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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
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Frontiers in Human Dynamics
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-2726
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Arrival declaration forms. A new gateway for mapping migration to

    • Authors: Machteld Venken, Arnaud Sauer
      Abstract: Since the late 19th century, foreigners moving to Luxembourg have been required to declare their residency at the local municipality upon arrival. New digital technologies have made it possible to analyze the wealth of information contained in arrival declaration forms. This article offers a first digital analysis of a selection of these sources for the municipalities of Dudelange and Differdange in the mid-1920s. This was a pivotal period during which migratory flows to the Minett region, one of Europe's most dynamic industrial regions characterized by its iron mines and steelworks, were increasing and diversifying. Using a digital hermeneutic approach, the article evaluates the choices, opportunities and difficulties involved in using these sources within the virtual environment nodegoat. It presents insights gained by visualizing migration paths and settlement patterns: differences in mobility between Italian and German (un)married migrants, the case of the owner of a café and hostel (café-pension) in Dudelange who hosted Italian migrants from his place of birth, and the fact that social networks among family members and friends were also active on the road, with family members waiting for each other in the French transit town of Trieux. We end our article by identifying avenues for further research.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Human and artificial collaboration for medical best practices

    • Authors: Maria-Antonietta Grasso, Remo Pareschi
      PubDate: 2022-11-22T00:00:00Z
  • Politico-ideological violence in Lebanon: The narrative embeddedness of

    • Authors: Ahmed Ajil
      Abstract: This paper presents the findings from doctoral research conducted between 2018 and 2020 on politico-ideological mobilization and violence in relation to causes and conflicts in the Arab World. It focuses on interviews conducted in Lebanon with individuals engaged in violent action or sympathizing with violent groups. Ideologically, the sample comprised a variety of orientations, including Christian right-wing, Salafi-jihadist and Shia militantism. The socio-economic, ethno-racial and political grievances expressed by interviewees are analyzed in-depth and the importance of collective memories, identities and narratives is elaborated on. It is argued that grievances, in order to be sustained over time and space, need to decomplexify reality by allowing for analysis to escape to the global, the collective and the past. Grievances are narratively embedded in a framework that simplifies reality in order to pinpoint injustices and suggest straightforward actions for remedying them.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T00:00:00Z
  • Where are rooted networks in digital political ecologies'

    • Authors: Roberta Hawkins, Ingrid L. Nelson
      Abstract: This perspective piece contends that political-ecological relations are already digital and that feminist analyses help reveal their often-overlooked power relations. We argue that as digital political ecologies research grows in popularity, there is widespread omission and forgetting of key epistemological lessons from feminist political ecologies, such as rooted networks. Here, we remind readers of rooted networks lessons, and we distill them into suggested writing strategies for researchers. Such rooted network writing strategies may seem inefficient and may take up space and time, but as feminist political ecologists concerned with digital relations, we see them as necessary.
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Corrigendum: Uncertainties shaping parental educational decisions: The
           case of Syrian refugee children in Turkey

    • Authors: Dilara Karaagac, Basak Bilecen, René Veenstra
      PubDate: 2022-10-21T00:00:00Z
  • Human journeys in the digital age: Advances and challenges in Digital
           Historical Migration Studies

    • Authors: Paul Longley Arthur, Isabel Smith
      Abstract: Accelerations in migration, mobility, and processes of globalization in recent decades have intersected with parallel developments in information and communications technology (ICT). These advances have had profound influences on historical and cultural research. With reference to a diverse range of international projects, this paper outlines major directions and opportunities in the growing field of Digital Historical Migration Studies (DHMS). The “digital turn” brings opportunities for integrating data on macro and micro scales, and finding new ways to combine and explore tensions between quantitative and qualitative materials, and between external observations of migrants and migration and self-representations by migrants. The plural and fluid nature of digital content also lends itself to multifaceted representations of migration that illustrate the complexities of lived experiences, and individual and collective identities. At the same time, digitalization in historical migration studies underscores the tensions between technological advances and methodological shifts, the need for self-reflexive approaches, the politics and power structures underlying migration data, and the ethical concerns around protecting migrants' data, privacy, and agency.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T00:00:00Z
  • Transitioning out of illegalization: Cross-border mobility experiences

    • Authors: Liala Consoli, Claudine Burton-Jeangros, Yves Jackson
      Abstract: It is known that opportunities to cross borders legally, acquired through regularization programs, are acknowledged by previously illegalized migrants as one of the main positive effects of obtaining a residence permit. However, the impact of these policies has rarely been investigated through the “mobility lens.” To fulfill this gap, this study aims, through a case study, (1) to assess how obtaining a residence permit after having endured years of illegalization affects migrants' cross-border mobility and (2) to identify the direct and indirect transformative effects triggered by these changes in cross-border mobility. Our analysis considers regularization policies as a transformation of mobility regimes in which individual mobility trajectories are embedded. Thirty-nine migrants transitioning out of illegalization through an extraordinary regularization program implemented between 2017 and 2018 in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, were interviewed twice at a time interval of more than 1.5 years. Changes in actual mobility and perceived potential mobility (“motility”) were identified in the narratives. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify related transformative effects. As a complement, descriptive statistics using two-wave panel data collected among a broader sample of migrants in the same context provided measures of cross-border mobility. Our findings highlight the importance of considering changes related to cross-border mobility when studying the impact of regularization programs on migrants' wellbeing, as they are a crucial ingredient of deeper adjustments occurring in their lives. We emphasize the importance of considering not only the subjective and objective effects triggered by increased actual mobility but also the subjective effects triggered by perceived increased potential mobility. Indeed, becoming aware of the new opportunities to cross borders leads to transforming imagined futures, subjectivities, identities, concerns, and perceived sources of stress, and it affects emotional wellbeing. The findings underline the relevance of a processual approach for two reasons: first, having experienced a long-lasting illegalization and forced immobility continues to affect individuals' experience of cross-border (im)mobility even after regularization; second, the triggered transformative effects take time to develop and observations at different times provide a richer picture.
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T00:00:00Z
  • Transparent, simple and robust fast-and-frugal trees and their

    • Authors: Laura Martignon, Tim Erickson, Riccardo Viale
      Abstract: Today, diagnostic reasoning combines common and specialized knowledge, elements of numeracy, some facility with the basics of probability theory and, last but not least, ease in interactions with AI tools. We present procedures and tools for constructing trees that lead to understandable, transparent, simple, and robust classifications and decisions. These tools are more heuristic than optimal models, inspired by the perspective of Bounded Rationality. We describe how the tenets of Bounded Rationality provide a framework for the human-machine interaction this paper is devoted to. We claim that, because of this rationality, our proposed tools facilitate machine-aided decision making that is smooth, transparent and successful.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10T00:00:00Z
  • Collaboration between traditional and central authorities in chieftaincy
           succession conflicts management in Ghana: Evidence from Bole traditional

    • Authors: Tobias Tseer, Mohammed Sulemana
      Abstract: Chieftaincy succession conflicts are a near-ubiquitous phenomenon in Ghanaian Chiefdoms. While many studies have investigated the causes and implications of such conflicts, the extent to which traditional and central authorities collaborate in the management of chieftaincy succession conflicts in Ghana is largely understudied. This is the gap in the literature that this study attempted to fill. The study was situated within the frameworks of the Collaborative Leadership Theory. The convergent variant of the mixed method approach was adopted for the study where 14 key informants were recruited using expert purposive sampling technique and 99 others recruited for a survey using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The unit of analysis was the Bole chieftaincy succession conflict management team. Data were solicited around the level of representation of traditional and central authorities on the team, the roles assigned to each member, the levels of commitment of each member, and the significance of the roles played by each member at the various stages of conflict management. The analysis of the data revealed that there were some levels of collaboration at the preparatory stage of the mediation process but this was less so at the main stages of the mediation process. The study therefore recommended that the state, through the National Security Council, may liaise with the National House of Chiefs to fashion out better ways of collaborating in conflict management, from the initial stages to the final stages, so as to completely resolve chieftaincy conflicts that are often disruptive and destructive.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T00:00:00Z
  • Migrant visibility: Digitization and heritage policies

    • Authors: Marijke van Faassen, Rik Hoekstra
      Abstract: Digitization and digital methods have had a big impact on migration history and history in general. The dispersed and fragmented nature of migration heritage that involves at least two countries and many cultural heritage institutions make it clear that migration history can be much improved by using digital means to connect collections. This makes it possible to overcome the biases that policy have introduced in private and public collections alike by selection and perspective. Digital methods are not immune to these biases and may even introduce new distortions because they often change heritage contextualizations. In this article, Van Faassen and Hoekstra argue that therefore they should be embedded in source criticism methodology. They use the example of post-world War II Dutch-Australian emigration to show how a migrant registration system can be used as a structural device to connect migrant heritage. They use methods from computer vision to assess the information distribution of the registration system. Together, connecting collections and information assessments give an encompassing view of the migrant visibility and invisibility in the heritage collections and perspectives for scholars to become aware of heritage biases.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31T00:00:00Z
  • Nonprofit post-merger identification: Network size, relational
           heterogeneity, and perceived integration effectiveness

    • Authors: Bin Chen, James Krauskopf
      Abstract: This paper incorporates insights from organizational identity and identification, social network research and post-merger integration to explore factors influencing employees' identification with a merged nonprofit organization. We propose that nonprofit employees' identification with the merged nonprofit organization is associated with their network size, relational heterogeneity, and perceived effectiveness of integration processes. Empirical results suggest that employees with larger mentoring and socioemotional support networks exhibit strong post-merger identification. Relational heterogeneity within the workflow network has an inverted U-shape relationship with post-merger identification. Employees' perceived effectiveness of integration processes significantly influences their sense of identity with the new organization. Implications for better managing post-merger identification are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31T00:00:00Z
  • Challenges and dilemmas of social cohesion between the Rohingya and host
           communities in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Bulbul Siddiqi
      Abstract: Social Cohesion is an important issue for refugees and their host communities. Much attention on social cohesion in the literature has been focused on situations in the Middle East. This paper will bring attention to the Rohingya crisis in Bangladesh. With the influx of nearly one million Rohingya into Bangladesh in 2017, social cohesion between the Rohingya and their host communities has become more complex than ever. Although ensuring social cohesion is very important for Bangladesh, it has not been easy to implement under the present legislative framework of refugee management in Bangladesh. The sympathetic attitude of the host community toward the Rohingya has significantly declined during the past 4 years. In this context, qualitative research was undertaken to understand the challenges and dilemmas of social cohesion from both the host and Rohingya perspectives. Based on 50 key informant interviews, observations, and several informal group discussions, this paper argues that a negative perception among the neighboring host communities toward the Rohingya has increased, contributing to social tension. A pragmatic and sustainable approach has to be taken to ensure a cohesive and peaceful coexistence of the host communities and the Rohingya until dignified repatriation of the Rohingya is possible.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31T00:00:00Z
  • Uncertainties shaping parental educational decisions: The case of Syrian
           refugee children in Turkey

    • Authors: Dilara Karaagac, Basak Bilecen, René Veenstra
      Abstract: Around a million school-aged minors from Syria have been living in Turkey with temporary protection status over an unanticipated extended period. This prolonged temporariness leads to uncertainties and unpredictabilities for Syrian families regarding how long they will be staying in Turkey. Drawing on 17 interviews with Syrian mothers and 3 couples, this study examined the ways in which uncertainties shaped parental decisions on minors' education. The findings indicated that uncertainties played a key role in shaping the educational decisions of Syrian parents, particularly in their children's Turkish language acquisition and educational performance. This study not only fills the gap in understanding the effects of uncertainties in parental educational decisions emanated from a prolonged temporariness, but also argues that living in an uncertain context causes hurdles in language acquisition which has major educational and social consequences for children.
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluating the implementation quality of a vocational education
           intervention for youth in Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya: Evidence of

    • Authors: David K. Kunyu, Lázaro Moreno Herrera, Linda P. Juang
      Abstract: Refugee youth in protracted humanitarian contexts are faced with limited access to quality education. They may sustain traumatic experiences from conflicts and discrimination yet have limited psychosocial support access. Comprehending the magnitude and effects of these challenges is vital for designing and executing educational interventions in such contexts. This study evaluates the implementation quality of the Youth Education Pack intervention through the lens of the Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies minimum standards framework. It explores the types of discrimination experienced by refugee youth in the Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya. Nine participants comprising refugee students (N = 2), former refugee students (N = 2), teachers (N = 3), and project supervisors (N = 2) participated in the study. The first author conducted interviews and observations in the camp. The data were qualitatively coded deductively and analysed in Nvivo 12. We found that the YEP intervention faced contextual challenges that hindered the achievement of the implementation quality standards outlined in the INEE minimum standards for education. Refugee youth and refugee teachers experienced various forms of discrimination, including at individual, institutional, and structural levels. We conclude that providing refugee youth with an inclusive and high-quality education is central to providing secure and long-term solutions to their challenges and adversities and may promote their psychosocial wellbeing.
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T00:00:00Z
  • Safety and Security Issues, Gender-Based Violence and Militarization in
           the Time of Armed Conflict: The Experiences of Internally Displaced People
           From Marawi City

    • Authors: Diana Therese M. Veloso
      Abstract: This study delves into the experiences of armed conflict and displacement among civilians, who evacuated from the Islamic City of Marawi to nearby cities and municipalities in Northern Mindanao, as well as other parts of the Philippines, to escape the clashes between ISIS-affiliated extremists and security forces in 2017. Drawing upon in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with survivors of armed conflict and duty-bearers, such as government employees, staff of non-government organizations (NGOs), doctors, faculty members and administrators of educational institutions, and volunteers who aided in relief efforts, this research identifies the safety and security issues and vulnerabilities confronting internally displaced people (IDPs) from Marawi City, who are predominantly racial, ethnic, and religious minorities. This study investigates the trends in and risks for gender-based violence among women and girls and men and boys in conflict zones and the challenges in the promotion of their safety and well-being. This paper examines the dynamics of gender-based violence and the respondents’ experiences of private, community-based, and state-sponsored violence in conflict zones and the risk of further violence upon their return to Marawi City. This research also examines the experiences of militarization among IDPs and their views of Martial Law, which was declared in Mindanao on the first day of the Marawi Siege in May 2017. This study illuminates the nuances in the experiences of IDPs living in traditional evacuation centers and alternative home-based evacuation arrangements, their service needs, and the support systems and interventions available to them. The researcher highlights the links between racial, ethnic, gender, and social class inequality in the Philippines and the vulnerability of IDPs, given their dismal living conditions and the absence of normalization in their lives due to the prolonged siege. This paper highlights the intersections between private and public violence, the human rights issues confronting IDPs from Marawi City, and the local and international responses to their situation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Women's Empowerment, Migration, and Health

    • Authors: Enrico Ripamonti, Livia Ortensi, Patrizia Farina
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • What Level of Migration Is Required to Achieve Zero Population Growth in
           the Shortest Possible Time' Asian Examples

    • Authors: Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi
      Abstract: Sustained below replacement fertility leads to declining population size. Several countries in Asia have experienced below replacement fertility for many years. The paper applies a novel approach to examining the viability of using immigration to achieve zero population growth in six Asian countries: China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Thailand, Singapore and Australia. The novel approach is to estimate the level of immigration that would be required to maintain a constant annual number of births in the long term. Maintaining the number of births at the current level is the fastest way to achieve eventual zero population growth. A population with a constant annual number of births, labeled as a quasi-stationary population, also has a near-to constant age structure that is not excessively old. The study concludes that, for all countries except Australia, no reasonable level of immigration could produce a quasi-stationary population if fertility remains at the country's 2020 level. The constraining factors are the current population size and level of fertility and the extent to which there is acceptance of permanent immigrants in the country. If fertility were to increase over 15–20 years to 1.7 births per woman and the country was accepting of relatively large numbers of permanent immigrants, the quasi-stable outcome becomes potentially viable for all countries except China.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
  • Building Human Systems of Trust in an Accelerating Digital and AI-Driven

    • Authors: Yoshija Walter
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T00:00:00Z
  • Assessment of Water-Migration-Gender Interconnections in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Lisa Färber, Nidhi Nagabhatla, Ilse Ruyssen
      Abstract: In recent years, water stress has affected Ethiopian people and communities through shrinking water availability/quantity, poor quality and/or inadequate service provision. Water stress is further exacerbated by the impact of extreme events such as droughts and floods. For people exposed to water crises–whether slow-onset water stress or extreme water-related scenarios-migration often emerges as an adaptation strategy. Yet, knowledge on the interlinkages between water stress and migration pathways remains limited and particularly blind on the gender aspects. This paper contributes to the emerging literature on the nexus between water stress, migration, and gender in settings where large numbers of people and population live in vulnerable conditions and are regularly exposed to water stress. Our analysis in Ethiopia adopts the three-dimensional water-migration framework outlined by the United Nations University in 2020 comprising water quantity, water quality, water extremes. In addition, it has been customized to include a fourth dimension, i.e., water governance. Adapting this framework allowed for an enhanced understanding of the complex interactions between water-related causalities and migration decision making faced by communities and populations, and the gendered differences operating within these settings. We adopted a qualitative research approach to investigate the influence of water stress-related dynamics on migration and gender disparities in Ethiopia with a specific focus on opportunities for migration as an adaptation strategy to deal with water stress. Moreover, our approach highlights how gender groups in the state, especially women and girls, are facilitated or left behind in this pathway. Based on the examination of available information and stakeholders' interactions, we noted that when having the chance to migrate to a more progressive region, women and girls can benefit from other opportunities and options for education and emancipation. While existing policy responses for water governance focus on durable solutions, including the creation of sustainable livelihoods, as well as the improvement of (access to) water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities and water infrastructure, they remained restricted on socioeconomic dimensions. Gendered aspects seem to be gaining attention but must be further strengthened in national and regional water management plans and public policies. This agenda would involve representation and consultation with different actors such as civil society and international (aid) organizations to support gender-sensitive investment for water management and for managing the spillover impacts of water crisis, including voluntary migration, and forced displacement. Taking note of selected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly SDG 5 (gender equality), SDG 6 (clean water and sanitation), SDG 10 (reduced inequality), SDG 13 (climate action and peace) and SDG 16 (peace, justice, and strong institutions), we have outlined recommendations and strategies while discussing the multiple narratives applying to the water-gender-migration nexus. The key points include a focus on long-term sustainable solutions, boosting stakeholder participation in decision making processes, facilitating cooperation at all political levels, and creating inclusive, gender-sensitive and integrated water frameworks comprising support for regulated migration pathways as an adaptation strategy to water and climate crises.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T00:00:00Z
  • Estimating Future Migration Flows Under Social and Environmental Scenarios
           Taking Into Account Interactions: Insights From a Survey Among Migration

    • Authors: Michaël Boissonneault, Petra Wieke de Jong
      Abstract: Scenario planning has been gaining popularity during the last decade as a tool for exploring how international migration flows might be affected by changing future circumstances. Using this technique, scholars have developed narratives that describe how flows might change depending on different developments in two of their most impactful and uncertain drivers. Current applications of scenario planning to migration however suffer from limitations that reduce the insights that can be derived from them. In this article, we first highlight these limitations by reviewing existing applications of scenario planning to migration. Then, we propose a new approach that consists in specifying different pathways of change in a set of six predefined drivers, to then ask migration scholars how each of these pathways might impact both migration flows and the other five drivers. We apply our approach to the case of migration pressure and demand from less developed countries to Europe until the year 2050. Results from our survey underscore the importance of a wide array of drivers for the future of migration that have so far not been considered in previous applications of scenario planning. They further suggest that drivers do not change independently from each other, but that specific changes in some drivers are likely to go hand in hand with changes in other drivers. Lastly, we find that changes in similar drivers could have different effects in sending and receiving countries. We finish by discussing how enhanced, quantified scenarios of migration between less developed countries and Europe can be formulated based on our results.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T00:00:00Z
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