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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
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Frontiers in Sociology
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-7775
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Bored and spoiling for a flight: capabilities lost and found in lockdown

    • Authors: Doris Sommer
      Abstract: Human beings are dynamic; our innate faculties beg to engage in activities. To achieve fullness and human dignity, people “convert” personal capabilities into active “functionings,” Amartya Sen explains. This means that staying still is not a normal state. It can feel like punishment. Forced inactivity will generate resentment, resistance, and boredom that can fester until pent-up energy explodes violently, or implodes in depression. Boredom defaults on capabilities and resources in many cases. In other cases, stillness is a gift. It can stimulate the imagination to fill in emptiness with memories and new explorations. Either boredom builds toward doing damage, or it releases energy to think and to create. What people don't do is stay put, mentally or physically. Authorities-including police, judges, teachers, parents –should take this dynamic human condition into account and reconsider the effects of conventional command and control policies. Then they can choose between violence and creativity as alternative outlets for the energy that boredom generates. Short of facing up to human dynamism, decision-making may continue to favor strong-arm tactics, which trigger the violence and pain that policing is meant to mitigate. Is it surprising that apparently peaceful peoplebecome enraged in lockdown conditions' Do adults wonder why students drop-out of school and suffer escalating rates of depression and suicide' Boredom is certainly not the only cause for these disastrous effects, but to ignore it risks remaining complicit with processes that perpetuate personal and collective dysfunctions. Complicity with harmful practices will miss opportunities to channel frustrated energy toward developing human capabilities. Authorities are responsible for promoting peaceful development. We are all responsible.[2] Normally, people stay busy with routine activities. We work, play, attend to family and to friends. Particular activities have even become our public badges of identity, as is evident in surnames (Cooper, Baker, Taylor, Farmer, etc.) that trace back to work that ancestors answered to. Lockdown during COVID-19 meant that many otherwise occupied people had few outlets for energy. Those who knew how to meditate managed to assuage anxiety through contemplation and the pursuit of ideal emptiness.
      PubDate: 2023-11-28T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Post COVID-19: analysing and addressing the challenges faced by
           patients following intensive care treatment for COVID-19

    • Authors: Vincenzo Auriemma, Gennaro Iorio, Giuliana Scarpati, Ornella Piazza
      PubDate: 2023-11-28T00:00:00Z
  • Pornography. The politics of legal changes. An opinion article

    • Authors: Håkan Hydén
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T00:00:00Z
  • The emergence of social order in everyday interacting: re-conceptualizing
           a venerable sociological concept in light of conversation analysis

    • Authors: Robert B. Arundale
      Abstract: For more than a century social theorists have asked how order at the macro-social level is related to human activity at the micro-social level. Among their answers are accounts of macro-level social order as emerging in micro-level relations among individuals. Sawyer’s account of macro-level emergence in micro-level interaction rests on the individual’s understandings of interactional frames. However, Rawls draws on Garfinkel and Sacks to argue that sociologist’s accounts of the macro-level interaction order need to be grounded in observable, micro-level social practices, instead of using conceptual abstractions like frames. Arundale’s Conjoint Co-constituting Model of Communicating is grounded in research on observable social practices in Conversation Analysis, and offers an account of the emergence, in particular episodes of everyday interacting, of properties that define micro-level social systems. That account provides the basis for an account of the emergence, in recurrent micro-level interacting over time and space, of properties that define macro-level social systems. The basic idea is not new: what is new is accounting for the emergence of macro-level social order in terms of the recurrent emergence of micro-level social order as participants engage observable social practices in everyday interacting. Re-conceptualizing the emergence of macro-social order addresses sociology’s longstanding puzzlement regarding the macro–micro link, and points to needed research.
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T00:00:00Z
  • Pandemic and new perspectives on living: the role of the smart home

    • Authors: Marina Ciampi, Melissa Sessa
      Abstract: Based on ongoing multidisciplinary research, this essay offers some theoretical and scenario considerations on the transformations of social rituals in housing contexts during the pandemic period. The analysis focuses on living being not only understood as a “private” experience, but also as a phenomenon of collective interest, especially in relation to issues concerning health emergencies, risk perception, and forms of sociability. In the face of such problems, the sociological perspective has shown its usefulness in providing suitable tools to study the ambivalent and exceptional aspects to which living was exposed during the lockdown period and in the immediate aftermath. Thus, it was chosen to focus attention on the phenomenon of the smart home, an “agent subject,” albeit inanimate, of the process of technological transformation of the housing unit, which can be evaluated not only on the level of environmental sustainability, but also on that of social sustainability.
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T00:00:00Z
  • ‘Total pain’: reverence and reconsideration

    • Authors: Maxxine Rattner
      Abstract: Dame Cicely Saunders’ conceptualization of ‘total pain’, or ‘total suffering’, is one of her most significant and lasting contributions to the field of palliative care. It was Saunders’ unique combination of knowledge and experiences as a trained social worker, nurse and physician that influenced her understanding of suffering specific to a life-limiting illness as being multi-dimensional: that suffering may be simultaneously physical, psychological, emotional, social, spiritual and/or existential in nature. ‘Total pain’ remains a highly relevant and significant concept within palliative care and Saunders’ lasting contributions are to be revered. This paper invites us to reconsider one particular aspect of Saunders’ conceptualization: that patients’ ‘mental reactions’ to their anticipated dying/death is a key contributor to their ‘total pain’. Drawing upon Saunders’ works from the late 1950s to the early 2000s, this paper details the socio-historical manifestation of this aspect of ‘total pain’ within Saunders’ writings, including influences from her Christian religion and Viktor Frankl, and its enduring impact on palliative care philosophy, practice, and discourse. Then, drawing upon patient stories rooted in my own clinical experiences over a 10 year period as a hospice social worker, I suggest that this particular feature of Saunders’ ‘total pain’ may, unintentionally, work to pathologize both the patient for whom suffering persists and remains unsolvable, and the palliative care clinician who may struggle to relieve it — and why it therefore stands to be revisited. It is my sincere hope and intention that ongoing reverence for Saunders’ significant contributions can sit alongside respectful reconsideration.
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T00:00:00Z
  • Maternalism and new imperialism in Russia: “good mothers” for a
           militarizing state—expectations, implications, and resistances

    • Authors: Yulia Gradskova
      Abstract: This article explores maternalism in Russia in the context of the contemporary Russian authoritarian state. In particular, I analyze what implications maternalism has for women, mothers, and families on the one hand and how it is connected to the Russian state's new imperial ambitions on the other. I also explore how maternalism is challenged and employed by those resisting state politics, including militarism. Historically, maternalism was used for the analysis of the development of the welfare state in Europe and beyond and for studying women's activism that contributed to significant changes in the state's welfare politics. Maternalism in European history could be seen as “a progressive heterosexual maternal womanhood”; according to Mary Daly, it could be explained as a recognition of the “existence of a uniquely feminine value system based on care and nurturing” and as the assumption that women are performing “a service to the state by raising citizen-workers”. Gender historians of Latin America showed that speaking from the position of a mother was quite important for claiming both the right to be accepted as an equal citizen and the improvement of maternity care, welfare, and living conditions for mothers and children. Furthermore, maternalism was widely used in protests against state militarism, wars, and military dictatorships, not least as a part of the campaign against the Vietnam War or the crimes of the Argentinian military dictatorship. However, maternalism was also widely used by several totalitarian regimes, including fascism and Stalinism. Maternalism was an important political instrument used by the state socialist discourse in order to show the superiority of the “socialist” welfare system over the “capitalist” one and to make this system appear attractive to women from “developing” countries.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T00:00:00Z
  • Psychometric properties of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II
           among Kenyan adolescents|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Natalie E. Johnson, Daisy Nerima, Ngina Kahura, Tom L. Osborn
      Abstract: IntroductionCuriosity is a fundamental trait that drives exploration, motivation, learning, and growth. However, research on this character strength in sub-Saharan African populations is very scarce. To address this gap in the literature, we sought to determine the psychometric properties of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory- II (CEI-II), a measure for trait curiosity, to provide evidence of validity for its use in research among populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We also aimed to assess for demographic and psychosocial correlates of curiosity among Kenyan high school students.MethodsA sample of 375 participants in Kenya completed the CEI-II, as well as demographic information on sex, age, form in school, psychosocial measures of depression, anxiety, school climate, and social support. Using cross-sectional data, parallel analysis, scree plot, and structural equation modeling were used to determine the factor structure of the CEI-II among the Kenyan adolescent population.ResultsA one-factor solution was found to be the best fitting model, differing from the two-factor structure found in the original development of the measure. Internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictors of trait curiosity were also examined. The CEI-II demonstrated good internal consistency and convergent validity with social support from family, friends, significant others, and school climate. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by the non-significant correlation between curiosity and depression. A hierarchical regression model showed that curiosity was significantly predicted by social support from family, significant others, school climate, and anxiety, with males being more curious than females.DiscussionThe CEI-II is a valid measurement tool to capture trait curiosity in Kenyan adolescents, and our findings provide insight into the relationship between curiosity and other psychosocial factors in this population.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T00:00:00Z
  • Narratives of Italian Transatlantic (re)migration, 1897–1936

    • Authors: Lorella Viola
      Abstract: Remigration is typically envisioned as the final stage of the migration experience, a one-way movement from the host country to the country of origin. This article offers a novel, intimate view of historical return migration as a more complex and discursive process. The case study is Italian American migrants at the turn of the twentieth century, one of the groups which – according to historical statistics – was most actively engaged in Transatlantic remigration; more recent readings, however, show that many of these returnees eventually re-emigrated to the US. Using for the first time immigrant newspapers against the baseline of the Italian public discourse, the article analyzes Italian migrants’ own accounts of remigration as a way to access the more subjective dimension of migration. The integration of text mining and Critical Discourse Analysis will show that migrants were experiencing migration as a sense of identity crisis manifested through feelings of being misunderstood, rejected and unappreciated. These results indicate a less material reading of (re)migration, that is beyond economic reasons, and that for many individuals remigration was a bi-directional movement, only fully concluded when they were no longer experiencing a sense of identity crisis, be it in their homeland or the host society. The article will argue that this was the visible outward sign of a much more profound issue: the Italian Government’s view of (r)emigration –mainly through the lens of domestic economic advantage –deeply underestimated the complexity of migration as a social phenomenon and as a profoundly changing psychological experience. In the long run, this error of judgment deeply damaged Italy as many of those ritornati felt misunderstood and disillusioned and crossed the Atlantic again, this time never to return.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T00:00:00Z
  • Response: Commentary: Debating secularism: a liberal cosmopolitan

    • Authors: Haldun Gülalp
      PubDate: 2023-11-21T00:00:00Z
  • Right to science principles should guide global governance on health

    • Authors: Gisa Dang, Mike Frick
      PubDate: 2023-11-21T00:00:00Z
  • Combining experiential knowledge with scholarship in charting the decline
           of the National Health Service in England

    • Authors: Graham Scambler
      Abstract: The sustained governmental assault on the National Health Service (NHS) in England during post-1970s financialised or rentier capitalism has received considerable attention by the research community. There is some evidence, however, that many of those members of the public who have not had occasion to use the NHS remain largely ill-informed about the extent of, and reasons for, its present troubles. In this paper I offer an auto/biographic account of my own recent experiences as a patient with type 2 diabetes and subsequent polymyalgia in both primary and secondary care. I then deploy analytic induction to consider, and explain, my personal travails against the background of the shifting nature of doctor-patient interaction occasioned by governmental politics in relation to the NHS. The result is an illustrated story of the decline of health care at a political juncture when the ever-expanding capital assets of a tiny minority of the population trumps the health care needs of the population as a whole. The present impoverishment of management and care must be understood with reference to wider aspects of macro-social change. The paper concludes with some ideas about how to (re)fund a severely ailing NHS.
      PubDate: 2023-11-21T00:00:00Z
  • The fight for power: historical women’s movements of Russia and
           Great Britain in comparison

    • Authors: Eva Maria Hinterhuber, Jana Günther
      Abstract: In the second half of the 19th century, women began to organize worldwide to achieve the goal of gender equality. National women’s movements emerged and were followed somewhat later by the first transnational political mobilization of women on a larger scale. The range of topics that were on the national and international agenda included, alongside the access to education and the enforcement of equal civil rights, as well as the fight for political participation, with the women’s right to vote taking center stage.1 The political, social, and cultural contexts, in which women raised their voices, varied. On the national level, female activists often had conflicting positions and their strategies reflected a wide spectrum; the chosen forms and the course of the protest, on the other hand, showed similarities.
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T00:00:00Z
  • Exploring the concepts of decent work through the lens of SDG 8:
           addressing challenges and inadequacies

    • Authors: Bianca Ifeoma Chigbu, Fhulu Nekhwevha
      Abstract: Promoting decent work and sustainable economic growth within the framework of Sustainable Development Goal 8 (SDG 8) entails addressing gender inequality, the consequences of market economies, and the role of the informal sector while also considering environmental sustainability. Research on SDG 8 remains limited, often adopting an appraisal perspective, and the concept of decent work within this goal remains relatively unexplored. Additionally, the focus on the challenges and inadequacies of achieving sustainable economic growth through decent work in the context of SDG 8 is insufficient, resulting in significant knowledge gaps. To contribute to filling these gaps, this paper adopts a descriptive and critical review perspective, systematically analyzing 108 journal papers and reports to investigate the concept of decent work within SDG 8. The research addresses the challenges and inadequacies related to decent work embedded in SDG 8. The review reveals that while progress has been made in tackling gender inequality in the labor market, gender bias, income discrepancies, and underrepresentation of women in senior positions persist, hindering inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all – SDG 8. Moreover, SDG 8’s focus on inclusive and sustainable development falls short of effectively addressing market economies’ structural disparities, insecure working conditions, and exploitative labor practices. Additionally, support for informal sector workers, who lack essential rights such as legal protection and social security, remains insufficient. Ecological destruction is sometimes an unintended consequence of purely market-based labor markets with an emphasis on economic growth, with SDG 8 lacking sufficient integration of environmental sustainability in its framework. The novelty of this study comes from its in-depth, critical, and policy-focused analysis of the ideas around decent employment in the context of SDG 8. The findings underscore the importance of providing fair, safe, and secure employment opportunities to support economic growth and development while upholding workers’ rights. In conclusion, we emphasize the crucial role of promoting decent work and sustainable growth in achieving SDG 8’s overall objectives, as it directly impacts other SDGs.
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T00:00:00Z
  • The right to science and gender inequalities

    • Authors: Yvonne Donders
      PubDate: 2023-11-17T00:00:00Z
  • Decolonizing scholarship' Plural onto/epistemologies and the right to

    • Authors: Caroline Gatt
      PubDate: 2023-11-17T00:00:00Z
  • Ethical questioning in arts and health-based research: propositions and

    • Authors: Taiwo Afolabi, Luba Kozak, Calum Smith
      Abstract: Ethical questioning is a framework for considering the ethical implications and practices in research and is used as a tool for thinking about the connections between art and health. It enables researchers and practitioners to gain a deeper understanding of the emotional dimensions in the field of art and health. In this paper, we propose that ethical questioning, grounded in the principles of ethics of care, can foster a more reflexive and holistic approach to understanding the concept of well-being. We also propose that adopting ethical questioning as a methodology, which requires intentional self-reflection and recognition of positionality, can expose and challenge conventional knowledge hierarchies, resulting in more ethical research outcomes and relationships between researchers and participants. Ultimately, our hypothesis proposes that ethical questioning holds the potential to offer an actionable practice that demonstrates ethics of care.
      PubDate: 2023-11-17T00:00:00Z
  • Internalization of negative societal views on old age into
           self-perceptions of aging: exploring factors associated with self-directed

    • Authors: Motoko Ishikawa
      Abstract: IntroductionA growing number of research has provided evidence for the negative impact of ageism on older people’s health and well-being. Among the three different manifestations of ageism, namely institutional, interpersonal and self-directed ageism, significant ageism-health associations have been proved to be strongest for self-directed ageism. This supports stereotype embodiment theory, which maintains that lifetime exposure to negative age stereotypes leads to the internalization of ageism as a form of negative attitudes towards own aging and it adversely affects health and well-being in old age. However, little is known about how people internalize negative age stereotypes held in the society into self-perceptions of aging.MethodsThis study aimed to explore how socially shared beliefs about old age are internalized into self-perceptions of aging focusing on uncovering factors related to self-directed ageism. Data were derived from the survey that had examined citizen’s attitudes towards old age and aging in Finland. Multinominal logistic regression models were performed to examine the association of sociodemographic and contextual factors with different combinations of societal age stereotypes and two indicators of self-perceptions of aging: subjective views on old age and personal feelings of own old age.ResultsThe analyses showed that being female, attaining tertiary education, evaluating poor quality of life and awareness of institutional old age discrimination were related to holding negative views on aging towards both society and oneself.DiscussionThe findings from univariate and multivariate models suggest that it is not age per se, but structural and cultural circumstances shaped with growing older that turns socially shared negative age stereotypes into negative self-perceptions of aging. Even though the study addressed situations in one country, the findings have an important implication for other rapidly aging societies regarding how social and cultural contexts are closely linked to the formation of self-directed ageism.
      PubDate: 2023-11-17T00:00:00Z
  • Distress in the care of people with chronic low back pain: insights from
           an ethnographic study|Introduction|Methods|Results|Discussion

    • Authors: Miriam Dillon, Rebecca E. Olson, Stefanie Plage, Maxi Miciak, Peter Window, Matthew Stewart, Anja Christoffersen, Simon Kilner, Natalie Barthel, Jenny Setchell
      Abstract: IntroductionDistress is part of the experiences and care for people with chronic low back pain. However, distress is often pathologised and individualised; it is seen as a problem within the individual in pain and something to be downplayed, avoided, or fixed. To that end, we situate distress as a normal everyday relational experience circulating, affecting, moving in, through, and across bodies. Challenging practices that may amplify distress, we draw on the theorisation of affect as a relational assemblage to analyse physiotherapy clinical encounters in the care of people with chronic low back pain.MethodsAdopting a critical reflexive ethnographic approach, we analyse data from a qualitative project involving 15 ethnographic observations of patient-physiotherapist interactions and 6 collaborative dialogues between researchers and physiotherapists. We foreground conceptualisations of distress— and what they make (im)possible—to trace embodied assemblage formations and relationality when caring for people with chronic low back pain.ResultsOur findings indicate that conceptualisation matters to the clinical entanglement, particularly how distress is recognised and navigated. Our study highlights how distress is both a lived experience and an affective relation—that both the physiotherapist and people with chronic low back pain experience distress and can be affected by and affect each other within clinical encounters.DiscussionSituated at the intersection of health sociology, sociology of emotions, and physiotherapy, our study offers a worked example of applying an affective assemblage theoretical framework to understanding emotionally imbued clinical interactions. Viewing physiotherapy care through an affective assemblage lens allows for recognising that life, pain, and distress are emerging, always in flux. Such an approach recognises that clinicians and patients experience distress; they are affected by and affect each other. It demands a more humanistic approach to care and helps move towards reconnecting the inseparable in clinical practice—emotion and reason, body and mind, carer and cared for.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16T00:00:00Z
  • Tweets don’t vote – Twitter discourse from Wales and England
           during Brexit

    • Authors: Larissa Peixoto Gomes
      Abstract: The Welsh vote for “leave” in the Brexit referendum surprised some academics and analysts due to its strong preference for Labor and its close financial ties to the EU. It also brought up a debate about apparent differences in Welsh and English attitudes towards race, ethnicity, and migration, with the former often claiming to have a more positive stance regarding the presence of ethnic minorities and foreign nationalities. This paper proposes to analyze discourse posted on Twitter during June 2016, specifically targeting Wales and England with the aim to offer insight into the perceptions and beliefs of Welsh and English individuals on the platform and if attitudes on race, ethnicity, and migration played a significant role. Counterfactuals are checked with posts from the first few weeks of the refugee crisis in Afghanistan in 2021, the war on Ukraine, and the announcement of the Rwanda policy. The current discussion of Welsh national identity includes its claims as a “nation of sanctuary” and that understands oppression and marginalization. Thus, Welsh perspectives on Brexit become an interesting viewpoint to comprehending ethnic minorities and foreigners as it creates a possible conflict between the institutional discourse, cultural views, and perceived economic needs. In this context, this paper takes the view that Twitter is an area where individuals post their thoughts uninhibited, and where we can conduct an aggregate analysis of that public sentiment.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16T00:00:00Z
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