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Frontiers in Human Dynamics
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-2726
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Editorial: Women's Empowerment, Migration, and Health

    • Authors: Enrico Ripamonti, Livia Ortensi, Patrizia Farina
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • What Level of Migration Is Required to Achieve Zero Population Growth in
           the Shortest Possible Time' Asian Examples

    • Authors: Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi
      Abstract: Sustained below replacement fertility leads to declining population size. Several countries in Asia have experienced below replacement fertility for many years. The paper applies a novel approach to examining the viability of using immigration to achieve zero population growth in six Asian countries: China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Thailand, Singapore and Australia. The novel approach is to estimate the level of immigration that would be required to maintain a constant annual number of births in the long term. Maintaining the number of births at the current level is the fastest way to achieve eventual zero population growth. A population with a constant annual number of births, labeled as a quasi-stationary population, also has a near-to constant age structure that is not excessively old. The study concludes that, for all countries except Australia, no reasonable level of immigration could produce a quasi-stationary population if fertility remains at the country's 2020 level. The constraining factors are the current population size and level of fertility and the extent to which there is acceptance of permanent immigrants in the country. If fertility were to increase over 15–20 years to 1.7 births per woman and the country was accepting of relatively large numbers of permanent immigrants, the quasi-stable outcome becomes potentially viable for all countries except China.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • Building Human Systems of Trust in an Accelerating Digital and AI-Driven
           World

    • Authors: Yoshija Walter
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Assessment of Water-Migration-Gender Interconnections in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Lisa Färber, Nidhi Nagabhatla, Ilse Ruyssen
      Abstract: In recent years, water stress has affected Ethiopian people and communities through shrinking water availability/quantity, poor quality and/or inadequate service provision. Water stress is further exacerbated by the impact of extreme events such as droughts and floods. For people exposed to water crises–whether slow-onset water stress or extreme water-related scenarios-migration often emerges as an adaptation strategy. Yet, knowledge on the interlinkages between water stress and migration pathways remains limited and particularly blind on the gender aspects. This paper contributes to the emerging literature on the nexus between water stress, migration, and gender in settings where large numbers of people and population live in vulnerable conditions and are regularly exposed to water stress. Our analysis in Ethiopia adopts the three-dimensional water-migration framework outlined by the United Nations University in 2020 comprising water quantity, water quality, water extremes. In addition, it has been customized to include a fourth dimension, i.e., water governance. Adapting this framework allowed for an enhanced understanding of the complex interactions between water-related causalities and migration decision making faced by communities and populations, and the gendered differences operating within these settings. We adopted a qualitative research approach to investigate the influence of water stress-related dynamics on migration and gender disparities in Ethiopia with a specific focus on opportunities for migration as an adaptation strategy to deal with water stress. Moreover, our approach highlights how gender groups in the state, especially women and girls, are facilitated or left behind in this pathway. Based on the examination of available information and stakeholders' interactions, we noted that when having the chance to migrate to a more progressive region, women and girls can benefit from other opportunities and options for education and emancipation. While existing policy responses for water governance focus on durable solutions, including the creation of sustainable livelihoods, as well as the improvement of (access to) water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities and water infrastructure, they remained restricted on socioeconomic dimensions. Gendered aspects seem to be gaining attention but must be further strengthened in national and regional water management plans and public policies. This agenda would involve representation and consultation with different actors such as civil society and international (aid) organizations to support gender-sensitive investment for water management and for managing the spillover impacts of water crisis, including voluntary migration, and forced displacement. Taking note of selected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly SDG 5 (gender equality), SDG 6 (clean water and sanitation), SDG 10 (reduced inequality), SDG 13 (climate action and peace) and SDG 16 (peace, justice, and strong institutions), we have outlined recommendations and strategies while discussing the multiple narratives applying to the water-gender-migration nexus. The key points include a focus on long-term sustainable solutions, boosting stakeholder participation in decision making processes, facilitating cooperation at all political levels, and creating inclusive, gender-sensitive and integrated water frameworks comprising support for regulated migration pathways as an adaptation strategy to water and climate crises.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Estimating Future Migration Flows Under Social and Environmental Scenarios
           Taking Into Account Interactions: Insights From a Survey Among Migration
           Scholars

    • Authors: Michaël Boissonneault, Petra Wieke de Jong
      Abstract: Scenario planning has been gaining popularity during the last decade as a tool for exploring how international migration flows might be affected by changing future circumstances. Using this technique, scholars have developed narratives that describe how flows might change depending on different developments in two of their most impactful and uncertain drivers. Current applications of scenario planning to migration however suffer from limitations that reduce the insights that can be derived from them. In this article, we first highlight these limitations by reviewing existing applications of scenario planning to migration. Then, we propose a new approach that consists in specifying different pathways of change in a set of six predefined drivers, to then ask migration scholars how each of these pathways might impact both migration flows and the other five drivers. We apply our approach to the case of migration pressure and demand from less developed countries to Europe until the year 2050. Results from our survey underscore the importance of a wide array of drivers for the future of migration that have so far not been considered in previous applications of scenario planning. They further suggest that drivers do not change independently from each other, but that specific changes in some drivers are likely to go hand in hand with changes in other drivers. Lastly, we find that changes in similar drivers could have different effects in sending and receiving countries. We finish by discussing how enhanced, quantified scenarios of migration between less developed countries and Europe can be formulated based on our results.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Genital Cutting as Gender Oppression: Time to Revisit the WHO Paradigm

    • Authors: Brian D. Earp
      Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) condemns all medically unnecessary female genital cutting (FGC) that is primarily associated with people of color and the Global South, claiming that such FGC violates the human right to bodily integrity regardless of harm-level, degree of medicalization, or consent. However, the WHO does not condemn medically unnecessary FGC that is primarily associated with Western culture, such as elective labiaplasty or genital piercing, even when performed by non-medical practitioners (e.g., body artists) or on adolescent girls. Nor does it campaign against any form of medically unnecessary intersex genital cutting (IGC) or male genital cutting (MGC), including forms that are non-consensual or comparably harmful to some types of FGC. These and other apparent inconsistencies risk undermining the perceived authority of the WHO to pronounce on human rights. This paper considers whether the WHO could justify its selective condemnation of non-Western-associated FGC by appealing to the distinctive role of such practices in upholding patriarchal gender systems and furthering sex-based discrimination against women and girls. The paper argues that such a justification would not succeed. To the contrary, dismantling patriarchal power structures and reducing sex-based discrimination in FGC-practicing societies requires principled opposition to medically unnecessary, non-consensual genital cutting of all vulnerable persons, including insufficiently autonomous children, irrespective of their sex traits or socially assigned gender. This conclusion is based, in part, on an assessment of the overlapping and often mutually reinforcing roles of different types of child genital cutting—FGC, MGC, and IGC—in reproducing oppressive gender systems. These systems, in turn, tend to subordinate women and girls as well as non-dominant males and sexual and gender minorities. The selective efforts of the WHO to eliminate only non-Western-associated FGC exposes the organization to credible accusations of racism and cultural imperialism and paradoxically undermines its own stated goals: namely, securing the long-term interests and equal rights of women and girls in FGC-practicing societies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Managing Forced Displacement: Refugee Resettlement and
           Complementary Pathways

    • Authors: Adèle Garnier, Naoko Hashimoto
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Sexuality, Gender and Asylum: Refugees at a Crossroads

    • Authors: Nina Held, Christel Querton, Moira Dustin, Carmelo Danisi, Nuno Ferreira
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • How Should Public Administrations Foster the Ethical Development and Use
           of Artificial Intelligence' A Review of Proposals for Developing
           Governance of AI

    • Authors: Anton Sigfrids, Mika Nieminen, Jaana Leikas, Pietari Pikkuaho
      Abstract: Recent advances in AI raise questions about its social impacts and implementation. In response, governments and public administrations seek to develop adequate governance frameworks to mitigate risks and maximize the potential of AI development and use. Such work largely deals with questions of how challenges and risks should be managed, which values and goals should be pursued, and through which institutional mechanisms and principles these goals could be achieved. In this paper, we conduct a systematic review of the existing literature on the development of AI governance for public administration. The article describes principles and means by which public administrations could guide and steer AI developers and users in adopting ethical and responsible practices. The reviewed literature indicates a need for public administrations to move away from top-down hierarchical governance principles and adopt forms of inclusive policy-making to ensure the actionability of ethical and responsibility principles in the successful governance of AI development and use. By combining the results, we propose a CIIA (Comprehensive, Inclusive, Institutionalized, and Actionable) framework that integrates the key aspects of the proposed development solutions into an ideal typical and comprehensive model for AI governance.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
       
  • Domestic/Care Work and Severe Exploitation. The Limits of Italian Migrant
           Regularization Schemes

    • Authors: Paola Degani
      Abstract: In Western Europe, migrant women are very often employed in the area of domestic/care work. In Italy, their presence in this sector is very important, making them particularly susceptible to abuse and exploitation. Domestic/care workers are a gendered segment of labor migration still strongly divided along a gender binary through the sexual division of roles and labor, directly associated with the sphere of the welfare state. Migrant women in the caregiving and domestic sector are one of the least protected work groups under international and national labor legislation. For a long time, waged domestic work has not been regarded as “actual” work, as it revolves around natural tasks that women perform in the household. In Italy, the domestic work sector has recently responded to a law-decree to regulate the presence of migrant workers in areas where there is an important presence of severe exploitation. The Italian government, in May 2020, to relaunch a post-pandemic economy released a Decree titled “Emergence of employment relationships” to counteract undeclared migrant work. From the data published by the Ministry of the Interior, 85% of the total number of applications submitted involved domestic and care workers, while the remaining 15% regarded subordinate work, especially in agriculture. Evidence of widespread irregularity of foreign women employed in this sector emerged only in part. Currently, unprecedented attention as well as institutional interest have been given to severe exploitation in the labor market rather than to forced prostitution or other forms of heavy servitude to the detriment of foreigners (i.e., begging, forced criminal activities). Identification and assistance to migrants involved in severe labor exploitation however include an “extraordinary” number of young male adults which are receiving unprecedented attention. The article analyzes the effects of recent regularization of the domestic/care work and the outcome on migrant women during the critical COVID-19 pandemic period produced by this policy from a women's human rights perspective and on the ongoing debate on their protection from severe exploitation regime also in relation to the discourse on trafficking. In Italy the debate is of particularly interest even if it remains largely under-researched.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
       
  • Identifying Potential Clusters of Future Migration Associated With Water
           Stress in Africa: A Vulnerability Approach

    • Authors: Sophie Pieternel de Bruin, Joost Knoop, Hans Visser, Hester Biemans
      Abstract: Decreasing yields due to water stress form a threat to rural livelihoods and can affect migration dynamics, especially in vulnerable regions that lack the capacity to adapt agriculture to water stress. But since migration is complex, non-linear and context-dependent, it is not feasible to predict the precise number of people that will migrate due to water stress. It is possible to map the different conditions that shape regional vulnerabilities and the number of people affected. This study presents a vulnerability approach to identify areas on the African continent where emigration associated with water stress is expected to be relatively high by 2050 under a middle-of-the-road scenario (SSP2) and compares the results with the 2010 situation. By utilizing among other indicators the water yield gap, the impact of water stress on rainfed agricultural crop yields is included, reflecting the impact of water stress on rural livelihoods depending on crop farming. The analysis was done on a water-province level, 393 in total. Clusters of potential emigration associated with the impacts of water stress on agriculture are projected for parts of the Sahel, the Horn of Africa and regions of Angola. The regions where migration associated with water stress is expected to be relatively high by 2050 are approximately the same as those of 2010, although more people are projected to be living in these water-stressed regions. By developing this vulnerability approach, this manuscript enlarges the current insights regarding future clusters of water stress-related migration.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • Child Labor Among Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    • Authors: Irina Fehr, Conny Rijken
      Abstract: Nearly 4 million Syrian refugees, including more than 1.8 million Syrian children, fled to Turkey during the Syrian war, where they face many challenges to rebuild their lives. They are confronted with restrictions on their residence status and access to the labor market, limiting their formal employment opportunities. Poverty and labor exploitation are widespread consequences, and to make ends meet, children are driven into the workforce. In Turkey, child labor among Turkish nationals is also widespread as follows from the Turkish national child labor survey from 2019, creating a fertile ground for Syrian children to take up work. Although child labor among the Syrian refugee population is gaining increasing attention among scholars and humanitarian actors, knowledge about its extent or characteristics remains limited. Drawing on a survey conducted in late 2020, this paper contributes to a deeper and more numerically based understanding of the current situation of Syrian minor workers in Turkey. The quantitative results of our research are compared with the Turkish national child labor survey, highlighting the differences and commonalities between Syrian and Turkish children working in the country and looking into the impact of the lack of permanent residency on the prevalence of child labor. Our findings suggest that Syrian children enter the labor force at a younger age and have less access to education while working very long hours and earning low wages. The study thus demonstrates the specific vulnerabilities of Syrian children to labor exploitation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • Exploring the Love Triangle of Authoritarianism, Populism, and COVID-19
           Through Political Ecology: Time for a Break-Up'

    • Authors: Noémi Gonda, José Pablo Prado Córdova, Frédéric Huybrechs, Gert T. Van Hecken
      Abstract: Authoritarian and populist regimes have used the coronavirus pandemic as another excuse to further push back on democracy. Through the lens of boundary-making, we discuss power processes in pandemic politics of three countries whose governments and power constellations rely on authoritarian and/or populist politics (Hungary, Nicaragua, and Guatemala). Our aim is to envision the conceptual and practical possibilities for breaking up the unhealthy love relationship amid pandemic politics, authoritarianism, and populism, and for ultimately dismantling all three. On the basis of secondary data, personal communications, and our lived experiences, we analyze pandemic politics in authoritarian and populist contexts, exploring their ambiguous and co-constitutive effects through three apparent contradictions. First, we discuss control, or the ways in which the framing of the pandemic by authoritarian and populist regimes as an emergency, a quasi-war situation, or an excuse for political opportunism entails an attempt to justify command-and-control policies upon public behavior, intimate daily life, and subject classification. However, these control measures also bring about contestation through self-quarantine calls, accountability-driven demands of epidemiological data, and/or counter-narratives. Second, we engage with the contradiction of knowledge, by pointing out how authoritarian knowledge politics regarding the pandemic are based on over-centralized decision-making processes, manipulation of epidemiological data, and the silencing of unauthorized voices. Simultaneously, these measures are challenged and resisted by counter-knowledge alternatives on pandemic data and the struggles for subaltern forms of knowledge that could make relevant contributions to public health. Third, we discuss the contradiction of subjectivation processes. Authoritarian regimes make extraordinary efforts to draw a line between those bodies and subjects that deserve state protection and those that do not. In this situation, multiple forms of exclusion intersect and are reinforced based on ethnic, political, national, and gender differences. The manipulation of emotions is crucial in these divisions, often creating “worthy” and “unworthy” subjects. This highlights interconnectedness among vulnerabilities and emphasizes how care and solidarity are important elements in defying authoritarian populism. Finally, we conclude by proposing strategies that would allow political ecology to support prospects of emancipation for social justice, desperately needed in a pandemic-prone foreseeable future.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T00:00:00Z
       
  • Understanding Severe Exploitation Requires a Human Rights and
           Gender-Sensitive Intersectional Approach

    • Authors: Maria Grazia Giammarinaro
      Abstract: This paper discusses the notion of severe exploitation in relation to production and social reproduction, and argues that the existence of huge “edge populations” subject to severe exploitation, mainly involving migrants, is a structural component of global economies, and thus requires primarily not a criminal law but rather a human rights and social justice response. “Edge populations” are targeted for severe exploitation because of intersectional vulnerabilities. A gender perspective implies an analysis of how intersectional factors impact differently women's, men's and LGBTIQ+ lives; this study is however mostly based on women's experiences of severe exploitation and related vulnerabilities. Three sectors prone to severe exploitation have been analyzed, in which weak regulations, and deprivation of rights expose migrants, especially migrants in irregular situations including migrant women, to various forms of severe exploitation. Through an analysis of domestic work, agriculture and the sex industry, this paper highlights that, although in different degrees, a combination of vulnerability and agency, of coercion and negotiation, exists in most cases of severe exploitation. The study suggests that a notion of “gender intersectional exploitation” should be further explored.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Distribution of Forward-Looking Responsibility in the EU Process on AI
           Regulation

    • Authors: Maria Hedlund
      Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) is beneficial in many respects, but also has harmful effects that constitute risks for individuals and society. Dealing with AI risks is a future-oriented endeavor that needs to be approached in a forward-looking way. Forward-looking responsibility is about who should do what to remedy or prevent harm. With the ongoing EU policy process on AI development as a point of departure, the purpose of this article is to discuss distribution of forward-looking responsibility for AI development with respect to what the obligations entail in terms of burdens or assets for the responsible agents and for the development of AI. The analysis builds on the documents produced in the course of the EU process, with a particular focus on the early role of the European Parliament, the work of the High-Level Expert Group on AI, and the Commission's proposal for a regulation of AI, and problematises effects of forward-looking responsibility for the agents who are attributed forward-looking responsibility and for the development of AI. Three issues were studied: ethics by design, Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), and competition. Overall, the analysis of the EU policy process on AI shows that competition is the primary value, and that the perspective is technical and focused on short-term concerns. As for ethics by design, the question of which values should be built into the technology and how this should be settled remained an issue after the distribution of responsibility to designers and other technical experts. AGI never really was an issue in this policy process, and it was gradually phased out. Competition within the EU process on AI is a norm that frames how responsibility is approached, and gives rise to potential value conflicts.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Legal Aliens: Experiencing Civic Marginalisation in Entrepreneurship in
           South Africa

    • Authors: Shingirai Nyakabawu
      Abstract: This study focuses on the challenges faced by Zimbabwean migrant entrepreneurs in South Africa involved in agro-processing, transport, logistics, information technology, transport, education, accounting, and remittances among others. These challenges stem from the limits that temporary residence permits. These include delays in the adjudication of residence permits renewals which threaten the viability of migrant-owned businesses, access to finance, conditions of the temporary protected statuses of Zimbabwean permits xenophobia, and their experience with affirmative action laws. Based on data gathered through interviews in Cape Town, this study concludes that migrant entrepreneurs remain in positions of vulnerability and contribute disproportionately to the economy of South Africa because of the limitation of residence visas.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Invisible Burdens of Burden-Sharing

    • Authors: Marnie Jane Thomson
      Abstract: In the global humanitarian realm, there is much discussion and concern for the burdens that states endure when it comes to refugee populations. The word “burden” appears in the Preamble of the 1951 Refugee Convention in reference to placing “unduly heavy burdens” on specific host countries and compels the international community to intervene in such situations. While there have been attempts to change the language from burden-sharing to responsibility-sharing, the emphasis on states assuming the “burden” of hosting and providing for refugee populations continues. Even as the 2018 Global Compact for Refugees has brought refugees into the discussions of an international response to refugee situations, the language and concerns about burden-sharing remain relatively unchanged. This is clearly demonstrated by the first ever Global Refugee Forum, which was held in December 2019, through its central theme of burden- and responsibility-sharing. In the forum, refugees advocated for their continued and increased inclusion, but while state delegations and humanitarian organizations acknowledged this as a benefit for all, their statements continued to assert their own concerns about their positions as the donor and host countries. This continued privileging of the state, even amidst the added language and practices of inclusion of all humanitarian actors, still renders invisible the burdens that refugees bear, many of which are exacerbated by the language and logic of burden-sharing applied to states. A prime example of this is Trump's anti-immigration policies and rhetoric, which demonstrate how state attempts to lighten their burden have far-reaching effects, including long-lasting everyday burdens for those who have already been resettled. Long-term ethnographic research in refugee camps and with resettled refugees provides empirical evidence to engage in the critical policy analysis and discourse analysis of burden-sharing in this piece.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Digital Media and Social Connection in the Lives of Children,
           Adolescents and Families

    • Authors: Yalda T. Uhls, Kaveri Subrahmanyam, Amanda Third
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • Conceptualizing “Vulnerability” in the European Legal Space: Mixed
           Migration Flows and Human Trafficking as a Test

    • Authors: Paolo De Stefani
      Abstract: The article discusses the role of “vulnerability” in the legal and political discourse of today's Europe as a dual-mode dispositive. On the one hand, “vulnerability” allows the legal formalism to incorporate the precarious subjects that the traditional language of “rights” risks to exclude. Compared with the human rights language, “vulnerability” better articulates the relationship between legal categories and rapidly changing social and ecological landscapes. The “vulnerability language” captures intersectionality. On the other hand, however, through examples taken from the EU normative production on irregular and mixed migrations, with a focus on refugee “screening” and reception and on managing identification and referral procedures of persons victims of human trafficking, this article shows that the assignment of an individual to a “vulnerable group” has the effect not only of expanding and intensifying their protection under normative human rights regimes, but also of accentuating some risks already inherent in human rights discourse, namely paternalism and essentialism. Paradoxically, a possible outcome can be fragmentation of rights protection frameworks, and exclusion. Vulnerable migrants may have to face additional challenges stemming from their inability (coupled with objective difficulty) to decodify communications and instructions concerning their status. Divergent ways of conceiving vulnerability, depending on subjective assessments, public policy standards, the legal framework, and the political agenda on welfare, contribute to neutralizing the potentially emancipatory impact of the vulnerability language.
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • Do Refugee Camps Offer a Refuge From Conflict' A Spatially Explicit
           Analysis of Conflict Incidence at 1,543 Refugee Camps Across Africa
           (1997–2020)

    • Authors: Frieda Fein, Jamon Van Den Hoek
      Abstract: By the end of 2020, 20.7 million refugees worldwide were under the protection of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Despite the intended role of refugee camps as sanctuaries for people fleeing conflict and persecution, recent empirical research has shown that many refugees continue to experience conflict even after settling in camps. Measuring refugee exposure to conflict, especially recurrent conflict, is important for the design and evaluation of refugee settlement and asylum policies, refugee-host relationships, as well as refugee security and protection. However, existing research is either nationally aggregated or highly localized at a small number of refugee camps and does not consider changes in conflict incidence following refugee arrivals, leaving uncertainty around near-camp conflict dynamics across refugee hosting countries. To address these gaps, we measured conflict event proximity, frequency, and trends around refugee and non-refugee settlements in all refugee-hosting countries in Africa over a 24-year period (1997–2020). We used georeferenced data on 1,543 refugee camps from UNHCR and conflict event data from the Armed Conflict Location Event Database (ACLED), and compared localized conflict incidence at refugee camps to 4,003 non-refugee settlements from the Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). Our results show that 52% of all refugee camps and 94% of urban refugee camps were within 10 km of at least one armed conflict event after camp establishment. Conversely, only 82% of urban settlements without refugee camps were within 10 km of a conflict event, suggesting that urban refugee camps are subject to nearby conflict at a disproportionately higher rate compared to both rural refugee camps and non-refugee settlements. We also find that conflict events moved an average of 11.2 km closer to refugee camps after camp establishment, indicating a general encroachment of conflict upon camps. Such persistent and widespread conflict challenges the security of camps and the protections afforded to refugees, and merits increased attention from host countries and humanitarian actors.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T00:00:00Z
       
 
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