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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
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European Sociological Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.728
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 55  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0266-7215 - ISSN (Online) 1468-2672
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [423 journals]
  • Everyday Discrimination in Public Spaces: A Field Experiment in the Milan
           Metro

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      Pages: 679 - 693
      Abstract: AbstractA large scholarship documents discrimination against immigrants and ethnic minorities in institutional settings such as labour and housing markets in Europe. We know less, however, about discrimination in informal and unstructured everyday encounters. To address this gap, we report results from a large-scale field experiment examining the physical avoidance of immigrants as an unobtrusive yet important measure of everyday discrimination in a multiethnic European metropolis. In addition to varying confederates’ migration background and race, we also vary signals of status (business versus casual attire) in order to shed light on the mechanisms underlying discriminatory patterns. We find that natives are averse to contact with Nigerian confederates, but do not discriminate against Chinese confederates. Furthermore, manipulating confederates’ attire has little effect on natives’ behaviour. Overall, our results highlight the everyday burdens borne particularly by individuals of African descent in commonplace, ‘street-level’ encounters.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac008
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • What Drives Anti-Immigrant Sentiments Online' A Novel Approach Using
           Twitter

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      Pages: 694 - 706
      Abstract: AbstractMost studies use survey data to study people’s prejudiced views. In a digitally connected world, research is needed on out-group sentiments expressed online. In this study, we show how one can elaborate on existing sociological theories (i.e. group threat theory, contact theory) to test whether anti-immigrant sentiments expressed on Twitter are related to sociological conditions. We introduce and illustrate a new method of collecting data on online sentiments, creating a panel of 28,000 Twitter users in 39 regions in the United Kingdom. We apply automated text analysis to quantify anti-immigrant sentiments of 500,000 tweets over a 1-year period. In line with group threat theory, we find that people tweet more negatively about immigrants in periods following more salient coverage of immigration in the news. We find this association both for national news coverage, and for the salience of immigration in the personalized set of outlets people follow on Twitter. In support of contact theory, we find evidence to suggest that Twitter users living in areas with more non-western immigrants, and those who follow a more ethnically diverse group of people, tweet less negatively about immigrants.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac006
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • The Role of Parents’ Native and Migrant Contacts on the Labour Market in
           the School-to-Work Transition of Adolescents in Germany

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      Pages: 707 - 724
      Abstract: AbstractThis study investigates how parents’ native and migrant contacts in the German labour market affect the likelihood of children obtaining a company-based apprenticeship [dual vocational education and training (VET)] after lower secondary education. Furthermore, it assesses the extent to which characteristics of parents’ social networks explain ethnic inequalities in this school-to-work transition. Using longitudinal data from Starting Cohort 4 (ninth-graders) of the National Educational Panel Study, we show that the number of migrant contacts in parents’ networks does not affect the outcome of adolescents’ apprenticeship search. This applies to both migrant and native adolescents. However, if parents have many native contacts, the chances of adolescents obtaining a company-based apprenticeship increases in both groups. In addition, controlling for the composition of parents’ networks substantially reduces the gap between natives and migrants in the transition to dual VET. Further analyses show that this is mainly due to differences in the number of native labour market contacts between native and migrant parents. Our findings indicate that differences in parents’ endowment with labour market relevant social capital constitute yet another hurdle for immigrant children in the transition from school to working life.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac022
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Migrant Women’s Employment: International Turkish Migrants in Europe,
           Their Descendants, and Their Non-Migrant Counterparts in Turkey

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      Pages: 725 - 738
      Abstract: AbstractWhen compared with native-born women, migrant women have lower employment likelihoods. However, to reveal the relationship between migration and employment, migrant women need to be compared to those remaining in the origin regions and across generations. This study is the first to fill this gap by employing a dissimilation-from-origins and across-generations perspective. We test the hypothesis that migration to more welfare-state based and liberal contexts increase women’s employment likelihood among migrants and the second generation. The 2000 Families data enable a unique comparison of Turkish international migrants, including Turkish-origin women born in Europe, and their non-migrant counterparts from the same regions in Turkey. Furthermore, we theorize and test whether differences in employment are explained by differences in family composition, education, and culture (religiosity and gender attitudes). We find migration leads to a higher likelihood of paid employment for the second generation and international migrant women, in that order. Education and religiosity are the main explanatory factors for differences between non-migrants and the international migrants, including the second generation. Parenthood, while explaining differences between migrant and destination ‘native’ women, hardly explains differences between migrant women and their non-migrant counterparts. Overall, we find strong support for the hypothesis that migration increases women’s employment.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac010
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Women’s Relative Resources and Couples’ Gender Balance in
           Financial Decision-Making

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      Pages: 739 - 753
      Abstract: AbstractWe investigate how the relative education and earnings of husbands and wives are associated with self-reported decision-making within the family. Using European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions 2010 data for 27 European countries (n = 72,638), we find that women who earn more than their partner are more likely to report that they alone make the major financial and other important decisions. Men are more likely than women to be reported as financial decision makers if women contribute less than a quarter to joint earnings. However, in line with predictions based on traditional gender display, the association with relative earnings is not linear: among couples in which wives earn almost all of the income, we find that husbands are reported to have more say in financial decision-making than among couples in which both contribute a substantial part of the joint income. This non-linear pattern does not hold similarly for general decision-making. The discrepancy suggests that major financial issues, which were traditionally within the male realm, may be more susceptible to gender display than other family decisions.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac019
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Stall Only on the Surface' Working Hours and the Persistence of the
           Gender Wage Gap in Western Germany 1985–2014

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      Pages: 754 - 769
      Abstract: AbstractTo what extent has the closing of the gender gap in hourly wages (‘gender wage gap’; GWG) in Western Germany stalled due to an increasing supply of non-standard working hours' We use descriptive trend analyses and Juhn–Murphy–Pierce decompositions of German Socio-Economic Panel data for the last 30 years (1985–2014) to analyse the extent to which the expansion of part-time and marginal work, as well as overwork, may have contributed to the dynamics of the GWG in Western Germany. We find that the large increase in part-time work among women in combination with increasing wage gaps between part-time and full-time work substantially widened the GWG (by about one-sixth). Working hour effects were large enough to offset the equalizing effects of declining gender gaps in human capital, and they existed even in the public sector. In contrast to the United States, trends in overwork did not have a meaningful impact on the GWG. In an add-on, we find a widening of the gender gap in monthly earnings, but also an important closing of the gender earnings gap unconditional on employment due to an increased labour supply of women. Our results suggest that working hours should be given more consideration in research on family–work conflict and gender earnings inequalities.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac001
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Wage Differences between Atypical and Standard Workers in European
           Countries: Moving beyond Average Effects

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      Pages: 770 - 784
      Abstract: AbstractThis article provides a detailed picture of wage differences between atypical and standard workers across the wage distribution. It compares two distinct types of atypical employment, part-time and temporary employment, and examines seven European countries. Using 2016 EU-SILC data, the article presents quantile regression estimates of wage gaps associated with atypical employment across the wage distribution. The results show that wage patterns associated with different types of atypical employment are diverse and complex. Temporary employment is associated with significant wage penalties that decrease but largely remain significant towards the upper end of the wage distribution. In contrast, wage differences between part-time and full-time workers are smaller and range from part-time penalties at lower deciles of the wage distribution to non-significant differences or premiums at the top. These results suggest that different mechanisms may drive wage differences associated with different types of atypical employment. In particular, the article highlights the role of occupation in affecting atypical workers’ labour market position and, consequently, wages relative to standard workers. Overall, the significant heterogeneity in atypical employment and its wage consequences calls into question the usefulness of the concept as a unifying category for research.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac015
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Temporary Employment, Employee Representation, and Employer-Paid Training:
           A Comparative Analysis

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      Pages: 785 - 798
      Abstract: AbstractThis article examines the moderating role of employee representation on the chances of receiving employer-paid training among temporary and permanent workers from a cross-country, comparative perspective. The impact of employee representation is considered at the individual level and at the country level. The statistical analyses are performed using data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey and multilevel modelling. Our results suggest that temporary workers receive less employer-paid training than permanent workers. Access to employee representation increases workers’ access to employer-paid training, regardless of contract type. At the country level, we found that the training-related benefits from union coverage are larger for permanent than for temporary workers. Our findings suggest that employee representation in the workplace could operate as an equalizer between temporary and permanent workers; while at the country level, the lobbying effect of union coverage is more beneficial for permanent workers.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac021
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • With a Little Help from My Peer Clique: Mitigating the Intergenerational
           Transmission of Poverty

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      Pages: 799 - 815
      Abstract: AbstractDriven by two theoretical models of the resiliency framework, this paper examines the compensatory and protective role of interacting with peers in late adolescence in inhibiting the intergenerational transmission of poverty into young adulthood. We suggest different compensatory and protective effects of three peer contexts, referring to specific advantages of group-based friendship networks (i.e. cliques) in comparison with dyadic best friendships and romantic relationships. Further, we assume heterogeneity in the peer resilience mechanisms by age, migration background, and gender. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and random-effects linear probability models, we indeed find conditional compensatory influences as well as an unconditional protective effect of clique interaction in late adolescence for the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Hence, frequent interaction within friendship cliques compensates the deleterious effect of long-term poverty in adolescence on the risk of poverty in young adulthood with increasing age as well as particularly for first-generation immigrants. Further, the engagement with peer cliques in late adolescence attenuates the association between long-term youth poverty and adulthood poverty and thus helps to protect against the intergenerational transmission of poverty.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac020
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Religion as a Micro and Macro Property: Investigating the Multilevel
           Relationship between Religion and Abortion Attitudes across the Globe

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      Pages: 816 - 831
      Abstract: AbstractIn many countries, abortion is the most contested issue being publicly discussed, in part, because it has important implications for gender equality, health, family formation, politics, and views about morality. Personal religious beliefs are often seen as having an important role in shaping disapproving attitudes. However, little attention has been given to the country religious context for understanding public opinion about abortion. Drawing on ideas from cultural sociology, the anti-ascetic hypothesis, and the moral communities hypothesis, this study investigates the individual and country religious associations with abortion attitudes. Using hierarchical modelling techniques and survey data from over 70 nations, representing the majority of the world’s population, the multilevel roles of religion are investigated. Both personal and country levels of religious importance are associated with the disapproval of abortion, but there are few differences across religions. Laws allowing for abortion are marginally associated with attitudes and there is no moral communities effect, whereby overall levels of religious importance have a moderating influence on the relationship between personal religiosity and attitudes. However, individual religious importance appears to have a greater association with disapproval in richer, rather than poorer, countries, providing novel insight into why abortion has remained controversial in many countries, especially those with higher levels of economic development.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac017
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions after 15
           Years

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      Pages: 832 - 848
      Abstract: AbstractThis data brief describes the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). Detailed data on income and taxes are collected, as well as information on material deprivation, labour, housing, childcare, health, access to and use of services, and education. Although primarily a social policy instrument that addresses the information needs of policymakers and is used for social monitoring at the European level, EU-SILC is also closely geared to the needs of researchers and provides an excellent database for evidence-based research on a wide variety of aspects of income, income poverty, material poverty, health, and well-being in Europe. EU-SILC is composed of national probability sample surveys and is conducted annually. The target population comprises private households. Observation units are households and all current household members. EU-SILC provides cross-sectional and longitudinal data. The data are composed of a fixed core module, and annually changing ad-hoc modules. Launched in 2003 and revised with effect from 2021, EU-SILC is currently implemented in all EU Member States and in 11 non-EU countries. During the revision process, many suggestions from the research community were incorporated.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcac024
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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