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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
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International Journal of Criminology and Sociology
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1929-4409
Published by Lifescience Global Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Legal Aid for Effective Victim Legal Representation in Kenya’s
           Post-Election Violence: Lessons from the International Criminal Court

    • Authors: Charles A. Khamala
      Abstract: The International Criminal Court’s legal aid scheme pays court-appointed victims’ lawyers. Yet, whether ICC or domestic legal proceedings can provide better victim satisfaction goes beyond the question of whether external or internal legal representation is more effective in protecting victims’ rights. In circumstances where guilt is difficult to prove, as in the ICC’s Kenya cases, victims’ interests may be better satisfied by pursuing compensation from local courts. This paper therefore argues that post-election violence victims’ interests may be satisfied by legal aid to support domestic compensation claims. Although numerous victims participated in the Kenya cases, non-confirmation of charges against the former Police Commissioner, withdrawal of the Muthaura and Kenyatta case, and declining to conduct reparation hearings after vacating charges in the Ruto and Sang case, culminated in widespread victim dissatisfaction. The paper contrasts the victims’ plight in the Kenya cases with fortunes of victims who participated at the ICC with those of the CAVI Police Shooting case and COVAW Sexual and Gender Based Violence case which effectively proved more satisfying for some victims. The question is whether legal aid for victims’ representatives before domestic courts may enhance the effectiveness of local responses to atrocity crimes. Although the comparatively successful recent domestic suits illustrate advantages of pursuing constitutional-based compensation claims, as opposed to punitive-contingent reparations before the ICC, these test cases require upscaling. Notwithstanding the ‘Kenyan Trial Approach’s’ significant impact on ICC evolution, to vindicate victims’ rights, the Trust Fund for Victims may consider donating to Kenya’s Victim Protection Fund so as to supplement PEV victim compensation. Kenya’s Legal Aid Act requires reforms to support indigent victims, particularly those suffering abuse of power.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Factors Influencing NGO Activities: Lithuanian Case Study

    • Authors: Andrius Stasiukynas; Aušra Šukvietienė, Tadas Sudnickas
      Abstract: The article aims to explore the external and internal factors influencing the activities of NGOs, in Lithuania. A qualitative empirical study was conducted (10 expert surveys) on this issue, what are the factors that help and hinder the activities of NGOs in Lithuania. The study allowed us to identify groups of factors positively influencing the activities of NGOs: human skills; infrastructure, as well as the organisation's relationship with public authorities, the hindering factors were also identified: the application of contracting authority status to NGOs; "activities in the public interest" interpretation; peculiarities of taxation of non-profit organizations; etc. The most relevant groups of NGO activity problems and related legal acts were distinguished: application of the contracting authority status to NGOs (Law on Public Procurement of the Republic of Lithuania); Interpretation of “activities in the public interest” (STI material. Peculiarities of taxation of non-profit organizations; etc. legislation); application of corporate income tax to non-profit organizations (Law on Corporate Income Tax of the Republic of Lithuania).
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Legal Status of the Mayor of the Territorial (Local) Authority
           (Municipality) of Lithuania from 1990 to the Present Day

    • Authors: Algirdas Astrauskas; Kristina Čelkė, Kęstutis Vilkauskas
      Abstract: Purpose of the Study: This article presents the results of a scientific study (research) of the legal status of the mayor of the territorial (local) authority (municipality) of Lithuania during the period from 1990 to the present day. Methodology: The study (research) was conducted using comparative analysis, synthesis, descriptive, graphic representation methods. Result: The results obtained during the study (research) confirm (using the example of the case of Lithuania) that the change of the legal status of the mayor of the territorial (local) authority (municipality) is a permanent process that takes place for various reasons, one of the most important of which is the change of the principle models of the structure of the territorial (local) authorities (municipalities). Novelty of the Study: The novelty of this study (research) and article is that no such study (research) has been conducted in Lithuania so far.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Intelligence Gathering Imperative: A Tool for Successful Security
           Outfits’ Operation

    • Authors: Jacob Otu Enyia; Ayuk A. Achu, Otu Duke, Cleverty Afu Njong, Tiku Oru Takim, John Thompson Okpa
      Abstract: This study examines the recent security challenges Nigerians and non-Nigerians encounters in their daily existence to eke a living. These threats are orchestrated by the activities of one of the deadliest terrorist group in the world (Boko Haram), and herdsmen notorious killers, armed banditry, cow rustling by rustlers, incessant kidnapping especially students in schools and unsuspecting Nigerians and non-Nigerians alike; which has made Nigeria federating states unsafe for any meaningful socio-economic development to thrive. To achieve this, two objectives were stated to include, underscore the overarching relevance of intelligent gathering in preventing crime and understand the elaborateness of intelligence gathering that can be utilized to mitigate crimes outcomes. The study found that intelligence gathering is the disconnect that has precipitated this state of affairs in Nigeria. Equally responsible is the people’s loyalty which is first and foremost skewed to ethnoreligious and political considerations instead of the country. It was recommended among other appeals to include: The National Intelligence Agency (NIA) of Nigeria which is the coordinating security agency should be properly funded and personnel trained in modern intelligence gathering techniques, the unnecessary bickering, in-fighting for superiority between and among security agencies in Nigeria should be discouraged because this itself is a big challenge in security equation of Nigeria; and serious effort should be made to stop the politicization of security intelligence gathering matters based on tribe, ethnic group, religious and political affiliations.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Is the Time Right for a Paradigm Shift' Where we have been and where
           we Might be Going

    • Authors: P.J. Verrecchia
      Abstract: Over the years there have been a number of paradigms and concomitant shifts in criminal justice. Each paradigm shift follows a general discontentment with the existing paradigm. This is crucial because with change comes a new operating system designed to, at the least, protect society. When the paradigm is not doing its job, crisis can ensue. Current attitudes towards the criminal justice system raise the question, are we in a moment of crisis' This article explores the history of shifts in the criminal justice system, where we are now, and were we might be going.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Justice-Involved Veterans & Social Work: A Resource Dependence Theory

    • Authors: Bradley Schaffer
      Abstract: The salience of justice-involved military veterans endures as a pervasive social problem in the United States of America (USA). Since the 1980’s the percentages of Justice-Involved Veterans (JIV) have varied from a reduction in Vietnam to increasing numbers of Global War on Terror (GWOT) veterans (Bureau of Justice Statistics Report, 2015). In response, there has been a proliferation of magistrate diversion, correctional specialty units, Veterans Treatment Courts (VTC) and programming for JIV. Much of the progress is due to concerted identification and organizational sharing of resources. The USA Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), courts, corrections and non-profit organizations (NPO) provide a valuable service to our military men and women to remediate the JIV needs. Social work plays at critical in practice areas at the penal, VA and NPO systems in the USA. The JIV population are examined through the lens of social work practice, resource dependence theory (RDT), case example and future direction. The examination highlights the importance of internal and external resources and partnerships to meet organizational goals and to remediate JIV psycho-social problems.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Control Issues: Examining the Relationship between Low Self-Control and
           Intimate Partner Violence for both Perpetrators and Victims

    • Authors: Sriram Chintakrindi; Suditi Gupta
      Abstract: Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) low self-control theory is linked to individual-level non-violent and violent criminal offending. In this study, we examine secondary-data collected from a transnational sample of survey respondents (n = 17404) to test a predictive model of low self-control on outcomes related to intimate partner violence for both perpetrators and victims. We control for several variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, substance use history, and deviance history when we test our model using logistic regression analysis. The results from our analysis indicates that a unidimensional measure of low self-control is a consistent and statistically significant predictor of outcomes related to intimate partner violence, even when control variables are entered into the model. These findings have strong policy implications for identifying risk-factors and interventions associated with intimate partner violence.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Peacebuilding Strategies in Nigeria’s Ethnic Space: Specific Focus on
           Conflict-Spot in Kaduna Communities

    • Authors: Kazeem Oyedele Lamidi; Oluseyi Idowu Olaleye, Bisiriyu Abiodun Taleat
      Abstract: This paper contextualised the subject matter and its strategies by providing insights on the development, peace and conflict in the Nigerian environment; explicating the peace and conflict impact assessment; exposing the causal factors for communal conflict; and analysing the strategies across the main tribes in Nigeria with specific focus on Kaduna communities. It drew largely on secondary sources whose contents were explicitly analysed for this contextual discourse. It found out that there were internal mechanisms put in place towards engendering peace building across the major tribes in Nigeria. It enlisted obtainable peacebuilding strategies in Kaduna communities. It concluded that a remarkable feature of the peace building strategies is that it does not only aim at conflict resolution, but also ensures peaceful co-existence scenes and harmonious relationships between and among conflicting people or communities. However, the latter still remains challenging owing to a low human development index and civic orientations.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Dearth of Democracy in South Africa: ANC’s Factionalism, State
           Capture Inquiry, and Riots

    • Authors: Munhuweyi Kenneth Takudzwa
      Abstract: The 2020 Covid 19 pandemic came with good and bad news across the globe. The South African government had its most challenging moment, which found intra-party elite cohesion over state capture inquiry and corruption triggering riots in Gauteng and KwaZulu Natal. In South Africa weather they will be democratic deepening or decay will be unveiled in the article proffering for alternative solutions to resolve future conflicts in the country. Nevertheless, the article did not dispute the institutional democracy in South Africa as one of the African leading democratic state. The research used the socio-economic and political psychological analysis to unveil the July 2021 riots in South Africa. An ethnographical approach was utilized to enrich the study phenomenon, gathering data through documentary review, and multimedia platforms.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Ensuring Victims’ Participation in the Criminal Justice of

    • Authors: Khandaker Farzana Rahman
      Abstract: It is seen that if the main actors in a criminal justice framework are to be identified, the most commonly identified would be the alleged, his legal representative, the prosecutor and the judge. In our current legal system, the victim appears to be one of the overlooked and disregarded parties, when in reality they should be considered a vital stakeholder in the criminal justice process to secure justice. Due to adversarial legal system in Bangladesh the burden of proof lies upon the prosecution or victim in a criminal proceeding. There is hence no comprehensive law securing rights and participation of victims in criminal justice system though few supports exist for them. In accessing the justice system, victims face numerous challenges and the plight of crime victims continues to go from bad to worse. In this background, the research relies on qualitative methods to explore their status, participation and challenges in the justice system and lastly recommends how to make the justice system victim oriented.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Bystander Attitudes to Hearing Family Violence: An Australian Survey

    • Authors: Elspeth McInnes
      Abstract: Male violence against women and children is a pernicious global problem responsible for a high burden of injury, illness, and premature death across societies and cultures. Socio-cultural beliefs, attitudes, and practices underpin the conduct of perpetrators, targets, bystanders, and responding service providers, including police, health, and social welfare services. Bystanders’ willingness to act to help targets of family violence is a key dimension framing the social environment of using violence against family members. An anonymous internet survey of 464 Australians, mainly women, identified that around three-quarters of respondents would respond if they heard a cry for help from a nearby home. Most said they would call the police. The key deterrents to taking action were fears for their safety and their confidence that calling the police would lead to effective action. Despite their willingness to act, most believed that the typical Australian public would not do so. They attributed reluctance to take action to bystanders’ fears for their safety, beliefs that it was not their business, and not wanting to get involved. Respondents wanted more financial, housing, and legal support for victims of violence to end abusive relationships. Nationally consistent FDV laws, changes to media reporting, and school-based education were nominated as key strategies to prevent and reduce family and domestic violence.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Experiencing Relative Deprivation as True Crime: Applying Cultural
           Criminology to the Qanon Superconspiracy Theory

    • Authors: Deirdre Caputo-Levine; Jacob Harris
      Abstract: This essay builds upon earlier studies of the QAnon superconspiracy theory by applying cultural criminology as a framework to investigate the significance of QAnon and the events that facilitated the rise of the superconspiracy and the associated political movement. QAnon has had multiple impacts that should be of interest to criminologists. In the United States, QAnon was involved with the 2020 election, as adherents believed messages posted by "Q" referred to President Trump as a messiah and Trump tacitly acknowledged the group. In addition, QAnon has international influence, most recently in the "trucker" convoy in Canada and anti-vaccine protests in New Zealand and Germany. This essay utilizes cultural criminology to introduce the framework of relative deprivation theory and emphasize the importance of the gaze from above and below in structuring relative deprivation. In addition, we discuss the role of cultural understandings of victimization in shaping ideology and physical frameworks used by QAnon.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Politics of Exploitation and Oppression, British Colonization, and
           Chinese Involvement in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Munhuweyi Kenneth Takudzwa
      Abstract: In an analog philosophy by Lobengula of the chameleon and the fly, he unveiled the British occupation of Zimbabwe, which I equally translated or is similar to the 21st-century Chinese involvement in Zimbabwe. In understanding the exploitative nature of colonial and post-colonial politics, the research offered a comparative analysis of the British and Chinese involvement in Zimbabwe. The post-colonial economic colonization neo-colonialism, similar to dependency theory proponents, found the African continent under exploitation and oppression in her post-independence. The researcher utilized qualitative research of documentary review, online sources, and virtual ethnography to unveil and enrich the study phenomenon.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Understanding the Decision-Making Process of Women to Engage in Cohabiting

    • Authors: Nathaniel Phuti Kgadima; Goitseone Emelda Leburu
      Abstract: Despite the extensive literature on cohabitation, there is scant literature that explores women’s decisions to engage in cohabitation. Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour and a qualitative research approach, this article explores the decision-making processes among women to engage in cohabitation. For some women, cohabitation was preceded by a clear conversation about the intention to marry. The second group of women described cohabitation as an expression of autonomy and independence by rejecting traditionally prescribed conventions such as marriage. When the promise of marriage fails to materialise, some women become increasingly disillusioned and opt to terminate their co-residence relationships in order to negotiate marriage as an option with their partners. This article utilised purposively and snowball sampling to gather data and this was through semi-structured interviews. This data was analysed thematically, and the results show a preponderance of a desire for autonomy that is checked by the harsh persistence of disempowering narratives. Further research is needed to establish patterns of autonomy in cohabiting partners.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • The Inherent Limitations of Gender-Based Violence to the Exclusion of
           LGBTIQ: A Guide for Social Workers

    • Authors: Goitseone Emelda Leburu; Nathaniel Phuti Kgadima, Kgashane Johannes Malesa
      Abstract: Drawing from the queer theory, this article strives to understand the scourge of gender-based violence against members of the homosexual community through a literature review. There is a gap in understanding this scourge against LGBTIQ. Additionally, there is a dearth of research on GBV within the social work fraternity despite the profession’s mandate to protect vulnerable groups. A comprehensive understanding of this hate crime is critically important in the current times where incidents of violence based on one’s gender are on the rise in South Africa. Social workers are in a privileged position to educate communities about these appalling crimes and to inform inclusive policies to curb this pandemic against members of the homosexual community.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Risk Factors of Substance abuse among University Students: An Exploratory

    • Authors: Hlengiwe P. Gasa; Sazelo Mkhize, Kemist Shumba, Samuel F. Cinini, Nirmala D. Gopal
      Abstract: Substance abuse is a significant problem among tertiary level students, with alcohol/drug use associated with increased prevalence of negative outcomes, including diminished academic performance, social-interpersonal difficulties, and engaging in risky behaviours. To explore risk factors associated with substance abuse among university students, a qualitative approach was adopted. Twenty on-campus residents were selected through purposive sampling. To elicit their views in-depth interviews were used. Data were thematically analysed, and engendered themes were identified. The findings revealed that various kinds of substances are abused by university students, which include codeine, marijuana (weed), and alcohol. Substance abuse is a kind of behaviour that students either learn or do intentionally, despite their foreknowledge of the negative effects and the risk factors such as peer pressure, stress, and depression. The study concludes that university students are aware of the various negative effects of substance abuse, but they mostly justify it as a way of coping with academic pressure.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Inmates in the Role of the "Wounded Healer": The Virtuous of Peer-to-Peer
           Programs in Prison

    • Authors: Ety Elisha
      Abstract: Researchers in the field of crime desistance have recently focused on the strength-based role of the "wounded healer" or "professional-ex", as exemplified by former addicts and prisoners who desist from crime and recover through the professional practice of peer mentoring. Studies point to the many benefits inherent in the role of the “wounded healer” for incarcerated people employed in peer-based rehabilitation roles. These benefits can include opportunities to experience accomplishments and an increasing sense of ability and self-worth. Additional benefits include acquiring a new meaning and purpose in life, the development of a new self-identity, increasing feelings of belonging and satisfaction from life, and a stronger commitment to avoid crime. These findings suggest that formerly incarcerated individuals can form positive, pro-social relationships with their peers and serve as positive role models for them. The purpose of the present article is to review the current literature on peer-to-peer programs currently implemented in Western prisons, to establish and expand them, as a means of improving the rehabilitation efforts of present and past prisoners. It is recommended to examine the preservation of their benefits and effectiveness in the long run, both for aid providers and recipients.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Criminal Law and Neuroscience: Theory and Practice in the Italian

    • Authors: Ciro Grandi
      Abstract: The debate on the impact on criminal justice of the empirical evidence offered by techniques of brain exploration and behavioral genetics shows no sign of diminishing, fed by literature now boundless and by case law in constant growth. In the Italian system, the impact of neuroscience at trial is still rather limited and substantially confined to its sedes naturalis, that is to say, the insanity defense. Even in this area, however, there is a very cautious, if not sometimes distrustful, attitude on the part of the courts, still doubtful about the epistemological reliability of neuroscientific evidence. The interdisciplinary dialogue is called upon to help overcome uncertainties and resistance, to avoid the underestimation of data endowed – albeit in a complementary and integrative function – with an increasingly objective value. Summary: 1. Foreword. - 2. Neuroscience: an outline. - Neuroscience and criminal law in the light of the radical-revolutionary model. - 4. Neuroscience and criminal law in the light of the moderate-compatibilist model. - 5. An overview of the use of “neuroscientific evidence” in practice - 6. Neuroscience and the evaluation of criminal capacity: a first assessment. - 7. The (still) limited impact of neuroscience in the Italian criminal trial. Diagnosis and prognosis. – 8. Conclusions.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +000
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