19 messages should communicate about the health threat and present effective protective behaviors. However, as the pandemic continues, how individual factors affect audience responses to such messages needs to be explored. We surveyed 224 U.S. residents (equal distribution among age group, education level, and gender) in a 2 (health threat information: high versus low) × 2 (self-efficacy information: present versus absent) × 2 (response efficacy information: present versus absent) experimental design. Variations in message information did not influence mask wearing and handwashing behavioral intentions. Instead, participant responses followed reactance theory predictions. Feelings of fear about COVID-19 and reactance proneness predicted a perceived freedom threat. Perceiving a freedom threat predicted reactance to the COVID-19 message, which was associated with decreased intentions to wear a mask and handwash. Political ideology was also associated with behavioral intentions. The more conservative a person identified, the less likely they were to intend to engage in COVID-19 protection behaviors. Our findings call into question the effectiveness of traditional health messaging during a pandemic and demonstrate the implications of politicizing health behaviors.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T10:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132797
       
  • Brokered Dependency, Authoritarian Malepistemization, and Spectacularized
           Postcoloniality: Reflections on Chinese Academia

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      Authors: Yao Lin
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper calls for a paradigm shift in studying academic dependency, toward the paradigm of brokered dependency. Using Chinese academia as an example, I demonstrate how the neocolonial condition of academic dependency is always mediated through blockage-brokerage mechanisms. The two most salient blockage-brokerage mechanisms of dependency in the Chinese context are linguistic barrier and authoritarian malepistemization, and the effects of the latter consist of three layers: institutional, informational, and incorporational. On top of their domestic impacts, those mechanisms jointly exacerbate spectacularized postcoloniality in anglophone-hegemonic global academic publishing. The paradigm of brokered dependency not only represents a more nuanced approach to the study of academic dependency, but also underscores the fact that the dismantling of the neocolonial condition cannot be conceived and pursued in isolation from comprehending and confronting the authoritarian condition, especially when the latter pertains under the disguise of anticolonialism.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T10:53:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221134840
       
  • Theories and Politics of COVID-19

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      Authors: Jeremy Schulz, Noah McClain, Laura Robinson, Juliana Maria Trammel
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This issue brings theoretically driven analyses to bear on the COVID-19 pandemic, a development which shines a singularly revealing light on some of the most significant political, cultural, and social trends of the 21st century. Leading off with three explicitly theoretical treatments of the pandemic, this issue directs several complementary theoretical lenses at the early stages of the pandemic as it unfolded in the US and Europe. The initial contributions grapple explicitly with the ways in which social conflicts, social solidarities, and social traumas have been refracted—and in many cases magnified—by the pandemic in terms of moral cultures and forms of communication. The focus then shifts to how risk governance during the pandemic operates in different levels and domains of the social architecture as conceptualized in theoretical treatments of social actorhood pioneered by James Coleman. In the second part of the issue, the theme of politic. The upsurge of politically distinctive protests in the United States related to pandemic restrictions—as well as social and racial inequalities rendered visible by the pandemic—is the subject of the first piece. The final article explores the historical specificity of the many popular mobilizations in relation to the pandemic across the globe and across the political spectrum. In this article, we see how the popular mobilizations vary not only in terms of their political orientation, but in their general orientation toward information and authority—increasingly crucial issues in a world facing a trust deficit.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T10:50:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132808
       
  • A Social Diagnosis of Digitally Mediated COVID-19 Trauma

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      Authors: Cara Chiaraluce, Katia Moles, Laura Robinson, Julie B. Wiest
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Using a social diagnosis approach to COVID-19-related trauma, this research bridges the fields of sociology of medicine, disaster response, digital sociology, and digital divides. Bringing these literatures into dialogue, we problematize the digitally mediated trauma ensuing from COVID-19. We unpack two emergent media pathways or channels to a social diagnosis of trauma specific to sharp increase in reliance on digital media occasioned by the pandemic. The research advances the theoretical concept of the digital media trauma paradox in which trauma ensues from both oversaturation from toxic digital content and exclusion from digital resources. In either case, digital media engagements may act as a social determinant of health, particularly digital inequalities to co-occur with other forms of disadvantage. The research closes by arguing that social diagnosis approaches are an excellent tool to understand the complexities of disaster response in the digital age.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T10:41:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132185
       
  • Between Online and Offline Solidarity: Lessons Learned From the
           Coronavirus Outbreak in Italy

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      Authors: Maria Laura Ruiu, Massimo Ragnedda
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper focuses on four e-initiatives that were precipitated by the coronavirus outbreak in Italy. These experiences played a relevant role in developing multilevel solidarity (from the local to the global level) both online and offline. They are represented by the hashtags “#iorestoacasa” (I stay at home) and “#andràtuttobene” (everything will be alright), “performances on the balcony,” “influencers’ campaigns,” and “altruism and e-parochialism.” These experiences represent revealing examples essential to understand the benefits that a mediated form of solidarity can produce. This is particularly important given the challenges that solidarity faces due to the technological acceleration imposed by the pandemic, which is likely to influence social relationships even in the post-pandemic era. Four lessons can be learned from these expressions of e-solidarity related to the capacity of Information and Communication Technologies to (1) promote unconditioned altruism; (2) fight “parochialism” when the same disadvantaged condition is shared; (3) their capacity to develop a multilevel sense of community by connecting the local experience to the global dimension; and (4) to mediate between institutional sources and people, and connect family members, friends, vulnerable people with neighbors, and the global community. This last point suggests that the pandemic has offered fertile ground for both mechanical and organic forms of solidarity to emerge. On the one hand, it created a collective conscience based on shared vulnerabilities and interdependence. On the other hand, it is based on individualization and diversity. Indeed, these examples of Durkheimian collective effervescence show the paradox of a form of collective individualized and mediated solidarity, which is typical of contemporary society.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T10:39:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132177
       
  • Disintegration in the Age of COVID-19: Biological Contamination, Social
           Danger, and the Search for Solidarity

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      Authors: Seth Abrutyn
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Like any disaster, COVID-19 laid waste to infrastructure and the ability for a community to do community. But, unlike a tornado or nuclear meltdown, COVID-19 laid waste to social infrastructure in unique ways that only a disease can do. On the one hand, a pandemic brings biological dangers that, in turn, make all individuals—loved ones, too—into potential threats of biological contamination. On the other hand, the efforts to contain diseases present social dangers, as isolation and distancing threatens mundane and spectacular ritualized encounters and mask-wearing heighten our awareness of the biological risk. By exploring the link between disasters and disease, this paper leverages the contamination process, beginning first with the barriers it presents to making and remaking the self in everyday life. Constraints on ritualized encounters, both in terms of delimiting face-to-face interaction and in determining that some spaces have contaminative risks, reduces collective life to imagined communities or shifts to digitally mediated spaces. The former intensifies the sense of anomie people feel as their social world appears as though it were disintegrating while the latter presents severe neurobiological challenges to reproducing what face-to-face interaction habitually generates. Finally, these micro/meso-level processes are contextualized by considering how institutions, particularly polity but also science, manage collective risk and how their efficacy may either contribute to the erosion of solidarity or provide a sense of support in the face of anomic terror. Using the US to illustrate these processes, we are able to show how an inefficacious State response weakens the already tenuous connective tissue that holds a diffuse and diverse population together, while also exposing and intensifying existing political, economic, and cultural fissures, thereby further eroding existing solidarity and the capacity to rebuild post-pandemic cohesion.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-10-29T08:46:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132176
       
  • Protest During a Pandemic: How Covid-19 Affected Social Movements in the
           United States

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      Authors: Deana A. Rohlinger, David S. Meyer
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores how a global health crisis affects the causes and consequences of social movements. Drawing on media coverage, press releases, emails, and other available primary data sources, we examine how the pandemic changed the opportunities and conditions for activists on the right and left and those they challenge. We begin by considering the nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and the concomitant government response, which alters the structure of political opportunities activists face. We then look at the development of a range of protest campaigns that have emerged in response, assessing changes in opportunities for activists to reach and mobilize target constituencies, the construction of grievances, nature of alliances, as well as innovation in tactics and organization. Finally, we consider the potential outcomes of these protests during the pandemic and extending afterward.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-10-25T07:25:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221132179
       
  • Optimizing Temporal Capital: How Big Tech Imagines Time as Auditable

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      Authors: Ingrid Erickson, Judy Wajcman
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The belief that technology can be profitably employed to control and manage time has a long history. In this article we show how electronic calendaring systems have become emblematic of the contemporary vision of mastering time, codifying a distinctive quantitative orientation to time. Drawing on interviews with calendar designers at four prominent software development companies, we explore the quest among knowledge workers in Silicon Valley to embed a culture of temporal optimization through the use of calendaring software. Their collective response to this issue reveals that there is a specific kind of technoscientific world being developed: one fixated with solving the problem of time scarcity in contexts organized around maximizing productivity. Furthermore, this world is increasingly embracing the power of predictive data analytics and artificial intelligence. Yet, rather than being the progressive act that many Silicon Valley designers believe they are engaging in, this move toward automating time is the latest in a series of long-standing moral attempts to subject time to a particular brand of rationalization. This orientation to, and valorization of, the fast-paced, full life requires incessant performance on our part and the relentless pursuit of self-enhancement. In other words, positing that time has now become fodder for pattern recognition, we argue that calendaring software configures time events as auditable data that is ripe for accounting in the service of both old and new forms of socially-constructed optimization. We conclude by drawing out the implications of treating time as auditable data, most importantly, that it reinforces asymmetrical relations of power and devalues relations of care.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T08:06:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221127243
       
  • The Company You Keep: How Network Disciplinary Diversity Enhances the
           Productivity of Researchers

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      Authors: Tsahi Hayat, Dimitrina Dimitrova, Barry Wellman
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The Covid-19 pandemic has affected most organizations’ working environment and productivity. Organizations have had to make arrangements for staff to operate remotely following the implementation of lockdown regulations around the world, as the pandemic has led to restrictions on movement and the temporary closure of workplace premises. The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of this transition on productivity during the pandemic, by studying a distributed network of research who collaborate remotely. We examine how the productivity of researchers is affected by the distributed collaborative networks in which they are embedded. Our goal is to understand the effects of brokerage and closure on the researchers’ publication rate, which is interpreted as an indicator of their productivity. We analyze researchers’ communication networks, focusing on structural holes and diversity. We take into account the individual qualities of the focal researcher such as seniority. We find that disciplinary diversity among researchers’ peers increases the researchers’ productivity, lending support to the brokerage argument. In addition, we find support for two statistical interaction effects. First, structural holes moderate diversity so that researchers with diverse networks are more productive when their networks also have a less redundant structure. Diversity and structural holes, when combined, further researchers’ productivity. Second, seniority moderates diversity such that senior researchers are more productive than junior researchers in less diverse networks. In more diverse networks, junior researchers perform as well as senior researchers. Social capital and human capital are complementary. We conclude that the benefits of diversity on researchers’ productivity are contingent on the qualities of the researchers and on network structure. The brokerage/closure debate thus needs a more nuanced understanding of causal relationships.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T07:31:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221127242
       
  • Automating Expert Labor in Medicine: What Are the Questions'

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      Authors: Daniel A. Menchik
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      I argue that the contemporary organization of professional work indicates the limits of answering typical questions about automation and technology in work to understand the practices of experts. Examining the case of automation in medicine, specifically Stereotaxis technology, I analyze a colligation of data on decisions about the uptake of this robotic technology among United States surgeons. I examine data including: procedure efficiency over time, the technology’s affordances for the preservation of surgeons’ bodily capital, changes in the profession’s demographic profile, physician social networks, and clinical researchers’ published assessments. The data suggest that automation of a central task can support and enhance the work of individual experts. They also show that using robotics does not improve efficiency. This case thus challenges the assumption that automation displaces work, at least in the case of professionals. And so, because Stereotaxis becomes more of a complement to surgeons’ work as opposed to a substitute, this case points towards the importance of focusing attention less on job automation than on task automation. The case also highlights that users of the technology (physicians) value it differently than do purchasers (administrators). In addition, it identifies the differing considerations motivating their decisions to adopt or not adopt the technology. And in light of the finding that robotics use is more common among the rank-and-file than the elite, it may be that some professionals perceive automation to afford mobility opportunities. Based on these findings I propose new questions for scholarship on medicine, work, and automation, including those around “expert” versus “unskilled” labor, the body, and workplace divisions of labor.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T12:50:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221127248
       
  • News Consumption, Corruption Perception, and Institutional Trust Among
           Kenyans—A Moderated Mediation Analysis

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      Authors: Tao Sun, Gregory Payne
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Based on a sample of 2,400 Kenyans from the Afrobarometer survey in 2019, the study tested a moderated mediation model in which news consumption had a positive impact on corruption perception, which in turn had a negative influence on institutional trust. The relationship between new consumption and corruption perception was moderated by support for press freedom. Specifically, news consumption’s positive impact on corruption perception was significant only among those who believe in press freedom, but not significant among those who agree with government censorship of media. This study makes a contribution to the literature of cultivation theory in the context of Kenyan respondents. Limitations and future research implications are discussed.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T12:42:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221126092
       
  • The Acceptance of Driverless Cars: The Roles of Perceived Outcomes and
           Technology Usefulness

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      Authors: Gustavo S. Mesch, Matias Dodel
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The accelerating development of autonomous vehicles is expected to have important effects on society such as reducing the number of traffic accidents, preventing the disabilities and deaths attributed to car accidents, and reducing pollution. However, their adoption depends on the willingness of the population to accept this innovation and incorporate it in their everyday activities. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors, political ideology, and attitudes toward technology and its perceived potential impact on society on support for driverless cars. We conducted a secondary analysis of a large sample of employees in the United States (n = 2,470). Based on conceptual frameworks relevant to the study of technology adoption such as the self-interest hypothesis, the usefulness of the technology, ideological orientation, and socio-demographic gaps in attitudes toward technology, our results indicate that perceived social outcomes of driverless cars are strongly associated with their support. Age and gender are negatively associated with support for autonomous vehicles. In contrast, perceived positive outcomes of the introduction of technology in the workplace are positively associated with them. Individuals with a consistently conservative ideology are also less likely to be supporters of autonomous vehicles. Our findings indicate that the centrality of the expected societal impact of autonomous vehicles implies the need to provide the public with accurate facts about their expected effect. Doing so is critical to increasing the public’s willingness to adopt the technology and support its production. People must also be reassured that regulations and product designs will be created to ensure their safety.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-10-10T10:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221127250
       
  • Future Shocks: Automation Meets the Pandemic

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      Authors: Jeremy Schulz
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article surveys the effects of what can be called two confluent agents of economic and societal transformation, digitally enabled automation and the covid-19 pandemic, on the contemporary economy. Examining shifts in work, occupations, labor markets, and consumption, the article ventures some conjectures on the consequences of this confluence, particularly across developed economies. The article contends that, while long-term automation tends to disrupt jobs and occupations which involve screen-facing work and, to a lesser extent, object-facing work, person-facing work is most exposed to the reallocation shocks precipitated by the covid crisis. Where consumption is concerned, both automation and pandemic-driven shocks lead to mutually reinforcing shifts. Seen together, automation and the pandemic phenomena can be regarded as intertwined socioeconomic stressors which will likely lead to even more divergent trajectories between the winners and the losers in the new economy.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T05:14:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221127235
       
  • The Role of Fatigue in a Campus COVID-19 Safety Behaviors Campaign

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      Authors: Lijiang Shen, James Price Dillard, Xi Tian, Shannon Cruz, Rachel A. Smith
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Message fatigue is the aversive motivational state that results from excessive exposure to campaign messages or similar information over an extended period of time. When fatigued, individuals become less attentive, less responsive, and more resistant to campaign messages and related information. Thus, understanding the bases and functioning of fatigue in persuasive health campaigns has obvious value. Despite considerable interest in this important topic, major questions remain under-studied. One such question hinges on the observation that campaigns are implemented in social systems, not laboratories. Apart from any direct effects that a campaign might produce, there is the potential for secondary exposure via individuals or other media that can yield distinct influences. How do these multiple sources work together to influence fatigue' Second, as explicated, message fatigue is the consequence of repeated exposure to campaign messages over time. With few exceptions, however, fatigue research has employed only cross-sectional designs, which preclude conclusions about the dynamic behavior of fatigue. How does fatigue change over the course of a campaign' Finally, the bases of fatigue are not entirely clear. Whereas fatigue is defined as a subjective judgment of excessive exposure, little is known about the affective processes underlying that judgment. How do emotional responses to a campaign amplify or attenuate fatigue' We examined these questions in the context of a campus COVID-19 safety behaviors campaign.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T04:41:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221124668
       
  • Digital Automation and AI: Trajectories and Cultures in and Outside the
           Workplace

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      Authors: Jeremy Schulz, Laura Robinson, Barry Wellman
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This issue of the American Behavioral Scientist brings together seven contributions that explore different facets of the two overarching themes connected to digital automation. The first section of the issue delves into the complex ways in which digital automation interacts with preexisting social and economic institutions, specifically professions, markets, and formal organizations. The second section includes contributions that explore the cultural side of digital automation in terms of time and humanness. The issue concludes with an examination of the complex entanglement of digital automation and the covid-19 pandemic as they reshape the post-automation/post-pandemic economic landscape, including labor markets, jobs, consumption, and economic growth.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T12:15:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221127245
       
  • Constructing What Counts as Human at Work: Enigma, Emotion, and Error in
           Connective Labor

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      Authors: Allison J. Pugh
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The rationalization of human life in work, feeling, and relationships is amplified by artificial intelligence (AI), apps and automation, challenging interpersonal workers not only in how and whether they do their work, but also how they understand themselves as human. Given these trends, how do interpersonal workers interpret the humanness of their work' To answer this question, I focus on the interactive service work I call “connective labor,” relying on 80+ in-depth interviews and 300+ hours of ethnographic observations with teachers, therapists and primary care physicians in the San Francisco Bay Area and mid-Atlantic United States, as well as with less advantaged practitioners such as sex workers, hairdressers, and home health care aides. I found that these interpersonal workers differentiated themselves from AI, automated agents, and robots in three ways: (1) by describing and defending their work as not rote, (2) taking pains to prove that they were not robots, and (3) justifying their judgments as safe, unique, and worthwhile. Much of their case rested on the unpredictability of humans, in terms of feelings, secrets, and mistakes. These findings have implications for race, class, and gender inequality, as advantage shaped how people were able to demand, perform, or experience their humanness in the ways that the proliferation of algorithmic technologies made salient.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T05:30:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221127240
       
  • Identifying Alternative Occupations for Truck Drivers Displaced Due to
           Autonomous Vehicles by Leveraging the O*NET Database

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      Authors: Jenna A. Van Fossen, Chu-Hsiang Chang, J. Kevin Ford, Elizabeth A. Mack, Shelia R. Cotten
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Automation continues to be a disruptive force in the workforce. In particular, new automated technologies are projected to replace many mid-skill jobs, potentially displacing millions of workers. Career planning agencies and other organizations can help support workers if they are able to effectively identify optimal transition occupations for displaced workers. We drew upon the 24.2 Occupational Information Network (O*NET) Database to conduct two related studies that identify alternate occupations for truck drivers, who are at risk of job loss due to the adoption of autonomous vehicles. In Study 1, we statistically compared the jobs that we identified based on different search methods using O*NET classifications based on their similarity to the knowledge, skills, values, and interests held by truck drivers. In Study 2, we conducted a survey of truck drivers to evaluate their perceptions of the occupations identified as objectively similar to their occupation. Results indicate that optimal transition occupations may be identified by searching for occupations that share skills as well as the same work activities/industry as a given occupation. These findings hold further implications for career planning organizations and policymakers to ease workforce disruption due to automation.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T05:29:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221127239
       
  • Addressing COVID-19 Misinformation and Resiliency Among Latinos Living
           With HIV: Formative Research Guiding the Latinos Unidos Microgame
           Intervention

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      Authors: Victoria Orrego Dunleavy, Regina Ahn, Daniel Mayo, Lindsay D. Grace
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Besides the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) itself, the indirect and unprecedented effects of mitigation strategies including shelter-in-place orders and social distancing combined with the widespread COVID “infodemic” disseminated by media interacted synergistically to worsen already compromised mental health outcomes of Latino people living with HIV (PLWH). This funded project directly addresses the sources of health disparity in Miami Dade County: mental health and misinformation by developing a culturally tailored resilience and media literacy intervention for Latinos living with HIV. Extant research on resilience strategies and media literacy skills have documented their effectiveness in assisting individuals make realistic appraisals and informed decisions that could benefit their health outcomes and improve health-related challenges. We utilized a community-based approach by collaborating with two local community partners (Open Arms and Borinquen) and conducting 27 qualitative interviews with Latino PLWH, infectious disease providers, and community health workers who directly informed content of the Latino Unidos microgame intervention. This article describes the formative research process guiding the Latinos Unidos microgame intervention—a three-module gamified intervention. Study outcomes provide the foundation for media and educational strategies that increase adherence to health guidance and enhance mental health responses to adversity as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T05:03:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221124660
       
  • Framing Effects on US Adults’ Reactions to COVID-19 Public Health
           Messages: Moderating Role of Source Trust

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      Authors: Sarah E. Vaala, Matthew B. Ritter, Deepak Palakshappa
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Increasing politicization of health guidance and fluctuating trust in public health institutions have challenged effective coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) public health communication in the United States. Applying the extended parallel process model, this research reports findings from two online survey experiments conducted at different points in the pandemic regarding two advocated risk reduction behaviors. Analyses test US adults’ emotional and argument strength reactions to experimental tweets attributed to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention which vary with regards to advocated behavior (social distancing; vaccination), emotional appeal, wellbeing orientation (individual vs. collective), and content frame (health vs. economic outcomes). Trust in the CDC is treated as a potential moderator. Results of path analyses indicated that emotional appeal and content frame had little impact on emotional or cognitive responses to the social distancing tweets, though unvaccinated adults with low trust in the CDC experienced greater hope and fear responses to tweets emphasizing collective benefits of vaccination. Hope reactions in both studies predicted greater perceived response efficacy for the advocated behavior, particularly among those with low CDC trust, while message annoyance undermined efficacy among low trust participants. Particularly among adults with low trust in the CDC, fear reactions led to reduced efficacy. Perceived efficacy of vaccination predicted greater intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, controlling for prior intention. Messages which inspire hope with regards to risk reduction behaviors and include sound arguments may be more motivating than fear-appeal messages, particularly among individuals with low levels of trust in public health institutions.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T06:24:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221124664
       
  • How Campus Alienation Exacerbated International Students’ Difficulties
           in Accessing Campus Services Remotely During COVID-19: Notes on Policy and
           Programming

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      Authors: Anil Lalwani, Wendy M. Green, Karla R. Hamlen Mansour
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The declining trend of international student enrollment in the United States has been investigated from the standpoint of social discrimination, and more recently, by accounting for the compounding effects of COVID-19-based campus closures and remote learning operations. The purpose of this study was to explore whether experiences of campus alienation are related to difficulties international students faced while accessing campus services remotely. A survey was developed and validated for the study. It was completed by 417 international students attending US postsecondary institutions. A canonical correlation was conducted to evaluate the multivariate shared relationships between campus exclusion, COVID-19 racism, and country of origin as one set of variables, and difficulties accessing campus services remotely (DASCR) and international travel difficulties as the other set. Results revealed one significant canonical function; this model explained 27% of variance shared between the two variable sets. Indicators of shared variance provided evidence for significant relationships between experiences characterizing campus alienation and DASCR. Implications are drawn in light of policy and program development, and practical examples are provided for postsecondary educators on how to offer pertinent outreach to their international students and advocate for inclusive campus policies in managing international student engagement remotely during campus closure.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T06:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118257
       
  • Pathways to Political Persuasion: Linking Online, Social Media, and Fake
           News With Political Attitude Change Through Political Discussion

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      Authors: Homero Gil de Zúñiga, Pablo González-González, Manuel Goyanes
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      There is a vast research tradition examining the antecedents that lead people to be politically persuaded. However, political opinion and attitude change in social media has received comparatively scarce attention. This study seeks to shed light on this strand of the literature by theoretically advancing and empirically testing a structural equation model linking online social media, and fake news exposure, with political discussion and political persuasion in social media. Drawing on autoregressive causal tests from two waves of US survey panel data collected in 2019 and 2020, our results indicate that online, social media fake news, and political discussion are all positive predictors of individual political attitude change. Furthermore, structural equation tests reveal that online and social media news lead individuals to be exposed to fake news, which, in turn, predict higher levels of political discussion, ultimately facilitating political persuasion in the social media realm. Limitations and further suggestions for future research are also included in the study.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T09:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118272
       
  • Intertwined Crises: California’s Public Universities’ Responses to
           COVID-19 and Anti-Asian Animus, January 2020 to June 2021

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      Authors: Andrés Castro Samayoa, Bach Mai Dolly Nguyen, Marisa Lally, Brittney Pemberton
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      COVID-19 ravaged everyday life for individuals across the globe, but its impact was especially harmful to Asian Americans who suffered both a notably high risk of infection and hospitalization, as well as a sharp rise in anti-Asian racism. In this article, we take these intertwined issues—a synergistic interaction between a novel virus and the deeply rooted racism rendering Asian Americans as perennial foreigners—to interrogate whether and how organizations’ early responses to COVID-evidenced communicative strategies that acknowledged the crises that unraveled throughout 2020. Through the framings of Situational Crisis Communication Theory and Racialized Organizations, this study considers what repertoire of crisis communication strategies do public institutions employ to address COVID-19 and what do these responses reveal about racialized inequality in higher education' The findings draw from an original archive of 2,723 public community messages across 31 public institutions in the University of California and California State University systems and demonstrate a deprioritization of responsiveness to anti-Asian animus amid the multiple issues emergent from COVID-19; rather than taking the opportunity to foreground universities’ capacity to respond to this crisis, institutions often redirected their responsibility. Such evidence reveals that universities are racialized organizations that employ management strategies that remain ill-prepared to not only manage racialized inequality throughout the crises of the COVID-19 syndemic but also to interrupt racism’s durability.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118266
       
  • A Comparison of Covid-19-Related Tweets Disseminated by the Centers for
           Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization During
           the Initial Months of the Pandemic

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      Authors: Lisa Huddleston, Mehroz Sajjad
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The novel coronavirus (Covid-19) that plagued the world in 2020 also brought with it the need to rapidly disseminate information to the public to encourage health-related behavior change. This study examines Covid-19-related Twitter messaging disseminated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization from February 29 to September 22, 2020. The research examined tweets from four constructed weeks, with the first 2 weeks representing days prior to President Donald Trump’s announcement of U.S. withdrawal from WHO, and the second 2-week period after the announcement. The Health Belief Model was used as the theoretical foundation for this study. Frequencies and chi-square analyses revealed less of an overall focus on barriers but no significant differences in messages for tweets related to consequences, benefits, and barriers. Significant differences (p < .01) were found in engagement messaging for the second 2-week period.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T05:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118296
       
  • Constructive Roles of Organizational Two-Way Symmetrical Communication:
           Workplace Pseudo-Information Gatekeeping

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      Authors: Loarre Andreu Perez, Narae Kim, Valentina Martino, Sihyeok Lee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Misinformation, misunderstanding, and rumors are not foreign to organizations. The cost of pseudo-information can be critical for the organization in terms of profit, stakeholder relationships, and reputation. For those reasons, organizations should make efforts to detect and prevent the spread of pseudo-information. This piece of research proposes and finds support in a model to gatekeep pseudo-information in the workplace, in which two-way symmetrical communication is an essential element for the model, predicting employees’ gatekeeping behaviors, and mediating the relationship between quality of the employee–organization relationship and gatekeeping behaviors. Then, the cultivation of relationships with the employees and the adherence to two-way symmetrical communication are cost-effective methods for the organization. Loyal and satisfied employees voluntarily debunk and combat pseudo-information.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T05:41:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118294
       
  • How Constructions of Interpersonal Responsibility Shape Undergraduate
           Student Networks in Times of Social Distancing

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      Authors: Michael Brown, Rachel A. Smith, Robert Reason, Kevin Grady, Stephanie Sowl
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Since Spring 2020, college students have experienced rapid and unpredictable shifts in their social and academic worlds. As institutions implemented social distancing policies, students had to navigate unstable norms related to peer interaction while negotiating what it meant to act responsibly to ensure their own safety and help their communities. Drawing on a network-based approach to pro-social behavior, we conducted a study of undergraduate students’ frequent interaction networks at one research university during Fall 2020 to better understand how students constructed and were influenced by their peer relationship patterns. We observed a typology of student relationship patterns based on the structure and physical location of relationships. This typology had important implications for how students assessed risk and expressed care. While students engaged in different behaviors related to social distancing, they all believed they were making a concerted effort to keep their frequent contacts safe.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T05:39:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118291
       
  • Campus Reopening in Fall 2020: Linked More to Political Leadership and
           Institutional Characteristics than to COVID-19 Pandemic Severity

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      Authors: Samuel Snideman, Daniel Collier, Dan Fitzpatrick, Chris Marsicano
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic forced higher education institutions to reexamine their modes of instruction for the Fall 2020 semester. Some institutions chose to reopen for in-person instruction, others chose online or hybrid modalities. Leveraging data for 2,458 colleges and universities, we examined how political, epidemiological, economic, and institutional characteristics correlated with Fall 2020 reopening plans. We found no discernible relationship between county-level or state-level COVID-19 case counts and reopening plans. Campus demographics (such as White student enrollment) and state political characteristics were related to campus mode of instruction decisions for Fall 2020. The findings highlight the continued, and perhaps increasing, relevance of sociopolitical factors to higher education leaders’ decisions.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T05:37:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118273
       
  • Values, Contexts, and Realities: Senior Student Affairs Officers’
           Decision-Making During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Ann M. Gansemer-Topf
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Senior Student Affairs Officers (SSAOs), whose primary responsibility is the health, safety, and well-being of students, were at the forefront of leading their campuses through the COVID-19 crisis. In Fall 2020 a diverse group of 23 SSAOs was interviewed to understand the contexts and issues that influenced decision-making during the pandemic. A focus on students, alignment with institutional contexts, and financial realities were consistently identified as key influencers of decision-making. Effective decision-making often entails a balancing act of several factors. The implications of this study can be used to inform student affairs practice and the professional development of graduate students and future and current SSAOs.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T10:17:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118275
       
  • Intervening Troubled Marketplace of Ideas: How to Redeem Trust in Media
           and Social Institutions From Pseudo-Information

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      Authors: Homero Gil de Zúñiga, Jeong-Nam Kim
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Today’s public sphere is largely shaped by a dynamic digital public space where lay people conform a commodified marketplace of ideas. Individuals trade, create, and generate information, as well as consume others’ content, whereby information as public space commodity splits between this type of content and that provided by the media, and governmental institutions. This paper first explains how and why our current digital media context opens the door to pseudo-information (i.e., misinformation, disinformation, etc.). Furthermore, the paper introduces several concrete empirical efforts in the literature within a unique volume that attempt to provide specific and pragmatic steps to tackle pseudo-information, reducing the potential harm for established democracies that today’s digital environment may elicit by fueling an ill-informed society.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T08:37:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118279
       
  • Student Trust in Higher Education Institutions: How the Pandemic
           Influenced Undergraduate Trust

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      Authors: Shannon M. Calderone, Kevin J. Fosnacht
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines trust perceptions among college/university students before and after COVID-19 campus closures in spring 2020. Using a special NSSE set of trust items, we measured students’ trust in key campus actors and social institutions. Our interests included examining trust level differences across student subgroups and the impact of these shifts in sentiment on their relationship with their campus and sense of belonging. We found a trivial change in trust in colleges and social institutions before and after the pandemic. However, this overall result masks important differences between student subgroups. We offer recommendations for educational scholars and practitioners.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T08:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118263
       
  • Global Sport Protest Activism Is Exclusive to the Global Elite: A Case
           Study of #boycottqatar2022

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      Authors: Tal Samuel-Azran, Tsahi (Zack) Hayat, Yair Galily
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Toward better understanding the nature of sport global protest, this article examines the profiles of users of the #boycottqatar2022 (N = 111,172), a global initiative calling to boycott the 2022 World Cup on grounds of Qatar’s alleged breach of human rights. A social network analysis identified that 82% of users of the hashtag were from North America and Western Europe, that 88% of the uses of the hashtag were on Twitter (and a minority on Facebook and Instagram), and that the users’ political inclination was mostly liberal in comparison to random users. Overall, the findings indicate that the hashtag was used almost exclusively by activists from the so-called Global North on the more elitist Twitter platform, thus portraying a picture as an act of the global elite rather than a truly inclusive and overarching global initiative. We discuss further theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T06:35:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118299
       
  • Sport Prosumer Networks: Capital and Value of American Sports During
           Covid-19

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      Authors: Alexander J. Bond
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Prosumption capital is underexplored within social media sites, especially within sports. This article explores how the Covid-19 disruptions were used to extract prosumption capital from Twitter. Adopting an economic sociology perspective to measure prosumption capital, 2.3 million tweets were analyzed across the National Basketball Association, Major League Baseball, National Hockey League, and Major League Soccer sports properties. This article applies social network analysis measures, indegree, domain, and proximity prestige to measure prosumption capital and shows how media organizations and other public figures capitalized on the Covid-19 disruptions. It also shows how the structure and those capitalizing through prosumption on Twitter are similar across the sports properties.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T06:32:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118293
       
  • “And Then People Are Surprised That Disasters Befall Us From All
           Directions”: Sport Fans’ Responses to Israel’s First Transgender
           Soccer Referee Sapir Berman

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      Authors: Ilan Tamir
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The current study focuses on sport fans’ attitudes toward the presence of the first transgender soccer referee in an elite league in Israel, and largely reflects the broader discourse on gender diversity and inclusion in general. Soccer referee Sapir Berman’s announcement of her gender transition may have been exceptional, but it joins the broad debate on the role of transgender individuals in sport. Research findings indicate that fans expressed ambivalent reactions to the announcement. Although many responses reflected impressive open-mindedness and support for the referee and her decision, a wide range of opposition strategies was also identified, including disgust, ridicule, violence, and concerns of an existential threat caused by changes in the traditional gender order. The fact that the announcement was made during the COVID-19 pandemic also affected the nature and the contents of fans’ responses.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T06:30:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118290
       
  • A Post-Pandemic Exploration of International Student-Athlete Personal
           Branding and Fan Interaction via Social Media

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      Authors: E. Su Jara Pazmino, Simon M. Pack
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The population of international student-athletes (ISAs) at the collegiate level has dramatically impacted the sporting landscape in North America. Whereas a passionate group of fans is vital to the success of a sports team, the development of that athlete–fan relationship has grown due to the increased media attention on athlete personal branding and social media presence. The present study explores ISAs’ perceptions of social media use for personal branding, the challenges they face, and the extent to which they interact with fans through social media in a post-pandemic context. Athletes have pivoted more recently from personal appearances and other face-to-face interactions to more virtual means of interacting with fans. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ISAs from various sports within Divisions I and II of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Four main themes emerged: (1) social media consumption versus content creation, (2) effects of name, image, and likeness regulations, (3) personal brand building on social media, and (4) fan interaction on social media for ISAs. The study aims to inform various collegiate athletics stakeholders on the potential value of ISAs’ personal branding for fan interaction and how this has been impacted by current name, image, and likeness restrictions.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T06:27:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118289
       
  • Misfires and Surprises: Polling Embarrassments in Recent U.S. Presidential
           Elections

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      Authors: W. Joseph Campbell
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The 2020 elections in the United States brought another round of embarrassment to leading polling organizations whose the final preelection surveys underestimated popular support for President Donald Trump and many down-ticket Republicans. While not necessarily a debacle, the 2020 outcome marked the sixth polling surprise of some variety in the past seven presidential elections. Despite its unenviable recent record, election polling is hardly doomed. This essay addresses why, while offering an overview of major polling failures in U.S. presidential elections since 1996.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-29T07:06:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118901
       
  • Sport Fanship at the Age of the Pandemic: Preliminary Thoughts in Times of
           (Global) Change

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      Authors: Yair Galily, Tal Samuel-Azran, Tsahi Hayat
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Sport fanship is immeasurable and represents one of society’s most universal leisure activities. The current collection of research on the fanship phenomena is truly global: 25 scholars from 4 continents (including North and south America, UK, Australia, Norway, Netherland, and Israel) looked closely at various dimensions of sport fanship. The ongoing COVID pandemic presents both spectators on and off the field with various challenges side to unique opportunity to rethink the way sport fans consume and interact. Thus, the aim of this double special issue with 13 papers was to assemble both applied or theoretical research from experts within fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology, philosophy, political science, economy, media, and gender studies.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-29T07:03:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118298
       
  • Credibility of the Official COVID Communication in Thailand: When People
           Stop Believing the Government

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      Authors: Pavel Slutskiy, Smith Boonchutima
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      One of the challenges of health communication during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been maintaining the credibility of official sources of information. Netizens constantly questioned the authorities’ messaging for inconsistencies in official narratives, which led to the dissemination of what came to called fake news that just happened to occasionally to be true. COVID skepticism affected countries around the world including Thailand, where social media users were regularly suspicious of the government narratives presented to the general public. The question arose of how people can factcheck official messaging that appears to be questionable, and the subject remains an issue more than 2 years later: Who should be the ultimate arbiter of truth in the COVID debate, and when does one turn to this arbiter' This paper follows Thailand social media discourse in an examination of discursive frames with the aim of identifying the correlations between public approval of Thai government disease control efforts and public skepticism of the official messages. The analysis demonstrates that the Thai public was generally accepting of the government’s messaging as long as the government’s efforts generally appeared to be successful but that public skepticism increased as approval of government actions decreased. Netizens in Thailand turned to Western sources of information such as the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control in searches for accurate information. This example of the Thai public’s COVID-19 discourse during the pandemic illustrates how credibility can be a function of approval rather than of truthfulness and transparency.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-29T07:01:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118297
       
  • Health Challenges and Community College Student Outcomes Before and During
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Alyse C. Hachey, Claire Wladis, Catherine A. Manly, Katherine M. Conway
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study details the prevalence of community college students’ reports of serious health events both before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. Survey responses from a representative sample of students within the largest community college at the City University of New York highlighted serious health challenges. Findings indicated that serious health challenges (including illness/injury/disability/mental health) were a significant factor in predicting students’ outcomes during the spring 2020 term. However, health-related events that occurred prior to the onset of the pandemic had a substantially and significantly larger correlation with course outcomes than those that occurred after the onset of the pandemic. This suggests that serious health issues may be a major barrier to student progress at community colleges, even outside of the conditions of a global pandemic, and that the pandemic may have only exacerbated this significant but often overlooked preexisting issue.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-29T06:58:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118295
       
  • Higher Education Stakeholders’ Early Responses to the COVID-19
           Crisis

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      Authors: Rebecca Natow, Ane Turner Johnson, Catherine A. Manly
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a swift and dramatic shift in how higher education teaching, learning, and other operations occurred. In the months that followed, higher education stakeholders endured major transitions and unexpected challenges. Higher education leaders, policymakers, students, faculty, and staff were influenced by the pandemic in a variety of ways. There is much to be learned from the experiences of higher education stakeholders during the early months of the pandemic. This article introduces the two-part special issue on Higher Education Stakeholders’ Early Responses to the COVID-19 Crisis, situating the research presented in the special issue within the broader context of high-stakes decision-making during a period of global uncertainty, stress, and conflict. The first part of the special issue presents research on the responses of institutional leaders and policymakers to the COVID-19 crisis. The second part of the special issue examines student and “classroom” experiences during the early months of the pandemic. Studies such as these on the responses of higher education stakeholders to the COVID-19 crisis enhance important understanding about how institutional leaders, policymakers, and other stakeholders made sense of and took steps to address the challenges presented by the pandemic.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-29T06:56:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118288
       
  • Production and Correction of Misinformation About Fine Dust in the Korean
           News Media: A Big Data Analysis of News From 2009 to 2019

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      Authors: Daemin Park, Hyelim Lee, Se-Hoon Jeong
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Based on framing theory and attribution theory, this research examines how the Korean news has framed and attributed the causes of fine dust in terms of external factors (i.e., China-responsibility) or internal factors (e.g., Korea-responsibility). We conducted a large-scale big-data analysis such as natural language processing and semantic network analysis to examine how news about fine dust in the Korean news had been produced and corrected. We used search terms, such as “fine dust” and “China,” to collect 21,222 articles from 54 media outlets over 11 years from 2009 to 2019. Fine dust reporting could be divided mainly into two stages of (a) producing misinformation and (b) correcting misinformation. In the phase of producing misinformation (before 2015), the Korea Meteorological Administration appeared as a major source of information and emphasized “fine dust from China” in its weather forecast. In the phase of correcting misinformation (after 2015), environmental and civic groups appeared as major sources of information. They urged the Korean government to initiate policies rather than blame China. Another important group, the scholars, denied China-responsibility and started to talk about Korea-responsibility. The government also emphasized on cooperation of Northeast Asian countries and initiating eco-friendly domestic policies based on LTP results (Long-range Transboundary Pollutants). Overall, misinformation was produced in the process of “climate,” → “socialization,” → “politicization,” and misinformation was corrected through “scientification,” → “Asianization” internationally, and “Korea-responsibility” → “eco-friendly policymaking” domestically.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T05:26:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118287
       
  • Online Football-Related Antisemitism in the Context of the COVID-19
           Pandemic: A Multi-Method Analysis of the Dutch Twittersphere

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      Authors: Jasmin Seijbel, Jacco van Sterkenburg, Ramón Spaaij
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines online expressions of rivalry and hate speech in relation to antisemitic discourses in Dutch professional men’s football (soccer), with specific attention devoted to how this has developed within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study analyses football-related antisemitic discourses in the Dutch-speaking Twittersphere between 2018 and 2021. Assuming that during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic fan activity has moved increasingly toward the online domain, we specifically examine whether and how the past pandemic years have influenced football-related antisemitic discourses on Twitter. Tweets were scraped using the Twitter application programming interface and 4CAT (a capture and analysis Toolkit), producing a dataset of 7,917 unique posts. The authors performed thematic analysis of the Tweets and a selection of the Tweets was analyzed in depth using narrative digital discourse analysis. The findings show how these Tweets, while seemingly targeted exclusively at football opponents, contribute to wider exclusionary discourse in football and society that may have become more aggravated during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T05:24:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118286
       
  • Information Environments and Support for COVID-19 Mitigation Policies

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      Authors: Andrew J. Anderson, Joshua M. Scacco
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This research assesses how the environment for coronavirus disease (COVID) information contributed to the public’s willingness to support measures intended to mitigate the spread and transmission of the virus in the early stages of the pandemic. A representative sample of 600 Floridians was surveyed in April 2020. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, COVID anxiety, and knowledge about the virus, we find that components of the information environment mattered for public opinion related to mitigation policies. Television news sources, including local and national network news, center-left cable news (i.e., CNN, MSNBC), and Fox News, contributed to shaping policy support. The results highlight the importance of televised news coverage in shaping public opinion toward healthcare-related policies.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T05:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118285
       
  • The Twitter Following For the Beijing Winter Olympics and the
           Russian–Chinese Fans’ Alliance: A Social Network Analysis

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      Authors: Tsahi (Zack) Hayat, Yair Galily, Tal Samuel-Azran
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examines the extent to which mega sport events play a role in connecting people from different countries, using the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics as its case study. The analysis examines social connection (on Twitter) between Chinese and Russians and whether these connections are more likely to occur among the followers of the @Beijing2022 Twitter account, if compared with Twitter users in these countries who do not follow this account. The choice of the Russians and the Chinese also stems from their countries’ united front against those Western countries whose diplomats boycotted the games. The analysis reveals that, in cases where two people follow @Beijing2022, the likelihood of there being a connection between them increases by 8%, as compared with those people who do not follow this account, while controlling for other relevant variables. The findings indicate that mega sport events which take place under a boycott have the ability to be enhancers of international social connections.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T05:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118281
       
  • Perceived Exposure and Concern for Misinformation in Different Political
           Contexts: Evidence From 27 European Countries

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      Authors: Federico Vegetti, Moreno Mancosu
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Political misinformation is becoming an increasingly central topic in both public and academic debate. The main normative concern is that the diffusion of false political news might lead to distorted perceptions of the social and political reality. Indeed, existing research largely focuses on the determinants of public misinformation and the spread of false news. However, the mere awareness of the diffusion of fake news might have important implications, by reducing the public trust in the information environment. This study aims at explaining the contextual variation in citizens’ perceived exposure to false information and their concerns for the impact of false information on society and democracy. We focus on two properties of the context: party polarization, as a proxy for the degree of political conflict, and media accuracy. We provide empirical evidence for our claims using a mix of data from Eurobarometer, the European Election Studies, the European Media System Survey, and Freedom House. We find that polarization and media accuracy are not related to the citizens’ self-assessed exposure to false information, but they are significantly associated with their concerns. We also find that citizens’ perceived exposure to false news is better explained by the degree of media freedom in the country.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T05:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118255
       
  • Innoculating Fandom: Riding the Roller Coaster of Sports During the
           Pandemic

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      Authors: Walter Gantz, Lawrence Wenner
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Using a critical events theoretic analytic lens, we argue that the Covid-19 pandemic had the disruptive power to shake the foundation of sports fanship, much as it affected all aspects of contemporary life across the globe. We conducted a survey of 613 adults in the United States, all of whom self-identified as sports fans. Sports fanship avidity dipped during the height of the pandemic when games, matches, and seasons were cancelled or conducted in protective bubbles without fans in the stands. That dip was temporary. With sports back in full-throttle mode, fanship avidity returned to pre-pandemic levels. Those who identified as strong fans appeared to cherish its return, some even more avid than before. The impact of the pandemic on sports fanship was most acute among those who were not ardent sports fans to begin with—and its impact appears to have extended over time.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T05:51:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118276
       
  • The Real-Time Social and Academic Adaptations of First-Generation College
           Students During the Global Pandemic

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      Authors: Jeffrey K. Grim, Emma Bausch, Steven Lonn
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In March 2020, during the beginning of the COVID-19 global pandemic in the US, institutions of higher education abruptly pivoted to a completely online experience that resulted in massive changes in experiences for faculty, staff, and students. As with other facets of society, the global pandemic has disproportionately impacted those who are already underserved including first-generation college students (FGCS). While we now have more understanding about some outcomes of FGCS from the pandemic, less is known about how FGCS navigated the first weeks of the abrupt transition. This study captures in real time how 54 FGCS from one institution navigated the evolving pandemic and university experience. Themes revealed how students managed an evolving information deluge, cared for their peers, managed online coursework, and dealt with increased financial and familial pressures. Our study concludes with implications for preparing for future abrupt disruptions to higher education.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T05:46:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118260
       
  • Correcting What’s True: Testing Competing Claims About Health
           Misinformation on Social Media

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      Authors: Emily K. Vraga, Leticia Bode
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study expands on existing research about correcting misinformation on social media. Using an experimental design, we explore the effects of three truth signals related to stories shared on social media: whether the person posting the story says it is true, whether the replies to the story say it is true, or whether the story itself is actually true. Our results suggest that individuals should not share misinformation in order to debunk it, as audiences assume sharing is an endorsement. Additionally, while two responses debunking the post do reduce belief in the post’s veracity and argument, this process occurs equally when the story is false (thereby reducing misperceptions) as when it is true (thus reinforcing misperceptions). Our results have implications for individuals interested in correcting health misinformation on social media and for the organizations that support their efforts.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T05:45:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118252
       
  • Framing the Catalan Conflict: A Decade of el procés in the
           International Media

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      Authors: Cristina Perales-García, Carles Pont-Sorribes, David Meseguer-Mañá, Enric Xicoy-Comas
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Since 2010 the Catalan secessionist movement has been reported on extensively in the global media. Beginning with the 2010 demonstrations against the decision of the Spanish Constitutional Court to reject a new Catalan statute of autonomy, and covering subsequent events such as the unofficial self-determination referendum in 2017, the trial and imprisonment of Catalan political leaders, and the violent protests against the verdicts; the events in the region have all featured heavily on the front pages of the international press. This study analyzes how US and UK newspapers have covered the Catalan independence movement during the period from 2010 to 2019. To do so, this study focuses on two US newspapers (The New York Times and The Washington Post) and two from the UK newspapers (The Daily Telegraph and The Guardian) and observes how the positions of the Spanish and Catalan governments are represented through the analysis of the frames used to construct the newspapers’ coverage, as well as the overall tone and the sources used by the journalists. To detect the dominant framework, a framing analysis is undertaken from a communicative and deductive perspective, applying Semetko and Valkenburg’s classification. In-depth interviews are also conducted with the newspapers’ Spanish-based foreign correspondents which allows the analysis to include the correspondents’ views on the difficulties faced by them during their time spent while covering the conflict. The study’s primary conclusion is that the international press downplays the significant role played by social movements and civil society in the secession movement, with a strong preference shown by journalists to rely on representatives of official sources as the most valid spokespersons for the movement. Secondly, the study finds that media attention follows closely the flash-points of the conflict with more coverage appearing at the moments of greater political tension between the Spanish and Catalan governments. This suggests that civil society mobilizations attract less interest from the media that instead prefers to focus on developments in the political sphere.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T05:25:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118540
       
  • How War-Framing Effects Differ Depending on Publics’ Conspiracy Levels:
           Communicating the COVID-19 Vaccination

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      Authors: Jarim Kim, Jinha Baek, Jiyeon Lee, Jaeyeon Kim
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Public conspiracy beliefs prevent various social institutions including governments from communicating effectively. Fostering effective communication with high conspiracy belief individuals, who often disregard important public health messages, is crucial. This study investigated whether war framing could be used to effectively communicate with highly suspicious individuals. Specifically, it used an online experiment with 398 Korean citizens to examine how war-framing effects vary based on individual differences in general conspiracy and government-related conspiracy beliefs in the COVID-19 vaccination context. The results generally showed that literal messages were more effective for low conspiracy belief individuals while war-framed messages were more effective for those with high conspiracy beliefs. Additional analysis indicated that general conspiracy and government-related conspiracy beliefs were negatively associated with individuals’ vaccination attitudes and intentions. This study concludes by discussing the practical implications of its findings for health communication involving highly suspicious individuals.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T05:20:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118283
       
  • Learning From COVID-19: Unchanging Inequality and Ideology in Higher
           Education

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      Authors: Ryan S. Wells
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Articles in this two-issue series have done an excellent job showing how higher education stakeholders responded to a rapidly changing postsecondary context due to COVID-19. In this concluding essay, I reflect on some of that work and take a moment to also focus on what has not changed. As many others have noted, the pandemic amplified already-existing aspects of societal inequality. This was due in part to decisions, policies, and institutional practices grounded in unchanging logics that accept, maintain, or exacerbate inequitable systems and processes. As more people recognize the injustices in our postsecondary system that COVID-19 has helped to reveal, the time is right for a new progressive research agenda. Building on the work authors have contributed to these issues, the agenda must include new ways of thinking and investigating questions that often remain unasked. It must come from a place of seeing a possible transformation for higher education. As part of this agenda, racism, ableism, neoliberalism, and related ideologies must be analyzed, scrutinized, and ultimately transformed if higher education is to address the continuation of the COVID-19 crisis and be ready for the next ones.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T05:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118278
       
  • State Higher Education Funding during COVID-19: Exploring State-Level
           Characteristics Influencing Financing Decisions

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      Authors: Paul G. Rubin, Meredith S. Billings, Lindsey Hammond, Denisa Gándara
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Building on research examining state financing for higher education, our qualitative comparative case study investigates state policymakers’ decisions for funding public higher education during the COVID-19 crisis in California and Texas. These states were purposively selected based on the size of their postsecondary sector, state partisanship, and higher education funding responses during the pandemic. Moreover, these states represent two of the largest public postsecondary enrollments nationally and serve a racially and ethnically diverse student population. Guiding our study is the Hearn and Ness (2018) framework investigating the ecology of state higher education policymaking, which offers four contextual categories that influence state policy decisions: socioeconomic context, organizational and policy context, politico-institutional context, and external context. This framework suggests underlying factors influencing the state funding process, while also providing an opportunity to expand on this theory through the unique COVID-19 context. We used deductive and inductive techniques to analyze 28 interviews with a range of actors, including state elected officials, state government staff, and higher education officials. We also examined 69 documents (state budgets, news articles, and state executive orders) to triangulate and verify our interview data. Two areas served as key events that ultimately influenced higher education funding decisions in California and Texas: (1) the preference of certain higher education institutions and (2) the availability and application of federal dollars. Furthermore, the organizational and policy context and the politico-institutional context, as defined by the Hearn and Ness framework, provided additional state-level factors that resulted in distinct responses. This study offers practical and theoretical contributions to higher education policy and practice, including highlighting the decision-making and prioritization processes of state policymakers when facing an unprecedented pandemic and crisis, and discussing common and unique factors influencing higher education policymaking in two different state contexts.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T05:12:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118270
       
  • From “Angry Mobs” to “Citizens in Anguish”: The Malleability of
           the Protest Paradigm in the International News Coverage of the 2021 US
           Capitol Attack

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      Authors: Volha Kananovich
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study tests the robustness of the “protest paradigm”—a routinized, predominantly negative pattern in covering social protest—by examining the news coverage of the 2021 US Capitol attack in eight countries that vary in the nature of their political regime and geopolitical standing, with democratic US allies United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, France, Australia on one side, and authoritarian adversaries Russia, China, and Iran on the other. Based on a computer-assisted analysis of 3,579 news articles, the study shows that rather than operating as a rigid template, the protest paradigm offers national media a malleable set of journalistic devices that can be appropriated to construct the meaning of disruptive global events in a way that reproduces dominant domestic ideologies and advances the ruling elites’ geopolitical interests. In addition to theoretical contribution, the study offers a novel empirical finding to the literature on protest coverage by providing evidence of national media not simply deviating from, but explicitly violating the protest paradigm. As demonstrated by the analysis of the Russian press, rather than delegitimizing the January 6 attackers by making light of their agenda and emphasizing their unruly behavior—which could be expected from coverage consistent with the protest paradigm—the Russian state-owned media trivialized the brutality of the attack by opting for cues with less violent connotations and elevated the legitimacy of the protesters’ actions by framing them as valid demands by politically minded citizens unjustly prosecuted for concerns about the integrity of electoral process.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T06:06:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118265
       
  • The Effect of COVID-19 on Home Advantage in Women’s Soccer: Evidence
           From Swedish Damallsvenskan

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      Authors: Alex Krumer, Vetle A. O. Smith
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Most studies of the effect of COVID-19 restrictions on home advantage have been conducted on men’s soccer, with the women’s game lacking scientific attention. The present study fills this gap by investigating games in Swedish Damallsvenskan women’s soccer league. Comparing games in the 2019 and 2020 seasons, we find a slight, but not statistically significant reduction in home advantage in games without crowds in terms of goals scored and points achieved. However, unlike in most studies on men’s soccer, we find that away teams received significantly more yellow cards in games without crowds compared to games with crowds. We discuss our results in the context of the findings in men’s soccer.JEL Classification: D00, J71, L00, Z13, Z20.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T06:01:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118259
       
  • An Afterthought: Staff of Color and Campus Wellness Within Higher
           Education Responses to COVID-19

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      Authors: Katherine S. Cho, Lauren Brassfield
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      While higher education has continued to adjust to COVID-19, which has included moving to virtual platforms and supporting students’ mental health, what is absent from these conversations is the campus staff enacting the rapidly changing university context. These professionals in academic and student affairs, residential life staff, and advising staff have had to readjust roles, responsibilities, and programs, all while facing ambiguous threats of budget cuts and struggling with their own wellness. Through a qualitative study at a midwestern university using Critical Race Theory, this study focuses on both the pandemic as well as the endemic concerns of racism Staff of Color experience at their higher education institutions. Findings reveal disconnects between university values and communication with the (lack of) financial prioritization and care. While many seek a return to the pre-COVID-19 campus, the strategies, execution, and prioritization of staff hold much longer ramifications regarding campus retention, inclusion, and equity.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T05:52:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118254
       
  • Identifying the Drivers Behind the Dissemination of Online Misinformation:
           A Study on Political Attitudes and Individual Characteristics in the
           Context of Engaging With Misinformation on Social Media

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      Authors: Sophie Morosoli, Peter Van Aelst, Edda Humprecht, Anna Staender, Frank Esser
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The increasing dissemination of online misinformation in recent years has raised the question which individuals interact with this kind of information and what role attitudinal congruence plays in this context. To answer these questions, we conduct surveys in six countries (BE, CH, DE, FR, UK, and US) and investigate the drivers of the dissemination of misinformation on three noncountry specific topics (immigration, climate change, and COVID-19). Our results show that besides issue attitudes and issue salience, political orientation, personality traits, and heavy social media use increase the willingness to disseminate misinformation online. We conclude that future research should not only consider individual’s beliefs but also focus on specific user groups that are particularly susceptible to misinformation and possibly caught in social media “fringe bubbles.”
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T05:33:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118300
       
  • Beyond Cheering: Football Fandom as a Form of Human Play

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      Authors: Felix Lebed, Elia Morgulev
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Lebed formulated play as “other being,” a unique state of escape from reality. If football fans are also “players” and not just spectators, then their interactions with the club are characterized by play-like behaviors. To test this premise, we delivered questionnaires to 488 respondents who identified themselves as football followers or fans. We revealed that the most emotionally involved fans (“hot”) tend to playful behaviors significantly more than others, whereas less involved fans were more inclined to influence their team’s “life.” The obtained results shed light on additional motivations and priorities of fans, motivations that can be overlooked in literature where fans are being considered as “ordinary” customers. Consequently, this realization may assist decision-makers to address the specific groups of fans with adequately designed strategies.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T05:29:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118261
       
  • Understanding Active Communicators on the Food Safety Issue:
           Conspiratorial Thinking, Organizational Trust, and Communicative Actions
           of Publics in China

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      Authors: Myoung-Gi Chon, Linjia Xu, Jarim Kim, Jiaying Liu
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      As misinformation is common in the digital media environment, it has become more important to understand risk communication in the context of communicative behaviors of publics that affect public opinion and policymaking. Focusing on food safety issues such as genetically modified food and food additives in China, this study aims to understand the communicative action of publics and the role of organizational trust in the conspiratorial thinking of publics and their perceptions of food safety issues. Using a national sample of 1,089 citizens living in China, this study examines situational theory of problem solving (STOPS) to understand when and how publics become active in communicative actions to take, select, and transmit information regarding food safety issues. In addition, this study tests the role of organizational trust in the food industry between conspiratorial thinking of publics and their situational perceptions, which are antecedent variables to increase communicative action of publics in problem solving. The results demonstrate that STOPS can be applied to the food safety issue to predict communicative actions of publics, and organizational trust plays a vital role in reducing individuals’ concerns about the food safety issue.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T05:12:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118284
       
  • Old Rules for New Times: Sportswomen and Media Representation in the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Brent McDonald, Fiona McLachlan, Ramón Spaaij
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      During the first few months of the pandemic, professional sport around the globe stopped, as competitions and leagues were cancelled, postponed, or went into hiatus while sport administrators scrambled to work out ways to reboot their product in a COVID-19 world. Sport media outlets were faced with the task of reporting on sport and filling the void for fans in the absence of any live content. This article is concerned with the content, both in quantity and quality that fans of women’s sport could consume in those first months. In the context of the current “boom” in women’s professional sports, we draw on the analysis of two online sport media sites to consider the narratives of female athletes that fans had access to. The findings suggest that during the beginning of the pandemic sport stories about women were largely erased and replaced by those appealing to a very different fan market.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T05:09:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118280
       
  • The Next Best Thing: How Media Dependency and Uses and Gratifications
           Inform Esport Fandom During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Andrew Billings, Sai Datta Mikkilineni
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      COVID-19 ushered new forms of media engagement when traditional sporting events and league play were suspended. Subsequently, certain sections of the audience moved online to fill their needs typically satisfied via traditional sport consumption. Esport is one such form of digital entertainment that significantly altered the ways in which sport fans can immerse themselves in related content. To examine how those audience obtained gratifications, we surveyed traditional sport fans who have either increased or initiated esports media consumption during the pandemic, doing so through the lens of media dependency theory. Results from 155 sports fans demonstrate three key findings. First, gratifications for traditional sports were significantly higher than those of esports. Secondly, ascending esports consumers maintained significantly more intense gratifications than did new users. Finally, media dependency was a significant, positive predictor of all 12 of the traditional sports motivations and 9 of the 12 esport motivations.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T05:08:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118277
       
  • Understanding How Student Support Practitioners Navigated Ideal Worker
           Norms During COVID-19: The Role of Job-Crafting

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      Authors: Genia M. Bettencourt, Lauren N. Irwin, Joseph A. Kitchen, Zoë B. Corwin
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Student support practitioners (SSPs) play a key role in supporting at-promise (low-income, first-generation college, and/or racially minoritized) students in higher education. However, delivering such support can lead to stress and burnout when practitioners do not receive commensurate support and flexibility to do their jobs. In this study, we examined how SSPs supported students while fulfilling their needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data collected during 2020 to 2021 as part of a longitudinal study of a comprehensive college transition program at three midwestern universities, we examine how SSPs engaged in job crafting during the pandemic. Our findings reveal that job crafting largely perpetuated and expanded ideal worker norms during the pandemic. Implications from this research suggest the need to consider how to institutionally support job crafting in ways that center the needs of SSPs.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T05:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118274
       
  • A Comparative Analysis of Social Media Fan (Community) Engagement in a
           European and a North American Pro-Sport League and Their Reaction to
           Industry-Wide Disruptions

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      Authors: Gidon Jakar, Jeff Carr
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Professional and amateur sport throughout the world experienced an industry-wide disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The initial stage of the pandemic required the postponement of leagues and games, until athletic events were resumed without fans. This disruption required the sport industry to adapt and supply substitute products to engage users without the access to the primary product, live sport. In this study, we compare how a North American league (National Basketball Association) and a European league (English Premier League) adapted to these changes using social media to engage with fans. We examine changes in the volume of Tweets and engagements with official team Twitter posts. Our data contain categorical control variables accounting for different stages of the pandemic. This includes when games were canceled for health and safety reasons, when play was resumed in a bubble format, in-season periods, and offseason periods. Examining social media engagement during these periods is a unique opportunity to compare team (supply) strategies and fan reactions (demand) to a disruption, and to explore the longer-term implications such as expanded engagement after the disruption has ended or when its effects have lessened.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T05:03:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118269
       
  • The 21st Century Globetrotters’ Fans: The Case of Israeli Transnational
           Football Supporters’ Communities Before and During the Pandemic

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      Authors: Orr Levental, Tal Laor, Yair Galily
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In the modern era of commercialized, mediated, and global football, there is a decline in the importance of the local aspect of sports fandom. Nowadays, through television broadcasts, the Internet, and especially social networks, a fan continuously follows elite football clubs from around the world, which provide an alternative to local clubs. This has created a growing trend of football fan communities known as “transnational fans”—fans of sports clubs from other countries. Contrary to traditional definitions of fandom, the transnational fans are not close to the home stadium and therefore do not take part in the ceremonial ritual of actively supporting the club from the stands. Because of this, they are not seen as part of the club’s traditional fans. This means that transnational fans are forced to redefine the image of the football fan and to place special emphasis on an active community and loyalty to the team as markers of devotion. Contributing to the study of the psychology of fandom, this article discusses the characteristics of those fans’ communities in Israel and seeks to present an analysis of the construction of their members’ social and personal identity. To this end, an anthropological approach was adopted, which involved attending community gatherings throughout an entire gaming season and also included a series of in-depth interviews with community members. The findings of the study illustrate two main premises: the use of personal and community resources for self-determination, and the community and its place in the modern fan typology. Each theme attempts to redefine the individual’s role in the social setting and present a dynamic image of football fandom as it will take shape in coming decades.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T05:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118268
       
  • College Presidents’ Public Messaging During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An
           Analysis of Published Opinion Pieces as Crisis Communications

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      Authors: Rebecca Natow
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      During the Spring and Summer of 2020, college presidents across the United States undertook the difficult task of determining how best to respond to the COVID-19 crisis. An important aspect of leading through a crisis is messaging—that is, communicating about how the crisis is impacting one’s organization and how the needs of organizational constituents are being addressed. The purpose of this study was to analyze short opinion articles (op-eds) published by college presidents regarding higher education and the COVID-19 pandemic to understand how those publications functioned as public crisis communications. This study involved a content analysis of 40 op-eds that were authored or coauthored by college presidents between March and August 2020. Findings indicate that college presidents discussed their organizations’ implementation of public health matters, the importance of togetherness in a crisis, and how their institutions were helping the community during the public health emergency. College leaders’ desire to attain much-needed resources was also evident in many op-eds. This study illuminates how college presidents used public messaging via opinion pieces to communicate publicly during the early months of the pandemic and to attempt to secure resources for their organizations.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T04:58:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118267
       
  • The Amplification of Exaggerated and False News on Social Media: The Roles
           of Platform Use, Motivations, Affect, and Ideology

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      Authors: Andrew Chadwick, Cristian Vaccari, Johannes Kaiser
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      We use a unique, nationally representative, survey of UK social media users (n = 2,005) to identify the main factors associated with a specific and particularly troubling form of sharing behavior: the amplification of exaggerated and false news. Our conceptual framework and research design advance research in two ways. First, we pinpoint and measure behavior that is intended to spread, rather than correct or merely draw attention to, misleading information. Second, we test this behavior’s links to a wider array of explanatory factors than previously considered in research on mis-/disinformation. Our main findings are that a substantial minority—a tenth—of UK social media users regularly engages in the amplification of exaggerated or false news on UK social media. This behavior is associated with four distinctive, individual-level factors: (1) increased use of Instagram, but not other public social media platforms, for political news; (2) what we term identity-performative sharing motivations; (3) negative affective orientation toward social media as a space for political news; and (4) right-wing ideology. We discuss the implications of these findings and the need for further research on how platform affordances and norms, emotions, and ideology matter for the diffusion of dis-/misinformation.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T04:57:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221118264
       
  • Revisiting the White Boys From Portland to Ukraine: Anomie and Right-Wing
           Extremism

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      Authors: Randall Blazak
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The 2022 mass shooting in Buffalo, New York that targeted black grocery shoppers followed a now-familiar pattern. A white male, radicalized by online disinformation campaigns, including the narrative that whites are being systematically “replaced” in society, engaged in an act of domestic terrorism to further the cause of white nationalism. This article charts the ways that right-wing extremism has evolved in the first two decades of the twentieth-first century. This recent history begins with the racist skinhead and patriot militia movements that dominated the literature 20 years ago and moves through the rise of the alt-right, lone-wolf attacks, the January 6, 2021, Capitol attack, and finally, situates a globalized movement in a pandemic era of de-globalization that has both direct and indirect connection to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. The theoretical theme throughout is Emile Durkheim’s concept of anomie and how white males have responded to the rapid pace of social change. Conclusions are drawn from a wide variety of interviews, from Proud Boys in Portland, Oregon to Ukrainian soldiers, stationed on the Ukraine–Poland border.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T12:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108940
       
  • The Impact of 9/11 on Money Laundering

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      Authors: Izhar Haq, Islam El Shahat, Michael Abatemarco, Christopher Bates
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines money laundering and terrorist financing from both a conceptual framework as well as the regulations that attempt to combat its use. A historical perspective of money laundering provides context on its origins, evolution, and anti-money laundering efforts. After a review of the money laundering process, anti-money laundering efforts in the United States are examined through the end of the twentieth century as well as the rise of international terrorism. The impact of September 11, 2001 on anti-money laundering efforts is then examined along with identifying links between human and drug trafficking with terrorist financing. The article concludes with emerging technologies that may have a significant impact on both money laundering and anti-money laundering efforts as they apply to the threat of terrorism.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-07-04T04:31:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108943
       
  • Looking Back, Looking Forward: A Personal Reflection

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      Authors: Jonathan R. White
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article contains a personal reflection of experiences in terrorism research over the past few decades. It begins by discussing early academic struggles to recognize the legitimacy of terrorism research, especially in the field of criminal justice. This is followed by a selective description of events where the author correctly predicted events as well as those where he was blindsided by surprises. It closes with an appeal to both the academy and the American public to move beyond ideology and populist understandings of terrorism to grapple with the multiple forms and complexities of terrorist violence.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T01:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108946
       
  • Terrorism in America in the Twenty-First Century: Revisiting My
           Prognostications

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      Authors: Harvey W. Kushner
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, I analyze the warnings I gave prior to the new millennium concerning the possibility of terrorism visiting American soil. The sources of the problem are discussed in detail. These warnings were not showcased in academic journals gathering dust on some university library shelve. They were given to a variety of governmental agencies as well as discussed in the mainstream media. My sources are revealed for all to see. Unfortunately, my prognostications proved accurate when hijacked planes slammed into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108938
       
  • My Back to the Future Moment for Terrorism

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      Authors: Larry C. Johnson
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article, with the benefit of hindsight, analyzes the accuracy (and inaccuracy) of my February 2001 article in the American Behavioral Scientist seeking to answer, “what is the future of terrorism'” I discovered that Shakespeare had it right, “The fault, dear Brutus, lies not in our stars, But in ourselves if we are underlings.” There are two major factors that produce and sustain international terrorism—state sponsorship of individuals and groups that carry out terrorist acts and the actions of nation states that create an aggrieved class that is inspired to use violence to try to achieve political objectives or simply to avenge a perceived wrong. The conclusion reached in 2001 remains valid—Prevention and preparation can pay important dividends in deterring terrorism. But a government’s response must be tempered with reason and prudence. Security and law enforcement policies must reflect the values and the vision that protect and uphold freedom.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:09:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108937
       
  • Editor’s Introduction

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      Authors: Harvey W. Kushner
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:06:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108942
       
  • Assessing the Academic Study of Counterterrorism Since 9/11 in
           Understanding and Preventing Terrorism

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      Authors: Joshua Sinai
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article assesses the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in the discipline of counterterrorism studies since al-Qaeda’s catastrophic attacks against the United States on 9/11 along 10 dimensions: defining terrorism, group and lone actor typologies, causes of terrorism, terrorist psychologies, radicalization and recruitment, organizational dynamics, modus operandi, incident chronology databases, forecasting and predicting terrorism, and countering terrorism.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:01:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108945
       
  • Of Humans, Machines, and Extremism: The Role of Platforms in Facilitating
           Undemocratic Cognition

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      Authors: Julia R. DeCook, Jennifer Forestal
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The events surrounding the 2020 U.S. election and the January 6 insurrection have challenged scholarly understanding of concepts like collective action, radicalization, and mobilization. In this article, we argue that online far-right radicalization is better understood as a form of distributed cognition, in which the groups’ online environment incentivizes certain patterns of behavior over others. Namely, these platforms organize their users in ways that facilitate a nefarious form of collective intelligence, which is amplified and strengthened by systems of algorithmic curation. In short, these platforms reflect and facilitate undemocratic cognition, fueled by affective networks, contributing to events like the January 6 insurrection and far-right extremism more broadly. To demonstrate, we apply this framing to a case study (the “Stop the Steal” movement) to illustrate how this framework can make sense of radicalization and mobilization influenced by undemocratic cognition.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T06:32:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221103186
       
  • The Network Society Revisited

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      Authors: Manuel Castells
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The theory of the network society, in my own version, was originally elaborated in the book that, under the title The Rise of the Network Society, I published in 1996. It was revised and updated in the 2000 and 2010 editions. However, the significant social change that has taken place on a global scale in the last decade provides an opportunity to reassess its heuristic value. Therefore, in this text, I will attempt to consider the currency of the theory of the network society when confronted with these changes.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T11:46:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092803
       
  • Scope and Limits of Community Inclusion: Participatory Budgeting in the
           Santo Domingo Neighborhood of Mexico City

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      Authors: José Eduardo Martínez Martínez, Karla Valverde- Viesca
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Citizen participation mechanisms have become very important in recent decades. This change is due to multiple factors, but the inclusion of citizens in decision-making seeks, among other things, to regain legitimacy and trust from society. In this research, we focus our attention on the case of participatory budgeting in Mexico. In particular, we present some reflections that are derived from the study of the Pedregal de Domingo neighborhood in Mexico City. We propose that it is important to promote incentives for citizen participation.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T04:12:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086959
       
  • Leveraging Community-Driven Anchor Activities Among US For-Profit
           Hospitals

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      Authors: Kelly Lynn Choyke, Cory Edward Cronin, Berkeley Franz
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Hospitals have the ability to serve as anchor institutions that not only provide clinical care but make important community investments through employment, and outreach, and engagement efforts that address the social determinants of health. In doing so, hospitals may partner with community members and community-based organizations, but the extent to which local residents participate in directing local investments varies across organizations. This study looks at the role of hospitals as anchor institutions and the best practices for leveraging community participation in planning investments to improve social and economic health in communities. We used an inductive, qualitative approach to understand the incentives hospitals have to anchor themselves within their communities and how best practices can be leveraged. We conducted 28 in-depth interviews with 27 hospital leaders and personnel, and one interview with a member of a for-profit hospital advocacy organization. Drawing on thematic analysis, three primary themes were identified as critical to leveraging community-driven anchor activities: strong and intentional community-oriented leadership; direct community involvement; and non-regulatory incentives, including incentive programs. The more institutions, organizations, communities, and individuals expect community-oriented anchor activities from hospitals, the more likely they are to engage in such activities. Critical to this work is ensuring that community members themselves are able to help direct the investments of hospitals in alignment with community health needs. Community stakeholders, including elected officials, public health offices, and policymakers, have important leverage in creating expectations for hospitals to engage in anchor activities and facilitate community-based partnerships as a part of this process.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T08:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086961
       
  • Derailed by the COVID-19 Economy' An Intersectional and Life Course
           Analysis of Older Adults’ Shifting Work Attachments

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      Authors: Phyllis Moen, Joseph H. Pedtke, Sarah Flood
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper addresses the uneven employment effects on older Americans (aged 50–75) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on monthly Current Population Survey data from January through December 2020, we take an intersectional and life course approach to study the labor market effects of COVID-19 on older Americans. First, we chart monthly labor force states throughout 2020 for older adult subgroups defined by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. We then examine transitions out of and into work from one month to the next. We find gendered age-graded declines in employment, increases in unemployment, and increases in the proportions of people in their 50s reporting they are not in the labor force for other reasons (NILF-other), most dramatically for Asian and Hispanic women. There is little change in age-graded retirement from before to during the pandemic, regardless of gender or race/ethnicity, though there are education-level effects, with those without a college degree more likely to retire in the face of COVID-19. White men with a college degree are the most apt to retain their work engagement.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T11:41:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066061
       
  • Breakdown 2.0' Systemic Blockages in Late-Stage Statism and Late-Stage
           Liberal Capitalism

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      Authors: Felix Stalder
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Castells’ analysis of the breakdown of Soviet statism is possibly more relevant now than when it was written. By identifying systemic blockages to necessary societal transformation—then from industrialism to informationalism—he offers a framework to analyze the contemporary crisis of liberal democracy. Then and now, the challenges are caused by the system’s inability to organize the complexity created by itself which creates more and more internal contradictions. Two current challenges threatening the stability of the liberal democracy are rising social inequality and the crossing of geophysical boundaries of the earth as an ecological system. The inability to address these challenges is related to systemic blockages within liberal democracies. Parallels to the late Soviet Union are drawn without predicting outcomes.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T12:20:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092799
       
  • The Network and the Society: Structure and Agency in Castells’
           Theory

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      Authors: Andrea Miconi
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the article is to explore the theoretical tension between structure and agency as laid out by Manuel Castells, from The Rise of the Network Society (1996) to Networks of Outrage and Hope (2012). With agency and structure recognized as the two main axes around which general social theory rotates, Castells’ work appears to be affected by discontinuity rather than continuity. The first part of his theory mainly deals with structure and with the “pre-eminence of social morphology over social action”, while the second is rather based on agency, and namely on the role played by grassroots movements. I will retrace his theoretical evolution while also stressing the point that network and society are not one and the same. Therefore, any all-embracing theoretical perspective is destined to miss the target, considering that technical, political, and social affairs follow different rules and patterns.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T12:22:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092805
       
  • Affective Polarization of a Protest and a Counterprotest: Million MAGA
           March v. Million Moron March

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      Authors: Saif Shahin
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Protest movements around the world have become increasingly likely to incite counterprotests that adopt an opposing stance. This study examines how a protest and a counterprotest interact with and shape each other as digitally networked connective action. My empirical focus is the so-called Million MAGA March—in which supporters of U.S. President Donald Trump protested the “stealing” of the November 2020 election by his rival, Joe Biden—and a counterprotest that erupted simultaneously. Drawing on a computational mixed-methods approach to examine two corpora of tweets featuring hashtags used by protesters and counterprotesters, respectively, the study identifies three mutually reinforcing dimensions of protest–counterprotest interaction: affective repertoires, discursive strategies, and network structures. It argues that “affective polarization”—or negative partisanship driven by hostility toward an outgroup—offers a useful conceptual means of understanding the significance of affect and collective identity in digital social movements, especially protest–counterprotest interactions. In doing so, the study also addresses concerns that “big data” methods are insensitive to the role of identity and expressive communication in social movements. Finally, the study demonstrates how online and offline political action are mutually constitutive aspects of contemporary contentious politics.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T01:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091212
       
  • Storytelling and Deliberative Play in the Oregon Citizens’ Assembly
           Online Pilot on COVID-19 Recovery

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      Authors: Laura W. Black, Anna W. Wolfe, Soo-Hye Han
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article draws on the deliberative play framework to examine empirical examples of storytelling in an online deliberative forum: The Oregon Citizen Assembly (ORCA) Pilot on COVID-19 Recovery. ORCA engaged 36 citizens in deliberation about state policy through an online deliberative process spanning seven weeks. Drawing on literature on small stories in deliberation, we trace stories related to a policy proposal about paying parents to educate children at home. Our analysis demonstrates that storytelling activities accomplish aspects of deliberative play through introducing uncertainty, resisting premature closure, and promoting an “as if” frame that allows groups to explore the scope and implications of proposals. Forum design influences interaction and our analysis suggests that technology use and timing are key design features that can facilitate or inhibit deliberative play.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T08:58:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093591
       
  • The Network Society Today

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      Authors: Mireia Fernández-Ardèvol, Ramon Ribera-Fumaz
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      2021 marked the 25th Anniversary of Manuel Castells’ The Rise of the Network Society, the first volume of the Information Age trilogy. The Trilogy immediately became one of the most influential works to understand the societal change in the wake of the digital revolution. More than two decades later, many of the emerging processes theorised and analysed in the Trilogy have reached full maturity, if not evolved in unexpected ways. Also, several theoretical and epistemological trends have developed or consolidated in the social sciences that have either been influenced by or challenged the Trilogy position. In this scenario, is the Network Society Theory still relevant for understanding today’s digitalised society' How should we develop the Network Society approach now' This special issue aims to answer these questions. In particular, in this collection of papers, we identify three interrelated dimensions: new developments in the evolution or disruption of the Network Society, the articulation between network logics and other spatial forms, and the relation of the Network Society with recurrent topics in Castells’ work beyond the Information. The papers are a selection of the contributions to the online workshop The Network Society Today: (Revisiting) the Information Age Trilogy (November 2–30, 2020), in which Prof. Castells also participated. This volume brings together a wide range of established and emerging scholars from a diversity of Social Sciences disciplines with plural theoretically informed papers tackling rich empirical case studies across the world, spanning throughout America, Europe, Africa and Asia. Contributions conclude with a reflection by Manuel Castells on them and his work.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T08:53:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092800
       
  • The Authoritarian Elephant Next Door': A Canadian and Comparative
           Perspective Amidst American Democratic Backsliding & Uncertainty

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      Authors: Jamie Gillies
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The rise of right-wing populism and nationalism has had a profound effect on politics in the advanced industrial world. Canada, flummoxed by its normally reliable neighbor to the south and an American electorate it no longer understands, may have to dramatically rethink its position with respect to the United States both as its major trading partner and closest ally. With a bad faith actor political party in the Republicans, America is increasingly taking on authoritarian tendencies that have already played out in countries such as Hungary and Poland. The recent voting rights suppression movement and a fraudulent campaign to overturn the 2020 election, culminating in the January 6, 2021 insurrection and attack on the Capitol, have created conditions in which anti-democratic measures can potentially overcome weakening democratic institutions. In this article, the upheaval of the Trump years and the dynamics of the 2020 election and its aftermath are put into a Canadian and comparative perspective.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T11:34:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221103182
       
  • To Play Is the Thing: How Game Design Principles Can Make Online
           Deliberation Compelling

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      Authors: John Gastil
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This essay draws from game design to improve the prospects of democratic deliberation during government consultation with the public. The argument begins by reviewing the problem of low-quality deliberation in contemporary discourse, then explains how games can motivate participants to engage in demanding behaviors, such as deliberation. Key design features include: the origin, governance, and oversight of the game; the networked small groups at the center of the game; the objectives of these groups; the purpose of artificial intelligence and automated metrics for measuring deliberation; the roles played by public officials and nongovernmental organizations during the game; and the long-term payoff of playing the game for both its convenors and its participants. The essay concludes by considering this project’s wider theoretical significance for deliberative democracy, the first steps for governments and nonprofit organizations adopting this design, and the hazards of using advanced digital technology.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T10:24:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093592
       
  • Facilitating Deliberative Play

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      Authors: Leah Sprain
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Craig (2022) offers deliberative play as a communicative practice that advances deliberative goals even though it is not per se deliberative. This playful interaction includes indeterminacy or uncertainty of outcome, to-and-fro movement, and an as-if ontology that can be either cooperative or competitive. I draw on the concept of deliberative play and interaction from deliberative events to generate practical theory to guide deliberative facilitators. The analysis demonstrates metacommunicative cues of the deliberative play frame, particularly even-if questions. It also contributes this to the theoretical development of deliberative play by suggesting that some of the instrumental concerns of facilitators (e.g., maintaining engagement and active participation in the creation of new meanings and actionable knowledge) might productively be considered part of deliberative play to help distinguish when to-and-fro movement stops contributing to deliberative goals. This practical theory provides facilitators ways to recognize nondeliberative interaction that can advance deliberative ends.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T10:20:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093590
       
  • Freedom of Discussion versus Predetermined Futures in Deliberation
           Processes

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      Authors: Anna Przybylska, Marta Bucholc, Shin Mazur
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Methods of deliberative consultations usually propose expert information materials to increase knowledge among lay citizens about the considered subject. These materials sometimes also include alternative scenarios for action presented with pros and cons. In our study, we pose the following research questions: (1) Do the participants tend to use predetermined scenarios or diverge from them and generate their reference structures for the deliberation’s indeterminate outcomes' (2) How do the scenarios intervene in the “loping to-and-fro form of movement” in the interactions' (3) How is the knowledge about the preexisting scenarios reflected in the “as if” ontology of thought and action' We introduce play and game as two ideal types of deliberation processes emphasizing the opposition of freedom and pre-determination of outcomes. The analysis used empirical material from online group discussions about various aspects of studying at Warsaw universities. The results showed that regardless of the situation in groups, predefined scenarios are the focus of discussions and anchoring points for the “loping to-and-fro form of movement.” However, participants demonstrated some selectivity, and they did not consider all alternatives. Moreover, they introduced some modifications and new proposals. At the same time, participants tended to diverge more from briefing materials in argumentation. Experiential arguments prevailed, and the pros and cons of each scenario appeared rarely across groups. Interestingly, stricter moderation did not necessarily intervene here, and the group with the highest level of own proposals in some instances followed the game rules more accordingly than other groups. Finally, the language of listening and understanding is frequent, regardless of the number of predefined scenarios discussed by groups, which strengthened the “as if” ontology of thought and action.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T10:17:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093585
       
  • Power and Positionality in Participatory Budgeting

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      Authors: Airín D Martínez
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      There have been few analyses that discuss how power relations present in participatory budgeting (PB) may hinder or facilitate the future of PB. Drawing from PB examples in the United States we discuss the importance of power and positionality analyses during PB stages with the most deliberative participation for community members: forming steering committees, holding local assemblies, and selecting budgets. We discuss power struggles that stem from the lack of transparency in establishing budgets and representing implicated actors in communities. We discuss the importance of analyzing the positionality of municipal actors and community members throughout the life of PB projects. The paper ends by suggesting lessons that future PB initiatives can glean from community-based participatory research (CBPR) in public health, specifically, engaging in co-learning processes, capacity building among all partners, and the equitable distribution of resources between communities. These CBPR principles may facilitate countering narratives about community participation and foment institutional change in the ways local jurisdictions allocate PB budgets and prioritize policy agendas.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T03:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086954
       
  • “The Big Lie”: How Fact Checking Influences Support for
           Insurrection

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      Authors: David Lynn Painter, Juliana Fernandes
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This experimental investigation explores the influence of election fraud fact-checking and cognitive processing styles on participants’ confidence in the 2020 U.S. presidential election’s legitimacy and characterizations of the January Sixth Capitol Hill Attack. The results indicate fact-checking, accuracy motivated reasoning, and systematic processing exerted positive effects on participants’ legitimacy levels, especially among Republicans. We also found that participants’ systematic processing, affiliation with the Democratic Party, and negative attitudes toward Donald Trump were associated with their characterizations of the January Sixth Capitol Hill Attack as violent and extreme. Overall, these results support both motivated reasoning and dual process models, but partisan motivated reasoning exerted the greatest effects. Further, these findings suggest Republican and pro-Trump participants who rely on heuristic processing may find violent, extra-political actions acceptable means of attempting to achieve their goals.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T08:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221103179
       
  • Privilege and the Legacy of an Insurrection: Critical Race Theory, January
           6th, and Preserving Black Resistance

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      Authors: Deion Hawkins, Sharifa Simon-Roberts
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The right to protest and freedom of expression are core principles of democracy; however, on January 6th, 2021, the right to protest spiraled into a full-fledged assault on American ideals. While the smoke was still smoldering, millions were left dumbfounded—the actions were way beyond a traditional protest, instead, the attack on January 6th was classified as an insurrection. Months prior, during the Summer of 2020, then President Trump threatened to invoke the Insurrection Act of 1807 to curb the mostly peaceful Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests. Thus, a clear paradox emerges. On one hand, an unjustified insurrection was met with minimal force, but on the other hand, peaceful protests against state-sanctioned murder were quelled almost immediately. To hypothesize about the insurrection of January 6th without examining the racism and racial privilege embedded in the actions would be immoral; this is especially true considering the historical importance of slave insurrections in advancing Black liberation. Thus, we argue that advancing the narrative of the January 6th insurrection as justified is a disservice to the legacy of protests, rebellions, and insurrections. Utilizing Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a framework, the article analyzes and compares the BLM protests against the insurrection of January 6th and draws attention to ways in which race served as a tool of oppression. The insurrection of January 6th, along with the rhetorical construction and justification of the events that unfolded that day, is steeped in privilege and white supremacy—luxuries that were not afforded to racial justice protests.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T10:08:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091195
       
  • How Spain’s International Status Was Enhanced After the Withdrawal
           of Its Troops From Iraq

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      Authors: Jordi Xuclà
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper researches how and why the decision to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq between March and April 2004 was taken. The new Spanish president, José Luís Rodríguez Zapatero, took this decision in the period between the day after his electoral victory, on 14 March, and the day that his government took office, on 18 April. The decision was made possible by the previous work of informal diplomacy carried out by Zapatero’s future minister of defence, José Bono, and his future minister of foreign affairs, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, who were holding discreet contacts with several international leaders of the military coalition present at the time in Iraq. This fact had a strong impact on the prestige of the new government in the eyes of Spanish public opinion and on the strengthening of alliances with European countries opposed to the invasion. On the contrary, it brought Spain to have one of the worst relations periods of all times with the US administration.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T10:08:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091196
       
  • News Framing in the Aftermath of the January 6 Attacks on the U.S.
           Capitol: An Analysis of Labels, Definitional Uncertainty, and
           Contextualization

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      Authors: Diana Zulli, Kevin Coe, Zachary Isaacs
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In the aftermath of a violent attack, questions of definition arise. News framing research has shown that the words chosen to define a given event can affect attitudes and decision-making, even when only a single word is varied. This study analyzes public discourse in the aftermath of the January 6 U.S. Capitol attacks to better understand which labels predominated and how different labels were explained/justified. We pair computer-assisted content analysis with qualitative textual analysis to identify patterns in public commentary during the week following the attacks. Results indicate that initial news coverage favored “protest(s)” as a descriptor, but “riot,” “attack(s),” and “insurrection” gained traction as the week unfolded. Many labels were also definitively applied and deployed to contextualize the attacks, providing a degree of contrast to framing norms. The results are considered in relation to ongoing debates over definitions of domestic terrorism and related crises, as well as normative considerations central to the maintenance of U.S. democracy.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T11:51:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221096333
       
  • New England Town Meeting and the Cultivation of Deliberative Play

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      Authors: Rebecca M. Townsend, Trudy Milburn
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participants of New England town meeting must follow protocols to participate in this direct democratic process. Over the past 200 years, the protocols have been enacted and adapted by participants in small towns across the region. Within annual meetings, one can find small breaches that could be interpreted as playful acts. In this paper, we use the comic frame as a theoretical lens to interpret instances of such play within the rhetorical deliberation of one New England town meeting. We analyze two instances where speakers playfully use recognized parts of town meeting to achieve their rhetorical ends. We conclude with a discussion of the way play can help accomplish identification in public discourse.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093588
       
  • Interpersonal Communication in the Information Age: Opportunities and
           Disruptions

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      Authors: Loredana Ivan
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Starting from the interpersonal communication theories that have incorporated the use of information and communication technologies (Walther, 2007, 2011, 2017) and the perpetual interconnectedness to understand human behavior in interaction with others (Walther et al., 2015), the current paper approaches challenges brought by the network society in the way we bridge our online and offline self. Castells’ concepts are primarily used to explain macro-phenomena, for example, social movements (Castells, 2015), political and socio-economic transformation around the world (Castells, 2017), and to a lesser extent in discussing meso-phenomena, such as social isolation, exhaustion, the commodification of human interactions and interpersonal conflicts arise as part of individual’s adaptation to the Information Age. The current paper creates links between Castells’ main concepts of the network society theoretical framework and three meso-theories used in the interpersonal communication field to explain people’s online behavior in interaction by focusing on the characteristics of the communication medium: The social presence theory, Media richness theory, and the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE). Sharing Castells’ optimism on how network society creates efficiency and innovation in human interactions, we draw attention to less optimistic aspects related to the constant pressure of constructing relationships through virtual reality.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:18:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092801
       
  • Introduction: Deliberative Play

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      Authors: Robert T. Craig
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article introduces a special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist in which scholars of public deliberation address the theme of “Deliberative Play” from different conceptual and empirical approaches. Here I introduce the concept of deliberative play against a background of philosophical accounts of deliberative action, the theory of metacommunication, and trends in the study of public deliberation that are endeavoring to reduce the gap between normative theories and the empirical realities of deliberative democratic practice. Articles in the special issue address several aspects of deliberative play: how storytelling activities accomplish deliberative play in online forums (Black, Wolfe, and Han); how facilitators can cue and maintain the deliberative play frame during facilitated deliberative discussions (Sprain); how playful exchanges are enabled by the structure of New England town meetings and what they accomplish (Townsend and Milburn); how alternative scenarios for action presented with pros and cons by expert consultants influence deliberative play in online discussions in Poland (Przybylska, Bucholc, and Mazur); and how online discussion interfaces would benefit from applying principles of game design (Gastil). The concluding section reflects on the results of these studies and their implications for further investigations of deliberative play.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:18:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093589
       
  • The Qualitative Power of a Crowd: Trump’s Rallies, Public Opinion,
           Attention Economy

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      Authors: Sharon E. Jarvis, Dakota Park-Ozee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Journalists, pundits, and pollsters critiqued President Donald J. Trump’s fixation on his crowds—often suggesting they were smaller than he boasted or meaningless in connection to electoral or legislative outcomes. This project takes a qualitative rather than a quantitative stance to interpreting the meaning of Trump’s crowds. In doing so, we find messages presented his rallies as (1) engaging multiple audiences, (2) eliciting feedback from his base to sharpen his talking points, and (3) enraging his devotees to act on his behalf. These types of communications did two things that traditional polling data are unlikely to do: they garnered attention and vast recirculation in the contemporary media environment and have been linked to the insurrection of the U.S. Capitol on January 6, 2021. This article draws from scholarship on Trump, news coverage, and social media posts to advance these themes, invites a more nuanced look at crowds as a complement to traditional understandings of public opinion, and closes by posing paths for future discussions of them.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:17:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091203
       
  • Mobile Communication and Urban/Rural Flows in a South African Marginalised
           Community

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      Authors: Lorenzo Dalvit
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article draws on Castells’ concept of space of flows to explore the role of mobile communication in mediating the flows of ideas, people and resources concerning Dwesa, a rural community in South Africa. While it is the site of an ICT-for-development project fifteen years in the making, Dwesa is representative of many contemporary South African rural realities in terms of lack of infrastructure, endemic poverty and urban migration. Mobile network coverage is almost universal, sustaining a bidirectional flow of people, resources and information between Dwesa and urban areas such as Cape Town. A critical review of the substantial body of research conducted in the area, as well as thematic analysis of social media texts and semi-structured interviews with community members, reveal that mobile phones play an important and nuanced role in arranging physical or virtual rendezvous, facilitating transfers of monetary and other resources, and enabling timeless communication and exchange of information across distance.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:45:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092806
       
  • The Downfall of the Catalan Rebellion: A Graphic Representation of
           Secessionist Political Discourses

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      Authors: Adrià Alsina, Xavier Ginesta, Jordi de San Eugenio
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The main objective of this article is to identify and compare the main historical frames used by Catalan secessionism during the Catalan independence political and civic rebellion that happened in October 2017. Some authors have analyzed the Catalan pro-independence demands. However, this is one of the first researches to focus its attention on how political discourses have been created and how these political discourses legitimized the degree of rebellion that Catalonia underwent. The article that follows uses discourse analysis with the tools of second-level agenda-setting and cognitive linguistics in order to classify and compare quantitatively and qualitatively all the messages posted on Twitter (16.201) by major pro-independence organizations and leaders in 2017. Drawing from the historiographical analysis, we propose to name the frames as follows: “administration,” “fight against injustice,” and “sovereignty,” and codify them from 1 to 3, in a classification that we define as “degree of political rupture.” From this comparison several conclusions are drawn. The first conclusion is that the three frames actually match the strategies and thoughts of organizations and leaders in 2017 and allow us to make graphic representations of the discourse analysis. Another conclusion is that most actors de-escalated their degree of political rupture from October 2017, once they became aware of the actions of the Spanish police and the legal prosecution against them.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:42:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091204
       
  • Does the “Platform Society” Mean the End of the “Network
           Society'” Reflections on Platforms and the Structure and Dynamics of
           Networks

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      Authors: Francesca Comunello, Simone Mulargia
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars and journalistic accounts have devoted growing interest to the centralizing trends characterizing platforms and the “platform society.” They often oppose this model to the alleged openness, horizontality, and “equality” they attach to “networks.” Such depictions seem willing to give up on a thorough consideration of network structure, which appears nowadays less fundamental to reflect on the digital world (and society) than it was 25 years ago. Or even question whether the network society model, as proposed by Castells, is unsuitable for describing contemporary society. In our opinion, the dichotomy opposing the (alleged) openness and egalitarian nature of networks (and of the network society), to the current centralization trends characterizing the platform society, as well as the subsequent assumption that networks are an outdated heuristic tool, derive from a misunderstanding of networks’ structure and dynamics. Scholars have shown that the structure of most complex networks can be defined as “scale-free,” following a power-law distribution. Complex networks, indeed, show the tendency for some nodes to become more interconnected than others (thus becoming “hubs”). In this, the understanding of network structure proposed in Castells (1996), contrary to the rhetoric considering networks intrinsically as “egalitarian,” is still a conceptual and analytical tool of the utmost importance for understanding the so-called “platform society.” This paper focuses on networks, network models, and the network society, reviewing what was proposed in Castells (1996). We argue that the social and platform ecosystem we are witnessing today can be understood from the perspective of scale-free networks and is, indeed, consistent with the premises provided in 1996. When observing networks, we address both structure and agency, and both the macro (network morphology) and micro (networked individualism and sociability) levels
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:39:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092797
       
  • In Search of ‘Truths’: South Korean Society and the Politics
           of Live Streaming

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      Authors: Ji Hyeon Kim, Jun Yu
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Despite Castells’ argument about the transformative potential of digital communication technologies for developing the networks of individuals and bringing about social and political changes, critical scholars have continued to raise vigilance against the potentially detrimental consequences of such technologies in social domains. One such issue relates to their impact on (collective) identity-making. Taking as a case study the live streaming of 2016–17 candlelight and Taegukgi rallies in South Korea, this article addresses how a digital communication technology can go further than simply permitting a large-scale mobilization and can reconfigure the meaning of participation in social movements, contributing to the emergence of what we term ‘polemical identity’. We argue that this polemical identity diverges from a more hopeful perspective found in Castells’ account, developing instead through the new semantics of participation that result in, and are triggered by, various practices of Otherizing. This includes searching for, and claiming, one’s own ‘truth’ as a means of bonding with the likeminded. In this process, we illuminate how the relationship between (collective) identity, digital communication technologies, social contexts and institutional power has become more complicated.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:39:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092804
       
  • Democratic Disruption or Continuity' Analysis of the Decidim Platform
           in Catalan Municipalities

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      Authors: Rosa Borge, Joan Balcells, Albert Padró-Solanet
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Free, open-source participatory platforms like Decidim or Consul were designed by the 15M’ citizen activists in Spain. Initially implemented in Barcelona and Madrid, these platforms are spread in many countries. Castells has not examined the institutionalization of the 15M’s offspring, and thus we aim to contribute by studying the rollout of the Decidim platform in Catalan municipalities. We examine its disruptive potential along three democratic dimensions: transparency, participation and deliberation. Our study combines in-depth interviews and an online questionnaire administered to public officials in charge of the platform and analyses the levels of participation on the platform. The research shows elements of managerial continuity: the most valued goals are transparency, organisation of information and the collection of citizen proposals, rather than deliberation and transfer of sovereignty towards citizens. However, the platform forces administrations to consider individual citizens’ inputs, increases citizens’ proposals and initiatives, and brings in new participant publics. Furthermore, democratic innovation is being pushed ahead by a networkof activists and technological experts that continuously improve the platform and function as a counter-power (Castells, 2015, 2016).
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:37:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092798
       
  • International Reactions to the Capitol Attack of January 6th: A Media
           Frames Analysis

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      Authors: Gloria M. Boone, Mary Anne Taylor, Linda Gallant
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      On January 6, 2021, the United States experienced an insurrection at the United States Capitol that was framed in varying and complex ways by traditional U.S. allies, competing nations, and adversaries. This manuscript examines the statements of foreign leaders, international media reports, and social media posts through a media framing analysis. Thousands of pages of press reports from countries, including the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Israel, Russia, and China, formed different views of the insurrection. There were concerns about U.S. democracy, questions about U.S. leadership, and expressions of each nation’s self-interest in the transactional nature of their own economical, ideological or political interests. Operationalizing a media frame analysis, this essay examines the January 6th events to suggest that global reactions to democracy are bolstered, ridiculed, and, frequently, contested internationally.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:31:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091214
       
  • “No Cult Tells You to Think for Yourself”: Discursive Ideology and the
           Limits of Rationality in Conspiracy Theory QAnon

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      Authors: Peter L. Forberg
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      What is truth in politics' Movements such as the anti-establishment, internet-born conspiracy theory QAnon are offered as dramatic cases of just how “irrational” people have become in a “post-truth” political world. However, with a growing number of everyday Americans believing in such theories, labeling adherents “irrational” ignores the internally rationalizing logic of conspiracy theories, so we ask the question: how do QAnon followers think through, argue, and rationalize their political truths' This paper establishes a discursive framework that demonstrates how QAnon adherents translate the theory’s paradigmatic political epistemology into personal ideologies. I identify the narrative structures that guide belief, examining how QAnon followers develop a general political plot, set the parameters for conflict, embrace their role in the story, determine what is in the political canon, and relate to the narrative that has been constructed. This analysis highlights the contradictions within the QAnon conspiracy theory—not to pathologize adherents’ irrationality but to demonstrate how people must wrestle with contradiction, paradox, and confusion when developing political ideologies. When framed as the as victims of a brainwashing cult, QAnons routinely respond, “no cult tells you to think for yourself”; instead, their narratives allow them to interpret QAnon in service of developing personalized political truths. Thus, this paper takes their words at face value to see the world as they interpret it. I argue that ideologies are a function of broader political epistemologies such as QAnon; they are embodied, narrativized ways of being in the world that make life livable—despite any inner contradictions—and guide political participation.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091199
       
  • Crises Narratives Defining the COVID-19 Pandemic: Expert Uncertainties and
           Conspiratorial Sensemaking

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      Authors: Majia Nadesan
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Experts, news media, and social media commentators struggled to make sense of SARS-CoV-2 January–May 2020 as disease caused by this virus, COVID-19, circulated the globe. This paper represents a longitudinal analysis of the primary narratives produced across expert, media, and social media sources to describe the virus, its phylogenetic origins, and biological effects. High expert uncertainty coupled with amplifying representations of risk across time drove collective sensemaking and conspiratorial narratives.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T09:45:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221085893
       
  • US Hypocrisy and the End of American Exceptionalism' Narratives of the
           January 6th Attack on the US Capitol From Illiberal National Media

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      Authors: Robert S. Hinck
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the United States being the only country in the world that places its former and incoming leader on a stage for millions to see, with the “Peaceful Transition of Power” being the very symbol of American democracy watched around the world, the events on January 6th, 2021, show how such performances of democratic culture are not permanent fixtures. Indeed, whereas US and foreign audiences have become accustomed to watching anti-government protests in illiberal states or underdeveloped democracies, the scenes of thousands of protestors storming the US Capitol has opened the United States itself for critique from the very nations it has admonished in the past. Thus, although the protest paradigm has become the dominant framework for understanding mediated portrayals of anti-government protests, this study argues it provides only partial insight into the January 6th insurrection, eschewing the larger strategic dimensions of non-democratic countries’ media coverage of the event. Rather than focusing on how media framed the event, this study examined 525 news articles from 26 Chinese, Russian, Iranian, and Saudi media outlets’ reporting on the event from January 5th to January 19th through the lens of strategic media narratives. Results show that while elements of the protest paradigm are present in all four countries’ reporting—providing clear condemnation of the event and its participants, with blame placed on President Trump for instigating the attack—two additional overarching plotlines emerge: one shifting the scene away from President Trump to America’s broader polarized politics and failed governance and a second concluding the end of US exceptionalism and characterizations of US hypocrisy. Taken together, these two overarching narratives highlight the significance of storytelling as a potent form of geopolitical contestation in today’s global media environment.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T01:27:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221096335
       
  • How the COVID-19 Pandemic Impacted the Perception of Climate Change in the
           UK

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      Authors: Gabriele Ruiu, Maria Laura Ruiu, Massimo Ragnedda
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic erupted during the climate change (CC) crisis, forcing individuals to adapt abruptly to a new scenario, and triggering changes in everyone’s lifestyles. Based on a sample of the UK population (N = 1013), this paper investigates how the COVID-19 pandemic invited/forced individuals to reflect upon a more sustainable way of life (which might be enhanced by the use of digital technologies for daily activities) and to (re)consider the anthropogenic impact on the environment. The results show that older individuals tend to be less sceptic around the human impact on CC. Other control variables such as income, gender and employment status have a limited impact on this attitude towards CC. Secondly, the findings indicate a clear separation between those with a minimal level of education, who support the natural origin of CC, while individuals with a higher level of education believe that CC is caused by human actions. Finally, on average, younger and more educated individuals tend to associate the COVID-19 pandemic with an opportunity to promote an eco-friendly world and to adopt an eco-sustainable approach.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T03:16:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221085885
       
  • Introduction: Participatory Budgeting as Community-Based Work

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      Authors: John W. Murphy, Scotney D. Evans, Miguel Angel Minutti-Meza
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participatory budgeting (PB) is seldom tied to commxunity-based philosophy, and thus is not often approached as community organizing. In this Introduction, this link is established while illustrating how the traditional stages of a PB project, such as outreach, are changed when they are conceptualized and practiced according to this philosophy. Specifically, the basic idea is that PB works best when guided by local knowledge and controlled by local participants. Also, central themes such as participation, motivation, social justice, and empowerment are facilitated by this philosophy. When treated as a community-based undertaking, the effectiveness and sustainability of PB are improved.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T08:02:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086960
       
  • The Dynamics of Local Participation

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      Authors: Karen A. Callaghan, Roger Horne
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      As part of the “new public participation movement,” participatory budgeting is a systematic attempt to ameliorate institutionalized inequality, inequity, and injustice by enhancing how democracy works and expanding who participates genuinely. This commitment to more democratic, inclusive decision-making is important for empowering communities who have been subject to marginalization and exploitation. However, participatory budgeting must be implemented as community-based work if local participation in shaping government policies, programming, and funding priorities is to be considered a legitimate and trusted process. This article examines participation within the framework of community-based philosophy and epistemology. Guidelines are provided for how participatory budgeting facilitators should approach communities with a genuine sense of humility and openness. This dynamic requires facilitators to form collaborative, dialogical relationships with communities and allows local knowledge to inform and drive the budgeting process.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T01:03:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086950
       
  • From Empowerment to Community Power in Participatory Budgeting

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      Authors: Scotney D. Evans, Margo Fernandez-Burgos
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines the issue of empowerment in participatory budgeting (PB). We position empowerment as part of the generally agreed theory of change in PB yet acknowledge the limits of an individual construction of empowerment that neglect sufficient attention to dynamic relations of power in participatory spaces and surrounding social contexts. Using the three forms of power theorized by Lukes (1974) and Gaventa (1980), we examine the ways in which these forms of power constrain individual and collective agency and transformative outcomes in participatory projects. We shift the gaze from empowerment to the concept of community power to suggest that getting beyond small adjustments to local services and resource allocations to substantive changes in relations of power may depend on ordinary citizens coming together in sites of radical possibility to define themselves, deliberate, and then act.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T04:29:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086947
       
  • Community-Based Work and Participatory Budgeting

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      Authors: John W. Murphy, Felicia O. Casanova
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participatory budgeting (PB) works best if this activity is viewed to be part of a trend that is referred to as community-based work. But this connection is not often made. As a result, many PB projects tend to drift away from their home communities. Although working in communities is thought to be a very practical endeavor, philosophy should not be ignored, particularly if the aim is to be community-based. Some examples are supplied in this paper that illustrate how this community-based philosophy alters, and improves, some traditional phases of PB projects. The overall result is to keep these budgeting projects informed by local knowledge and under community control.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T10:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086952
       
  • Implications of Participatory Budgeting on Social Justice: Some
           Theoretical Considerations

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      Authors: Jung M. Choi
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participatory budgeting (PB) is a novel way to understand the ways in which local projects are funded. Citizens engage in direct participation at every level of the project from designing, evaluating, modifying, and eventually disbursing funds. In short, PB is a fair and practical way for citizens to participate in direct democracy, rather than passive engagement through voting and waiting for elected officials to render a decision. In addition, due to its commitment to community-based philosophy, PB represents a radical move toward social justice.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T03:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086948
       
  • Participatory Budgeting and Community Development: A Global Perspective

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      Authors: Michael Touchton, Stephanie McNulty, Brian Wampler
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participatory budgeting (PB) is designed to leverage local knowledge about community needs and translate spending preferences into tangible community development action by giving communities control over key budgetary resources. Moreover, PB participants learn about decision-making processes in development policy and can organize to pursue their communities’ interests beyond the PB process by engaging with government and civil society. PB advocates hope that infrastructure, service delivery, and, ultimately, well-being will improve for underserved communities and groups that have been historically excluded from the perspective of representative democracy. This article presents the theoretical logic connecting PB to community development and summarizes the global evidence from studies that test the theoretical propositions above. We find evidence for PB’s impact on community development performance in several important contexts. However, we also note that many hypotheses have yet to be tested in rigorous, large-N, comparative studies. There is thus considerable room to evaluate PB’s impact in the future.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T03:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086957
       
  • Challenges and Opportunities: Asian Women in Science, Technology,
           Engineering, and Mathematics

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      Authors: Roli Varma, John Falk, Lynn Dierking
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This special issue brings selected papers from an international conference which brought a group of approximately 30 Science Technology and Society and Popularization of Science experts from nine South Asian and Southeast Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand), plus the United States. They discussed how best to enhance public awareness about the role of women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). These papers show how to develop strategies for increasing the participation of women in STEM, both as STEM professionals and as informed and engaged, lifelong participants in a STEM-rich world.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T09:58:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078509
       
  • Analysing Russian Reaction to 2021 U.S. Capitol Riots

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      Authors: Pavel Slutskiy, Dmitrii Gavra
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      On January 6, 2021, the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. was attacked by a mob of supporters of President Donald Trump. More than 70 countries and international organisations expressed their concerns over the 2021 United States Capitol attack and condemned the violence. While governments around the world have expressed outrage and sadness over rioting that engulfed the U.S. Capitol, some media (for example, VOA) reported that ‘Russia took a different view -- namely, vindication with a bit of gloating’ under the headline ‘As US Reels From Capitol Violence, Russia Enjoys the Show’. What was Russia’s reaction to the events in Washington' Russian high-ranking politicians responses to the U.S. Capitol rioters were widely quoted in English-speaking media. But the angle offered for foreign audiences did not always coincide with the media narrative developed for domestic consumption. This paper examines media interpretation of the U.S. riots which was offered by the Russian media for Russian-speaking audiences. The paper follows the discourse of pro-Kremlin media during the period of 1 month after the protests began, analysing discursive frames which represented different interpretations of the events, particularly within the context of comparing the suppression of opposition protests in Russia with the prosecution of the U.S. Capitol rioters.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T08:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078767
       
  • Being Asian American Women Scientists and Engineers in the United States:
           Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender

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      Authors: Roli Varma
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      A high level of educational and occupational achievements in science and engineering (S&E) in the US has changed the image of Asian Americans from the “yellow peril” to a “model minority.” Behind this new identity is the belief that Asian Americans as a group have equaled, if not surpassed, the standards of success set by White America in S&E. It is further assumed that Asian American women are advancing equally in S&E. The reality is that they are over-represented as Asian Americans but under-represented as women in S&E occupations. They experience challenges associated with both, their ethnicity and gender. They face “double bind”—a term used for women of color who simultaneously experience sexism and racism in S&E. This paper presents Asian American women’s unique situations within S&E organizations, with a particular focus on high-technology industry, where most of them are employed. It focuses on their identities and socio-cultural categorizations.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T12:12:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078510
       
  • Bakhtin’s Carnivalesque: A Reconsideration Based on the BLM
           Demonstrations of 2020 and the Storming of the U.S. Capitol in 2021

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      Authors: Theodore Sheckels
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The theoretical insights of Mikhail Bakhtin offer the rhetorical critic of demonstrations and the social movements they are often a part of a useful analytical tool. Bakhtin’s focus on polyphony, particularly the type he termed “passive varidirectional” in his study of Dostoevsky, dovetails with his exploration of the “carnivalesque” as a popular culture and literary mode to offer a subversive rhetoric intended to undermine hegemony. Extant studies of Bakhtin by rhetoricians have bogged down in trying to make sense of his “messy” canon and, perhaps as a result, inadequately understood this subversive rhetoric. After offering an overall reading of Bakhtin and a sense of how the concept of “carnivalesque” has been used by critics, this essay will enrich that concept by applying it to the events of 2020 and 2021 and arguing that, to grasp the critical tool Bakhtin has offered critics, one must recognize (1) its political neutrality, (2) the possible varieties of “carnivalesque,” (3) the place of violence in the “carnivalesque,” and (4) the new and subtle ways the body plays a rhetorical role in it. The events of 2020–2021 enable the critic to acquire a more nuanced understanding of Bakhtin’s rhetorical insights.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T05:51:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211062870
       
  • “The Situation Sounds Sketchy”: Institutional Rule-Breaking and a
           Qualitative Case for Quantifying Culture

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      Authors: Chelsea Rae Kelly
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      As respondents assess the cultural normalcy of social events, they employ both affective and cognitive criteria. Does this event feel normal' Does this event make sense' While these related questions often have the same answer, we know little about the assessment process under circumstances of signal mismatch. Using qualitative and quantitative data from two experimental studies, this research separately evaluates the effects of deflection level (is this event affectively normative) and institutional concordance (do the components of this event obey the guiding parameters of social institutions) in the assessment of social events. Online-administered surveys gathered data for a 3-condition experiment in an undergraduate sample (N = 74) and a 4-condition experiment in a non-undergraduate quasi-nationally representative sample (N = 507). Results from linear mixed models and ANOVAs show that (1) both concordance and low deflection are significant predictors of event assessment ratings, (2) when controlling for concordance, event deflection level remains a statistically significant predictor, and (3) deflection and concordance have a significant and positive interaction effect. Qualitative data patterns and a visualization of predicted probabilities from a multinomial logit model further suggest that (4) cognitive work in respondents’ assessments—transforming high-deflection events into low-deflection events through contextualized reinterpretations in accord with institutional domain parameters—follow affect control theory principles. This research strengthens understanding of and predictive abilities concerning social responses to culturally contextualized events.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T08:39:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066035
       
  • The Role of the Civil Society in the Catalan Political Process
           (2012–2021)

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      Authors: Marta Pascal
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of the civil society during the Catalan political process (2012–2021). In a context of a huge political polarization of the Catalan society, we would like to focus on the influence and role of the organized civil society in the political decisions during this period. The methodology used in this paper is based on a qualitative research using in-depth interviews with Catalan spin-doctors, participant observation, and study cases. In the paper, we can prove that the role of the organized Catalan civil society was fundamental to understand some of the decisions taken by the Catalan government, such as the consultation of ninth of November 2014; the referendum of first of October 2017; the proclaim of the Catalan Republic; the demonstrations against de verdict of the Spanish Supreme Court; the pressure of the civil society to boost pro-independence Catalan political parties to continue with a separatist agenda after the 2021 elections; and the following negotiation process with the Spanish government. As far as the findings is concerned, it is important to underline how the Catalan civil society have used different ways to organize themselves and mobilize their followers. We will comment the effectiveness of social networks; how these groups have converted themselves in actors of the political digital conversation; and how they have been able to modify the political agenda and have impacted in the media agenda setting. This paper contributes to understand more effectively the important role of the organized civil society in the Catalan political process and emphasizes its political role and influence. So do, we are able to suggest future political scenarios that could have an important impact on the political polarization that currently affects Catalonia.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T08:10:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078761
       
  • Without Role Models: A Few Pioneering Women Engineers in Asia

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      Authors: Fahmida N. Chowdhury
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The importance of role models in inspiring and influencing the career paths of young people cannot be overstated, particularly in the fields where certain population segments are under-represented. However, when there are no role models, a few exceptional people become pioneers; these are people who carve out their own paths. Most research in early history of women in engineering focuses on the Western world, with relatively little information from the other parts of the globe. This paper presents the stories of a few Asian women who went against the odds, against social norms and expectations, without role models, and ventured into the field of engineering.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T03:28:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078508
       
  • Impact of Socio-Economic Factors on Female Students’ Enrollments in
           Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics and Workplace Challenges
           in Bangladesh

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      Authors: Nova Ahmed, Arshad M. Chowdhury, Tamanna Urmi, Lafifa Jamal
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      There is nearly equal number of male and female student enrollments in primary and secondary level of education in Bangladesh, but at the tertiary level and at the job sector, a sharp drop in the number of women is observed. This paper explores the current status of female students’ enrollment in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) at the tertiary education system in Bangladesh. It is followed by explorations of challenges women face in technical workplace. Quantitative data for the paper come from more than 1.18 million students at tertiary level from eight public and private universities for three academic years from 2018 to 2020. In addition, a qualitative study was conducted with 48 participants in pre- and during COVID-19 eras to understand barriers hampering women in STEM-related education and jobs. The paper provides a guideline for future policies to ensure inclusive space for growth and retention for women in STEM.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T08:38:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078517
       
  • Channelling Artscience Through Fan-Fiction for Diversifying STEM
           Approaches in Participatory Learning in Malaysia

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      Authors: Clarissa Ai Ling Lee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Fan-fiction is proposed as a participatory and discovery-learning approach to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; communication; and collaboration through the epistemic third space afforded by artscience. The objective is to increase the affective dimension in STEM instruction by allowing STEM to enter intimately into social spaces, all the while drawing interests from girls and women. There is strong female participation in fan-fiction creation, whether in the form of textual stories or other transmedia objects, that could be used to develop more multi-dimensional STEM-based experiential and imagination-centric learning without excluding the more technical aspects of the science – in fact, the technical aspects could be weaved in as a STEM problem or project to be collectively tackled through the communal experience of creating and responding to fan-fiction. Moreover, the world-building capability of fan-fiction, with its ability to bring together multiple fandoms such as multiple works from the same creator or different creators within similar genres, means that there is ample room for using fan-fiction during interdisciplinary engagement for STEM problem-solving or research creation approaches to learning and doing. In this article, some examples of activities are taken from workshops targeted at Malaysian audiences to explore the possibility of deploying fan-fiction approaches to STEM, or STEM through the lenses of artscience, within the culture of learning and doing in Malaysia. These workshops were not originally conceived with fan-fiction as method and medium in mind and yet, were found to share certain similar traits with fan-fiction. The world-building capacity of fan-fiction could be deployed to mainstream the incorporation of indigenous and cultural ways of knowing within Malaysia into the rubrics of institutionalized STEM education. However, the convergence and compatibility between fan-fiction and participatory design, which were featured in at least three of the four workshops depicted here, are the reasons for the choice, while the fourth workshop considers the practice of fan-fiction and its relevance to more informal practices in STEM publishing and communication at a meta level.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T03:11:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078511
       
  • Women in STEM in India: Understanding Challenges through Social
           Constructionist Perspective

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      Authors: Namrata Gupta
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article intends to understand the position of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in India and to highlight the challenges faced by them through the perspective of gender as a social construct. It argues that the social constructionist perspective helps to focus on the specific socio-cultural context, and to deepen our understanding of the barriers in career advancement for women in STEM. Based on the governmental data and research studies, it demonstrates that these constraints occur at the intersection of Indian social, organizational and institutional contexts. This perspective helps to explore solutions unique to the specific national context.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T02:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078518
       
  • The Death-Based Model of Organizational Learning: Accident, Pandemic, and
           Workplace Change in New York Public Transit

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      Authors: Noah McClain
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The public transportation workers of New York City lost their lives to COVID-19 at a shocking rate in the spring of 2020, likely abetted by their employer’s resistance to allow workers to wear masks until mere days before a region-wide lockdown was declared. We might see this death toll as a tragic outcome of uncertainty in the face of the unprecedented, yet the stance of the employer (the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, or MTA) was consistent with its longstanding reluctance to assimilate or pursue signals that suggest need for safety reforms — that is, until a worker dies. This article terms this pattern a “death-based model of organizational learning,” and situates the virus’ toll on transport workers from three angles: first, from workers’ experience of existential precarity in their workplaces, rooted in dangers workers readily problematize but which are not addressed by management; second, by showing how the MTA may modify rules following an employee fatality, at least when that death cannot be explained by individual failures alone; and third, by exploring the MTA’s longstanding hostility to health and safety research conducted in its physical and institutional bounds. These prior patterns articulated in the MTA’s response to COVID-19, such as in passivity in the face of general public health guidelines, disinterest in obvious founts of expertise to tailor its response to the pandemic, and in the eventual acceptance of a nascent public health role in light of the mounting death toll of its employees.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T09:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066052
       
  • Disruption of Social Orders in Societal Transitions as Affective Control
           of Uncertainty

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      Authors: Jesse Hoey, Tobias Schröder
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Bayesian affect control theory is a model of affect-driven social interaction under conditions of uncertainty. In this paper, we investigate how the operationalization of uncertainty in the model can be related to the disruption of social orders—societal pressures to adapt to ongoing environmental and technological change. First, we study the theoretical tradeoffs between three kinds of uncertainty as groups navigate external problems: validity (the predictability of the environment, including of other agents), coherence (the predictability of interpersonal affective dynamics), and dependence (the predictability of affective meanings). Second, we discuss how these uncertainty tradeoffs are related to contemporary political conflict and polarization in the context of societal transitions. To illustrate the potential of our model to analyze the socio-emotional consequences of uncertainty, we present a simulation of diverging individual affective meanings of occupational identities under uncertainty in a climate change mitigation scenario based on events in Germany. Finally, we sketch a possible research agenda to substantiate the novel, but yet mostly conjectural, ideas put forward in this paper.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T10:14:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066055
       
  • Trucking in the Era of COVID-19

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      Authors: Danielle Sperry, Amy M. Schuster, Shelia R. Cotten, Shubham Agrawal, Elizabeth Mack, Noah Britt, Jessica Liberman
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      COVID-19 resulted in health and logistical challenges for many sectors of the American economy, including the trucking industry. This study examined how the pandemic impacted the trucking industry, focused on the pandemic’s impacts on company operations, health, and stress of trucking industry employees. Data were collected from three sources: surveys, focus groups, and social media posts. Individuals at multiple organizational levels of trucking companies (i.e., supervisors, upper-level management, and drivers) completed an online survey and participated in online focus groups. Data from focus groups were coded using a thematic analysis approach. Publicly available social media posts from Twitter were analyzed using a sentiment analysis framework to assess changes in public sentiment about the trucking industry pre- and during-COVID-19. Two themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) trucking company business strategies and adaptations and (2) truck driver experiences and workplace safety. Participants reported supply chain disruptions and new consumer buying trends as having larger industry-wide impacts. Company adaptability emerged due to freight variability, leading organizations to pivot business models and create solutions to reduce operational costs. Companies responded to COVID-19 by accommodating employees’ concerns and implementing safety measures. Truck drivers noted an increase in positive public perception of truck drivers, but job quality factors worsened due to closed amenities and decreased social interaction. Social media sentiment analysis also illustrated an increase in positive public sentiment towards the trucking industry during COVID-19. The pandemic resulted in multi-level economic, health, and social impacts on the trucking industry, which included economic impacts on companies and economic, social and health impacts on employees within the industry levels. Further research can expand on this study to provide an understanding of the long-term impacts of the pandemic on the trucking industry companies within the industry and segments of the trucking industry workforce.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T08:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066039
       
  • Word Embeddings Reveal How Fundamental Sentiments Structure Natural
           Language

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      Authors: Austin van Loon, Jeremy Freese
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Central to affect control theory are culturally shared meanings of concepts. That these sentiments overlap among members of a culture presumably reflects their roots in the language use that members observe. Yet, the degree to which the affective meaning of a concept is encoded in the way linguistic representations of that concept are used in everyday symbolic exchange has yet to be demonstrated. The question has methodological as well as theoretical significance for affect control theory, as language may provide an unobtrusive, behavioral method of obtaining EPA ratings complementary to those heretofore obtained via questionnaires. We pursue a series of studies that evaluate whether tools from machine learning and computational linguistics can capture the fundamental affective meaning of concepts from large text corpora. We develop an algorithm that uses word embeddings to predict EPA profiles available from a recent EPA dictionary derived from traditional questionnaires, as well as novel concepts collected using an open-source web app we have developed. Across both a held-out portion of the available data as well as the novel data, our best predictions correlate with survey-based measures of the E, P, and A ratings of concepts at a magnitude greater than 0.85, 0.8, and 0.75 respectively.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T02:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066046
       
  • The Impact of News Trust and Scandal Knowledge on Political Efficacy

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      Authors: Katherine Haenschen, Jessica R. Collier, John C. Tedesco
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The Trump-era political environment in the United States is characterized by changes to our information environment, specifically discourse surrounding so-called "fake news," and knowledge of political scandals. We explore whether news trust or knowledge of Trump administration scandals impact individuals’ levels of internal, information, and external political efficacy. We find significant and surprising relationships between these measures and political efficacy outcomes. Results contribute to our understanding of how political efficacy is responsive to changes in the political environment.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T03:23:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211062867
       
  • Introduction: “Making Work Work During the Pandemic”

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      Authors: Jeremy Schulz, Laura Robinson, Matias Dodel, Øyvind Wiborg, Aneka Khilnani
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T10:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066060
       
  • How “Stuff” Matters in Affect Control Theory

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      Authors: Rohan Lulham, Danial B. Shank
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Physical artifacts are not neutral but are increasingly recognized across the social sciences as important to structuring meaning and social interaction. Affect control theory shows promise as a framework for articulating and exploring the role of the material world in everyday life. In this study, we formalize, extend, and elaborate this line of research, instituting physical artifacts within affect control theory. We examine how physical artifacts function within affect control theory as modifiers of identities. We undertake a full-scale identity-modification study, collecting affective meaning data from 825 respondents on 58 identities, 52 physical artifacts, and 212 artifact-modified identities across a range of identities and artifact types. We empirically estimate how physical artifacts change perceptions of identities and illustrate the application of the new equations by deriving artifact-modified identities from a range of hypothetical scenarios. Using a transformation of the equations, we also simulate how people may use physical artifacts to create a desired impression when occupying different identities. Through establishing physical artifacts within affect control theory, this research raises new questions and opportunities for the theory and those interested in the design, use, and experience of physical artifacts.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T01:00:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066045
       
  • Modeling Impression Formation Processes Among Chinese and Americans

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      Authors: Jun Zhao
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study offers the first investigation on the normative processes through which Chinese form impressions of others in social interaction. Using affect control theory and its archived sentiment data from China, I estimate the Chinese impression formation models with a new Bayesian method. I then compare the Chinese models to the impression formation dynamics in U.S. English. Results show cross-cultural commonality in the affective processing of cultural concepts, with determinants of impression formation processes being largely universal. Findings also reveal two cultural variations that align with patterns uncovered by comparative cross-cultural research: (1) the Chinese models show less rigidity in the definition of situation and (2) across two cultural models, the balance term has opposite effects on actor and behavior evaluation. To explore the implications of the impression models, I present a series of simulations, illustrating the predictive power of affect control theory as well as the impact of different cultural rules on social interaction.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T07:02:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066025
       
  • Affect Control Theory Applied to Morality

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      Authors: Neil J. MacKinnon
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores the application of affect control theory (ACT) to the study of morality. A concise statement of ACT sets the stage for presenting examples of applying the theory to morality. This includes exploring the moral implications or overtones of social concepts (social identities, behaviors, traits, and settings); computer simulations of impressions created by moral and immoral events; and a discussion of several studies directly applying ACT to morality. The paper concludes with a detailed discussion of what ACT can contribute to moral psychology and the sociology of morality.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T11:04:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066042
       
  • Pause, Pivot, and Shift: Situational Human Capital and Responses to Sudden
           Job Loss

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      Authors: Heba Gowayed, Ashley Mears, Nicholas Occhiuto
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      How, in the wake of the coronavirus crisis, do workers respond to rapid changes in the labor market' This paper mobilizes existing literature on occupational mobility and job loss to develop a theory of situational human capital in which some workers are better positioned to weather occupational transitions than others depending on the alignment between their skill sets, opportunities, and particular contexts. Previous literature looks at this in the case of “pausing,” when workers, such as women, take time off from work. Relatively less explored but equally consequential are transitions like “pivoting,” in which workers maneuver within their occupations to adjust their practices or platforms in order to keep working, and “shifting,” in which workers change their occupations altogether. Since most government unemployment benefits focus almost exclusively on workers’ pauses, they neglect to support workers as they pivot and shift during periods of labor market instability and disruption. This paper concludes by offering some policy recommendations to fill this gap.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-15T03:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066043
       
  • Who Bears the Burden of a Pandemic' COVID-19 and the Transfer of Risk
           to Digital Platform Workers

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      Authors: Paola Tubaro, Antonio A. Casilli
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we analyze the recessionary effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on digital platform workers. The crisis has been described as a great work-from-home experiment, with platform ecosystems positing as its most advanced form. Our analysis differentiates the direct (health) and indirect (economic) risks incurred by workers, to critically assess the portrayal of platforms as buffers against crisis-induced layoffs. We submit that platform-mediated labor may eventually increase precarity, without necessarily reducing health risks for workers. Our argument is based on a comparison of the three main categories of platform work—“on-demand labor” (gigs such as delivery and transportation), “online labor” (tasks performed remotely, such as data annotation), and “social networking labor” (content generation and moderation). We discuss the strategies that platforms deploy to transfer risk from clients onto workers, thus deepening existing power imbalances between them. These results question the problematic equivalence between work-from-home and platform labor. Instead of attaining the advantages of the former in terms of direct and indirect risk mitigation, an increasing number of platformized jobs drift toward high economic and insuppressible health risks.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-15T02:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066027
       
  • Telework in a Land of Overwork: It’s Not That Simple or Is It'

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      Authors: Hiroshi Ono
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted labor markets around the world. Workers and corporations scrambled to adjust their workstyles to a new normal, by avoiding the commute and working remotely from their homes or elsewhere. Japan is a country that stood out for its inability to adjust to the remote work environment. Comparative statistics show that Japan reported the lowest number of people engaged in remote work among the OECD countries, as well as the lowest percentage of corporations that offered remote work policies. In this article, I investigate why telework in Japan is difficult. The lack of telework in Japan may seem paradoxical, given the country’s reputation for being technologically advanced. I argue that it is not the technological infrastructure that is lacking in the Japanese workplace, but distinct features of work embedded in Japanese culture and its collectivist roots that prevent the effective implementation of telework. I rely on recently published data from various sources, and apply key sociological theories such as implicit contracts, gift exchange, dramaturgy, and impression management to substantiate my main arguments. The paper concludes by drawing on implications for the future of work in Japan.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T11:13:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066038
       
  • Gender and Candidate Communication: An Analysis of Televised Ads in the
           2020 US Senate Races

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      Authors: Mary C. Banwart, Dianne G. Bystrom
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Recent studies of the content of television ads of female versus male political candidates have shown that women and men are increasingly similar in their communication styles and strategies, with some notable exceptions. However, few studies examining gender and political ad content have focused exclusively on US Senate races, considered the influence of the candidates’ political party, or compared the messages of women running against female versus male opponents. This study examines 236 political ads—160 from mixed-gender and 76 from female–female—U.S. Senate races in 2020 for their verbal and visual content. Results show gendered and partisan differences in the issues emphasized and the tone used. Candidates were similar in the images emphasized. Female candidates were more balanced between formal and casual attire compared to previous election cycles. And candidates in mixed-gender races used different strategies than those in female–female contests as to the issues and political actors mentioned.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T07:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211040766
       
  • Policy, Worker Power, and the Future of the American Trucker

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      Authors: Steve Viscelli
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T07:12:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066049
       
  • “I Heard That COVID-19 Was...”: Rumors, Pandemic, and
           Psychological Distance

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      Authors: K. Hazel Kwon, Kirstin Pellizzaro, Chun Shao, Monica Chadha
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The spread of misinformation through a variety of communication channels has amplified society’s challenge to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. While existing studies have examined how misinformation spreads, few studies have examined the role of psychological distance in people’s mental processing of a rumor and their propensity to accept self-transformed narratives of the message. Based on an open-ended survey data collected in the U.S. (N = 621) during an early phase of the pandemic, the current study examines how psychological distance relates to the transformation and acceptance of conspiratorial narratives in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Two instances of misinformation are examined, both of which were widely heard at the time of data collection: the role of (a) Bill Gates and (b) government during the outbreak of the pandemic. This study uses topic modeling techniques to capture distinctive topical attributes that emerged from rumor narratives. In addition, statistical analyses estimate the psychological distance effects on the salience of topical attributes of a rumor story and an individual’s propensity to believe them. Findings reveal that psychological distance to the threats of COVID-19 influences how misinformation evolves through word-of-mouth, particularly in terms of who is responsible for the pandemic and why the world finds itself in the current situation. Psychological distance also explains why people accept the message to be true. Implications for misinformation and rumor psychology research, as well as avenues for future research, are discussed.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T04:07:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066026
       
  • Theoretical Notes on Action Schemes in Society

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      Authors: David R. Heise
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This essay presents theoretical constructs for characterizing the causal structure of social actions and developing a multi-level theory of action relating to accomplishment of goals via social organizations. Focal concepts include: action schemes, mobilization, internal and external fulfillments, power schemes, macroactions, effective actions, and purposeful actions. Additionally, an overview is provided of a methodological procedure for analyzing narratives in order to specify causal linkages among actions and thereby delineate action schemes. Some possibilities for future developments are noted.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T02:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066024
       
  • Affect Control Theories: A Double Special Issue in Honor of David R. Heise

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      Authors: Amy Kroska, Brian Powell, Kimberly B. Rogers, Lynn Smith-Lovin
      First page: 3
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      We introduce this two-part special issue that celebrates David Heise and his pathbreaking theories: affect control theory (ACT), affect control theory of the self (ACTS), and affect control theory of institutions (ACTI). These interlocking, multi-level, mathematically based theories explain a range of social processes, including impression formation, social interaction, trait and mood attributions, emotional experiences, emotion management, and identity adoption, and they do so in multiple languages and cultures. The 15 articles in this two-part issue test, apply, and develop the theories in new and innovative ways. After briefly summarizing each theory and Bayesian affect control theory (BayesACT), we highlight the key findings from each of the articles that follow.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T05:12:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066044
       
  • Bereavement Adaptation as Deflection Reduction: Bereaved Caregivers Define
           the Event of Dying

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      Authors: Linda E. Francis, Malissa Alinor
      First page: 12
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Affect control theory (ACT) has the potential to extend dominant understandings of adaptation to bereavement. Using narratives from bereaved caregivers, we assessed attributions they made about the death of a loved one from cancer. We transformed these attributions into actor-behavior-object events along the evaluation, potency, and activity dimensions of ACT. After creating hypothetical baseline deflections for events, we simulated the attributions as events in INTERACT. We found eight emergent categories of resolutions that caregivers used to make sense of the death: caregivers redefined the event to align with their sentiments about the deceased or the death. We also found racial differences in the attributions. White caregivers were more likely to blame themselves or others for the death of their loved one, while black caregivers were more willing to admit their deceased loved one’s faults. These findings demonstrate how caregivers make sense of their grief in a framework of cultural sentiments and underscore the utility of affect control theory in qualitative and theory-generating research.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T01:58:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066029
       
  • Self-Sentiments and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis

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      Authors: Kaitlin M. Boyle, Kimberly B. Rogers
      First page: 36
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Social psychological theories provide useful tools for identifying interpretive processes that affect individual mental health outcomes. In this paper, we use the affect control theory of self (ACT-Self) to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and global feelings about the self—self-sentiments—that are evoked by the constellation of identities, traits, moods, characteristics, and roles we hold and have held. We examine this relationship in two separate longitudinal studies conducted with undergraduates (N = 147) and doctoral students (N = 178) at a university in the Southeastern U.S., which employ different measures of depressive symptoms (the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale Short Form, respectively). We present key findings about links between depressive symptoms and evaluation (goodness), potency (powerfulness), and activity (liveliness). First, evaluation negatively predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in both samples; activity predicts symptoms among undergraduates, and potency predicts symptoms among doctoral students. Second, respondents in both samples with self-sentiments closer to cultural sentiments for “depressed” report more depressive symptoms at follow-up. Third, evaluation gains over time predict less Wave 2 depressive symptoms in both samples; potency gains also predict symptoms among doctoral students. Finally, Wave 1 depressive symptoms—and increases in depression over time—predict lower levels of evaluation and potency in both samples.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T02:24:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066031
       
  • Modeling Status Interventions with Affect Control Theory

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      Authors: Shane D. Soboroff, Christopher P. Kelley
      First page: 60
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Status interventions alter task group members’ expectations for the value of each other’s contributions. While research shows that status interventions increase the likelihood that a higher-status actor will accept influence from a lower-status actor, the process by which interventions unfold during interaction deserves theoretical attention. By conceiving status interventions as lines of action that carry cultural meaning, sociologists can use structural theories of symbolic interaction such as Affect Control Theory (ACT) to better understand them. One status intervention involves lower-status actors presenting themselves as group-motivated to counter expectations that lower-status actors are self-interested. An interaction simulator based in ACT, INTERACT, allows us to demonstrate how group-motivation alters impressions of lower-status actors from the perspective of a higher-status actor. Given that gender has been identified as a status characteristic that favors men in the U.S., we use INTERACT to model the effect of a woman presenting herself as group motivated on a man’s impressions. Results suggest that qualitative insights from INTERACT can be used to further explore the relationship between status interventions and hierarchy in everyday life.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T12:15:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066040
       
  • Whom to Help: Prosocial Behaviors and the Restoration of a Tarnished
           Identity

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      Authors: Maria C. Ramos
      First page: 77
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      How can moral transgressors rebuild their image as good people' Using affect control theory, I hypothesize that prosociality—benefitting others—will blunt negative impressions of a norm violator. I also hypothesize that benefitting good or weak people—and not bad or powerful people—will amplify the positive effect of prosociality. In two survey-vignette studies, participants reported their perceptions about a man who takes money from a found wallet—unethical behavior—and gives or does not give it to someone else—prosocial behavior. Results show prosociality redeems violators more when they help good rather than bad persons. In certain situations, helping powerless persons is more image revamping than helping powerful persons.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-12T11:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066036
       
  • The Influence of Occupational Identity on Emotional Experience

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      Authors: Em K. Maloney
      First page: 100
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      How does occupational identity shape emotional experience' Prior work has largely framed occupation and emotion either in terms of how differences in occupational status structure the experience of powerful, negative emotions or how cultural norms enforce types of acceptable emotional expression in workplaces. Complementing this work by using an identity-centered approach, this paper asks how being in one occupational identity versus another influences the emotions one is likely to experience in everyday life. I argue that one’s occupational identity generates daily interaction sets with typical others, which create opportunities for identity maintenance and confirmation. Affect Control Theory predicts that when individuals confirm identities within an interaction, they will experience the characteristic emotion of the identity. Using data from the General Social Survey’s 1996 emotions module, I find support for the hypothesis that individuals will report experiencing emotions that are closer in cultural meaning to the characteristic emotion of their occupational identity more often than emotions that are more different in cultural meaning. I additionally explore how this relationship depends on the social location of the individual. I find that this relationship is stronger for men, those with higher income, and more educational credentials.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T03:37:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066053
       
  • How Cultural Meanings of Occupations in the U.S. Changed During the
           Covid-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Joseph M. Quinn, Robert E. Freeland, Kimberly B. Rogers, Jesse Hoey, Lynn Smith-Lovin
      First page: 125
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Social research highlights the stability of cultural beliefs, broadly arguing that population-level changes are uncommon and mostly explained by cohort replacement rather than individual-level change. We find evidence suggesting that cultural change may also occur rapidly in response to an economically and socially transformative period. Using data collected just before and after the outbreak of Covid-19 in the U.S., we explore whether cultural beliefs about essential and non-essential occupations are dynamic in the face of an exogenous social and economic shock. Using a sample of respondents whose characteristics match the U.S. Census on sex, age, and race/ethnicity, we fielded surveys measuring cultural beliefs about 85 essential and non-essential occupations using the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) dimensions from the Affect Control Theory paradigm. We expected that EPA ratings of essential work identities would increase due to positive media coverage of essential occupations as indispensable and often selfless roles in the pandemic, while EPA ratings of non-essential identities would decline. Our findings show patterns that are both clear and inconsistent with our predictions. For both essential and non-essential occupations, almost all statistically significant changes in mean evaluation and potency were negative; activity showed relatively little change. Changes in evaluation scores were more negative for non-essential occupations than essential occupations. Results suggest that pervasive and persistent exogenous events are worth investigating as potential sources of episodic cultural belief change.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T09:36:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066041
       
  • Why Does Occupational Prestige Affect Sentencing Outcomes': Exploring
           the Perceptual Mediators

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      Authors: Marshall R. Schmidt, Amy Kroska
      First page: 148
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Research on the effect of an offender’s occupational prestige on criminal sentencing shows mixed results, with some studies showing a positive association between prestige and sentence severity and others showing a negative association. We revisit this question using an online vignette experiment. Drawing on affect control theory and its computer program, Interact, we hypothesize that an offender’s occupational prestige will increase the recommended sentence and that post-crime, or transient, impressions of the offender’s potency will mediate this effect. We find support for both hypotheses: Occupational prestige increases the recommended sentence, and post-crime impressions of the offender’s potency mediate this effect. The mediation is partial when potency is measured with semantic differentials, and it is complete when potency is measured with a set of explicit, denotative items. We also explore the mediational role of post-crime impressions of the offender’s evaluation and activity. Although offender activity does not function as a mediator, offender evaluation plays a minor mediational role when offender potency is also controlled. We also find an interaction between post-crime offender evaluation and potency, with participants recommending a lighter sentence for offenders they see as both weak and evaluatively neutral. We discuss the empirical, theoretical, and methodological implications of these findings and outline avenues for future research.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T05:11:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066056
       
 
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