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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 382 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Sociologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Social Analysis     Open Access  
Advanced Journal of Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advertising & Society Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
AFFRIKA Journal of Politics, Economics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African and Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
African Identities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
African Sociological Review : Revue Africaine de Sociologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
AlterNative : An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Cultural Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Sociological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 308)
American Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250)
American Sociologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anduli : Revista Andaluza de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio I – Philosophia-Sociologia     Open Access  
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annual Review of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 209)
Anthropological Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Anthropologie et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Antyajaa : Indian Journal of Women and Social Change     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Research in Quality of Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Argumentos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arte, Individuo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Artes Humanae     Open Access  
Arys: Antigüedad, Religiones y Sociedades     Open Access  
Asian Journal for Poverty Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ateliers d'anthropologie     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Atenea (Concepción)     Open Access  
Aztlan : A Journal of Chicano Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Barn : Forskning om barn og barndom i Norden     Open Access  
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Behavioural Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Berliner Journal für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BOGA : Basque Studies Consortium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bronte Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Caderno CRH     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos CERU     Open Access  
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers Société     Open Access  
Canadian Ethnic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers canadiens de sociologie     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Women and the Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Review of Sociology / Revue Canadienne De Sociologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Caribbean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Celebrity Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
CERN IdeaSquare Journal of Experimental Innovation     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Sociological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Sociology & Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chophayom Journal     Open Access  
Chrétiens et sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciência & Tecnologia Social     Open Access  
Ciência & Trópico     Open Access  
Ciencia e Cultura     Open Access  
Ciencia, Cultura y Sociedad     Open Access  
Cities in the 21st Century     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Citizenship Teaching & Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
City & Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Ciudad Paz-ando     Open Access  
Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clivatge. Estudis i testimonis sobre el conflicte i el canvi socials     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Communication Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Community Empowerment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Configurações     Open Access  
Conflict and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Conflicto Social     Open Access  
Confluences Méditerranée     Full-text available via subscription  
Contemporary Family Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Pacific     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Contemporary Sociology : A Journal of Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Contemporary Voice of Dalit     Full-text available via subscription  
COnTEXTES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Contributions to Indian Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Controversias y Concurrencias Latinoamericanas     Open Access  
Cosmopolitan Civil Societies : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Discourse Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Critical Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Cross-cultural Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Extensión Universitaria de la UNLPam     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos del CENDES     Open Access  
Cuban Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cultura y Representaciones Sociales     Open Access  
Culturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture - Society - Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cultures & conflits     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Dalogue and Universalism     Full-text available via subscription  
Debates en Sociología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Design and Culture : The Journal of the Design Studies Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology     Open Access  
Diferencia(s)     Open Access  
Dilemas : Revista de Estudos de Conflito e Controle Social     Open Access  
disClosure : A Journal of Social Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Distinktion : Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription  
East Central Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Economy and Sociology / Economie şi Sociologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecopolítica     Open Access  
Educação, Escola e Sociedade     Open Access  
Éducation et socialisation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Em Debate     Open Access  
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Emotions and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enfances, Familles, Générations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entramados : educación y sociedad     Open Access  
Entramados y Perspectivas     Open Access  
Environmental Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Espacio Abierto     Open Access  
Espiral     Open Access  
Espirales     Open Access  
Estudios Geográficos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios sobre las Culturas Contemporáneas     Open Access  
Estudios Sociologicos     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Estudos de Sociologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethnicities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ethnologia Actualis     Open Access  
Ethnologia Fennica     Open Access  
Ethnologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Études françaises     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Review of Applied Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Eutopía - Revista de Desarrollo Económico Territorial     Open Access  
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History     Open Access  
Families, Relationships and Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Family & Community History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Family Relations     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Finance and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fokus pa familien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Forum Sociológico     Open Access  
Frontiers in Human Dynamics     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Games and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Gender and Behaviour     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Genre & histoire     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Glottopol : Revue de Sociolinguistique en Ligne     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Good Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Grounded Theory Review : an International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Group Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hábitat y Sociedad     Open Access  
Health Sociology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Health, Culture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Hispania     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Homo Ludens     Open Access  
Hospitality & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Human Behavior, Development and Society     Open Access  
Human Figurations : Long-term Perspectives on the Human Condition     Open Access  
Humanidades em diálogo     Open Access  
Humanity & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
identidade!     Open Access  
Inclusión y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Indes : Zeitschrift für Politik und Gesellschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Sociology and Education Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Information, Communication & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Insights into Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Interdisciplinary Journal of Partnership Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interfaces Brasil/Canadá     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Community Well-Being     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Comparative Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)

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American Behavioral Scientist
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.982
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-7642 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3381
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Corrigendum

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Volume 66, Issue 7, Page NP1-NP1, June 2022.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T01:53:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221095979
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Terrorism in America in the Twenty-First Century: Revisiting My
           Prognostications

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Harvey W. Kushner
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, I analyze the warnings I gave prior to the new millennium concerning the possibility of terrorism visiting American soil. The sources of the problem are discussed in detail. These warnings were not showcased in academic journals gathering dust on some university library shelve. They were given to a variety of governmental agencies as well as discussed in the mainstream media. My sources are revealed for all to see. Unfortunately, my prognostications proved accurate when hijacked planes slammed into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108938
       
  • My Back to the Future Moment for Terrorism

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Larry C. Johnson
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article, with the benefit of hindsight, analyzes the accuracy (and inaccuracy) of my February 2001 article in the American Behavioral Scientist seeking to answer, “what is the future of terrorism'” I discovered that Shakespeare had it right, “The fault, dear Brutus, lies not in our stars, But in ourselves if we are underlings.” There are two major factors that produce and sustain international terrorism—state sponsorship of individuals and groups that carry out terrorist acts and the actions of nation states that create an aggrieved class that is inspired to use violence to try to achieve political objectives or simply to avenge a perceived wrong. The conclusion reached in 2001 remains valid—Prevention and preparation can pay important dividends in deterring terrorism. But a government’s response must be tempered with reason and prudence. Security and law enforcement policies must reflect the values and the vision that protect and uphold freedom.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:09:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108937
       
  • Editor’s Introduction

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      Authors: Harvey W. Kushner
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:06:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108942
       
  • Assessing the Academic Study of Counterterrorism Since 9/11 in
           Understanding and Preventing Terrorism

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      Authors: Joshua Sinai
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article assesses the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in the discipline of counterterrorism studies since al-Qaeda’s catastrophic attacks against the United States on 9/11 along 10 dimensions: defining terrorism, group and lone actor typologies, causes of terrorism, terrorist psychologies, radicalization and recruitment, organizational dynamics, modus operandi, incident chronology databases, forecasting and predicting terrorism, and countering terrorism.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T10:01:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221108945
       
  • Do White Spaces Deserve Black People'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chango Cummings
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T08:53:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066059
       
  • Of Humans, Machines, and Extremism: The Role of Platforms in Facilitating
           Undemocratic Cognition

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      Authors: Julia R. DeCook, Jennifer Forestal
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The events surrounding the 2020 U.S. election and the January 6 insurrection have challenged scholarly understanding of concepts like collective action, radicalization, and mobilization. In this article, we argue that online far-right radicalization is better understood as a form of distributed cognition, in which the groups’ online environment incentivizes certain patterns of behavior over others. Namely, these platforms organize their users in ways that facilitate a nefarious form of collective intelligence, which is amplified and strengthened by systems of algorithmic curation. In short, these platforms reflect and facilitate undemocratic cognition, fueled by affective networks, contributing to events like the January 6 insurrection and far-right extremism more broadly. To demonstrate, we apply this framing to a case study (the “Stop the Steal” movement) to illustrate how this framework can make sense of radicalization and mobilization influenced by undemocratic cognition.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T06:32:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221103186
       
  • The Network Society Revisited

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      Authors: Manuel Castells
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The theory of the network society, in my own version, was originally elaborated in the book that, under the title The Rise of the Network Society, I published in 1996. It was revised and updated in the 2000 and 2010 editions. However, the significant social change that has taken place on a global scale in the last decade provides an opportunity to reassess its heuristic value. Therefore, in this text, I will attempt to consider the currency of the theory of the network society when confronted with these changes.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T11:46:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092803
       
  • Scope and Limits of Community Inclusion: Participatory Budgeting in the
           Santo Domingo Neighborhood of Mexico City

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      Authors: José Eduardo Martínez Martínez, Karla Valverde- Viesca
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Citizen participation mechanisms have become very important in recent decades. This change is due to multiple factors, but the inclusion of citizens in decision-making seeks, among other things, to regain legitimacy and trust from society. In this research, we focus our attention on the case of participatory budgeting in Mexico. In particular, we present some reflections that are derived from the study of the Pedregal de Domingo neighborhood in Mexico City. We propose that it is important to promote incentives for citizen participation.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T04:12:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086959
       
  • Leveraging Community-Driven Anchor Activities Among US For-Profit
           Hospitals

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      Authors: Kelly Lynn Choyke, Cory Edward Cronin, Berkeley Franz
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Hospitals have the ability to serve as anchor institutions that not only provide clinical care but make important community investments through employment, and outreach, and engagement efforts that address the social determinants of health. In doing so, hospitals may partner with community members and community-based organizations, but the extent to which local residents participate in directing local investments varies across organizations. This study looks at the role of hospitals as anchor institutions and the best practices for leveraging community participation in planning investments to improve social and economic health in communities. We used an inductive, qualitative approach to understand the incentives hospitals have to anchor themselves within their communities and how best practices can be leveraged. We conducted 28 in-depth interviews with 27 hospital leaders and personnel, and one interview with a member of a for-profit hospital advocacy organization. Drawing on thematic analysis, three primary themes were identified as critical to leveraging community-driven anchor activities: strong and intentional community-oriented leadership; direct community involvement; and non-regulatory incentives, including incentive programs. The more institutions, organizations, communities, and individuals expect community-oriented anchor activities from hospitals, the more likely they are to engage in such activities. Critical to this work is ensuring that community members themselves are able to help direct the investments of hospitals in alignment with community health needs. Community stakeholders, including elected officials, public health offices, and policymakers, have important leverage in creating expectations for hospitals to engage in anchor activities and facilitate community-based partnerships as a part of this process.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T08:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086961
       
  • (Re)constructing Ageing Futures: Insights from Migration in Asia and
           Beyond

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      Authors: Elaine Lynn-Ee Ho, Leng Leng Thang, Shirlena Huang, Brenda S.A. Yeoh
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This special issue examines how older adults anticipate and manage their futures through migration. Although ageing is often associated with decline towards the end-of-life, it is still a life stage where (the lack of) planning for the future can profoundly impact the life outcomes of older adults and their caregivers. This collection illustrates different ways migration can impact ageing. For some, perceptions and depictions of the future lead older adults to turn to migration to improve their prospects of ageing well although they continue to face constraints while ageing abroad. For others, the migration of younger family members exacerbates the stress of eldercare felt by non-migrant caregivers. Collectively, the papers focus on how countries in Asia function as source and destination sites for ageing-related migration, while also forging transnational connections with the Global North. Focusing on ageing futures allows us to link the current and future lives of migrants and non-migrants, across generations and space.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T01:51:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221075265
       
  • Derailed by the COVID-19 Economy' An Intersectional and Life Course
           Analysis of Older Adults’ Shifting Work Attachments

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      Authors: Phyllis Moen, Joseph H. Pedtke, Sarah Flood
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper addresses the uneven employment effects on older Americans (aged 50–75) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on monthly Current Population Survey data from January through December 2020, we take an intersectional and life course approach to study the labor market effects of COVID-19 on older Americans. First, we chart monthly labor force states throughout 2020 for older adult subgroups defined by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. We then examine transitions out of and into work from one month to the next. We find gendered age-graded declines in employment, increases in unemployment, and increases in the proportions of people in their 50s reporting they are not in the labor force for other reasons (NILF-other), most dramatically for Asian and Hispanic women. There is little change in age-graded retirement from before to during the pandemic, regardless of gender or race/ethnicity, though there are education-level effects, with those without a college degree more likely to retire in the face of COVID-19. White men with a college degree are the most apt to retain their work engagement.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T11:41:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066061
       
  • Advocating for Transgender Immigrants in Detention Centers: Cisnormativity
           as a Tool for Racialized Social Control

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      Authors: Victoria Kurdyla
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Despite public concern over immigration enforcement, little attention has been given to transgender immigrants, who are disproportionately at risk for arrest and deportation. Organizations dedicated to protecting LGBT people’s rights and immigrant rights have been working to address this issue and shape policy decisions to better protect transgender immigrants in detention centers; however, research has not investigated how these organizations frame transgender immigrant detainees and their experience in detention to accomplish their goals. This current study uses a content analysis of public documents spanning 2009–2021 from the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Transgender Law Center (TLC) to investigate how two legal advocacy organizations frame the issue of transgender immigrants within detention centers. The ACLU rarely discusses transgender immigrants and thus upholds cisnormativity. When they do discuss transgender immigrants, their transgender identity is referenced as a singular issue in isolation from other facets of their identity. The TLC, on the other hand, frames immigration detention for transgender immigrants as part of a larger web of oppression. Through a comparison of the ACLU and TLC, this study underscores the role of cisnormativity as a tool for racialized social control. Findings highlight the importance of a critical, intersectional approach to immigration advocacy and scholarship that challenges the cisnormative assumptions guiding the current immigration system. Implications for future research and service provision are discussed.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T06:10:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083531
       
  • Breakdown 2.0' Systemic Blockages in Late-Stage Statism and Late-Stage
           Liberal Capitalism

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      Authors: Felix Stalder
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Castells’ analysis of the breakdown of Soviet statism is possibly more relevant now than when it was written. By identifying systemic blockages to necessary societal transformation—then from industrialism to informationalism—he offers a framework to analyze the contemporary crisis of liberal democracy. Then and now, the challenges are caused by the system’s inability to organize the complexity created by itself which creates more and more internal contradictions. Two current challenges threatening the stability of the liberal democracy are rising social inequality and the crossing of geophysical boundaries of the earth as an ecological system. The inability to address these challenges is related to systemic blockages within liberal democracies. Parallels to the late Soviet Union are drawn without predicting outcomes.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T12:20:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092799
       
  • The Network and the Society: Structure and Agency in Castells’
           Theory

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      Authors: Andrea Miconi
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the article is to explore the theoretical tension between structure and agency as laid out by Manuel Castells, from The Rise of the Network Society (1996) to Networks of Outrage and Hope (2012). With agency and structure recognized as the two main axes around which general social theory rotates, Castells’ work appears to be affected by discontinuity rather than continuity. The first part of his theory mainly deals with structure and with the “pre-eminence of social morphology over social action”, while the second is rather based on agency, and namely on the role played by grassroots movements. I will retrace his theoretical evolution while also stressing the point that network and society are not one and the same. Therefore, any all-embracing theoretical perspective is destined to miss the target, considering that technical, political, and social affairs follow different rules and patterns.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T12:22:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092805
       
  • Affective Polarization of a Protest and a Counterprotest: Million MAGA
           March v. Million Moron March

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      Authors: Saif Shahin
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Protest movements around the world have become increasingly likely to incite counterprotests that adopt an opposing stance. This study examines how a protest and a counterprotest interact with and shape each other as digitally networked connective action. My empirical focus is the so-called Million MAGA March—in which supporters of U.S. President Donald Trump protested the “stealing” of the November 2020 election by his rival, Joe Biden—and a counterprotest that erupted simultaneously. Drawing on a computational mixed-methods approach to examine two corpora of tweets featuring hashtags used by protesters and counterprotesters, respectively, the study identifies three mutually reinforcing dimensions of protest–counterprotest interaction: affective repertoires, discursive strategies, and network structures. It argues that “affective polarization”—or negative partisanship driven by hostility toward an outgroup—offers a useful conceptual means of understanding the significance of affect and collective identity in digital social movements, especially protest–counterprotest interactions. In doing so, the study also addresses concerns that “big data” methods are insensitive to the role of identity and expressive communication in social movements. Finally, the study demonstrates how online and offline political action are mutually constitutive aspects of contemporary contentious politics.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T01:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091212
       
  • Storytelling and Deliberative Play in the Oregon Citizens’ Assembly
           Online Pilot on COVID-19 Recovery

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      Authors: Laura W. Black, Anna W. Wolfe, Soo-Hye Han
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article draws on the deliberative play framework to examine empirical examples of storytelling in an online deliberative forum: The Oregon Citizen Assembly (ORCA) Pilot on COVID-19 Recovery. ORCA engaged 36 citizens in deliberation about state policy through an online deliberative process spanning seven weeks. Drawing on literature on small stories in deliberation, we trace stories related to a policy proposal about paying parents to educate children at home. Our analysis demonstrates that storytelling activities accomplish aspects of deliberative play through introducing uncertainty, resisting premature closure, and promoting an “as if” frame that allows groups to explore the scope and implications of proposals. Forum design influences interaction and our analysis suggests that technology use and timing are key design features that can facilitate or inhibit deliberative play.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T08:58:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093591
       
  • The Network Society Today

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      Authors: Mireia Fernández-Ardèvol, Ramon Ribera-Fumaz
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      2021 marked the 25th Anniversary of Manuel Castells’ The Rise of the Network Society, the first volume of the Information Age trilogy. The Trilogy immediately became one of the most influential works to understand the societal change in the wake of the digital revolution. More than two decades later, many of the emerging processes theorised and analysed in the Trilogy have reached full maturity, if not evolved in unexpected ways. Also, several theoretical and epistemological trends have developed or consolidated in the social sciences that have either been influenced by or challenged the Trilogy position. In this scenario, is the Network Society Theory still relevant for understanding today’s digitalised society' How should we develop the Network Society approach now' This special issue aims to answer these questions. In particular, in this collection of papers, we identify three interrelated dimensions: new developments in the evolution or disruption of the Network Society, the articulation between network logics and other spatial forms, and the relation of the Network Society with recurrent topics in Castells’ work beyond the Information. The papers are a selection of the contributions to the online workshop The Network Society Today: (Revisiting) the Information Age Trilogy (November 2–30, 2020), in which Prof. Castells also participated. This volume brings together a wide range of established and emerging scholars from a diversity of Social Sciences disciplines with plural theoretically informed papers tackling rich empirical case studies across the world, spanning throughout America, Europe, Africa and Asia. Contributions conclude with a reflection by Manuel Castells on them and his work.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T08:53:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092800
       
  • The Authoritarian Elephant Next Door': A Canadian and Comparative
           Perspective Amidst American Democratic Backsliding & Uncertainty

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      Authors: Jamie Gillies
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The rise of right-wing populism and nationalism has had a profound effect on politics in the advanced industrial world. Canada, flummoxed by its normally reliable neighbor to the south and an American electorate it no longer understands, may have to dramatically rethink its position with respect to the United States both as its major trading partner and closest ally. With a bad faith actor political party in the Republicans, America is increasingly taking on authoritarian tendencies that have already played out in countries such as Hungary and Poland. The recent voting rights suppression movement and a fraudulent campaign to overturn the 2020 election, culminating in the January 6, 2021 insurrection and attack on the Capitol, have created conditions in which anti-democratic measures can potentially overcome weakening democratic institutions. In this article, the upheaval of the Trump years and the dynamics of the 2020 election and its aftermath are put into a Canadian and comparative perspective.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T11:34:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221103182
       
  • To Play Is the Thing: How Game Design Principles Can Make Online
           Deliberation Compelling

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      Authors: John Gastil
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This essay draws from game design to improve the prospects of democratic deliberation during government consultation with the public. The argument begins by reviewing the problem of low-quality deliberation in contemporary discourse, then explains how games can motivate participants to engage in demanding behaviors, such as deliberation. Key design features include: the origin, governance, and oversight of the game; the networked small groups at the center of the game; the objectives of these groups; the purpose of artificial intelligence and automated metrics for measuring deliberation; the roles played by public officials and nongovernmental organizations during the game; and the long-term payoff of playing the game for both its convenors and its participants. The essay concludes by considering this project’s wider theoretical significance for deliberative democracy, the first steps for governments and nonprofit organizations adopting this design, and the hazards of using advanced digital technology.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T10:24:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093592
       
  • Facilitating Deliberative Play

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      Authors: Leah Sprain
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Craig (2022) offers deliberative play as a communicative practice that advances deliberative goals even though it is not per se deliberative. This playful interaction includes indeterminacy or uncertainty of outcome, to-and-fro movement, and an as-if ontology that can be either cooperative or competitive. I draw on the concept of deliberative play and interaction from deliberative events to generate practical theory to guide deliberative facilitators. The analysis demonstrates metacommunicative cues of the deliberative play frame, particularly even-if questions. It also contributes this to the theoretical development of deliberative play by suggesting that some of the instrumental concerns of facilitators (e.g., maintaining engagement and active participation in the creation of new meanings and actionable knowledge) might productively be considered part of deliberative play to help distinguish when to-and-fro movement stops contributing to deliberative goals. This practical theory provides facilitators ways to recognize nondeliberative interaction that can advance deliberative ends.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T10:20:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093590
       
  • Freedom of Discussion versus Predetermined Futures in Deliberation
           Processes

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      Authors: Anna Przybylska, Marta Bucholc, Shin Mazur
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Methods of deliberative consultations usually propose expert information materials to increase knowledge among lay citizens about the considered subject. These materials sometimes also include alternative scenarios for action presented with pros and cons. In our study, we pose the following research questions: (1) Do the participants tend to use predetermined scenarios or diverge from them and generate their reference structures for the deliberation’s indeterminate outcomes' (2) How do the scenarios intervene in the “loping to-and-fro form of movement” in the interactions' (3) How is the knowledge about the preexisting scenarios reflected in the “as if” ontology of thought and action' We introduce play and game as two ideal types of deliberation processes emphasizing the opposition of freedom and pre-determination of outcomes. The analysis used empirical material from online group discussions about various aspects of studying at Warsaw universities. The results showed that regardless of the situation in groups, predefined scenarios are the focus of discussions and anchoring points for the “loping to-and-fro form of movement.” However, participants demonstrated some selectivity, and they did not consider all alternatives. Moreover, they introduced some modifications and new proposals. At the same time, participants tended to diverge more from briefing materials in argumentation. Experiential arguments prevailed, and the pros and cons of each scenario appeared rarely across groups. Interestingly, stricter moderation did not necessarily intervene here, and the group with the highest level of own proposals in some instances followed the game rules more accordingly than other groups. Finally, the language of listening and understanding is frequent, regardless of the number of predefined scenarios discussed by groups, which strengthened the “as if” ontology of thought and action.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T10:17:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093585
       
  • Power and Positionality in Participatory Budgeting

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      Authors: Airín D Martínez
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      There have been few analyses that discuss how power relations present in participatory budgeting (PB) may hinder or facilitate the future of PB. Drawing from PB examples in the United States we discuss the importance of power and positionality analyses during PB stages with the most deliberative participation for community members: forming steering committees, holding local assemblies, and selecting budgets. We discuss power struggles that stem from the lack of transparency in establishing budgets and representing implicated actors in communities. We discuss the importance of analyzing the positionality of municipal actors and community members throughout the life of PB projects. The paper ends by suggesting lessons that future PB initiatives can glean from community-based participatory research (CBPR) in public health, specifically, engaging in co-learning processes, capacity building among all partners, and the equitable distribution of resources between communities. These CBPR principles may facilitate countering narratives about community participation and foment institutional change in the ways local jurisdictions allocate PB budgets and prioritize policy agendas.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T03:43:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086954
       
  • Opportunity Hoarding and the Maintenance of “White”
           Educational Space

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      Authors: John B. Diamond, Amanda E. Lewis
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we discuss the fundamental whiteness of educational spaces and detail the historical and contemporary mechanisms through which these spaces are created and perpetuate. We draw on Charles Tilly’s concept of opportunity hoarding to detail how white racial actors and white-dominated institutions create and defend “white” spaces within education. We expand current educational scholarship in this area by theorizing connections between opportunity hoarding and sociological work on racial boundaries, institutional theory, and organizational routines and point the way toward more nuanced examinations of opportunity hoarding in education.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T12:36:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066048
       
  • “The Big Lie”: How Fact Checking Influences Support for
           Insurrection

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      Authors: David Lynn Painter, Juliana Fernandes
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This experimental investigation explores the influence of election fraud fact-checking and cognitive processing styles on participants’ confidence in the 2020 U.S. presidential election’s legitimacy and characterizations of the January Sixth Capitol Hill Attack. The results indicate fact-checking, accuracy motivated reasoning, and systematic processing exerted positive effects on participants’ legitimacy levels, especially among Republicans. We also found that participants’ systematic processing, affiliation with the Democratic Party, and negative attitudes toward Donald Trump were associated with their characterizations of the January Sixth Capitol Hill Attack as violent and extreme. Overall, these results support both motivated reasoning and dual process models, but partisan motivated reasoning exerted the greatest effects. Further, these findings suggest Republican and pro-Trump participants who rely on heuristic processing may find violent, extra-political actions acceptable means of attempting to achieve their goals.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T08:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221103179
       
  • Privilege and the Legacy of an Insurrection: Critical Race Theory, January
           6th, and Preserving Black Resistance

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      Authors: Deion Hawkins, Sharifa Simon-Roberts
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The right to protest and freedom of expression are core principles of democracy; however, on January 6th, 2021, the right to protest spiraled into a full-fledged assault on American ideals. While the smoke was still smoldering, millions were left dumbfounded—the actions were way beyond a traditional protest, instead, the attack on January 6th was classified as an insurrection. Months prior, during the Summer of 2020, then President Trump threatened to invoke the Insurrection Act of 1807 to curb the mostly peaceful Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests. Thus, a clear paradox emerges. On one hand, an unjustified insurrection was met with minimal force, but on the other hand, peaceful protests against state-sanctioned murder were quelled almost immediately. To hypothesize about the insurrection of January 6th without examining the racism and racial privilege embedded in the actions would be immoral; this is especially true considering the historical importance of slave insurrections in advancing Black liberation. Thus, we argue that advancing the narrative of the January 6th insurrection as justified is a disservice to the legacy of protests, rebellions, and insurrections. Utilizing Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a framework, the article analyzes and compares the BLM protests against the insurrection of January 6th and draws attention to ways in which race served as a tool of oppression. The insurrection of January 6th, along with the rhetorical construction and justification of the events that unfolded that day, is steeped in privilege and white supremacy—luxuries that were not afforded to racial justice protests.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T10:08:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091195
       
  • How Spain’s International Status Was Enhanced After the Withdrawal
           of Its Troops From Iraq

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      Authors: Jordi Xuclà
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper researches how and why the decision to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq between March and April 2004 was taken. The new Spanish president, José Luís Rodríguez Zapatero, took this decision in the period between the day after his electoral victory, on 14 March, and the day that his government took office, on 18 April. The decision was made possible by the previous work of informal diplomacy carried out by Zapatero’s future minister of defence, José Bono, and his future minister of foreign affairs, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, who were holding discreet contacts with several international leaders of the military coalition present at the time in Iraq. This fact had a strong impact on the prestige of the new government in the eyes of Spanish public opinion and on the strengthening of alliances with European countries opposed to the invasion. On the contrary, it brought Spain to have one of the worst relations periods of all times with the US administration.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T10:08:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091196
       
  • News Framing in the Aftermath of the January 6 Attacks on the U.S.
           Capitol: An Analysis of Labels, Definitional Uncertainty, and
           Contextualization

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      Authors: Diana Zulli, Kevin Coe, Zachary Isaacs
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In the aftermath of a violent attack, questions of definition arise. News framing research has shown that the words chosen to define a given event can affect attitudes and decision-making, even when only a single word is varied. This study analyzes public discourse in the aftermath of the January 6 U.S. Capitol attacks to better understand which labels predominated and how different labels were explained/justified. We pair computer-assisted content analysis with qualitative textual analysis to identify patterns in public commentary during the week following the attacks. Results indicate that initial news coverage favored “protest(s)” as a descriptor, but “riot,” “attack(s),” and “insurrection” gained traction as the week unfolded. Many labels were also definitively applied and deployed to contextualize the attacks, providing a degree of contrast to framing norms. The results are considered in relation to ongoing debates over definitions of domestic terrorism and related crises, as well as normative considerations central to the maintenance of U.S. democracy.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T11:51:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221096333
       
  • New England Town Meeting and the Cultivation of Deliberative Play

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      Authors: Rebecca M. Townsend, Trudy Milburn
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participants of New England town meeting must follow protocols to participate in this direct democratic process. Over the past 200 years, the protocols have been enacted and adapted by participants in small towns across the region. Within annual meetings, one can find small breaches that could be interpreted as playful acts. In this paper, we use the comic frame as a theoretical lens to interpret instances of such play within the rhetorical deliberation of one New England town meeting. We analyze two instances where speakers playfully use recognized parts of town meeting to achieve their rhetorical ends. We conclude with a discussion of the way play can help accomplish identification in public discourse.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093588
       
  • Interpersonal Communication in the Information Age: Opportunities and
           Disruptions

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      Authors: Loredana Ivan
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Starting from the interpersonal communication theories that have incorporated the use of information and communication technologies (Walther, 2007, 2011, 2017) and the perpetual interconnectedness to understand human behavior in interaction with others (Walther et al., 2015), the current paper approaches challenges brought by the network society in the way we bridge our online and offline self. Castells’ concepts are primarily used to explain macro-phenomena, for example, social movements (Castells, 2015), political and socio-economic transformation around the world (Castells, 2017), and to a lesser extent in discussing meso-phenomena, such as social isolation, exhaustion, the commodification of human interactions and interpersonal conflicts arise as part of individual’s adaptation to the Information Age. The current paper creates links between Castells’ main concepts of the network society theoretical framework and three meso-theories used in the interpersonal communication field to explain people’s online behavior in interaction by focusing on the characteristics of the communication medium: The social presence theory, Media richness theory, and the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE). Sharing Castells’ optimism on how network society creates efficiency and innovation in human interactions, we draw attention to less optimistic aspects related to the constant pressure of constructing relationships through virtual reality.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:18:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092801
       
  • Introduction: Deliberative Play

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      Authors: Robert T. Craig
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article introduces a special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist in which scholars of public deliberation address the theme of “Deliberative Play” from different conceptual and empirical approaches. Here I introduce the concept of deliberative play against a background of philosophical accounts of deliberative action, the theory of metacommunication, and trends in the study of public deliberation that are endeavoring to reduce the gap between normative theories and the empirical realities of deliberative democratic practice. Articles in the special issue address several aspects of deliberative play: how storytelling activities accomplish deliberative play in online forums (Black, Wolfe, and Han); how facilitators can cue and maintain the deliberative play frame during facilitated deliberative discussions (Sprain); how playful exchanges are enabled by the structure of New England town meetings and what they accomplish (Townsend and Milburn); how alternative scenarios for action presented with pros and cons by expert consultants influence deliberative play in online discussions in Poland (Przybylska, Bucholc, and Mazur); and how online discussion interfaces would benefit from applying principles of game design (Gastil). The concluding section reflects on the results of these studies and their implications for further investigations of deliberative play.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:18:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221093589
       
  • The Qualitative Power of a Crowd: Trump’s Rallies, Public Opinion,
           Attention Economy

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      Authors: Sharon E. Jarvis, Dakota Park-Ozee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Journalists, pundits, and pollsters critiqued President Donald J. Trump’s fixation on his crowds—often suggesting they were smaller than he boasted or meaningless in connection to electoral or legislative outcomes. This project takes a qualitative rather than a quantitative stance to interpreting the meaning of Trump’s crowds. In doing so, we find messages presented his rallies as (1) engaging multiple audiences, (2) eliciting feedback from his base to sharpen his talking points, and (3) enraging his devotees to act on his behalf. These types of communications did two things that traditional polling data are unlikely to do: they garnered attention and vast recirculation in the contemporary media environment and have been linked to the insurrection of the U.S. Capitol on January 6, 2021. This article draws from scholarship on Trump, news coverage, and social media posts to advance these themes, invites a more nuanced look at crowds as a complement to traditional understandings of public opinion, and closes by posing paths for future discussions of them.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:17:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091203
       
  • Migration and Racialization Part II: The Light and Shadow of Inclusion

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      Authors: Wenjie Liao, Kim Ebert, Lisa Sun-Hee Park
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T03:06:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083539
       
  • Mobile Communication and Urban/Rural Flows in a South African Marginalised
           Community

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      Authors: Lorenzo Dalvit
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article draws on Castells’ concept of space of flows to explore the role of mobile communication in mediating the flows of ideas, people and resources concerning Dwesa, a rural community in South Africa. While it is the site of an ICT-for-development project fifteen years in the making, Dwesa is representative of many contemporary South African rural realities in terms of lack of infrastructure, endemic poverty and urban migration. Mobile network coverage is almost universal, sustaining a bidirectional flow of people, resources and information between Dwesa and urban areas such as Cape Town. A critical review of the substantial body of research conducted in the area, as well as thematic analysis of social media texts and semi-structured interviews with community members, reveal that mobile phones play an important and nuanced role in arranging physical or virtual rendezvous, facilitating transfers of monetary and other resources, and enabling timeless communication and exchange of information across distance.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:45:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092806
       
  • The Downfall of the Catalan Rebellion: A Graphic Representation of
           Secessionist Political Discourses

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      Authors: Adrià Alsina, Xavier Ginesta, Jordi de San Eugenio
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The main objective of this article is to identify and compare the main historical frames used by Catalan secessionism during the Catalan independence political and civic rebellion that happened in October 2017. Some authors have analyzed the Catalan pro-independence demands. However, this is one of the first researches to focus its attention on how political discourses have been created and how these political discourses legitimized the degree of rebellion that Catalonia underwent. The article that follows uses discourse analysis with the tools of second-level agenda-setting and cognitive linguistics in order to classify and compare quantitatively and qualitatively all the messages posted on Twitter (16.201) by major pro-independence organizations and leaders in 2017. Drawing from the historiographical analysis, we propose to name the frames as follows: “administration,” “fight against injustice,” and “sovereignty,” and codify them from 1 to 3, in a classification that we define as “degree of political rupture.” From this comparison several conclusions are drawn. The first conclusion is that the three frames actually match the strategies and thoughts of organizations and leaders in 2017 and allow us to make graphic representations of the discourse analysis. Another conclusion is that most actors de-escalated their degree of political rupture from October 2017, once they became aware of the actions of the Spanish police and the legal prosecution against them.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:42:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091204
       
  • Does the “Platform Society” Mean the End of the “Network
           Society'” Reflections on Platforms and the Structure and Dynamics of
           Networks

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      Authors: Francesca Comunello, Simone Mulargia
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars and journalistic accounts have devoted growing interest to the centralizing trends characterizing platforms and the “platform society.” They often oppose this model to the alleged openness, horizontality, and “equality” they attach to “networks.” Such depictions seem willing to give up on a thorough consideration of network structure, which appears nowadays less fundamental to reflect on the digital world (and society) than it was 25 years ago. Or even question whether the network society model, as proposed by Castells, is unsuitable for describing contemporary society. In our opinion, the dichotomy opposing the (alleged) openness and egalitarian nature of networks (and of the network society), to the current centralization trends characterizing the platform society, as well as the subsequent assumption that networks are an outdated heuristic tool, derive from a misunderstanding of networks’ structure and dynamics. Scholars have shown that the structure of most complex networks can be defined as “scale-free,” following a power-law distribution. Complex networks, indeed, show the tendency for some nodes to become more interconnected than others (thus becoming “hubs”). In this, the understanding of network structure proposed in Castells (1996), contrary to the rhetoric considering networks intrinsically as “egalitarian,” is still a conceptual and analytical tool of the utmost importance for understanding the so-called “platform society.” This paper focuses on networks, network models, and the network society, reviewing what was proposed in Castells (1996). We argue that the social and platform ecosystem we are witnessing today can be understood from the perspective of scale-free networks and is, indeed, consistent with the premises provided in 1996. When observing networks, we address both structure and agency, and both the macro (network morphology) and micro (networked individualism and sociability) levels
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:39:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092797
       
  • In Search of ‘Truths’: South Korean Society and the Politics
           of Live Streaming

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      Authors: Ji Hyeon Kim, Jun Yu
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Despite Castells’ argument about the transformative potential of digital communication technologies for developing the networks of individuals and bringing about social and political changes, critical scholars have continued to raise vigilance against the potentially detrimental consequences of such technologies in social domains. One such issue relates to their impact on (collective) identity-making. Taking as a case study the live streaming of 2016–17 candlelight and Taegukgi rallies in South Korea, this article addresses how a digital communication technology can go further than simply permitting a large-scale mobilization and can reconfigure the meaning of participation in social movements, contributing to the emergence of what we term ‘polemical identity’. We argue that this polemical identity diverges from a more hopeful perspective found in Castells’ account, developing instead through the new semantics of participation that result in, and are triggered by, various practices of Otherizing. This includes searching for, and claiming, one’s own ‘truth’ as a means of bonding with the likeminded. In this process, we illuminate how the relationship between (collective) identity, digital communication technologies, social contexts and institutional power has become more complicated.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:39:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092804
       
  • Democratic Disruption or Continuity' Analysis of the Decidim Platform
           in Catalan Municipalities

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      Authors: Rosa Borge, Joan Balcells, Albert Padró-Solanet
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Free, open-source participatory platforms like Decidim or Consul were designed by the 15M’ citizen activists in Spain. Initially implemented in Barcelona and Madrid, these platforms are spread in many countries. Castells has not examined the institutionalization of the 15M’s offspring, and thus we aim to contribute by studying the rollout of the Decidim platform in Catalan municipalities. We examine its disruptive potential along three democratic dimensions: transparency, participation and deliberation. Our study combines in-depth interviews and an online questionnaire administered to public officials in charge of the platform and analyses the levels of participation on the platform. The research shows elements of managerial continuity: the most valued goals are transparency, organisation of information and the collection of citizen proposals, rather than deliberation and transfer of sovereignty towards citizens. However, the platform forces administrations to consider individual citizens’ inputs, increases citizens’ proposals and initiatives, and brings in new participant publics. Furthermore, democratic innovation is being pushed ahead by a networkof activists and technological experts that continuously improve the platform and function as a counter-power (Castells, 2015, 2016).
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:37:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221092798
       
  • International Reactions to the Capitol Attack of January 6th: A Media
           Frames Analysis

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      Authors: Gloria M. Boone, Mary Anne Taylor, Linda Gallant
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      On January 6, 2021, the United States experienced an insurrection at the United States Capitol that was framed in varying and complex ways by traditional U.S. allies, competing nations, and adversaries. This manuscript examines the statements of foreign leaders, international media reports, and social media posts through a media framing analysis. Thousands of pages of press reports from countries, including the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Israel, Russia, and China, formed different views of the insurrection. There were concerns about U.S. democracy, questions about U.S. leadership, and expressions of each nation’s self-interest in the transactional nature of their own economical, ideological or political interests. Operationalizing a media frame analysis, this essay examines the January 6th events to suggest that global reactions to democracy are bolstered, ridiculed, and, frequently, contested internationally.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:31:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091214
       
  • “No Cult Tells You to Think for Yourself”: Discursive Ideology and the
           Limits of Rationality in Conspiracy Theory QAnon

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      Authors: Peter L. Forberg
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      What is truth in politics' Movements such as the anti-establishment, internet-born conspiracy theory QAnon are offered as dramatic cases of just how “irrational” people have become in a “post-truth” political world. However, with a growing number of everyday Americans believing in such theories, labeling adherents “irrational” ignores the internally rationalizing logic of conspiracy theories, so we ask the question: how do QAnon followers think through, argue, and rationalize their political truths' This paper establishes a discursive framework that demonstrates how QAnon adherents translate the theory’s paradigmatic political epistemology into personal ideologies. I identify the narrative structures that guide belief, examining how QAnon followers develop a general political plot, set the parameters for conflict, embrace their role in the story, determine what is in the political canon, and relate to the narrative that has been constructed. This analysis highlights the contradictions within the QAnon conspiracy theory—not to pathologize adherents’ irrationality but to demonstrate how people must wrestle with contradiction, paradox, and confusion when developing political ideologies. When framed as the as victims of a brainwashing cult, QAnons routinely respond, “no cult tells you to think for yourself”; instead, their narratives allow them to interpret QAnon in service of developing personalized political truths. Thus, this paper takes their words at face value to see the world as they interpret it. I argue that ideologies are a function of broader political epistemologies such as QAnon; they are embodied, narrativized ways of being in the world that make life livable—despite any inner contradictions—and guide political participation.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T12:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221091199
       
  • Crises Narratives Defining the COVID-19 Pandemic: Expert Uncertainties and
           Conspiratorial Sensemaking

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      Authors: Majia Nadesan
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Experts, news media, and social media commentators struggled to make sense of SARS-CoV-2 January–May 2020 as disease caused by this virus, COVID-19, circulated the globe. This paper represents a longitudinal analysis of the primary narratives produced across expert, media, and social media sources to describe the virus, its phylogenetic origins, and biological effects. High expert uncertainty coupled with amplifying representations of risk across time drove collective sensemaking and conspiratorial narratives.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T09:45:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221085893
       
  • US Hypocrisy and the End of American Exceptionalism' Narratives of the
           January 6th Attack on the US Capitol From Illiberal National Media

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      Authors: Robert S. Hinck
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the United States being the only country in the world that places its former and incoming leader on a stage for millions to see, with the “Peaceful Transition of Power” being the very symbol of American democracy watched around the world, the events on January 6th, 2021, show how such performances of democratic culture are not permanent fixtures. Indeed, whereas US and foreign audiences have become accustomed to watching anti-government protests in illiberal states or underdeveloped democracies, the scenes of thousands of protestors storming the US Capitol has opened the United States itself for critique from the very nations it has admonished in the past. Thus, although the protest paradigm has become the dominant framework for understanding mediated portrayals of anti-government protests, this study argues it provides only partial insight into the January 6th insurrection, eschewing the larger strategic dimensions of non-democratic countries’ media coverage of the event. Rather than focusing on how media framed the event, this study examined 525 news articles from 26 Chinese, Russian, Iranian, and Saudi media outlets’ reporting on the event from January 5th to January 19th through the lens of strategic media narratives. Results show that while elements of the protest paradigm are present in all four countries’ reporting—providing clear condemnation of the event and its participants, with blame placed on President Trump for instigating the attack—two additional overarching plotlines emerge: one shifting the scene away from President Trump to America’s broader polarized politics and failed governance and a second concluding the end of US exceptionalism and characterizations of US hypocrisy. Taken together, these two overarching narratives highlight the significance of storytelling as a potent form of geopolitical contestation in today’s global media environment.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T01:27:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221096335
       
  • How the COVID-19 Pandemic Impacted the Perception of Climate Change in the
           UK

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      Authors: Gabriele Ruiu, Maria Laura Ruiu, Massimo Ragnedda
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic erupted during the climate change (CC) crisis, forcing individuals to adapt abruptly to a new scenario, and triggering changes in everyone’s lifestyles. Based on a sample of the UK population (N = 1013), this paper investigates how the COVID-19 pandemic invited/forced individuals to reflect upon a more sustainable way of life (which might be enhanced by the use of digital technologies for daily activities) and to (re)consider the anthropogenic impact on the environment. The results show that older individuals tend to be less sceptic around the human impact on CC. Other control variables such as income, gender and employment status have a limited impact on this attitude towards CC. Secondly, the findings indicate a clear separation between those with a minimal level of education, who support the natural origin of CC, while individuals with a higher level of education believe that CC is caused by human actions. Finally, on average, younger and more educated individuals tend to associate the COVID-19 pandemic with an opportunity to promote an eco-friendly world and to adopt an eco-sustainable approach.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T03:16:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221085885
       
  • Introduction: Participatory Budgeting as Community-Based Work

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      Authors: John W. Murphy, Scotney D. Evans, Miguel Angel Minutti-Meza
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participatory budgeting (PB) is seldom tied to commxunity-based philosophy, and thus is not often approached as community organizing. In this Introduction, this link is established while illustrating how the traditional stages of a PB project, such as outreach, are changed when they are conceptualized and practiced according to this philosophy. Specifically, the basic idea is that PB works best when guided by local knowledge and controlled by local participants. Also, central themes such as participation, motivation, social justice, and empowerment are facilitated by this philosophy. When treated as a community-based undertaking, the effectiveness and sustainability of PB are improved.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T08:02:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086960
       
  • The Nexus of Carcerality and Access and Success in Postsecondary Education

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      Authors: Adrian H. Huerta, Tolani Britton
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This special issue of American Behavioral Scientist focuses on college preparation, access, and success for individuals impacted by carceral systems and practices in K-12 and higher education. Carcerality is (in)formal rules that center discipline, punishment, and control of individuals. Most recently, the embodiment of carceral practices has become more visible throughout the educational system, particularly for students of color. Attitudes, practices, and policies shape how K-12 and higher education students are perceived and treated as risks. In turn, these attitudes and policies lead to decisions about whether students merit investments that increase the likelihood of success in the education system. In the face of these structural barriers, students resist and overcome these policies and the systemic underinvestment in their education. This volume of articles centers the interconnection between education and criminal (in)justice to understand how both fields interact and position minoritized students in the social, academic, and behavioral margins. Articles explore the experiences of system-impacted students in K-12, higher education, theoretical application of risk, the impact of carceral laws and policies on educational access, and response to practices and policies that can counter carceral efforts in education systems.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T03:30:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211054820
       
  • The Dynamics of Local Participation

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      Authors: Karen A. Callaghan, Roger Horne
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      As part of the “new public participation movement,” participatory budgeting is a systematic attempt to ameliorate institutionalized inequality, inequity, and injustice by enhancing how democracy works and expanding who participates genuinely. This commitment to more democratic, inclusive decision-making is important for empowering communities who have been subject to marginalization and exploitation. However, participatory budgeting must be implemented as community-based work if local participation in shaping government policies, programming, and funding priorities is to be considered a legitimate and trusted process. This article examines participation within the framework of community-based philosophy and epistemology. Guidelines are provided for how participatory budgeting facilitators should approach communities with a genuine sense of humility and openness. This dynamic requires facilitators to form collaborative, dialogical relationships with communities and allows local knowledge to inform and drive the budgeting process.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T01:03:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086950
       
  • From Empowerment to Community Power in Participatory Budgeting

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      Authors: Scotney D. Evans, Margo Fernandez-Burgos
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines the issue of empowerment in participatory budgeting (PB). We position empowerment as part of the generally agreed theory of change in PB yet acknowledge the limits of an individual construction of empowerment that neglect sufficient attention to dynamic relations of power in participatory spaces and surrounding social contexts. Using the three forms of power theorized by Lukes (1974) and Gaventa (1980), we examine the ways in which these forms of power constrain individual and collective agency and transformative outcomes in participatory projects. We shift the gaze from empowerment to the concept of community power to suggest that getting beyond small adjustments to local services and resource allocations to substantive changes in relations of power may depend on ordinary citizens coming together in sites of radical possibility to define themselves, deliberate, and then act.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T04:29:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086947
       
  • Community-Based Work and Participatory Budgeting

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      Authors: John W. Murphy, Felicia O. Casanova
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participatory budgeting (PB) works best if this activity is viewed to be part of a trend that is referred to as community-based work. But this connection is not often made. As a result, many PB projects tend to drift away from their home communities. Although working in communities is thought to be a very practical endeavor, philosophy should not be ignored, particularly if the aim is to be community-based. Some examples are supplied in this paper that illustrate how this community-based philosophy alters, and improves, some traditional phases of PB projects. The overall result is to keep these budgeting projects informed by local knowledge and under community control.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T10:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086952
       
  • Migration and Racialization Part I: Constructing and Navigating a Hostile
           Terrain

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      Authors: Kim Ebert, Wenjie Liao, Lisa Sun-Hee Park
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T08:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083533
       
  • Implications of Participatory Budgeting on Social Justice: Some
           Theoretical Considerations

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      Authors: Jung M. Choi
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participatory budgeting (PB) is a novel way to understand the ways in which local projects are funded. Citizens engage in direct participation at every level of the project from designing, evaluating, modifying, and eventually disbursing funds. In short, PB is a fair and practical way for citizens to participate in direct democracy, rather than passive engagement through voting and waiting for elected officials to render a decision. In addition, due to its commitment to community-based philosophy, PB represents a radical move toward social justice.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T03:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086948
       
  • Participatory Budgeting and Community Development: A Global Perspective

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      Authors: Michael Touchton, Stephanie McNulty, Brian Wampler
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Participatory budgeting (PB) is designed to leverage local knowledge about community needs and translate spending preferences into tangible community development action by giving communities control over key budgetary resources. Moreover, PB participants learn about decision-making processes in development policy and can organize to pursue their communities’ interests beyond the PB process by engaging with government and civil society. PB advocates hope that infrastructure, service delivery, and, ultimately, well-being will improve for underserved communities and groups that have been historically excluded from the perspective of representative democracy. This article presents the theoretical logic connecting PB to community development and summarizes the global evidence from studies that test the theoretical propositions above. We find evidence for PB’s impact on community development performance in several important contexts. However, we also note that many hypotheses have yet to be tested in rigorous, large-N, comparative studies. There is thus considerable room to evaluate PB’s impact in the future.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T03:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221086957
       
  • Challenges and Opportunities: Asian Women in Science, Technology,
           Engineering, and Mathematics

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      Authors: Roli Varma, John Falk, Lynn Dierking
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This special issue brings selected papers from an international conference which brought a group of approximately 30 Science Technology and Society and Popularization of Science experts from nine South Asian and Southeast Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand), plus the United States. They discussed how best to enhance public awareness about the role of women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). These papers show how to develop strategies for increasing the participation of women in STEM, both as STEM professionals and as informed and engaged, lifelong participants in a STEM-rich world.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T09:58:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078509
       
  • Building and Wedging Strategic Alliances: Racial Framing Contests in the
           Immigrant Rights and Nativist Counter-Movements

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      Authors: Hajar Yazdiha
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      As immigrant rights movements and anti-immigrant mobilizations engage in contentious battles for public support, it is increasingly essential to understand how these opposing political forces develop strategic alliances, garnering power, and shaping larger debates around immigration. Using newspaper data, this study compares case studies of immigrant rights and nativist battles in two mobilizations—the 2012 “No Papers, No Fear Ride for Justice” during the Obama Era and the 2018 “Family Separation Protests” during the Trump Era—to analyze how movements and counter-movements strategically deploy frames to generate or disrupt strategic alliances. Findings identify strategic racial frame deployment as a mechanism that can either amplify or obfuscate racial meanings, enabling, and constraining counter-frames by rival movements. I highlight patterns in how these racial frames are used in framing contests to bring groups together in alliances or wedge groups apart, illuminating the underlying system of racialization as it shapes intergroup boundaries, its limits, and its radical possibilities for transformation.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T04:06:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083526
       
  • “All Are Deserving”: Racialized Conditions of Immigrant Deservingness
           in a Catholic Worker Movement-Inspired Non-Governmental Organization

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      Authors: Anthony M. Jimenez
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Although deservingness considerations are commonly antithetical to the aims of pro-immigrant spaces like Justicia y Paz (JyP), a volunteer-run, Catholic Worker Movement-inspired non-governmental organization in Houston, Texas, they nevertheless materialize. This study explores how and why this happens. Drawing on an inductive analysis of 11 months of ethnographic observation and 36 in-depth interviews with volunteers and migrants at JyP, I argue that in “all are deserving” contexts, pro-immigrant advocates can engage in racialization and perpetuate white supremacy. I find that not all are treated as deserving—that deservingness is conditional on migrants submitting to two racially subordinate positions: (1) workers whose labor benefits the material interests of the white suburban elite and (2) indigent subjects whose impoverishment serves as the basis of spiritual salvation for a predominately white base of volunteers aiming to “serve the poor.” This research underscores the limitations of the Catholic Worker Movement-inspired “all are deserving” framework and affords similar pro-immigrant organizations practical insight toward ways to manifest immigrant justice.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T03:57:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083521
       
  • Analysing Russian Reaction to 2021 U.S. Capitol Riots

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      Authors: Pavel Slutskiy, Dmitrii Gavra
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      On January 6, 2021, the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. was attacked by a mob of supporters of President Donald Trump. More than 70 countries and international organisations expressed their concerns over the 2021 United States Capitol attack and condemned the violence. While governments around the world have expressed outrage and sadness over rioting that engulfed the U.S. Capitol, some media (for example, VOA) reported that ‘Russia took a different view -- namely, vindication with a bit of gloating’ under the headline ‘As US Reels From Capitol Violence, Russia Enjoys the Show’. What was Russia’s reaction to the events in Washington' Russian high-ranking politicians responses to the U.S. Capitol rioters were widely quoted in English-speaking media. But the angle offered for foreign audiences did not always coincide with the media narrative developed for domestic consumption. This paper examines media interpretation of the U.S. riots which was offered by the Russian media for Russian-speaking audiences. The paper follows the discourse of pro-Kremlin media during the period of 1 month after the protests began, analysing discursive frames which represented different interpretations of the events, particularly within the context of comparing the suppression of opposition protests in Russia with the prosecution of the U.S. Capitol rioters.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T08:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078767
       
  • Unsacred Children: The Portrayal of Unaccompanied Immigrant Minors as
           Racialized Threats

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      Authors: Luis A. Romero
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Since the early twentieth century, children have been regarded as a protected class, legally and symbolically, in the United States. Although legal protections for U.S. children have also extended to non-citizen children, this study investigates whether the symbolic aspect of children’s protected status is undermined in the case of immigrant children. Through an examination of media reports during the 2014 entrance of unaccompanied minors from Central America and Mexico, I analyze how anti-immigrant protestors portrayed unaccompanied minors in quotes published in news articles across several online historical databases including ProQuest Historical Newspaper and the Local Historical Newspaper Archives by NewsBank. Based on this analysis, I find that the symbolic protected status normally attributed to children did not extend to unaccompanied minors. Specifically, anti-immigrant protestors mobilized forms of racialization typically employed against immigrant adults, which took four distinct forms that framed immigrant children as: (1) threats to the economy, (2) carriers of disease, (3) criminal and terrorist threats, and (4) invaders. Despite belonging to a vulnerable and normally protected group, immigrant children were racialized in ways well-established by scholars as characteristic of adult migrants by anti-immigrant protestors, who portrayed them as unsacred children unworthy of a protected status. This study contributes to our understandings of child and immigrant racialization and further contextualizes policies of detention and deportation against immigrant children.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T04:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083529
       
  • Varied Racialization and Legal Inclusion: Haitian, Syrian, and Venezuelan
           Forced Migrants in Brazil

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      Authors: Katherine Jensen, Lisa M. Sousa Dias
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      What does immigrant racialization look like in a context of legal inclusion' Although scholars have given notable attention to racialization in the face of illegality and exclusionary immigration regimes, less well understood are dimensions of racialization in inclusive legal contexts. Over the past decade, Brazil has experienced three major influxes of forcibly displaced people—from Haiti, Syria, and Venezuela. For each, Brazil radically expanded its asylum and immigration policies in their favor. At the same time, these groups have been disparately racialized in the public sphere. Using a content analysis of media coverage from 2010 to 2020, this paper examines the varied public racialization of Haitians, Syrians, and Venezuelans. Juxtaposing representations sheds light on the relationality of migrant racialization. It finds autonomy and capacity, belonging, and national ramification as key dimensions through which migrants are variably racialized. By interrogating these racial dimensions in the face of legal incorporation in Brazil, this study complicates the relationship between racialization, Othering, and legal status.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T01:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083532
       
  • Carcerality and Education: Toward a Relational Theory of Risk in
           Educational Institutions

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      Authors: Jude Paul Matias Dizon, Taylor Enoch-Stevens, Adrian H. Huerta
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we explore the logics underlying the policies and practices within K-12 schools, colleges, and universities that expose students to carceral systems, such as the police and prisons. Educational institutions at all levels have had the latitude to develop the capacity to discipline, surveil, and control students, which reproduce carceral logics within as well as create pathways to carceral systems. However, our scholarly understanding of such phenomena is bifurcated and uneven. While there is an extensive line of research on exclusionary discipline in the K-12 sector, similar scholarship is emergent at the postsecondary level. The goals of this paper are twofold. First, we review the ways in which carcerality informs the development of discipline, punishment, and control structures throughout the K-16 pipeline. Second, we introduce a relational theory of risk as a unified conceptual approach to examine carceral policies and practices in both the K-12 and the higher education sectors. From a relational risk perspective, we argue that carceral practices can be understood as a relationship between educational institutions and students who are perceived to be threats to institutional interests. Engaging with the organizational imperatives that lead to carceral practices, researchers and practitioners can better attend to dismantling racial exclusion in education.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T04:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211054828
       
  • Chasing Respectability: Pro-Immigrant Organizations and the Reinforcement
           of Immigrant Racialization

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      Authors: Hana E. Brown, Jennifer A. Jones
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we investigate the role that pro-immigrant organizations play in immigrant racialization. Drawing on a critical case study from the longest standing immigrant rights organization in North Carolina, we demonstrate how immigrant rights organizations can racialize new Latinx arrivals even as they advocate for them. We interrogate the organization’s multi-year, state-wide campaign to counteract mounting public characterizations of Latinx immigrants as drunk drivers. Analyzing a critical juncture in this campaign, we demonstrate how El Pueblo, in their effort to contest the mainstream racialization of Latinxs, unintentionally doubled down on that same racialization, buying into respectability politics and reinforcing derogatory stereotypes of Latinxs. We outline three central maneuvers that grounded this particular respectability politics campaign and demonstrate the utility of respectability politics as a framework for understanding organizational racialization processes. These findings suggest the need to shift focus toward community organizations as key sites of immigrant racialization and highlight the need for inquiry into the racialized assumptions of pro-immigrant forces.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T06:18:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083522
       
  • Private Immigration Detention without the Immigrants: The Subtle Use of
           Controlling Images in the Contemporary Era

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      Authors: Miara L. Bailey-Hall, Emily P. Estrada
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars have well-established the socio-political and legal history of immigrant detention as a form of racialized social control in the United States. In recent years, private prison companies have benefited financially from this system, amassing sizeable profits in spite of vast criticisms and concerns. For this project, we focus on how private immigration detention—as a modern-day form of racialized social control—is normalized. Using the theoretical concept of controlling images, we examine how private prison companies frame the people they detain. Results from our analysis of 143 press releases indicate that private prisons rarely talk about the people they detain. Instead, the companies make vague and indirect references using inanimate objects which dehumanizes them. When the companies do reference migrants, they often characterize them as wards of the state, and in doing so, private prison companies are infantilizing people in lockup in subtle ways. Companies also engage in a significant amount of rhetoric that champions their organizations as they bolster their business amidst scandals and allegations. We conclude that these controlling images, while appearing race neutral, are quite effective in contributing to the invisibility of these groups and maintenance of the status quo. These actions further their exploitable quality by reproducing the oppression of racial others and simultaneously function to legitimize the business practices of private prison companies.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T12:23:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083537
       
  • Medical Deportations and Racial Narratives of the Burdensome Migrant

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      Authors: Lisa Sun-Hee Park
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Hospitals across the U.S. are quietly removing severely injured and chronically ill migrants to other nations. It is a reality that exists in practice but not in policy and is experienced by hundreds, potentially thousands, of low-income uninsured migrants. There is no formal accounting or regulation of this practice and federal immigration authorities remain silent regarding this practice despite the fact that alien removals, or deportations, are solely within their jurisdiction. Focusing on a case study, this paper analyzes migrant narratives embedded within news media accounts and legal analyses of medical deportations to address how this controversial practice is rationalized by health care providers. In these accounts, a racialized narrative of migrants as public burdens was clearly evident. This paper argues that such narratives have the power to transform actions legally defined as illegal—such as medical deportations—into a reasonable practice. In this way, social “cost” is racialized into individual debt, allowing for seemingly extraordinary disciplinary actions that are contrary to normative policy and ethics.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T11:24:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083540
       
  • “American Defenders Against an Illegal Invasion”: Dual Racialization
           Processes in Collective Identity Formation

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      Authors: Joshua R. Hummel
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper considers how the anti-immigrant organization Americans for Legal Immigration PAC (ALIPAC) uses discourse about immigrants and immigration to construct and maintain its collective identity. Although previous approaches to collective identity within organizations primarily center the organizations themselves, studies concerned with anti-immigrant discourse instead emphasize how the organizations that use such discourse racialize members of non-white (especially Latinx) groups as “illegal” residents of the United States who threaten the safety and economic well-being of Americans. Drawing from these two literatures to consider how anti-immigrant organizations construct collective identity, this study investigates how ALIPAC uses presentations its opposition and its membership together to shape the collective identity associated with the organization itself. Using a content analysis, 153 documents released by ALIPAC during 2005 and 2018, the study finds that ALIPAC uses a dual racialization process to racialize immigrants as criminal outsiders who, with assistance from political elites, have overwhelmed the United States and white Americans as victims of these criminal outsiders. From this dual racialization, ALIPAC identifies itself as a defender of American citizens against an immigrant invasion. These results illustrate how racialization and collective identity construction are relational processes understood through a group’s presentations of itself and its opposition.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T10:28:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083524
       
  • Legal and Ethnoracial Consciousness: Perceptions of Immigrant Media
           Narratives Among the Latino Undocumented 1.5 Generation

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      Authors: Elizabeth Vaquera, Heide Castañeda, Elizabeth Aranda
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Prior work has focused on the role of media in shaping public perceptions of immigrants and in the construction of social illegality. In this article, we examine how the undocumented 1.5 immigrant generation perceive, consume, and navigate media messaging about immigration—and particularly Latino immigrants—to understand the role of media in shaping their lived experiences. We analyze 50 in-depth and nine follow-up interviews with undocumented young adults in Florida collected between 2017 and 2021. Two major themes emerged: (1) how media information and misinformation invoke both legal and ethnoracial consciousness; and (2) how undocumented young immigrants deploy agentic strategies to resist negative and dehumanizing portrayals by rejecting media altogether, leveraging media to resist abuses, and embracing counter-narratives. Based on these findings, we discuss the usefulness of a double consciousness framework and argue for the use of “ethnoracial consciousness” in synergy with legal consciousness to more accurately describe experiences for this population.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T08:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221083538
       
  • Being Asian American Women Scientists and Engineers in the United States:
           Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender

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      Authors: Roli Varma
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      A high level of educational and occupational achievements in science and engineering (S&E) in the US has changed the image of Asian Americans from the “yellow peril” to a “model minority.” Behind this new identity is the belief that Asian Americans as a group have equaled, if not surpassed, the standards of success set by White America in S&E. It is further assumed that Asian American women are advancing equally in S&E. The reality is that they are over-represented as Asian Americans but under-represented as women in S&E occupations. They experience challenges associated with both, their ethnicity and gender. They face “double bind”—a term used for women of color who simultaneously experience sexism and racism in S&E. This paper presents Asian American women’s unique situations within S&E organizations, with a particular focus on high-technology industry, where most of them are employed. It focuses on their identities and socio-cultural categorizations.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T12:12:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078510
       
  • Campaign Problems: How Fans React to Taylor Swift’s Controversial
           Political Awakening

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      Authors: Simone Driessen
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how the fandom of pop star Taylor Swift negotiates her ‘political’ awakening, after politically coming-out via Instagram in 2018. When Swift announced her vote for two Democratic senators, (international) media and her fandom considered it controversial. Swift, unlike many other pop-singers, had never publicly expressed her political views, until 2018. Yet, doing so put her on the map as a potential celebrity politician (CP): a celebrity who is fighting for a particular interest or certain political outcome, while holding a certain political influence over an audience. By scrutinizing how her fandom, the “Swifties,” deal with their idol’s political revelations, this study offers a granular insight into the intersection between celebrity, fandom, and political culture. Drawing on a content analysis of fan-interviews and online comments, this study illustrates how fans negotiate Swift’s transition from popstar to CP. It demonstrates how fans consider Swift’s political coming-out: On the one hand, they think it is a potential career-strategy of Swift, to lift her persona from singer to strategic “business” woman. On the other hand, the fans consider it a “must” for pop stars in today’s political climate to express where they stand politically. This discussion highlights that the how of Swift’s message, and not just the what or why, are of importance in understanding her position as a CP. Therewith, this study illustrates how fans make sense of today’s politics through the celebrity persona—potentially putting an even greater burden on the shoulders of today’s stars.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T09:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211042295
       
  • Bakhtin’s Carnivalesque: A Reconsideration Based on the BLM
           Demonstrations of 2020 and the Storming of the U.S. Capitol in 2021

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      Authors: Theodore Sheckels
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The theoretical insights of Mikhail Bakhtin offer the rhetorical critic of demonstrations and the social movements they are often a part of a useful analytical tool. Bakhtin’s focus on polyphony, particularly the type he termed “passive varidirectional” in his study of Dostoevsky, dovetails with his exploration of the “carnivalesque” as a popular culture and literary mode to offer a subversive rhetoric intended to undermine hegemony. Extant studies of Bakhtin by rhetoricians have bogged down in trying to make sense of his “messy” canon and, perhaps as a result, inadequately understood this subversive rhetoric. After offering an overall reading of Bakhtin and a sense of how the concept of “carnivalesque” has been used by critics, this essay will enrich that concept by applying it to the events of 2020 and 2021 and arguing that, to grasp the critical tool Bakhtin has offered critics, one must recognize (1) its political neutrality, (2) the possible varieties of “carnivalesque,” (3) the place of violence in the “carnivalesque,” and (4) the new and subtle ways the body plays a rhetorical role in it. The events of 2020–2021 enable the critic to acquire a more nuanced understanding of Bakhtin’s rhetorical insights.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T05:51:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211062870
       
  • “The Situation Sounds Sketchy”: Institutional Rule-Breaking and a
           Qualitative Case for Quantifying Culture

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      Authors: Chelsea Rae Kelly
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      As respondents assess the cultural normalcy of social events, they employ both affective and cognitive criteria. Does this event feel normal' Does this event make sense' While these related questions often have the same answer, we know little about the assessment process under circumstances of signal mismatch. Using qualitative and quantitative data from two experimental studies, this research separately evaluates the effects of deflection level (is this event affectively normative) and institutional concordance (do the components of this event obey the guiding parameters of social institutions) in the assessment of social events. Online-administered surveys gathered data for a 3-condition experiment in an undergraduate sample (N = 74) and a 4-condition experiment in a non-undergraduate quasi-nationally representative sample (N = 507). Results from linear mixed models and ANOVAs show that (1) both concordance and low deflection are significant predictors of event assessment ratings, (2) when controlling for concordance, event deflection level remains a statistically significant predictor, and (3) deflection and concordance have a significant and positive interaction effect. Qualitative data patterns and a visualization of predicted probabilities from a multinomial logit model further suggest that (4) cognitive work in respondents’ assessments—transforming high-deflection events into low-deflection events through contextualized reinterpretations in accord with institutional domain parameters—follow affect control theory principles. This research strengthens understanding of and predictive abilities concerning social responses to culturally contextualized events.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T08:39:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066035
       
  • The Role of the Civil Society in the Catalan Political Process
           (2012–2021)

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      Authors: Marta Pascal
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of the civil society during the Catalan political process (2012–2021). In a context of a huge political polarization of the Catalan society, we would like to focus on the influence and role of the organized civil society in the political decisions during this period. The methodology used in this paper is based on a qualitative research using in-depth interviews with Catalan spin-doctors, participant observation, and study cases. In the paper, we can prove that the role of the organized Catalan civil society was fundamental to understand some of the decisions taken by the Catalan government, such as the consultation of ninth of November 2014; the referendum of first of October 2017; the proclaim of the Catalan Republic; the demonstrations against de verdict of the Spanish Supreme Court; the pressure of the civil society to boost pro-independence Catalan political parties to continue with a separatist agenda after the 2021 elections; and the following negotiation process with the Spanish government. As far as the findings is concerned, it is important to underline how the Catalan civil society have used different ways to organize themselves and mobilize their followers. We will comment the effectiveness of social networks; how these groups have converted themselves in actors of the political digital conversation; and how they have been able to modify the political agenda and have impacted in the media agenda setting. This paper contributes to understand more effectively the important role of the organized civil society in the Catalan political process and emphasizes its political role and influence. So do, we are able to suggest future political scenarios that could have an important impact on the political polarization that currently affects Catalonia.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T08:10:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078761
       
  • Movements and Culture: Expanding the Terrain of Environmental Politics

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      Authors: Max Chewinski
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Research on environmental politics typically focuses on the state as the unit of analysis. This special issue considers the larger terrain within which contention surrounding the environment occurs by focusing on two key drivers of environmental politics: (1) environmental movements and (2) the cultural dynamics of environmental issues. The articles engage with underexplored research questions, adopt novel methodologies, examine unique data sources, and contribute to existing theory about political contests over the natural environment.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T03:13:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211056269
       
  • Without Role Models: A Few Pioneering Women Engineers in Asia

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      Authors: Fahmida N. Chowdhury
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The importance of role models in inspiring and influencing the career paths of young people cannot be overstated, particularly in the fields where certain population segments are under-represented. However, when there are no role models, a few exceptional people become pioneers; these are people who carve out their own paths. Most research in early history of women in engineering focuses on the Western world, with relatively little information from the other parts of the globe. This paper presents the stories of a few Asian women who went against the odds, against social norms and expectations, without role models, and ventured into the field of engineering.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T03:28:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078508
       
  • Impact of Socio-Economic Factors on Female Students’ Enrollments in
           Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics and Workplace Challenges
           in Bangladesh

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      Authors: Nova Ahmed, Arshad M. Chowdhury, Tamanna Urmi, Lafifa Jamal
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      There is nearly equal number of male and female student enrollments in primary and secondary level of education in Bangladesh, but at the tertiary level and at the job sector, a sharp drop in the number of women is observed. This paper explores the current status of female students’ enrollment in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) at the tertiary education system in Bangladesh. It is followed by explorations of challenges women face in technical workplace. Quantitative data for the paper come from more than 1.18 million students at tertiary level from eight public and private universities for three academic years from 2018 to 2020. In addition, a qualitative study was conducted with 48 participants in pre- and during COVID-19 eras to understand barriers hampering women in STEM-related education and jobs. The paper provides a guideline for future policies to ensure inclusive space for growth and retention for women in STEM.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T08:38:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078517
       
  • Channelling Artscience Through Fan-Fiction for Diversifying STEM
           Approaches in Participatory Learning in Malaysia

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      Authors: Clarissa Ai Ling Lee
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Fan-fiction is proposed as a participatory and discovery-learning approach to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; communication; and collaboration through the epistemic third space afforded by artscience. The objective is to increase the affective dimension in STEM instruction by allowing STEM to enter intimately into social spaces, all the while drawing interests from girls and women. There is strong female participation in fan-fiction creation, whether in the form of textual stories or other transmedia objects, that could be used to develop more multi-dimensional STEM-based experiential and imagination-centric learning without excluding the more technical aspects of the science – in fact, the technical aspects could be weaved in as a STEM problem or project to be collectively tackled through the communal experience of creating and responding to fan-fiction. Moreover, the world-building capability of fan-fiction, with its ability to bring together multiple fandoms such as multiple works from the same creator or different creators within similar genres, means that there is ample room for using fan-fiction during interdisciplinary engagement for STEM problem-solving or research creation approaches to learning and doing. In this article, some examples of activities are taken from workshops targeted at Malaysian audiences to explore the possibility of deploying fan-fiction approaches to STEM, or STEM through the lenses of artscience, within the culture of learning and doing in Malaysia. These workshops were not originally conceived with fan-fiction as method and medium in mind and yet, were found to share certain similar traits with fan-fiction. The world-building capacity of fan-fiction could be deployed to mainstream the incorporation of indigenous and cultural ways of knowing within Malaysia into the rubrics of institutionalized STEM education. However, the convergence and compatibility between fan-fiction and participatory design, which were featured in at least three of the four workshops depicted here, are the reasons for the choice, while the fourth workshop considers the practice of fan-fiction and its relevance to more informal practices in STEM publishing and communication at a meta level.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T03:11:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078511
       
  • Women in STEM in India: Understanding Challenges through Social
           Constructionist Perspective

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      Authors: Namrata Gupta
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article intends to understand the position of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in India and to highlight the challenges faced by them through the perspective of gender as a social construct. It argues that the social constructionist perspective helps to focus on the specific socio-cultural context, and to deepen our understanding of the barriers in career advancement for women in STEM. Based on the governmental data and research studies, it demonstrates that these constraints occur at the intersection of Indian social, organizational and institutional contexts. This perspective helps to explore solutions unique to the specific national context.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T02:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221078518
       
  • The Death-Based Model of Organizational Learning: Accident, Pandemic, and
           Workplace Change in New York Public Transit

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      Authors: Noah McClain
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The public transportation workers of New York City lost their lives to COVID-19 at a shocking rate in the spring of 2020, likely abetted by their employer’s resistance to allow workers to wear masks until mere days before a region-wide lockdown was declared. We might see this death toll as a tragic outcome of uncertainty in the face of the unprecedented, yet the stance of the employer (the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, or MTA) was consistent with its longstanding reluctance to assimilate or pursue signals that suggest need for safety reforms — that is, until a worker dies. This article terms this pattern a “death-based model of organizational learning,” and situates the virus’ toll on transport workers from three angles: first, from workers’ experience of existential precarity in their workplaces, rooted in dangers workers readily problematize but which are not addressed by management; second, by showing how the MTA may modify rules following an employee fatality, at least when that death cannot be explained by individual failures alone; and third, by exploring the MTA’s longstanding hostility to health and safety research conducted in its physical and institutional bounds. These prior patterns articulated in the MTA’s response to COVID-19, such as in passivity in the face of general public health guidelines, disinterest in obvious founts of expertise to tailor its response to the pandemic, and in the eventual acceptance of a nascent public health role in light of the mounting death toll of its employees.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T09:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066052
       
  • Shut-In Abroad: Social Incapacitation Among Low-Income Male Japanese
           Retirees in Thailand

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      Authors: Mika Toyota
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Increasing numbers of low-income single male retirees from Japan are migrating to Southeast Asian countries to live in isolation. They migrate to avoid the emotional burdens in Japan associated with an acute sense of shame, inferiority and displacement. This article argues that their migration should be understood as a type of anticipatory action taken by the retirees—that is, an action driven by the awareness of one’s own social incapability, particularly the lack of social relations and self-esteem—to create a meaningful future in Japan. I demonstrate how the men became socially incapacitated through events in their life course, focusing on the dominant work regime, family regime and gender ideology in post-war Japan. The concept of “social incapacitation” contributes to the study of aging futures by foregrounding the significance of gendered norms and emotion, as well as demonstrating how history and futures are interlinked in embodied ways.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T09:21:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221075259
       
  • Dementia Care for Europeans in Thailand: A Geography of Futures

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      Authors: Geraldine Pratt, Caleb Johnston
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      We explore the creation of private care facilities around Chiang Mai in northern Thailand to provide dementia care for people from the Global North. We draw on three periods of ethnographic observation at care facilities, and interviews with Swiss and British owners and family members, as well as Thai managers and care workers. We locate this offshoring of dementia care from the Global North to South within existing underfunding of dementia care in the Global North and a “regime of anticipation” built around expected substantial growth in the numbers of people living with dementia. These facilities are opening new futures for those who migrate for care as they leverage their relative wealth and privilege to purchase care in Thailand. In line with other readings of international health migration, we note the negative impact of this state-supported privatized industry on the availability of nurses and care aids in public hospitals in Thailand. We then venture into less examined and expected futurities, namely, the opportunities these facilities provide to two groups of stigmatized Thai workers: transgender and Indigenous Karen caregivers.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T01:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221075263
       
  • Disruption of Social Orders in Societal Transitions as Affective Control
           of Uncertainty

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      Authors: Jesse Hoey, Tobias Schröder
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Bayesian affect control theory is a model of affect-driven social interaction under conditions of uncertainty. In this paper, we investigate how the operationalization of uncertainty in the model can be related to the disruption of social orders—societal pressures to adapt to ongoing environmental and technological change. First, we study the theoretical tradeoffs between three kinds of uncertainty as groups navigate external problems: validity (the predictability of the environment, including of other agents), coherence (the predictability of interpersonal affective dynamics), and dependence (the predictability of affective meanings). Second, we discuss how these uncertainty tradeoffs are related to contemporary political conflict and polarization in the context of societal transitions. To illustrate the potential of our model to analyze the socio-emotional consequences of uncertainty, we present a simulation of diverging individual affective meanings of occupational identities under uncertainty in a climate change mitigation scenario based on events in Germany. Finally, we sketch a possible research agenda to substantiate the novel, but yet mostly conjectural, ideas put forward in this paper.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T10:14:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066055
       
  • Intimacies Compared: The Emotional Responses of Family Caregivers to
           Internal and International Migration

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      Authors: Ken Chih-Yan Sun, Xuemei Cao
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This article takes a relational approach to studying the effects of internal and international migration on family intimacies. Drawing on interviews with adult children caring for parents back home, we examine how caregivers respond to the roles that dispersed siblings play in networks of eldercare. Using the concept of “relational comparison”—defined as how caregivers judge the efforts that different kinfolks make to fulfill their responsibilities and obligations—we argue that the impact of national borders and geographic distance on parental care should be assessed through the intimacies that multilocal families co-create. The (mis)alignment between non-migrant caregivers’ expectations and their migrant siblings’ practices generates myriad emotional responses, shaping whether they view the impact of international and internal migration on eldercare as largely similar, fundamentally different, or simply insignificant. These feelings affect who caregivers turn to when they need help, further shaping the configuration of care networks during moments of crisis.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T02:29:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221075266
       
  • Trucking in the Era of COVID-19

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      Authors: Danielle Sperry, Amy M. Schuster, Shelia R. Cotten, Shubham Agrawal, Elizabeth Mack, Noah Britt, Jessica Liberman
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      COVID-19 resulted in health and logistical challenges for many sectors of the American economy, including the trucking industry. This study examined how the pandemic impacted the trucking industry, focused on the pandemic’s impacts on company operations, health, and stress of trucking industry employees. Data were collected from three sources: surveys, focus groups, and social media posts. Individuals at multiple organizational levels of trucking companies (i.e., supervisors, upper-level management, and drivers) completed an online survey and participated in online focus groups. Data from focus groups were coded using a thematic analysis approach. Publicly available social media posts from Twitter were analyzed using a sentiment analysis framework to assess changes in public sentiment about the trucking industry pre- and during-COVID-19. Two themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) trucking company business strategies and adaptations and (2) truck driver experiences and workplace safety. Participants reported supply chain disruptions and new consumer buying trends as having larger industry-wide impacts. Company adaptability emerged due to freight variability, leading organizations to pivot business models and create solutions to reduce operational costs. Companies responded to COVID-19 by accommodating employees’ concerns and implementing safety measures. Truck drivers noted an increase in positive public perception of truck drivers, but job quality factors worsened due to closed amenities and decreased social interaction. Social media sentiment analysis also illustrated an increase in positive public sentiment towards the trucking industry during COVID-19. The pandemic resulted in multi-level economic, health, and social impacts on the trucking industry, which included economic impacts on companies and economic, social and health impacts on employees within the industry levels. Further research can expand on this study to provide an understanding of the long-term impacts of the pandemic on the trucking industry companies within the industry and segments of the trucking industry workforce.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T08:54:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066039
       
  • The Temporal Borders of Transnational Belonging: Aging Migrant Domestic
           Workers in Singapore

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      Authors: Megha Amrith
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Amidst public debate about the need for migrant domestic workers to assist with eldercare in Asia, we hear little about the futures of the workers themselves. This paper focuses on low-wage migrant domestic workers of different nationalities who have spent decades in Singapore, and how they imagine, prepare for, or avoid discussion of their aging futures. Singapore’s immigration regime enforces mandatory retirement and return migration when domestic workers reach 60 years old. These impending displacements evoke mixed emotions as migrant women re-evaluate questions of care, home, and the relationships they have developed with employers, kin back home, and communities abroad. In this paper, I explore how temporal borders operate alongside spatial borders to shape migrant women’s futures, illuminating uneven intersections between citizenship, gender, and care over the lifecourse. I further trace how the women navigate, ignore, push back, and bridge the anticipated ruptures of temporal borders.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T08:34:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221075258
       
  • Who Cares' Older Singaporeans Negotiating Care Expectations and Aging
           Futures

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      Authors: Shirlena Huang, Brenda S. A. Yeoh, Jian An Liew, Elaine L. E. Ho
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      International migration has meant that many transnational families develop transnational circuits of care to maintain collective family welfare. Although the emotional toll of geographical separation on the family has been recognized, the perspectives of elderly family members have remained relatively under-explored. Our paper seeks to plug this gap by first studying how emotions mediate the impact of geographical distance on caregiving and conversely, how distance modulates emotions related to receiving care. Second, it examines the aging futures that the elderly envisage, including the emotions that they negotiate, particularly as they anticipate changing health situations. Our analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 17 older Singaporeans (aged from the mid-60s to mid-90s) with at least one adult child residing overseas to highlight the emotional complexities of eldercare in the context of transnational families.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T02:07:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221075262
       
  • Industry Repertoires: How Transgressive and Conventional Industry
           Associations Seek to Counter Contention

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      Authors: Edward T. Walker, Ion B. Vasi
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      While considerable attention has been devoted to the repertoires of social movements, we know considerably less about how the repertoires of industry groups evolve as those industries face movement-driven contention. This is particularly important for environmental movements, which regularly target industries seen as contributing to environmental harms and risks. Focusing on contention surrounding hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), we compare the repertoires of the two central industry associations promoting fracking in the Marcellus Shale region of the United States: one that is more transgressive and likely to counter-attack activists (Energy in Depth) and one that is more conventional and likely to tout the industry’s economic benefits (Marcellus Shale Coalition). We examine the tone and topical content of each of these industry groups’ communications between 2009 and 2019. We examine a number of specific features of industry groups’ communications: whether they use a more positive or negative tone, and the extent to which their communications address activism, government regulation, jobs/economy, and climate change. We find that the more transgressive association focuses far more directly on countering activism, both in the timing and content of communications. Both engage with government roughly evenly, and each engages with the politics of climate change in unique ways. We develop insights for our understanding of how targets strategically respond to environmental activism, and how industry groups develop a meta-level division of labor to engage multiple audiences.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T01:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211056277
       
  • Digital Anticipation: Facilitating the Pre-Emptive Futures of Chinese
           Grandparent Migrants in Australia

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      Authors: Loretta Baldassar, Catriona Stevens, Raelene Wilding
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we contrast the digital kinning and digital homing practices of PRC Chinese transnational grandparents in Australia from two migration cohorts. Our case studies demonstrate that these digital practices form an integral part of the ability to anticipate aging futures. This “digital anticipation” not only helps to safeguard and affirm social and cultural identities that are often at risk as people age in migrant settings, but also provides the potential to imagine either a future return to China that involves physical separation from children and grandchildren, or, conversely, a future lived in Australia while still maintaining connection and participating digitally in affective economies that extend beyond the nuclear family to encompass siblings, friends, and lifelong workmates. Here the role of facilitated digital access is highlighted as a form of care that can be provided by younger generations.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T02:54:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642221075261
       
  • Word Embeddings Reveal How Fundamental Sentiments Structure Natural
           Language

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      Authors: Austin van Loon, Jeremy Freese
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Central to affect control theory are culturally shared meanings of concepts. That these sentiments overlap among members of a culture presumably reflects their roots in the language use that members observe. Yet, the degree to which the affective meaning of a concept is encoded in the way linguistic representations of that concept are used in everyday symbolic exchange has yet to be demonstrated. The question has methodological as well as theoretical significance for affect control theory, as language may provide an unobtrusive, behavioral method of obtaining EPA ratings complementary to those heretofore obtained via questionnaires. We pursue a series of studies that evaluate whether tools from machine learning and computational linguistics can capture the fundamental affective meaning of concepts from large text corpora. We develop an algorithm that uses word embeddings to predict EPA profiles available from a recent EPA dictionary derived from traditional questionnaires, as well as novel concepts collected using an open-source web app we have developed. Across both a held-out portion of the available data as well as the novel data, our best predictions correlate with survey-based measures of the E, P, and A ratings of concepts at a magnitude greater than 0.85, 0.8, and 0.75 respectively.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T02:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066046
       
  • Self-Sentiments and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis

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      Authors: Kaitlin M. Boyle, Kimberly B. Rogers
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Social psychological theories provide useful tools for identifying interpretive processes that affect individual mental health outcomes. In this paper, we use the affect control theory of self (ACT-Self) to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and global feelings about the self—self-sentiments—that are evoked by the constellation of identities, traits, moods, characteristics, and roles we hold and have held. We examine this relationship in two separate longitudinal studies conducted with undergraduates (N = 147) and doctoral students (N = 178) at a university in the Southeastern U.S., which employ different measures of depressive symptoms (the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale Short Form, respectively). We present key findings about links between depressive symptoms and evaluation (goodness), potency (powerfulness), and activity (liveliness). First, evaluation negatively predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in both samples; activity predicts symptoms among undergraduates, and potency predicts symptoms among doctoral students. Second, respondents in both samples with self-sentiments closer to cultural sentiments for “depressed” report more depressive symptoms at follow-up. Third, evaluation gains over time predict less Wave 2 depressive symptoms in both samples; potency gains also predict symptoms among doctoral students. Finally, Wave 1 depressive symptoms—and increases in depression over time—predict lower levels of evaluation and potency in both samples.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T02:24:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066031
       
  • How Cultural Meanings of Occupations in the U.S. Changed During the
           Covid-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Joseph M. Quinn, Robert E. Freeland, Kimberly B. Rogers, Jesse Hoey, Lynn Smith-Lovin
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Social research highlights the stability of cultural beliefs, broadly arguing that population-level changes are uncommon and mostly explained by cohort replacement rather than individual-level change. We find evidence suggesting that cultural change may also occur rapidly in response to an economically and socially transformative period. Using data collected just before and after the outbreak of Covid-19 in the U.S., we explore whether cultural beliefs about essential and non-essential occupations are dynamic in the face of an exogenous social and economic shock. Using a sample of respondents whose characteristics match the U.S. Census on sex, age, and race/ethnicity, we fielded surveys measuring cultural beliefs about 85 essential and non-essential occupations using the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) dimensions from the Affect Control Theory paradigm. We expected that EPA ratings of essential work identities would increase due to positive media coverage of essential occupations as indispensable and often selfless roles in the pandemic, while EPA ratings of non-essential identities would decline. Our findings show patterns that are both clear and inconsistent with our predictions. For both essential and non-essential occupations, almost all statistically significant changes in mean evaluation and potency were negative; activity showed relatively little change. Changes in evaluation scores were more negative for non-essential occupations than essential occupations. Results suggest that pervasive and persistent exogenous events are worth investigating as potential sources of episodic cultural belief change.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T09:36:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066041
       
  • The Impact of News Trust and Scandal Knowledge on Political Efficacy

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      Authors: Katherine Haenschen, Jessica R. Collier, John C. Tedesco
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The Trump-era political environment in the United States is characterized by changes to our information environment, specifically discourse surrounding so-called "fake news," and knowledge of political scandals. We explore whether news trust or knowledge of Trump administration scandals impact individuals’ levels of internal, information, and external political efficacy. We find significant and surprising relationships between these measures and political efficacy outcomes. Results contribute to our understanding of how political efficacy is responsive to changes in the political environment.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T03:23:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211062867
       
  • Whom to Help: Prosocial Behaviors and the Restoration of a Tarnished
           Identity

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      Authors: Maria C. Ramos
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      How can moral transgressors rebuild their image as good people' Using affect control theory, I hypothesize that prosociality—benefitting others—will blunt negative impressions of a norm violator. I also hypothesize that benefitting good or weak people—and not bad or powerful people—will amplify the positive effect of prosociality. In two survey-vignette studies, participants reported their perceptions about a man who takes money from a found wallet—unethical behavior—and gives or does not give it to someone else—prosocial behavior. Results show prosociality redeems violators more when they help good rather than bad persons. In certain situations, helping powerless persons is more image revamping than helping powerful persons.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-12T11:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066036
       
  • Introduction: “Making Work Work During the Pandemic”

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      Authors: Jeremy Schulz, Laura Robinson, Matias Dodel, Øyvind Wiborg, Aneka Khilnani
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T10:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066060
       
  • Modeling Status Interventions with Affect Control Theory

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      Authors: Shane D. Soboroff, Christopher P. Kelley
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Status interventions alter task group members’ expectations for the value of each other’s contributions. While research shows that status interventions increase the likelihood that a higher-status actor will accept influence from a lower-status actor, the process by which interventions unfold during interaction deserves theoretical attention. By conceiving status interventions as lines of action that carry cultural meaning, sociologists can use structural theories of symbolic interaction such as Affect Control Theory (ACT) to better understand them. One status intervention involves lower-status actors presenting themselves as group-motivated to counter expectations that lower-status actors are self-interested. An interaction simulator based in ACT, INTERACT, allows us to demonstrate how group-motivation alters impressions of lower-status actors from the perspective of a higher-status actor. Given that gender has been identified as a status characteristic that favors men in the U.S., we use INTERACT to model the effect of a woman presenting herself as group motivated on a man’s impressions. Results suggest that qualitative insights from INTERACT can be used to further explore the relationship between status interventions and hierarchy in everyday life.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T12:15:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066040
       
  • How “Stuff” Matters in Affect Control Theory

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      Authors: Rohan Lulham, Danial B. Shank
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Physical artifacts are not neutral but are increasingly recognized across the social sciences as important to structuring meaning and social interaction. Affect control theory shows promise as a framework for articulating and exploring the role of the material world in everyday life. In this study, we formalize, extend, and elaborate this line of research, instituting physical artifacts within affect control theory. We examine how physical artifacts function within affect control theory as modifiers of identities. We undertake a full-scale identity-modification study, collecting affective meaning data from 825 respondents on 58 identities, 52 physical artifacts, and 212 artifact-modified identities across a range of identities and artifact types. We empirically estimate how physical artifacts change perceptions of identities and illustrate the application of the new equations by deriving artifact-modified identities from a range of hypothetical scenarios. Using a transformation of the equations, we also simulate how people may use physical artifacts to create a desired impression when occupying different identities. Through establishing physical artifacts within affect control theory, this research raises new questions and opportunities for the theory and those interested in the design, use, and experience of physical artifacts.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T01:00:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066045
       
  • Black Women in White Institutional Spaces: The Invisible Labor Clause and
           The Inclusion Tax

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      Authors: Tsedale M. Melaku
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The dual pandemics brought on by COVID-19 and racial violence has played a significant role in uncovering how systemic racism is deeply entrenched within white spaces in America. This article examines the experiences of Black women lawyers in elite law firms to demonstrate how white institutional spaces are racially organized with embedded colorblind racist practices that work to obscure the insidious perpetuation of white supremacy. Black women are required to perform added, unrecognized, and uncompensated labor to maintain their positions. This invisible labor manifests in the form of an inclusion tax that they must pay to be included in white spaces. This article discusses how being one of very few Black people in white spaces creates a myriad of issues that require significant invisible labor including navigating white narratives of affirmative action, negotiating how dominant white culture functions to normalize the white experience, and adherence to white normative standards.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T12:53:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066037
       
  • Tearing Down to Take Up Space: Dismantling White Spaces in the United
           States

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      Authors: David G. Embrick, Wendy Leo Moore, Manuel A. Ramirez
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      With this concluding article, we build off the scholarship from this two-part special issue on white space to recommend meaningful interventions that seek to challenge and dismantle white spaces at the organizational, institutional, and structural levels of U.S. society. We focus on two broad arenas of social space, one geographical (residential neighborhoods) and one institutional (education), in the hopes of generating more engagement from scholars of race and racism in conversations about policies that can meaningfully transform white space. We share experiences from the Systemic Justice Seminar and student activism at Harvard to highlight some innovative ideas about challenging, disrupting, and resisting white space. We suggest ways to think about policies and actions that make visible the tacitly exclusionary mechanisms within white spaces and create ways for BIPOC people and communities to take up space. Lastly, we encourage academic and public communities to continue exploring the best methods for deconstructing white space on the way to creating a more racially equitable society.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T01:11:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066034
       
  • Penalty or Payoff' Diversity of Tactics and Resource Mobilization
           Among Environmental Organizations

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      Authors: Max Chewinski, Catherine Corrigall-Brown
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) need resources in order to mount campaigns and ensure their stability over time. What is the most effective strategy to attract these resources' Building upon research on social movement strategy and resource mobilization, we examine how a diversity of income sources, tactics, and issue focus affects three measures of mobilization outcomes: income, staff, and members. We examine these relationships using a unique panel data set of ENGOs in the UK collected by the Environmental Funders Network in 2013 and 2016. Our analyses show that using a more diverse range of tactics in wave 1 is associated with mobilizing more staff and members in wave 2. However, there is no significant penalty or payoff for groups that engage in issue or income diversification. We argue that diversifying tactics benefits organizations by helping them accrue the necessary human resources required for environmental action.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T09:08:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211056573
       
  • The Influence of Occupational Identity on Emotional Experience

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      Authors: Em K. Maloney
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      How does occupational identity shape emotional experience' Prior work has largely framed occupation and emotion either in terms of how differences in occupational status structure the experience of powerful, negative emotions or how cultural norms enforce types of acceptable emotional expression in workplaces. Complementing this work by using an identity-centered approach, this paper asks how being in one occupational identity versus another influences the emotions one is likely to experience in everyday life. I argue that one’s occupational identity generates daily interaction sets with typical others, which create opportunities for identity maintenance and confirmation. Affect Control Theory predicts that when individuals confirm identities within an interaction, they will experience the characteristic emotion of the identity. Using data from the General Social Survey’s 1996 emotions module, I find support for the hypothesis that individuals will report experiencing emotions that are closer in cultural meaning to the characteristic emotion of their occupational identity more often than emotions that are more different in cultural meaning. I additionally explore how this relationship depends on the social location of the individual. I find that this relationship is stronger for men, those with higher income, and more educational credentials.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T03:37:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066053
       
  • Modeling Impression Formation Processes Among Chinese and Americans

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      Authors: Jun Zhao
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This study offers the first investigation on the normative processes through which Chinese form impressions of others in social interaction. Using affect control theory and its archived sentiment data from China, I estimate the Chinese impression formation models with a new Bayesian method. I then compare the Chinese models to the impression formation dynamics in U.S. English. Results show cross-cultural commonality in the affective processing of cultural concepts, with determinants of impression formation processes being largely universal. Findings also reveal two cultural variations that align with patterns uncovered by comparative cross-cultural research: (1) the Chinese models show less rigidity in the definition of situation and (2) across two cultural models, the balance term has opposite effects on actor and behavior evaluation. To explore the implications of the impression models, I present a series of simulations, illustrating the predictive power of affect control theory as well as the impact of different cultural rules on social interaction.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T07:02:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066025
       
  • Affect Control Theory Applied to Morality

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      Authors: Neil J. MacKinnon
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores the application of affect control theory (ACT) to the study of morality. A concise statement of ACT sets the stage for presenting examples of applying the theory to morality. This includes exploring the moral implications or overtones of social concepts (social identities, behaviors, traits, and settings); computer simulations of impressions created by moral and immoral events; and a discussion of several studies directly applying ACT to morality. The paper concludes with a detailed discussion of what ACT can contribute to moral psychology and the sociology of morality.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T11:04:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066042
       
  • Why Does Occupational Prestige Affect Sentencing Outcomes': Exploring
           the Perceptual Mediators

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      Authors: Marshall R. Schmidt, Amy Kroska
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Research on the effect of an offender’s occupational prestige on criminal sentencing shows mixed results, with some studies showing a positive association between prestige and sentence severity and others showing a negative association. We revisit this question using an online vignette experiment. Drawing on affect control theory and its computer program, Interact, we hypothesize that an offender’s occupational prestige will increase the recommended sentence and that post-crime, or transient, impressions of the offender’s potency will mediate this effect. We find support for both hypotheses: Occupational prestige increases the recommended sentence, and post-crime impressions of the offender’s potency mediate this effect. The mediation is partial when potency is measured with semantic differentials, and it is complete when potency is measured with a set of explicit, denotative items. We also explore the mediational role of post-crime impressions of the offender’s evaluation and activity. Although offender activity does not function as a mediator, offender evaluation plays a minor mediational role when offender potency is also controlled. We also find an interaction between post-crime offender evaluation and potency, with participants recommending a lighter sentence for offenders they see as both weak and evaluatively neutral. We discuss the empirical, theoretical, and methodological implications of these findings and outline avenues for future research.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T05:11:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066056
       
  • Pause, Pivot, and Shift: Situational Human Capital and Responses to Sudden
           Job Loss

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      Authors: Heba Gowayed, Ashley Mears, Nicholas Occhiuto
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      How, in the wake of the coronavirus crisis, do workers respond to rapid changes in the labor market' This paper mobilizes existing literature on occupational mobility and job loss to develop a theory of situational human capital in which some workers are better positioned to weather occupational transitions than others depending on the alignment between their skill sets, opportunities, and particular contexts. Previous literature looks at this in the case of “pausing,” when workers, such as women, take time off from work. Relatively less explored but equally consequential are transitions like “pivoting,” in which workers maneuver within their occupations to adjust their practices or platforms in order to keep working, and “shifting,” in which workers change their occupations altogether. Since most government unemployment benefits focus almost exclusively on workers’ pauses, they neglect to support workers as they pivot and shift during periods of labor market instability and disruption. This paper concludes by offering some policy recommendations to fill this gap.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-15T03:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066043
       
  • Historically White Colleges and Universities: The Unbearable Whiteness of
           (Most) Colleges and Universities in America

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      Authors: Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Crystal E. Peoples
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we examine the academy as a specific case of the racialization of space, arguing that most colleges and universities in the United States are in fact historically white colleges and universities (HWCUs). To uncover this reality, we first describe the dual relationship between space and race and racism. Using this theoretical framing, we demonstrate how seemingly “race neutral” components of most American universities (i.e., the history, demography, curriculum, climate, and sets of symbols and traditions) embody, signify, and reproduce whiteness and white supremacy. After examining the racial reality of HWCUs, we offer several suggestions for making HWCUs into truly universalistic, multicultural spaces.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-15T02:46:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066047
       
  • Who Bears the Burden of a Pandemic' COVID-19 and the Transfer of Risk
           to Digital Platform Workers

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      Authors: Paola Tubaro, Antonio A. Casilli
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we analyze the recessionary effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on digital platform workers. The crisis has been described as a great work-from-home experiment, with platform ecosystems positing as its most advanced form. Our analysis differentiates the direct (health) and indirect (economic) risks incurred by workers, to critically assess the portrayal of platforms as buffers against crisis-induced layoffs. We submit that platform-mediated labor may eventually increase precarity, without necessarily reducing health risks for workers. Our argument is based on a comparison of the three main categories of platform work—“on-demand labor” (gigs such as delivery and transportation), “online labor” (tasks performed remotely, such as data annotation), and “social networking labor” (content generation and moderation). We discuss the strategies that platforms deploy to transfer risk from clients onto workers, thus deepening existing power imbalances between them. These results question the problematic equivalence between work-from-home and platform labor. Instead of attaining the advantages of the former in terms of direct and indirect risk mitigation, an increasing number of platformized jobs drift toward high economic and insuppressible health risks.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-15T02:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066027
       
  • Kangaroo Court: The Black Power Movement and the Courtroom as a Space of
           Resistance

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      Authors: Joyce M. Bell
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars in many disciplines have examined how social movements use the law to create social change. While the study of the law and social movements has largely relied on studies of the US civil rights movement to develop theoretical tools for understanding how movements target the state to create legal changes, none of these studies have examined the legal strategy of the Black Power movement. This article draws on data from a larger project on Black Power law and the National Conference of Black Lawyers to develop the idea of the courtroom as contested space and construct a concept of courtroom resistance. I argue that the courtroom, operating as hegemonic white space, was viewed as a site of contestation by Black Power activists who found creative ways to challenge the legal, ideological, and physical “space” of the courtroom. These conceptual tools open an important avenue for researchers interested in examining the relationship between social movements and the law and how race operates in the courts.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T11:23:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066028
       
  • Telework in a Land of Overwork: It’s Not That Simple or Is It'

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      Authors: Hiroshi Ono
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted labor markets around the world. Workers and corporations scrambled to adjust their workstyles to a new normal, by avoiding the commute and working remotely from their homes or elsewhere. Japan is a country that stood out for its inability to adjust to the remote work environment. Comparative statistics show that Japan reported the lowest number of people engaged in remote work among the OECD countries, as well as the lowest percentage of corporations that offered remote work policies. In this article, I investigate why telework in Japan is difficult. The lack of telework in Japan may seem paradoxical, given the country’s reputation for being technologically advanced. I argue that it is not the technological infrastructure that is lacking in the Japanese workplace, but distinct features of work embedded in Japanese culture and its collectivist roots that prevent the effective implementation of telework. I rely on recently published data from various sources, and apply key sociological theories such as implicit contracts, gift exchange, dramaturgy, and impression management to substantiate my main arguments. The paper concludes by drawing on implications for the future of work in Japan.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T11:13:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066038
       
  • Gender and Candidate Communication: An Analysis of Televised Ads in the
           2020 US Senate Races

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      Authors: Mary C. Banwart, Dianne G. Bystrom
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Recent studies of the content of television ads of female versus male political candidates have shown that women and men are increasingly similar in their communication styles and strategies, with some notable exceptions. However, few studies examining gender and political ad content have focused exclusively on US Senate races, considered the influence of the candidates’ political party, or compared the messages of women running against female versus male opponents. This study examines 236 political ads—160 from mixed-gender and 76 from female–female—U.S. Senate races in 2020 for their verbal and visual content. Results show gendered and partisan differences in the issues emphasized and the tone used. Candidates were similar in the images emphasized. Female candidates were more balanced between formal and casual attire compared to previous election cycles. And candidates in mixed-gender races used different strategies than those in female–female contests as to the issues and political actors mentioned.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T07:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211040766
       
  • Hustle in Higher Education: How Latinx Students with Conviction Histories
           Move from Surviving to Thriving in Higher Education

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      Authors: Joe Louis Hernandez, Danny Murillo, Tolani Britton
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The voices and experiences of formerly incarcerated college students are emerging throughout the social science literature. The importance of documenting their narratives is grounded in the reality that more than an estimated 12,000 system-impacted people are enrolled throughout the California postsecondary education system. This paper highlights the knowledge and skills formerly incarcerated students possess and deploy to navigate higher education successfully. Our study adds to the growing body of literature examining the experiences of formerly incarcerated Latinx students from an anti-deficit perspective. We use the theory of funds of knowledge and semi-structured interviews with 16 formerly incarcerated Latinx students at different points of the postsecondary education pipeline to understand their experiences. We find that formerly incarcerated Latinx students tapped into their “hustle” to move from surviving to thriving in higher education. These pre-college skills, acquired through their life experiences, allow students to seek academic and financial resources, create academic networks, and make personal connections with institutional agents to overcome various personal and institutional barriers.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T06:56:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211054827
       
  • Generations Later: The Same Furious Passage of the Black Graduate Student

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      Authors: Jalia Joseph
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, the author relies on a narrative based format to explore the interactions between everyday race-making processes and the white space of academia. Recognizing the unique ways systems of power interact with their experiences in the social world, they chronicle their engagements detailing the pervasive ways rules of white space are placed. The article recognizes three informal rules of white space in academia: the accepted reification of white sociological thought; the acceptance of white professional standards; and the continued centering of white comfort.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T06:51:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066030
       
  • Towards a Theory of the Racialization of Space

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      Authors: Steven Tuttle
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Urbanists and race scholars have been attentive to issues relating to race and space for over 100 years. Though some scholars allude to how race is spatialized or space is racialized, that is, to say race is constructed in space and space is inscribed with race, a transportable and multifaceted theory of the racialization of space has yet to emerge. This paper advances a theory integrating racialization theory and Lefebvre’s trialectic theory of the social production of space. I consider how physical, mental, and social facets of space constitute intersecting “racial projects” in the context of societies in which race plays a determinative role. I illustrate this perspective pointing to findings from studies approaching issues of race and space from a variety of vantage points and conclude with suggestions for the further application of this theory.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T10:12:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066051
       
  • Policy, Worker Power, and the Future of the American Trucker

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      Authors: Steve Viscelli
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T07:12:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066049
       
  • “I Heard That COVID-19 Was...”: Rumors, Pandemic, and
           Psychological Distance

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      Authors: K. Hazel Kwon, Kirstin Pellizzaro, Chun Shao, Monica Chadha
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      The spread of misinformation through a variety of communication channels has amplified society’s challenge to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. While existing studies have examined how misinformation spreads, few studies have examined the role of psychological distance in people’s mental processing of a rumor and their propensity to accept self-transformed narratives of the message. Based on an open-ended survey data collected in the U.S. (N = 621) during an early phase of the pandemic, the current study examines how psychological distance relates to the transformation and acceptance of conspiratorial narratives in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Two instances of misinformation are examined, both of which were widely heard at the time of data collection: the role of (a) Bill Gates and (b) government during the outbreak of the pandemic. This study uses topic modeling techniques to capture distinctive topical attributes that emerged from rumor narratives. In addition, statistical analyses estimate the psychological distance effects on the salience of topical attributes of a rumor story and an individual’s propensity to believe them. Findings reveal that psychological distance to the threats of COVID-19 influences how misinformation evolves through word-of-mouth, particularly in terms of who is responsible for the pandemic and why the world finds itself in the current situation. Psychological distance also explains why people accept the message to be true. Implications for misinformation and rumor psychology research, as well as avenues for future research, are discussed.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T04:07:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066026
       
  • Bereavement Adaptation as Deflection Reduction: Bereaved Caregivers Define
           the Event of Dying

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      Authors: Linda E. Francis, Malissa Alinor
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      Affect control theory (ACT) has the potential to extend dominant understandings of adaptation to bereavement. Using narratives from bereaved caregivers, we assessed attributions they made about the death of a loved one from cancer. We transformed these attributions into actor-behavior-object events along the evaluation, potency, and activity dimensions of ACT. After creating hypothetical baseline deflections for events, we simulated the attributions as events in INTERACT. We found eight emergent categories of resolutions that caregivers used to make sense of the death: caregivers redefined the event to align with their sentiments about the deceased or the death. We also found racial differences in the attributions. White caregivers were more likely to blame themselves or others for the death of their loved one, while black caregivers were more willing to admit their deceased loved one’s faults. These findings demonstrate how caregivers make sense of their grief in a framework of cultural sentiments and underscore the utility of affect control theory in qualitative and theory-generating research.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T01:58:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066029
       
  • Theoretical Notes on Action Schemes in Society

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      Authors: David R. Heise
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This essay presents theoretical constructs for characterizing the causal structure of social actions and developing a multi-level theory of action relating to accomplishment of goals via social organizations. Focal concepts include: action schemes, mobilization, internal and external fulfillments, power schemes, macroactions, effective actions, and purposeful actions. Additionally, an overview is provided of a methodological procedure for analyzing narratives in order to specify causal linkages among actions and thereby delineate action schemes. Some possibilities for future developments are noted.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T02:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066024
       
  • “The Fans of Michael Jackson v Wade Robson and James Safechuck”:
           Forensic Fandom and the Staging of a Media Tribunal

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      Authors: Philipp Dominik Keidl
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      This essay analyses fan reactions to the sexual abuse allegations brought forward against Michael Jackson in Leaving Neverland (Dan Reed, 2019). In particular, it focuses on fans’ production of nonfiction media produced in defense of Jackson, trying to restore the artist’s reputation by discrediting his accusers. Based on textual and content analysis of videos by The Michael Jackson Innocent Project (MJIP) and its wider network, this essay positions these videos within the context of documentaries and nonfiction programs produced on the singer. Arguing that the videos represent a form of “forensic fandom,” the essay maintains that fans stage a “media tribunal” against Jackson’s accusers to defend the singer. Because of their biased argumentation, however, fans reinforce myths about disingenuous allegations of sexual violence.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T08:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211042285
       
  • Affect Control Theories: A Double Special Issue in Honor of David R. Heise

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      Authors: Amy Kroska, Brian Powell, Kimberly B. Rogers, Lynn Smith-Lovin
      Abstract: American Behavioral Scientist, Ahead of Print.
      We introduce this two-part special issue that celebrates David Heise and his pathbreaking theories: affect control theory (ACT), affect control theory of the self (ACTS), and affect control theory of institutions (ACTI). These interlocking, multi-level, mathematically based theories explain a range of social processes, including impression formation, social interaction, trait and mood attributions, emotional experiences, emotion management, and identity adoption, and they do so in multiple languages and cultures. The 15 articles in this two-part issue test, apply, and develop the theories in new and innovative ways. After briefly summarizing each theory and Bayesian affect control theory (BayesACT), we highlight the key findings from each of the articles that follow.
      Citation: American Behavioral Scientist
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T05:12:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00027642211066044
       
 
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