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Frontiers in Sociology
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-7775
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Platform workers and digital agency: Making out on three types of labor

    • Authors: Tuomo Alasoini, Jere Immonen, Laura Seppänen, Marja Känsälä
      Abstract: Much of the research on platform workers has focused on individuals involved in low-skilled and highly standardized tasks. However, platform workers are not a homogeneous group. Utilizing a classification system that makes a distinction between different layers of platform control and grouping platforms according to how they divide decision rights between platforms and workers, we examine how and for what purposes platform workers operating in three types of control contexts have practiced and developed their digital agency for making out. The study, based on an analysis of platform webpages and 32 semi-structured interviews of food couriers, freelancers, and interim managers, shows that workers can exercise their digital agency on all three types of platforms, but different platforms create different conditions for this depending on their special forms of control. In addition, the forms of control also affect to what extent workers are motivated to direct their agency for making out. Instead of regarding platform work as just another layer of a periphery segment in the labor market, our analysis suggests that platforms exercising algorithmic control are new types of arenas for work, which seem to reproduce, or even amplify, the inequalities found in the offline world of work in the digital world.
      PubDate: 2023-03-27T00:00:00Z
  • Co-producing rapid research: Strengths and challenges from a lived
           experience perspective

    • Authors: Karen Machin, Prisha Shah, Vicky Nicholls, Tamar Jeynes, TK, Kylee Trevillion, Norha Vera San Juan
      Abstract: The Lived Experience Researchers (LERs) of the Mental Health Policy Research Unit (MHPRU) reflect on the experience of conducting rapid co-produced research, particularly during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout this perspective article, we introduce requirements for co-production applying the 4Pi Framework, reflect on specific characteristics of co-production in rapid research, discuss strengths and challenges for involvement of LERs in rapid research, and lastly provide recommendations to achieve meaningful involvement. Incorporating meaningful co-production is an augmentation to any research project, with several benefits to the research, to the team, and to individual researchers. Particularly in the case of rapid research, that aims for efficient translation of knowledge into practice, involvement of experts by experience will be key. The work conducted by the MHPRU LERs presented in this paper demonstrates the viability, value, and potential of this way of working.
      PubDate: 2023-03-23T00:00:00Z
  • “Fitting in whilst standing out”: Identity flexing strategies of
           professional British women of African, Asian, and Caribbean

    • Authors: Victoria Opara, Michelle K. Ryan, Ruth Sealy, Christopher T. Begeny
      Abstract: IntroductionProfessional British women of African, Asian, and Caribbean (AAC) ethnicities contend with unique challenges and experiences in the workplace. These challenges are often due to experiences that occur at the intersection of gender and ethnic identity, thus many professional white British women (of Anglo-Saxon decent), do not face the same challenges. AAC women are more often discriminated against, excluded from informal networks, and their contributions credited to someone else. We take an intersectional theoretical approach to better understand both the disadvantaged experiences and the possible advantaged experiences that British AAC women face, based on their experiences as AAC individuals, as women and as AAC women. The study seeks to 'give voice' to the experiences of AAC professional women, due to the limited amount of scholarship that adequately considers their workplace experiences. We consider the ways that their identity produces qualitatively different experiences determined by the context, by the nature of interpersonal encounters or by both the context and interpersonal encounters.MethodsWe conduct real-time online written interviews and utilize thematic template analysis to understand whether AAC women strategically flex identity at work. We present four major themes. These are (1) the benefits of identity flexing, (2) the role of specific stereotypes, (3) context specific opportunities, and (4) the costs of identity flexing. We draw on literature that suggests that AAC women's identity experiences are not exclusively oppressive.ResultsWe find that unique experiences, occurring at the intersection of facets of identity may also yield forms of relative advantage, wherein individuals are able to adaptively leverage opportunities. Our results demonstrate that where the facets of one's identity are more varied, there might be more chance that the particular identity will be valued in a given social context. As a result, the individual may try to assimilate with certain identity groups (through flexing), as the context directs.DiscussionNevertheless, engaging in identity flexing strategies has costs for women's well-being, such as needing to perform increased amounts of emotional labor and heightened feelings of frustration. Overall, these costs (as well as benefits), evidence the complex nature of identity flexing and the likely negative well-being implications that could ensue for the individual.
      PubDate: 2023-03-23T00:00:00Z
  • Emirbayer and Desmond's work on The Racial Order: A commentary

    • Authors: Ayodeji Bayo Ogunrotifa
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T00:00:00Z
  • The role of social innovation in tackling global poverty and vulnerability

    • Authors: Jeremy Millard, Vincenzo Fucci
      Abstract: Tackling the rapid rise in global poverty is one of the most pressing challenges the world faces today, especially in this new age of turbulence. On top of the ongoing environmental crisis, the last fifteen years has been rocked by the financial crisis of 2007–8, compounded by the 2020 Covid-pandemic and then by the 2022 war in Ukraine, each of which has negatively impacted all aspects of sustainable development. Although in practice many development organizations have been using the methods and processes of social innovation to tackle poverty and vulnerability for many years, it is only recently that they have specifically begun to analyse and codify its contribution to these and other SDGs. Social innovation provides beneficial social outcomes for citizens and other actors, often at local level with the strong bottom-up involvement of civil society and through its cross-actor, cross-sector, cross-disciplinary and cross-cutting strengths. Importantly, it aims to empower those with a social need, particularly when they have little to begin with. It focuses on increasing the beneficiaries' own agency and capability rather than passively only relying on others to act on their behalf. This is done by transforming social relationships and developing new collaborative processes. Amongst a wide range of recent and contemporary sources, this paper analyses a large scale quantitative and qualitative global survey of social innovations that tackle poverty and vulnerability in different global regions. It examines various definitions of poverty, including extreme, absolute and relative measures as well as arguably more useful approaches like the Multidimensional Poverty Index. It proposes how social innovation should be recalibrated to meet the increasing threats of the new age of turbulence, including by deploying the sociological lens of the agency-structure dichotomy to show why the public sector needs to become involved more proactively in social innovation. It also looks at certain myths around poverty and vulnerability, examines why we need to revise our understanding of sustainable development and resilience, and why a new nexus approach is needed that combines SDG1 with other strongly related SDGs.
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T00:00:00Z
  • Coordinated inauthentic behavior: An innovative manipulation tactic to
           amplify COVID-19 anti-vaccine communication outreach via social media

    • Authors: Monica Murero
      Abstract: Coordinated inauthentic behavior (CIB) is a manipulative communication tactic that uses a mix of authentic, fake, and duplicated social media accounts to operate as an adversarial network (AN) across multiple social media platforms. The article aims to clarify how CIB's emerging communication tactic “secretly” exploits technology to massively harass, harm, or mislead the online debate around crucial issues for society, like the COVID-19 vaccination. CIB's manipulative operations could be one of the greatest threats to freedom of expression and democracy in our society. CIB campaigns mislead others by acting with pre-arranged exceptional similarity and “secret” operations. Previous theoretical frameworks failed to evaluate the role of CIB on vaccination attitudes and behavior. In light of recent international and interdisciplinary CIB research, this study critically analyzes the case of a COVID-19 anti-vaccine adversarial network removed from Meta at the end of 2021 for brigading. A violent and harmful attempt to tactically manipulate the COVID-19 vaccine debate in Italy, France, and Germany. The following focal issues are discussed: (1) CIB manipulative operations, (2) their extensions, and (3) challenges in CIB's identification. The article shows that CIB acts in three domains: (i) structuring inauthentic online communities, (ii) exploiting social media technology, and (iii) deceiving algorithms to extend communication outreach to unaware social media users, a matter of concern for the general audience of CIB-illiterates. Upcoming threats, open issues, and future research directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2023-03-16T00:00:00Z
  • Older adults' perceptions of the risks associated with contemporary
           gambling environments: Implications for public health policy and

    • Authors: Hannah Pitt, Simone McCarthy, Samantha L. Thomas, Melanie Randle, Sarah Marko, Sean Cowlishaw, Sylvia Kairouz, Mike Daube
      Abstract: IntroductionRapid changes in the Australian gambling environment have amplified the risks for gamblers and pose significant threats to public health. Technological advances, saturation of marketing, and the embedding of gambling in sport have all contributed to significant changes in the gambling risk environment. Older adults have witnessed the changes to the way gambling is provided and promoted in public spaces, but little is known about how these changes have shaped the way they conceptualize the risks associated with gambling.MethodGuided by critical qualitative inquiry, semi structured interviews were conducted with 40 Australian adults aged 55 years and older, who had gambled at least once in the last 12 months. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to interpret the data.ResultsParticipants discussed gambling environments in Australia and how they had changed through the proliferation of gambling products, environments, and opportunities; the risks posed through the embedding of gambling in community and media environments; the role of technology in gambling environments; and the role of marketing and promotions in the changing gambling environments. Participants recognized that these factors had contributed to gambling environments becoming increasingly risky over time. However, despite the perception of increased risk, many participants had engaged with new gambling technologies, products, and environments.DiscussionThis research supports the adoption of public health responses that include consideration of the environmental, commercial, and political factors that may contribute to risky gambling environments.
      PubDate: 2023-03-16T00:00:00Z
  • Constrained to be (im)mobile' Refugees' and Asylum seekers' practices
           to integrate in restrictive socio-economic urban contexts in Northern

    • Authors: Iraklis Dimitriadis, Maurizio Ambrosini
      Abstract: This article comparatively examines forms of (im)mobility among refugees and asylum seekers (RAS) in coping with dispersal process, restrictive migration policies and local socio-economic characteristics in three cities of Northern Italy. Drawing on qualitative data, it sheds light on the everyday forms of (im)mobility of RAS to resist structural barriers limiting their opportunities to access jobs and welfare services. The Results show that people's capacity to overcome barriers depends upon individual characteristics and informal networks, and is shaped by particularities of local contexts. While people's regular legal status is considered an important resource in achieving goals, refugees and holders of international protection often have to adopt (im)mobility practices to access resources in contexts that do not facilitate their integration. This article highlights the inefficiency of integration and reception policies and advances the theoretical debate on the link between being (im)mobile and agency by calling authors to pay more attention to the (in)voluntary nature of spatial (im)mobility. Finally, it shows the ambivalent outcome of (im)mobilities in terms of agency, highlighting the implications for individuals before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: 2023-03-16T00:00:00Z
  • To scrape or not to scrape, this is dilemma. The post-API scenario and
           implications on digital research|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Domenico Trezza
      Abstract: IntroductionThis article aims to investigate the potential impact of restricted social data access on digital research practices. The 2018 Cambridge Analytica scandal exposed the exploitation of Facebook user data for speculative purposes and led to the end of the so-called “Data Golden Age,” characterized by free access to social media user data. As a result, many social platforms have limited or entirely banned data access. This policy shift, referred to as the “APIcalypse,” has revolutionized digital research methods.MethodsTo address the impact of this policy shift on digital research, a non-probabilistic sample of Italian researchers was surveyed and the responses were analyzed. The survey was designed to explore how constraints on digital data access have altered research practices, whether we are truly in a post-API era with a radical change in data scraping strategies, and what shared and sustainable solutions can be identified for the post-API scenario.ResultsThe findings highlight how limits on social data access have not yet created a “post-Api” scenario as expected, but it is turning research practices upside down, positively and negatively. On the positive side, because researchers are experimenting with innovative forms of scraping. Negatively, because there could be a “mass migration” to the few platforms that freely grant their APIs, with critical consequences for the quality of research.DiscussionThe closure of many social media APIs has not opened up a post-API world, but has worsened the conditions of making research, which is increasingly oriented to “easy-data” environments such as Twitter. This should prompt digital researchers to make a self-reflexive effort to diversify research platforms and especially to act ethically with user data. It would also be important for the scientific world and large platforms to enter into understandings for open and conscious sharing of data in the name of scientific progress.
      PubDate: 2023-03-16T00:00:00Z
  • Scaling up social entrepreneurship to reduce poverty: Exploring the
           challenges and opportunities through stakeholder engagement

    • Authors: Hari Harjanto Setiawan, Tauchid Komara Yuda, Badrun Susantyo, Muhammad Belanawane Sulubere, Mery Ganti, Habibullah Habibullah, Muslim Sabarisman, Ruaida Murni
      PubDate: 2023-03-13T00:00:00Z
  • Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual (LGB) peoples' leadership self-effectiveness:
           The roles of internalized sexual stigma, LGB positive identity, and
           traditional masculinity

    • Authors: Marco Salvati, Tunahan Sari, Valerio Pellegrini, Valeria De Cristofaro
      Abstract: Grounded in the theoretical frameworks of the minority stress model and the model of positive identity in sexual minority people, the current research contributes to fill a gap in the previous literature, investigating the relationships among leadership self-effectiveness, internalized sexual stigma, positive identity, and adherence to traditional masculinity of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Through a correlational study (N = 449), we collected data from 229 gay/bisexual men (51%) and 220 lesbian/bisexual women (49%). We hypothesized that lower internalized sexual stigma, higher LGB positive identity, and higher adherence to traditional masculinity were associated to higher self-perceived effectiveness. The interactive relationships among the variables, including participants' gender, were investigated from an exploratory perspective. The hypotheses were tested through two moderated regression models and the results confirmed that participants with lower internalized sexual stigma and higher LGB positive identity were more likely to perceive themselves as potential effective leaders. Also, the results showed a significant interaction between participants' gender and traditional masculinity score suggesting that high adherence to traditional masculinity was a significant predictor of self-perceived effectiveness only for gay/bisexual men, but not for lesbian/bisexual women. This research contributes to provide both confirmation and novel insights into the key role of relevant factors impacting on LGB people's leadership self-effectiveness, which might contribute to preserve the gay glass ceiling effect. The presence of antidiscrimination policies in organizations not only might reduce reports of discrimination but also enhance LGB employees' positive sense of self, which is a critical aspect to emerge as a leader.
      PubDate: 2023-03-10T00:00:00Z
  • “Breast is best”… until they say so

    • Authors: Cristina Quiñones
      Abstract: In this autoethnographic article, I discuss the consequences of being exposed to two competing breastfeeding discourses during my first mothering experience—the “self-regulated dyad” and the “externally regulated dyad” discourse. The former represents the ideal scenario and the evidence-based practices recommended by the World Health Organization (i.e., breastfeeding on demand, internally regulated by the dyad). The externally regulated discourse refers to the standardized health interventions that take over when difficulties arise (e.g., weight gain deviations and latching issues). Building on Kugelmann's critique about our blind reliance on “standardized health,” existing evidence, and my breastfeeding journey, I argue that unqualified and unindividualized breastfeeding interventions are highly counterproductive. To illustrate these points, I discuss the implications of the polarized interpretation of pain and the limited dyadically focused support. I then move on to analyze how ambivalent social positioning around breastfeeding impacts our experience. In particular, I found that I was highly regarded as a “good, responsible mum” up till my baby was 6 months, and how breastfeeding became increasingly challenged by others when my daughter was approaching her first birthday. Here, I discuss how performing attachment mothering identity work allowed me to navigate these challenges. Against this backdrop, I reflect upon feminist ambivalent positionings on breastfeeding and the complexity of balancing the promotion of women's hard-earned rights while supporting them to engage in whatever baby-feeding choice they feel appropriate. I conclude that unless we acknowledge the physical and social complexities of the process, and our healthcare systems seriously invest in allocating human resources and training them appropriately, breastfeeding rates may continue to suffer and women continue to interiorize it as their own failure.
      PubDate: 2023-03-09T00:00:00Z
  • Intimate partner sexual violence during pregnancy and its associated
           factors in Northwest Ethiopian

    • Authors: Zelalem Nigussie Azene, Mehari Woldemariam Merid, Asefa Adimasu Taddese, Zewudu Andualem, Nakachew Sewnet Amare, Birhan Tsegaw Taye
      Abstract: BackgroundViolence against women is a global problem. In pregnant women, it is a particular concern as a virtue of the additional risks to the unborn child. Of different acts of violence, sexual violence shares the major contribution that results in short and long-term physical, sexual, reproductive, and mental health problems of pregnant women. Little is known about sexual violence during pregnancy in Ethiopia.Objectivethis study aimed to assess the proportion and factors associated with intimate partners' sexual violence against pregnant women in Northwest Ethiopia.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among 409 pregnant women in Debre Markos town from March to April 2018. The study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. A pre-tested and validated questionnaire was used. Binary logistic regression analyses were done to identify associated factors and the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95 % confidence interval (CI) at a p-value of
      PubDate: 2023-03-09T00:00:00Z
  • Illegitimate bodies' Turner syndrome and the silent interplay of age,
           gender, and generational positions

    • Authors: Nicoletta Diasio
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the strength of social norms that define the right development of the body in time. It also analyzes how the social positions of age, gender and generation intertwine in the definition of such a legitimate body. The starting point is anthropological research carried out in France between 2018 and 2020 among girls and women affected by Turner syndrome, a rare genetic condition causing small stature, ovarian insufficiency, a delay or absence of puberty, and infertility. We first explore how measuring the body has become central in the social construction of the concept of age-appropriateness. We then present four women' narratives, which express various forms of desynchronization: the gap between physical appearance, chronological age and age status; the cleft between the physical development induced by hormone therapy and being in a particular stage in life; the difference between chronological and reproductive age; and lastly, the trouble in a generational position related to infertility. For women suffering from this genetic condition, the gap between bodies, time and social statuses associated with age, gender and generation, may engender a feeling of “being out of place.” The alignment of body and time is then one of the bastions of essentialization and naturalization. Finally, we stress the complex interplay of bodily and social markers of age and gender, and their role in social relations as both a resource and a constraint. Thus, while the syndrome may cause distress and sometimes a lack of legitimacy, it also leads to a critical re-examination of hegemonic models of womanhood and their intersection with age positions.
      PubDate: 2023-03-08T00:00:00Z
  • Filio-parental violence analyzed through the Spanish press (2010–2020).
           Child-to-parent violence: A case of family violence

    • Authors: Juan Martínez Torvisco, Monika Wichrowska, Monica Pellerone
      Abstract: Violence exercised by children against their parents has increased significantly, affecting society both directly and indirectly. This type of violence is one of the least investigated and least exposed by the media. The aim of this work is to examine how the media have portrayed this problem, by means of a qualitative methodology and a multidimensional analysis of journalistic and literary texts. News related to violence committed by children against parents published from 2010 to 2020 were sourced from the following Spanish newspapers: El País, ABC, El Día, El Mundo, La Vanguardia, El Periódico, La Provincia, Canarias 7, 20 Minutos, and Diario de Avisos. The text corpus was subsequently analyzed with the open access software IRaMuTeQ. The results show a total of 204232 words (number of occurrences), of which 4561 appear only once (number of hapaxes). The words “violence,” “father,” and “son” are those that appear most frequently in the analysis of the texts and present a strong co-occurrence among them. It should be noted that child-to-parent violence is described as a problem confined to the family environment. The importance of prevention strategies against violence within the family context is shown in this paper.
      PubDate: 2023-03-08T00:00:00Z
  • The impact of responsible gambling framing on people with lived experience
           of gambling harm|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Sarah Marko, Samantha L. Thomas, Hannah Pitt, Mike Daube
      Abstract: BackgroundThe framing of health issues influences how people think about and respond to these topics. Gambling has largely been framed as an issue of personal responsibility, with the gambling industry, governments and some researchers promoting responsible gambling strategies as a way to address gambling harm. While there is evidence that the internalization of personal responsibility can negatively impact gamblers, this study aimed to explore how people who have experienced gambling harm interpret and apply personal responsibility frames and ‘gamble responsibly' messages in their lives.MethodsIn-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted via Zoom and telephone with 15 gamblers who had been harmed by their own gambling and six affected others who had been harmed by someone else's gambling. This study was informed by public health and critical qualitative approaches to inquiry. The data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis.ResultsFour themes were constructed from the data. First, gamblers and affected others generally conceptualized gambling and gambling harm as being the responsibility of the individual because it was perceived as the outcome of individual behavior. Second, they attempted to apply responsibility to their own experience either as gamblers who tried to stop or reduce their gambling, or affected others who felt responsible for helping the gambler in their lives. Third, gamblers and affected others were negatively impacted when it was perceived the gambler could not ‘control' their gambling or had not done enough to take responsibility. Finally, gamblers and affected others recommended responsible gambling strategies be reframed to be more effective at addressing gambling harm.ConclusionThis study provides evidence further supporting research demonstrating that personal responsibility frames may have unintended or negative consequences for gamblers and affected others. It underscores the need to reframe public messages about gambling away from responsible gambling, and toward research-based messages that can complement broader legislative changes and other measures to protect individuals.
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T00:00:00Z
  • Predicting work engagement among young adult cancer survivors: A moderated
           mediation model|Introduction|Methods|Results and discussion

    • Authors: Siti Nur Syuhada Musa, Siti Raba'ah Hamzah, Zulaiha Muda, Soaib Asimiran, Steven E. Krauss
      Abstract: IntroductionEarly research on cancer survivors was focused on exploring cancer treatments. More recently, attention has shifted to cancer survivorship research, focusing on cancer survivors as individual persons, including the multiple facets of survivors' quality of life but is inapplicable in the context of work-related role played in the young adult cancer survivors' lives. However, in recent studies on the outcomes of long-term survivorship, some of the main areas of cancer survivorship research revolves around employment issues of young adult cancer survivors. In the present study, the focus is given on the role of workplace spirituality as a mediator on the association of employee resilience and workplace social support on work engagement in a Malaysian setting, taking into consideration gender and age differences.MethodsUsing a quantitative research paradigm, data were collected from 270 respondents at Pediatric Institute Kuala Lumpur Hospital. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) to test the direct, indirect, and mediation effects.Results and discussionThe findings revealed that workplace spirituality did mediate the influence of employee resilience and workplace social support on work engagement. The findings also indicated that gender and age moderated the association of employee resilience and work engagement via workplace spirituality.
      PubDate: 2023-03-06T00:00:00Z
  • Exclusion by design: The undocumented 1.5 generation in the U.S

    • Authors: Linda E. Sanchez
      Abstract: This article focuses on Mexican individuals who grew up in the U.S. (1.5 generation) without documents and were not able to benefit from Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) or who were unable to renew their DACA. A 2012 Executive Action by former president Obama, DACA gave some undocumented youth relief from deportation and a 2-year renewable work permit provided they met certain criteria. Undocumented individuals DACA failed to reach have generally been overlooked in immigration research in favor of examining how DACA recipients' lives have been transformed by DACA. This project helps fill this gap by examining life outside of DACA, and how the program acted as an internal U.S. border of exclusion for many. This research also aids in understanding the impacts of changing government policies on vulnerable populations, especially those who are in some respects made even more vulnerable by their faith in the government, fear of the government, or are actively excluded from government programs. This investigation is part of a study that compares 20 DACA beneficiaries to 20 individuals without DACA. Through ethnographic methodologies and one-on-one interviews, this article examines the 20 research participants who fall outside DACA. It investigates why people who qualified for DACA did not apply, barriers to applying/renewing, and how members of the 1.5 generation were excluded from the program by restrictions such as date of arrival requirements. The article discusses what it means for research participants to live outside of DACA, and how they see their lives because they do not have DACA while others do. For example, what does it mean to age out of qualifying for DACA' What actions did individuals then take regarding their lack of legal status'
      PubDate: 2023-03-03T00:00:00Z
  • The dynamics of intergenerational closure and family networks of social

    • Authors: Michael Windzio, Patrick Kaminski
      Abstract: We investigate the correlation of ties among school-children's parents with violence in schools, and two mechanisms of intergenerational closure (IC). Coleman described ties among parents of befriended children as IC. Until now, IC indicated social capital in schools and neighborhoods, but existing evidence is rather ambiguous and does not utilize network data. According to “top-down.” IC, children establish network ties because of the acquaintance among their parents. “Bottom-up” IC implies that children make friends first and then their parents get involved. We use longitudinal social network data from k = 10 school classes and N = 238 adolescents and disentangle the two different dynamics of IC by applying Bayesian stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) for network evolution. SAOMs show positive “top-down” and “bottom-up” effects on IC, with the latter being considerably stronger.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02T00:00:00Z
  • Debating secularism: A liberal cosmopolitan perspective

    • Authors: Haldun Gülalp
      Abstract: In the classical notion of secularism, privatization of religion is an essential component of freedom and equality between citizens, so that rights are granted to individuals rather than to communities. The currently dominant objections to this notion in the literature are the multiculturalist thesis, primarily expounded by Tariq Modood, and the critique of secularism through the “genealogical” method, associated with Talal Asad and his followers. This article critically assesses these objections and defends the classical notion of secularism from a liberal cosmopolitan perspective. The argument that the classical notion perfectly addresses the questions of freedom of conscience and diversity of belief is further supported by reference to an ignored source, Thomas More's Utopia.
      PubDate: 2023-03-02T00:00:00Z
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