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Frontiers in Human Dynamics
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-2726
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • “Can my mother come'” Asylum interviews with unaccompanied and
           separated children seeking asylum in the

    • Authors: Stephanie E. Rap
      Abstract: IntroductionThe UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) accords children the right to give their views on all important decisions in their life (art.12 CRC). In the past decades increased awareness has risen among professionals who work with children in judicial and administrative proceedings, to hear their voices. The key question guiding this research was whether refugee children have the possibility to meaningfully participate in asylum proceedings, as required by international children's rights law and standards' Asylum application procedures are highly complex administrative procedures, that are often not adapted to the capacities and level of maturity of children. Recent studies suggest that the right to participation and information is insufficiently safeguarded for children involved in asylum procedures. Unaccompanied children seeking asylum as young as 6 years of age have to go through the asylum procedure in the Netherlands. Efforts have been put in making this procedure more child-friendly, by designing a child-friendly interview room and training immigration officers. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent the immigration authority takes into account children's voice, age and development, in line with international children's rights.MethodsObservations have been conducted of first instance asylum application interviews with children held by immigration officers. In total 13 interviews with children aged 7–11 have been observed, that were held between 2012 and 2019.ResultsThe results show that child-friendly conversation techniques and tools are used to some extent, however, immigration officers should be trained more extensively in order to enhance the effective participation of young children.DiscussionIt is concluded that interviews with children could be improved by giving children more information and using techniques to communicate with young children. In order to truly hear the child's voice the interviews should be better adapted to the age and level of development of unaccompanied children.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31T00:00:00Z
  • Coping with rapid and cascading changes in Svalbard: the case of
           nature-based tourism in Svalbard

    • Authors: Halvor Dannevig, Janne E. Søreide, Anna G. Sveinsdóttir, Julia Olsen, Grete K. Hovelsrud, Tone Rusdal, Ragnhild F. Dale
      Abstract: Tourism has been booming in Svalbard and has almost returned to pre-pandemic levels. At the same time, the island is a hotspot of rapid and cascading climate and environmental changes, which are already placing natural and social systems under stress. There is more precipitation, less sea ice, and glaciers are shrinking at an increasing rate. Presently, sweeping legislative changes are underway in Svalbard that hold the potential to change the scope and conditions of tourism in multiple ways. Drawing on a review of literature presenting recent projections for climate and environmental change and interviews with tourism actors (n=25), this article outlines how climate and environmental changes are currently impacting nature-based tourism actors in the archipelago and discusses opportunities and barriers for their adaptation to current and projected changes. We define impacts in three broad categories: increased vulnerability of ecosystems; climate risks to tourism; and climate change benefits to tourism. We find that tourism actors have a high adaptive capacity to said changes, taking advantage of increased access due to shrinking ice in the fjords and extending the summer season into the autumn months due to higher temperatures. Avalanches and other natural hazard risks are increasing, causing a higher frequency of disruptions to organized tours and excursions. This article contributes to ongoing discussions about how the tourism industry and residents will be impacted by the cascading and cumulative effects of climatic and environmental changes on Svalbard.
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Narratives of displacement and poverty: the intersections of policy and
           the shared experience of the everyday

    • Authors: Lucy Williams
      Abstract: An extensive, and growing, global literature on the experience of people subject to migration control shows how state actions to “manage” migration and human mobility results in poverty and destitution. There is also a large body of evidence indicating how neo-liberal policy, alongside deeply embedded structures of privilege and inequality lead to the economic deprivation of fully entitled, “citizen” populations. Despite the commonality of disadvantage between these two groups—migrants and citizens—the parallels in experience of structures that create and maintain their impoverishment have rarely been explored. Close attention to the stories told by people with lived experience of poverty, as citizens or as migrants, challenges the normative assumptions about belonging and entitlement, deservingness and opportunity that underpin policy-making on both migration and social inequality. This essay argues that listening to, and engaging with, the stories of people in poverty is an important corrective to normative ideas about who can benefit from state support. Focusing on the UK, my aim is to explore the position of people subject to migration control alongside others living in poverty—marginalized and made precarious not by displacement but by deprivation, stigma and punitive welfare systems. Paying close attention to the stories people tell cuts through the official, normative positioning of people as outsiders whether as foreigners or as marginalized citizens. Stories thus reveal the technologies of power and oppression at work in everyday settings. Drawing on concepts including Butler's ideas of grievability and Mbembe's necropolitics I reflect on how welfare management systems and the “so-called” hostile environment, reduce the capacity of migrants and others to act as purposeful human beings. I hope to reveal the technologies of power and oppression at work in everyday settings and will argue that careful, attentive listening to human stories can challenge the imposition of normative discourses on the voiceless and encourage narratives that embrace complexity.
      PubDate: 2023-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • Bura ura, kendu waiyo (rain falls, water rises): the tyranny of water
           insecurity and an agenda for abolition in Kodi (Sumba Island, Indonesia)

    • Authors: Cynthia T. Fowler
      Abstract: This article explores the dynamic links between transformations in freshwater ecosystems and social changes in the Kodi region of Sumba (Indonesia). Insights into the politics surrounding changing hydrosocial systems are generated by using a feminist anthropology approach together with critical development studies and intersectionality theory. In aligning with fellow feminists whose advocacy sometimes takes the form of scholarship, I lay out a five-prong strategy for collecting empirical evidence from persons who are vulnerable when hydrological systems change and offer eight principles for future development interventions. The argument related to the five-prong toolkit is that by conducting intensive, extensive, opportunistic, and longitudinal research and by allying with grassroots interlocutors, interventions into water systems can be based on better evidence and can be socially just. Three stories about Kodinese interactions with water and experiences with change are at the heart of this article and lead to the formulation of consequential conclusions. In the first story, birth, death, and relocation intersect with changes in the type of reservoir and the tools and vehicles used to manage water. In the second story—the origin for “tyranny” in the subtitle—vulnerability to food and water scarcity emerges and is politicized when a river's flow is altered. In the third story—the basis for “abolition” in the subtitle—hydrological interventions perpetrated by extrinsic governments correlate to surveillance and incarceration by the military and paramilitary. One research finding is that interventions by extrinsic agencies into the hydrology of four connected watersheds have altered hydrosocial relationships. Another finding is that as water's routes shift, people adjust to new conditions with mixed outcomes. A third conclusion is water utilities have differential benefits within the Kodi community. Fourth, benefits from water development have dispersed along already existing lines within the social structure. Finally, intracultural differences related to intersectional identities coincide with variations in access to natural and developed sources of water.
      PubDate: 2023-05-17T00:00:00Z
  • The exceptional year of 2022: “deathblow” to glacier summer
           skiing in the Alps'

    • Authors: Bruno Abegg, Marius Mayer
      Abstract: The summer of 2022 in the European Alps was characterized by extremely warm and dry conditions which led to a record ice melt on Alpine glaciers, also due to the preceding winter season with below average snow cover. Given its dependence on natural conditions, glacier summer skiing was highly affected. We compare the number of glacier ski operating days across the Alps for 2011, 2018 and 2022 and roll forward existing time series data from Austria to include the last three seasons (i.e., 2020–2022). Results show considerable decreases in the summer half-year ski operation all over the Alps (−45.1% compared to 2011). Summer ski operation in the meteorological (−63.3%) and astronomical summer (−69.7%) declined even more. In Austria, the decline trend of summer ski operating days continues and reaches all-time lows in 2022. We sum up the impacts of the extreme summer of 2022 on Alpine glacier ski areas and discuss its short- to mid-term repercussions. In combination with demand shifts like the potential change of national ski teams' training patterns ongoing climate change induced glacier shrinkage might lead to the definite end of Alpine summer skiing in the near future.
      PubDate: 2023-05-05T00:00:00Z
  • The narrative practices of hostile environments: the story of the
           nation-as-family and the story of security

    • Authors: Matthew Whittle
      Abstract: This article contributes to research into the importance of storytelling in asylum practice by examining the narratives used to promote and justify Hostile Environment policies. The two narrative practices identified are the “story of the nation-as-family”, which defines national belonging predominantly by markers of race and ethnicity, and the “story of security”, whereby racialized refugees are framed as potential threats to the nation's socio-economic stability. The former propagates a notion of consanguinity that works to exclude and silence people seeking asylum from non-European nations. The latter sees the rhetoric of a “clash of civilisations” so central to the “War on Terror” taken up in policy debates about climate-induced migration. An analysis of the way in which these stories are staged and critiqued in the writing of Abdulrazak Gurnah and Stephen Collis reveals how they elide the relationship between forced migration and the history of European colonialism. In exploring this elision, this article insists on the significance of literary texts as spaces where monocultural conceptions of belonging can be confronted, and where understanding Europe's colonial past is established as an integral part of hearing the stories of refugees in the present.
      PubDate: 2023-04-21T00:00:00Z
  • The influence of international criminal law on refugee law

    • Authors: Joseph Rikhof
      Abstract: This article will discuss the relationship between International Criminal Law (ICL) and refugee law. The emphasis will be on the interplay between concepts developed in ICL with respect to war crimes and crimes against humanity, as well as the notion of extended liability on one hand and the exclusion provision in the 1951 Refugee Convention (Refugee Convention) on the other.
      PubDate: 2023-04-11T00:00:00Z
  • Housing and integration of internally displaced persons: The case of
           Ukraine in 2018

    • Authors: Jane R. Zavisca, Beth Mitchneck, Theodore P. Gerber
      Abstract: Housing is a widely recognized yet understudied domain of integration of internally displaced persons (IDPs) into their new communities. This article examines the role of housing for integration of Ukrainian IDPs displaced by Russia-fueled political violence in Eastern Ukraine that started in 2014 or by Russia's annexation of Crimea that year. In Ukraine, housing holds particular significance for integration because homeownership is both widespread and a vital source of people's sense of wellbeing, security, and normalcy. Our evidence comes from an original 2018 survey of housing experiences of both IDPs and long-term residents in IDPs' new localities. The survey design enables us to assess housing integration relationally, by comparing gaps in housing status and subjective housing-related wellbeing between IDPs and locals. We find that for IDPs in protracted displacement, deprivation of culturally normative housing conditions, particularly homeownership, impeded both material and experiential housing integration. Disparities in housing status drive differences in subjective experience, ranging from satisfaction with one's housing to feeling at home in one's community. These results from our 2018 study may help anticipate challenges of the massive, nationwide displacement crisis precipitated by Russia's 2022 invasion of Ukraine. Whether Ukrainians resettle in new communities or return to their old ones, divisions between those who have homes to return to and those who do not are likely to be salient. Policies aimed at restoring housing resources, particularly pathways to homeownership, will be essential to rebuilding Ukraine.
      PubDate: 2023-04-05T00:00:00Z
  • The Tourism Adaptation Classification (TAC) framework: An application to
           New Zealand's Glacier country

    • Authors: Samantha Strong, Emma J. Stewart, Stephen Espiner, Katherine Hanly
      Abstract: Alongside growing awareness of the significance of environmental change for glacier regions, and their tourism-dependent communities, is the realization of the need to adapt to changing conditions. Such adaptation is necessary for tourism operators, managers, and planners as well as the visitors themselves, and is part of building resilient tourism systems. This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the possible stages of adaptation in glacier tourism destinations. The Tourism Adaptation Classification (TAC) framework aligns three stages of adaptation (resilience, transition, and transformation) against adaptation strategies implemented by tourism stakeholders and identifies specific characteristics. Using a desk-based case study approach, the framework is illustrated with reference to Glacier Country in New Zealand's Westland/Tai Poutini National Park in relation to three core dimensions of the tourism system: tourism planning and governance; tourism business and operations; and visitor experience.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Hybrid collective intelligence

    • Authors: Aleksandra Przegalińska
      PubDate: 2023-03-28T00:00:00Z
  • Gender-based violence, religion and forced displacement: Protective and
           risk factors|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Sandra Pertek, Karen Block, Lisa Goodson, Pakinam Hassan, Jeanine Hourani, Jenny Phillimore
      Abstract: IntroductionThis paper examines the relationship between gender-based violence (GBV) and religion in a range of forced displacement contexts. While it has been acknowledged that religion frequently shapes experiences of GBV survivors, little is known about the influences of religion on GBV experiences in forced displacement and its potential role in strengthening interventions.MethodsUtilizing empirical evidence from 58 interviews from the SEREDA project with forced migrants in Sweden, UK, Turkey and Australia, we outline the interactions between religious resources and GBV in migrants' forced displacement experiences. We conceptualise religious resources as comprising religious ideas, religious practices, religious experience and religious organization.ResultsSurvivors talked about religion spontaneously when responding to questions relating to resilience, coping mechanisms, and risk factors. Religion acted as both a “protective” and “risk” factor for GBV experiences. Religious beliefs were assets in coping with GBV experiences, but also contributed to creating an environment in which violence was normalized, exposing women to further harm. Religious practices supported survivors emotionally to cope with GBV but also some practices posed risks. Religious organizations in many cases served as a lifeline for many displaced women, offering practical and emotional support, however religious leaders at times encouraged survivors to stay in abusive relationships. Religious experiences “empowered” and “disempowered” survivors across the processes of forced migration.DiscussionWe demonstrate the relevance and importance of acknowledging the role of religion in the experiences of GBV in forced displacement. Our analysis advances the understanding of religious resources as both protective and risk factors that affect forced migrants' experiences of GBV over time and place. We suggest a way forward for practitioners and researchers to account for the roles of religion in experiences of GBV and forced displacement, as opportunities and barriers to GBV prevention and response, and to work with religious leaders and local faith communities to strengthen protection of survivors.
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T00:00:00Z
  • Furious depletion—Conceptualizing artisan mining and extractivism
           through gender, race, and environment

    • Authors: Muriel Côte
      Abstract: A buoyant debate has grown in political ecology and agrarian studies around the concept of extractivism. It shines a light on forms of human and non-human depletion that fuel contemporary capitalism. Within this debate however, artisan mining has been hard to fit in. Artisan mining is a form of small scale mineral extraction that occupies around 45 million people around the world, and sustains the life of many more, especially in the Global South. Much research has looked at this expanding form of livelihood, particularly through the prism of its persistent informality, its labor organization, and its challenges to environmental and labor rights. However, it has not been well-theorized in relations to extractivism, sitting uncomfortably with dominant categories such as “the community”, “the company”, and “social movements” in political ecology analyses. The paper maps out entry points to studying the significance of artisan mining within dynamics of extractive capitalism by bringing in conversation political ecology scholarship on extractivism and research on artisan mining through a feminist lens. It develops the notions of “furious depletion”, attempting to capture the stark socioenvironmental injustice through which artisan mining forms an integral part of extractive capitalism, as both a victim and fuel thereof. The notion also emphasizes the significance of emotions - such as infuriation - in thinking through unjust human-environment relations for transformation. It focuses specifically on the ways relations of gender and race mediate human-environment relations, can help clarify an understanding of artisan mining in the depletion dynamics underlying extractivism. Given the acceleration of mining as part of digital and energy transitions, and the expansion of artisan mining, an engaged conceptualization of artisan mining may support struggles away from extractive capitalism for the decades to come.
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T00:00:00Z
  • Profiling sociodemographic attributes and extreme precipitation events as
           mediators of climate-induced disasters in municipalities in the state of
           Minas Gerais, Brazil|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Gilvan Guedes, Lara de Melo Barbosa Andrade, Cláudio Moises Santos e Silva, Kenya Valéria Micaela de Souza Noronha, Daniele Rodrigues, Albert Smith Feitosa Suassuna Martins
      Abstract: IntroductionData indicate an increase in the number of natural disasters in Brazil, with a large share of these events occurring in the state of Minas Gerais. This study examines precipitation-related natural disasters recorded between 1991 and 2016 in Minas Gerais by identifying municipality profiles (encompassing the number of droughts, flash floods, and flooding events), their sensitivity to geophysical and extreme climatic exposure, and their relation to sociodemographic and infrastructure characteristics.MethodsWe combine climate data on seven extreme rainfall indices with elevation data for each municipal seat. We obtained data on droughts, flash floods, and floods from the Center for Engineering and Civil Defense Research and Studies. Population and socio-sanitary characteristics were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census. First, we modeled the climatic-geo-socio-sanitary data using latent class analysis as a pure latent cluster model (LCM) without covariates on seven extreme precipitation indices coupled with altitude data. Subsequently, the LCM was used to identify precipitation-related disaster clusters, including clusters from the 1S-LCM as an active covariate (2S-LCM). Finally, we utilized sociodemographic and infrastructure variables simultaneously with the clusters from the 2S-LCM on an LCM without active covariates (3S-LCM).ResultsOur results show an increase in precipitation-related disasters in Minas Gerais, with municipalities located in the northern part of the state being particularly affected. The state registered 5,553 natural disasters in this period, with precipitation-related disasters representing 94.5% of all natural disasters. The 1S-LCM identified four homoclimatic zones, encompassing a low-altitude dry zone, a relatively low-altitude intermediately wet zone, a relatively high-altitude intermediately wet zone, and a high-altitude wet zone. The 2S-LCM produced four precipitation-related disaster classes, denominated low risk, high risk of excess precipitation, intermediate risk of precipitation deficit and excess, and high risk of precipitation deficit.DiscussionCities with better infrastructure and sociodemographic profiles in semi-arid regions are more resilient to droughts. In richer areas, floods are still a concern where incomplete urbanization transitions may undermine resilience to these events as they increase in intensity with the advance of climate change.
      PubDate: 2023-03-17T00:00:00Z
  • Glacier tourism without ice: Envisioning future adaptations in a melting

    • Authors: Emmanuel Salim
      Abstract: Climate change is causing profound changes in high mountain environments, including the rapid retreat of glaciers. The retreat and potential disappearance of Alpine glaciers during the twenty-first century raises questions about the future of glacier tourism sites. This perspective article reflects on these changes with a desk-based approach to suggest three possible ways glacier tourism can adapt to anticipated glacier loss. These three strategies include further developing geotourism, transforming last-chance tourism into “dark tourism,” and using virtual reality to “virtually” reconstruct disappearing glaciers. This paper draws on three cases to discuss the potential of these strategies. The first is the Aletsch Glacier, the largest in the Alps, which is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It has also been the subject of recent work on geotourism. The second case is Mer de Glace, the largest glacier at the Montenvers site in France. This glacier has been studied in the context of last-chance tourism. The final case is the Mortaretsch Glacier in Switzerland, which can be reached from Diavolezza and has not been the subject of many studies. However, this site is one of the first to incorporate virtual reality technology into the tourist experience of the glacier.
      PubDate: 2023-03-16T00:00:00Z
  • Why is farming important for rural livelihood security in the global
           south' COVID-19 and changing rural livelihoods in Nepal's mid-hills

    • Authors: Dil Khatri, Kristina Marquardt, Harry Fischer, Sanjaya Khatri, Devanshi Singh, Dilli Prasad Poudel
      Abstract: Over the last three decades, Nepal has experienced a rapid transition in rural livelihoods, from largely subsistence farming to more diversified off-farm employment and remittances. Despite this, subsistence farming continues to be a central part of rural production. Why does farming persist in the face of other, more remunerative, off-farm employment options' In this article we argue that subsistence food production continues to be important for rural livelihood security by providing food needs from farming, thus helping households to cope with uncertainties in off-farm employment and international labor migration. Taking the COVID-19 pandemic as an example of a high level of livelihood stress, the paper provides insights and further explanations on the logic of maintaining subsistence food production as part of rural households' livelihood security. Drawing on in-depth qualitative study, complemented with a quantitative survey from eight villages in rural Nepal, we examine the impact of the pandemic on farming and off-farm activities and explore the reasons behind peoples' choice of livelihood strategies and how these vary between different social groups. We show that there was only limited impact of the dramatic disruptions caused by the global pandemic on subsistence farming, however it brought substantial challenges for emerging semi-commercial farming and off-farm incomes, including both local and migratory wage labor. During the pandemic, people increased their reliance on locally produced food, and subsistence farming served as a critical safety net. Our analysis underscores the continued importance of subsistence production amidst contemporary shifts toward off-farm employment among rural households. We also find a growing interest in semi-commercial farming among farmers with better access to land who seek state support to develop such production. This suggests that it is important for agricultural development policy to recognize and support subsistence farming alongside emerging commercial agriculture production as an integral foundation of future farming and rural livelihood security.
      PubDate: 2023-03-14T00:00:00Z
  • Corrigendum: Assessment of water-migration-gender interconnections in

    • Authors: Lisa Färber, Nidhi Nagabhatla, Ilse Ruyssen
      PubDate: 2023-03-14T00:00:00Z
  • The implications of warmer winters for ice climbing: A case study of the
           Mount Washington Valley, New Hampshire, USA

    • Authors: Jimmy Voorhis, Graham McDowell, Elizabeth Burakowski, Taylor Luneau
      Abstract: Ice climbing is important to the culture and economies of mountain communities worldwide. However, warming winters call into question the future of livelihoods associated with ice climbing. In response, this case study presents observed and simulated ice climbing conditions in the Mount Washington Valley, New Hampshire, USA, as well as local climbing guide's experiences of and responses to these changes. First, variability in ice conditions were evaluated by classifying and summarizing ice characteristics depicted in a 20-year collection of conditions reports (n = 372) including photos and written observations for a benchmark ice climb (Standard Route). Next, climate model ensembles were used to simulate probable changes in future ice season lengths according to intermediate and high climate forcing scenarios (i.e., RCP 4.5 & RCP 8.5). Finally, a survey and focus group were conducted with Mount Washington Valley ice climbing guides to examine observations and lived experiences of warming winters. This study, which is the first formal assessment of the implications of warming winters for ice climbing, reveals significant effects of climate change for current and projected ice climbing conditions as well as marked, and often differentiated, vulnerability and adaptability to these changes amongst climbing guides. The unique mixed-methods approach used is applicable in other locales where climate change is impacting ice climbing activities and associated livelihoods.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02T00:00:00Z
  • Family reunion policy for resettled refugees: Governance, challenges and

    • Authors: Jenny Phillimore, Gabriella D'Avino, Veronika Strain-Fajth, Anna Papoutsi, Paladia Ziss
      Abstract: The past decade has seen renewed efforts to establish resettlement as a durable solution for refugees, both as a protection tool and a mechanism to equitably distribute them among countries. Although the right to a family life is widely recognised as a fundamental human right, whether refugees can arrive with their family or be reunited with family once resettled varies across receiving countries. Little is known about family reunion policies in countries leading the resettlement efforts, and about the impact of these policies on the lives and experiences of resettled refugees. This paper addresses this gap though a systematic scoping review of academic and policy literature on family reunion policies for resettlement refugees, and on the impact of such policy on their lives. Based on a review of 42 papers published between 2010 and 2021, we outline the policies implemented in different receiving countries to enable resettled refugees to reunite with family, documenting at the same time the challenges refugees face in the process, as well as the impact of policy on their experiences. The findings evidence a tension between the refugees' own understanding of family and definitions of family in policy in receiving countries, which often results in family separation or reconfiguration. Additionally, high costs and other administrative barriers, as well as long waiting times associated with family reunification, lead to delayed or denied reunion, having detrimental effects on resettled refugees' well-being in the present and on their future prospects.
      PubDate: 2023-02-28T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Emerging plurality of life: Assessing the questions, challenges
           and opportunities

    • Authors: Jessica Abbott, Erik Persson, Olaf Witkowski
      PubDate: 2023-02-28T00:00:00Z
  • ICT applications and the COVID-19 pandemic: Impacts on the individual's
           digital data, digital privacy, and data protection

    • Authors: Ali Cheshmehzangi, Zhaohui Su, Tong Zou
      Abstract: A prominent move amid the COVID-19 pandemic is related to the wide use of ICT applications for various reasons. Such services are context-specific and sector-specific, but we see transformative directions leading to digital data collection, monitory, and management platforms. For now, these have been beneficial to evaluate trends and issues related to the pandemic. Some aggregated data could also help decision-making processes, which are helpful to contain such disruptive events. However, the main concern is the use of the individual's data and information, which means we may shift to micro-management and eventual controlling tools that could harm data protection processes. Undoubtedly, the use of ICTs during the COVID-19 pandemic has been primarily positive at multiple scales, but we have to evaluate the pros and cons before accepting all data collection processes. Such ICT-mediated platforms and/or applications must remain beneficial to all and avoid breaching the individual's data protection. This short communication paper first introduces ICT applications during the COVID-19 before providing an overview and further analysis of the situation of the ICT applications. Afterward, it discusses issues of data privacy, data collection, and data use, which are the backbone of ICT applications. The discussions highlight that future research in this area could look into associated issues related to digital privacy, data-driven approaches, and data protection regulations.
      PubDate: 2023-02-23T00:00:00Z
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