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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
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Frontiers in Human Dynamics
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-2726
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • A tutorial for modeling the evolution of network dynamics for multiple
           groups

    • Authors: Andrew Pilny, Luisa Ruge-Jones, Marshall Scott Poole
      Abstract: Researchers have been increasingly taking advantage of the stochastic actor-oriented modeling framework as a method to analyze the evolution of network ties. Although the framework has proven to be a useful method to model longitudinal network data, it is designed to analyze a sample of one bounded network. For group and team researchers, this can be a significant limitation because such researchers often collect data on more than one team. This paper presents a nontechnical and hands-on introduction for a meta-level technique for stochastic actor-oriented models in RSIENA where researchers can simultaneously analyze network drivers from multiple samples of teams and groups. Moreover, we follow up with a multilevel Bayesian version of the model when it is appropriate. We also provide a framework for researchers to understand what types of research questions and theories could be examined and tested.
      PubDate: 2023-01-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • The politics of statelessness, refugeehood, and humanitarianism of the
           Rohingyas

    • Authors: Kaveri, S. Irudaya Rajan
      Abstract: Undoubtedly, the Rohingya crisis has been one among the most discussed issue in the last few years. The political exclusion and persecution revolve around the fault lines of modern nation-states built along the ethno-religious lines, making them the most persecuted minority in the world. Especially, post-global denunciation of the military crackdown in August 2017 and the United Nations accusing the country of “ethnic cleansing and genocide” led to the massive exodus of people to the neighboring countries and beyond. Yet, the existing political and protection space for stateless Rohingya refugees is extremely volatile due to the absence of legal mechanisms, un-documentedness, and rising security concerns globally often criminalizing them as illegal migrants/immigrants or threats to national security. Forcing them to live under continuous threat of detention, deportation, and forced relocation further tarnishes their identity between the man and the citizen, dumping them into a socio-legal limbo. Based on the ethnographic inquiry conducted among stateless Rohingya refugees living in semi-urban ghettoes of India- Delhi, Mewat, Hyderabad and Jammu, the article looks into the historical and political trajectory of exclusion, resistance, and counter-resilience of stateless Rohingya refugees fleeing persecution in Myanmar along exploring their refracted and displaced realities and complexities of “life” in asylum and protracted refugees in India. And, the responses made by national and international agencies to the crisis. In doing so, it provides a grim insight into the inadequate, inconsistent and highly uncoordinated national and international response to care and protection and aid politics that have contributed to the collective failure in addressing the crisis. Thereby, the study attempts to bring forth the wider debate upon issues of state and statehood, rights and humanitarianism within the nation-state paradigm.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T00:00:00Z
       
  • Heterogeneity in making: Findings, approaches, and reflections on
           inclusivity in making and makerspaces

    • Authors: Verena Fuchsberger, Dorothé Smit, Nathalia Campreguer França, Cornelia Gerdenitsch, Olivia Jaques, Joanna Kowolik, Georg Regal, Emma Roodbergen
      Abstract: Making, that is, the hobbyist and technologically based creation of things, has been associated with many benefits. It is considered to contribute to the development of skills and to enable participation in innovation, and even democracy. At the same time, institutionalized making (in makerspaces, FabLabs) is known to be exclusive as members of such spaces are very often young well-educated white men. This is in contradiction to the promise and self-understanding of the maker culture, which aims to be open and inclusive. In the past 3 years, we, a group of researchers, makers, fablab employees, hackerspace operators, and artists, have engaged with such disparities in a collaborative research project. We inquired into barriers that women* and other underrepresented groups experience, created visions to change the status quo, and implemented smaller and bigger interventions in different spaces (fablab, hackerspace, and makers' homes) to explore their impacts. This article discusses findings, approaches, and foremost, reflections and experiences. In addition to presenting selected insights from our explorations, we pay particular attention to the tensions and challenges that we encountered during our research endeavors. Many of those are rooted in our own roles, perspectives, and backgrounds, which are multiple, sometimes conflicting, troubling, frustrating, yet enriching, and rewarding. In the form of a written conversation among project members, we present those different viewpoints, connect them where possible, and oppose them where needed. We conclude by articulating tensions that we see as characteristic regarding making and the research around it.
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T00:00:00Z
       
  • Explaining recently arrived refugees' labor market participation: The role
           of policy characteristics among Syrians in the Netherlands

    • Authors: Roxy Elisabeth Christina Damen, Willem Huijnk, Jaco Dagevos
      Abstract: Various studies have indicated the disadvantaged positions of refugees on the labor market and studied various characteristics explaining this. Yet, little is known about the impact of settlement policy characteristics on recent arrivals' labor market participation, despite them being heavily subject to such policies. We argue such policies, next to individual characteristics, can serve as a means to gather resources relevant to the host country and consequently labor market positions, but can also serve as a post-migration stressor obstructing this. Using the Netherlands as an example, we contribute to studies on the refugee gap and provide insight into key policy characteristics explaining recently arrived refugees' (finding) employment. We use two-wave panel data of 2,379 recently arrived Syrian refugees in the Netherlands, including data on key policy and individual characteristics combined with administrative data. Employing a hybrid model, we show both within- and between-person variation. Results indicate policy matters: short and active stays in reception, complying with the civic integration obligation and a lower unemployment rate in the region refugees are randomly assigned to are beneficial for Syrians' (finding) employment. Like for other migrants, various forms of individual human capital also play a role.
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Trust, safety and passenger experience in Intelligent Mobility

    • Authors: Genovefa Kefalidou, Stavros Tasoudis
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Ethnic discrimination in neighborhood ingroup-outgroup encounters:
           Reducing threat-perception and increasing fairness as possible solutions

    • Authors: Julia Kleinewiese
      Abstract: Research on discriminating behavior against ethnic minorities in everyday situations is still a rather under-researched field, since most prior research on ethnic discrimination focuses on housing markets, job markets, criminal justice, institutions or discourses. This article contributes toward filling the research-gap on everyday discrimination by bringing together prior research from sociology and social-psychology, including threat and competition theories from integration research, social identity theory, particularism-universalism theory and experimental findings on fairness norms. It conceptually advances the field by combining them into an integrated interdisciplinary approach that can examine discriminating behavior in everyday situations. This approach studies the dynamics of ingroup-outgroup relationships, fairness norms and threat in regard to negative behavior toward others (e.g., a neighbor). In particular, it focusses on the dynamics under which negative behavior is more likely toward an ethnic outgroup-person than an ingroup-person (i.e., discriminating behavior). To scrutinize the expectations derived within this framework, a factorial survey experiment was designed, implemented and analyzed (by means of multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions and average marginal effects). The survey experiment presents a hypothetical scenario between two neighbors in order to measure the effects and dynamics of ingroup-outgroup relationships, fairness norms and threat on behavior. While no significant outgroup-effect can be found in the general analysis of the main effects, more in-depth analyses show an interplay of situational cues: Outgroup-discriminating behavior becomes significantly more likely when the “actor” has low general fairness norms and/or when threat-level in a situation is low. These results foreground the importance of interdisciplinary in-depth analyses of dynamics for understanding the conditions under which discriminating behavior takes place in everyday situations—and for deriving measures that can reduce discrimination.
      PubDate: 2022-12-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Refugees' time investments—Differences in the time use of refugees,
           other immigrants, and natives in Germany|Introduction|Methods|Results and
           discussion

    • Authors: Jana Kuhlemann
      Abstract: IntroductionSince the 2015/16 refugee influx to Germany and other European countries, these host societies have been challenged with the integration of culturally distant refugees. These recent arrivals can strategically invest their time in activities promoting their integration, thereby rendering time use as a channel of integration. Refugees are a vulnerable group that differs from other immigrants with respect to their migration motivation, experience, and conditions in the receiving countries. Accordingly, refugees might also differ from other immigrants with respect to their time use. This might play a role in explaining differences in refugees' and other immigrants' integration outcomes.MethodsUsing a cluster analysis approach, this contribution (1) descriptively examines whether and to what extent refugees' time use differs from that of other immigrants and the host-country population in Germany and (2) examines the role of refugees' legal status for their time use. The study examines time allocation to different activities of refugees, other first-generation immigrants, and native Germans, using data collected from 2016 to 2019 of the German Socio-Economic Panel, including the IAB-BAMF-SOEP Survey of Refugees and the IAB-SOEP Migration Sample.Results and discussionResults from (1) the cluster analysis approach show different clusters of time use patterns for the three population groups of refugees, other immigrants, and natives. For native Germans and other immigrants, the dominant time use cluster is characterized by full-time investment in employment activities. For refugees, the dominant time use pattern is characterized by low overall invested hours to the measured activities (low activity cluster). In contrast to the other two groups, a cluster of refugees predominantly allocating their time to employment activities is not found. Pooled analyses (2) of the role of refugees' legal status show some evidence that those who have a form of protection status, in comparison to those who have asylum seeker status, have a lower probability to display childcare- and household-related activities than to report low activity. However, fixed effects analyses show that refugees receiving a positive decision on their asylum application do not change with respect to their time use patterns.
      PubDate: 2022-12-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Trends in forced displacement due to conflict from 2009 to 2021: A decade
           forecast for effective humanitarian emergency response system in Nigeria

    • Authors: Chidubem Fidelis Izuakor
      Abstract: Internal displacement figures in conflicted affected regions of Nigeria is a significant problem that poses a risk of humanitarian crises accounted for by poor and a neglected emergency response system. The present study analyzed annual conflict/violence-induced internal displacement trends in Nigeria from 2009 to 2021 and predicted the annual figures for the next 10 years. Using the R software, the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) was adopted for analysis, while model (0, 0, 1) was chosen as the best fitting model with the minimum AIC coefficient. From the ARIMA forecast, 2022 showed a 4% decrease in displacement figures, further decreasing by 7% in 2023. The figures remained constant for the rest of the forecasted years, showing neither increases nor decreases from 2024 to 2031. Close observation revealed the overlapping trends between increased annual internal displacements and pre-election periods in Nigeria. This study will help inform humanitarian bodies on the significance of early detection and preparation for future displacement crises while considering the cycle of ethno-religious-related electoral violence. Furthermore, future studies should compare the accuracy of ARIMA with other models to ensure its validity using a similar sample.
      PubDate: 2022-12-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Flocking to fire: How climate and natural hazards shape human migration
           across the United States

    • Authors: Mahalia B. Clark, Ephraim Nkonya, Gillian L. Galford
      Abstract: As global climate change progresses, the United States (US) is expected to experience warmer temperatures as well as more frequent and severe extreme weather events, including heat waves, hurricanes, and wildfires. Each year, these events cost dozens of lives and do billions of dollars' worth of damage, but there has been limited research on how they influence human decisions about migration. Are people moving toward or away from areas most at risk from these climate threats' Here, we examine recent (2010–2020) trends in human migration across the US in relation to features of the natural landscape and climate, as well as frequencies of various natural hazards. Controlling for socioeconomic and environmental factors, we found that people have moved away from areas most affected by heat waves and hurricanes, but toward areas most affected by wildfires. This relationship may suggest that, for many, the dangers of wildfires do not yet outweigh the perceived benefits of life in fire-prone areas. We also found that people have been moving toward metropolitan areas with relatively hot summers, a dangerous public health trend if mean and maximum temperatures continue to rise, as projected in most climate scenarios. These results have implications for policymakers and planners as they prepare strategies to mitigate climate change and natural hazards in areas attracting migrants.
      PubDate: 2022-12-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Multi-level agency and transformative capacity for environmental risk
           reduction in the Norwegian salmon farming industry

    • Authors: Svein Gunnar Sjøtun, Arnt Fløysand, Heidi Wiig, Joaquin Zenteno Hopp
      Abstract: This article analyzes the role of agency in reducing environmental risk in the Norwegian salmon farming industry. The theoretical starting point is recent literature on change agency which focuses on the different ways in which actors purposely act to renew existing and create new regional industry growth paths, and reproductive agency which focuses on how actors, explicitly and implicitly, maintain existing structures to uphold status quo. Departing from a current risk society ambiguity in the industry and an explorative multi-scalar study of industrial innovation processes, we analysis how change agency combined with reproductive agency play out. The analysis shows that change agency affecting transformative agency capacity reducing environmental risk is connected to institutional entrepreneurship in terms of a Development Licenses Program on the national level and to Schumpeterian innovative entrepreneurship in terms of Development Licenses Projects on firm level. Moreover, the study shows how reproductive agency also affects the capacity to cope with environmental risks in terms of risk reducing place-based leadership illustrated by cooperation and bottom-up, self-organized area cooperation on the regional level, and in terms of risk creation illustrated by a global growth logic across geographical levels. On this ground, it is argued that the theoretical contribution of the study is that the transformative capacity to reduce environmental risks of an industry rests on multi-scalar change- and reproductive agency and how these are combined.
      PubDate: 2022-12-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Subsidies and allocation: A legacy of distortion and intergenerational
           loss

    • Authors: Hussain Sinan, Ciara Willis, Wilf Swartz, U. Rashid Sumaila, Ruth Forsdyke, Daniel J. Skerritt, Frédéric Le Manach, Mathieu Colléter, Megan Bailey
      Abstract: One of the greatest threats to the conservation of transboundary stocks is the failure of Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) to equitably allocate future fishing opportunities. Across RFMOs, catch history remains the principal criterion for catch allocations, despite being recognized as a critical barrier to governance stability. This paper examines if and how subsidies have driven catch histories, thereby perpetuating the legacy of unfair resource competition between distant water fishing nations (DWFNs) and coastal States, and how this affects ongoing allocation negotiations in the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC). Using limited publicly available data on subsidies to Indian Ocean tuna fleets, we show that subsidies have inflated catch histories of many DWFN's. As long as historical catch remains the key allocation criterion, future fishing opportunities will continue to be skewed in favor of DWFNs, in turn marginalizing half of the IOTC member States, which collectively account for a paltry 4% of the current catch. Without better transparency in past subsidies data, accounting for this distortion will be difficult. We provide alternative allocation options for consideration, with our analysis showing that re-attributing DWFN catch to the coastal State in whose waters it was caught may begin to alleviate this historical injustice.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06T00:00:00Z
       
  • Empathy and exclusion in the design process

    • Authors: Nicola Marsden, Alexander Wittwer
      Abstract: Designers are now taught that empathy with users is crucial to technology design. We offer a warning that this dictum and its implementation, despite admirable intentions, can promote exclusion in design: Empathy will not bring the desired benefit to the design process if it is naively construed and understood as a feminine trait, if shortcuts are used to allegedly take the effort out of the empathic process, or if the social situation in which empathy is taking place is not considered. We show that these issues are closely coupled in design practices. Using personas—fictitious descriptions of people used to make users visible in the design process—as an example, we argue that the danger of reifying gendered assumptions might be inherent in those methods and tools in human-computer interaction research that are supposed to enable and strengthen empathy.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Mapping vulnerability amid mixed migration flows. The reality
           of severe labor exploitation from a human rights perspective

    • Authors: Paola Degani, Paolo De Stefani, Jane Freedman
      PubDate: 2022-11-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Arrival declaration forms. A new gateway for mapping migration to
           Luxembourg

    • Authors: Machteld Venken, Arnaud Sauer
      Abstract: Since the late 19th century, foreigners moving to Luxembourg have been required to declare their residency at the local municipality upon arrival. New digital technologies have made it possible to analyze the wealth of information contained in arrival declaration forms. This article offers a first digital analysis of a selection of these sources for the municipalities of Dudelange and Differdange in the mid-1920s. This was a pivotal period during which migratory flows to the Minett region, one of Europe's most dynamic industrial regions characterized by its iron mines and steelworks, were increasing and diversifying. Using a digital hermeneutic approach, the article evaluates the choices, opportunities and difficulties involved in using these sources within the virtual environment nodegoat. It presents insights gained by visualizing migration paths and settlement patterns: differences in mobility between Italian and German (un)married migrants, the case of the owner of a café and hostel (café-pension) in Dudelange who hosted Italian migrants from his place of birth, and the fact that social networks among family members and friends were also active on the road, with family members waiting for each other in the French transit town of Trieux. We end our article by identifying avenues for further research.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Human and artificial collaboration for medical best practices

    • Authors: Maria-Antonietta Grasso, Remo Pareschi
      PubDate: 2022-11-22T00:00:00Z
       
  • Politico-ideological violence in Lebanon: The narrative embeddedness of
           grievances

    • Authors: Ahmed Ajil
      Abstract: This paper presents the findings from doctoral research conducted between 2018 and 2020 on politico-ideological mobilization and violence in relation to causes and conflicts in the Arab World. It focuses on interviews conducted in Lebanon with individuals engaged in violent action or sympathizing with violent groups. Ideologically, the sample comprised a variety of orientations, including Christian right-wing, Salafi-jihadist and Shia militantism. The socio-economic, ethno-racial and political grievances expressed by interviewees are analyzed in-depth and the importance of collective memories, identities and narratives is elaborated on. It is argued that grievances, in order to be sustained over time and space, need to decomplexify reality by allowing for analysis to escape to the global, the collective and the past. Grievances are narratively embedded in a framework that simplifies reality in order to pinpoint injustices and suggest straightforward actions for remedying them.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • Where are rooted networks in digital political ecologies'

    • Authors: Roberta Hawkins, Ingrid L. Nelson
      Abstract: This perspective piece contends that political-ecological relations are already digital and that feminist analyses help reveal their often-overlooked power relations. We argue that as digital political ecologies research grows in popularity, there is widespread omission and forgetting of key epistemological lessons from feminist political ecologies, such as rooted networks. Here, we remind readers of rooted networks lessons, and we distill them into suggested writing strategies for researchers. Such rooted network writing strategies may seem inefficient and may take up space and time, but as feminist political ecologists concerned with digital relations, we see them as necessary.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Corrigendum: Uncertainties shaping parental educational decisions: The
           case of Syrian refugee children in Turkey

    • Authors: Dilara Karaagac, Basak Bilecen, René Veenstra
      PubDate: 2022-10-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Human journeys in the digital age: Advances and challenges in Digital
           Historical Migration Studies

    • Authors: Paul Longley Arthur, Isabel Smith
      Abstract: Accelerations in migration, mobility, and processes of globalization in recent decades have intersected with parallel developments in information and communications technology (ICT). These advances have had profound influences on historical and cultural research. With reference to a diverse range of international projects, this paper outlines major directions and opportunities in the growing field of Digital Historical Migration Studies (DHMS). The “digital turn” brings opportunities for integrating data on macro and micro scales, and finding new ways to combine and explore tensions between quantitative and qualitative materials, and between external observations of migrants and migration and self-representations by migrants. The plural and fluid nature of digital content also lends itself to multifaceted representations of migration that illustrate the complexities of lived experiences, and individual and collective identities. At the same time, digitalization in historical migration studies underscores the tensions between technological advances and methodological shifts, the need for self-reflexive approaches, the politics and power structures underlying migration data, and the ethical concerns around protecting migrants' data, privacy, and agency.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Transitioning out of illegalization: Cross-border mobility experiences

    • Authors: Liala Consoli, Claudine Burton-Jeangros, Yves Jackson
      Abstract: It is known that opportunities to cross borders legally, acquired through regularization programs, are acknowledged by previously illegalized migrants as one of the main positive effects of obtaining a residence permit. However, the impact of these policies has rarely been investigated through the “mobility lens.” To fulfill this gap, this study aims, through a case study, (1) to assess how obtaining a residence permit after having endured years of illegalization affects migrants' cross-border mobility and (2) to identify the direct and indirect transformative effects triggered by these changes in cross-border mobility. Our analysis considers regularization policies as a transformation of mobility regimes in which individual mobility trajectories are embedded. Thirty-nine migrants transitioning out of illegalization through an extraordinary regularization program implemented between 2017 and 2018 in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, were interviewed twice at a time interval of more than 1.5 years. Changes in actual mobility and perceived potential mobility (“motility”) were identified in the narratives. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify related transformative effects. As a complement, descriptive statistics using two-wave panel data collected among a broader sample of migrants in the same context provided measures of cross-border mobility. Our findings highlight the importance of considering changes related to cross-border mobility when studying the impact of regularization programs on migrants' wellbeing, as they are a crucial ingredient of deeper adjustments occurring in their lives. We emphasize the importance of considering not only the subjective and objective effects triggered by increased actual mobility but also the subjective effects triggered by perceived increased potential mobility. Indeed, becoming aware of the new opportunities to cross borders leads to transforming imagined futures, subjectivities, identities, concerns, and perceived sources of stress, and it affects emotional wellbeing. The findings underline the relevance of a processual approach for two reasons: first, having experienced a long-lasting illegalization and forced immobility continues to affect individuals' experience of cross-border (im)mobility even after regularization; second, the triggered transformative effects take time to develop and observations at different times provide a richer picture.
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T00:00:00Z
       
 
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