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Frontiers in Sociology
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2297-7775
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Educational Policies Matter: How Schooling Strategies Influence Refugee

    • Authors: Gisela Will, Regina Becker, Oliver Winkler
      Abstract: This article investigates the educational participation of refugee adolescents in Germany as a main European destination country of refugee migration. Opportunities and restrictions for school participation vary not only across countries–, but in the case of the Federal Republic of Germany, also within countries. The influence of different regional educational policies on refugees' educational participation and the extent to which they limit or enable individual agency, are however, widely understudied. We thus aim to analyze how different regional educational policies within Germany influence refugee students' educational participation regarding four central indicators: the duration until school enrollment, the type of class attended (newcomer vs. regular class), the type of school attended, and whether they are enrolled in settings appropriate for their age. We rely on a theoretical model which sees educational decisions as the result of rational cost-benefit calculations. The individual educational investments depend on individual motivations and resources within a given opportunity structure. We integrate the legal regulations via the opportunity structures into the theoretical model. Our analyses are based on data from 2,415 adolescents who were interviewed in the “ReGES–Refugees in the German Educational System” study. Our results show significant correlations between different regional educational policies and the four domains of educational participation. These effects remain stable when considering family and individual resources, as well as further control variables that previous research on social and ethnic educational inequality has shown to be relevant. Family and individual resources only partially influence educational participation. This indicates that refugee students and their parents have only limited options for action concerning their educational participation. Thus, our study shows that educational policies in fact matter: the assignment to a federal state plays a significant role in determining the duration until school enrollment, whether one is placed to a grade level age-appropriately, and whether one attends a newcomer class. Most significantly, legal regulations strongly influence refugees' chances of attending a higher school track (Gymnasium). Due to the low permeability of the German education system, this creates path dependencies for the further education and career paths of new immigrant students.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Contemporary Families: Therapeutic Support for New Challenges

    • Authors: Sara Skandrani, Marion Feldman, Ricarda Nater-Mewes
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T00:00:00Z
  • The Impact of Perceived Discrimination on Cultural Identification,
           Psychological Stress, Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Tendencies in
           Individuals With Turkish Migration Background in Germany

    • Authors: Demet Dingoyan, Franka Metzner, Akin Kongur, Örsan Arslan, Gesa Elena Albertine Pust, Roland Weierstall-Pust
      Abstract: The following study considers correlates of the identification with the origin and host culture of German individuals with a Turkish migrant background. It examines how these two factors mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination, emotion regulation or psychological stress, and aggressive tendencies as the major dependent variable. For this purpose, the data of 229 people with Turkish migration background living in Germany was collected through an online survey. Findings depict that the identification with the Turkish (origin) and German (host) culture mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and emotion regulation. The relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological stress is mediated by the identification with the German culture. The analysis shows that perceived discrimination is associated with a reduced identification with the German culture and with a high identification with the Turkish culture. Emotion regulation abilities are negatively related to perceived discrimination and identification with the Turkish culture. In contrary, the psychological stress level is positively related to perceived discrimination. The preparedness for aggressive behavior is also associated positively by psychological stress and negatively by emotion regulation abilities. The results are discussed against the background of the specific migration history and living conditions of Turkish immigrants in Germany.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T00:00:00Z
  • Secularism as a Project of Free and Equal Citizenship: Reflections on the
           Turkish Case

    • Authors: Haldun Gülalp
      Abstract: This article undertakes a defense of secularism, much maligned by postmodernists and multiculturalists. First, secularism as a normative political principle is conceptually distinguished from the discredited sociological theory of secularization and, second, it is treated as a project of free and equal citizenship. The conceptual discussion is complemented by an assessment of the Turkish case, falsely presented in the literature as a radical form of secularism. The article aims to show that a religious political movement, opposed to secularism, tends to be authoritarian and intolerant of diversity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T00:00:00Z
  • Language Choices at Home and Their Relationship With Educational Outcomes,
           With a Special Focus on Children With Origins in Former Yugoslavia and
           Turkey in Six European Countries

    • Authors: Elina Kilpi-Jakonen, Jenni Alisaari
      Abstract: Language has been conceptualized as both a measure as well as a predictor of integration among immigrants and their children. However, the relationship between language spoken at home and different educational outcomes remains poorly understood. Many studies indicate that nurturing students' first languages is positively associated with their learning at school. Other research suggests that one of the reasons why children of immigrants tend to perform worse at school is due to speaking a language other than that of instruction at home. In order to shed further light on the role of language choices at home for education, we examine both the correlates of language use at home as well as the relationship between this and reading scores and educational expectations. We differentiate between three language use groups: those who mainly use the language of origin at home, those who only use the language of instruction at home, and those who use both of these. We analyze these relationships using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). In order to examine country differences, we place a special focus on two immigrant-origin groups that are present in significant numbers in a number of European countries: children with origins in Turkey and former Yugoslavia. These two groups have also been identified as being at major educational disadvantage across Europe. Our results suggest that continuing to (mainly) use the language of origin at home is more prevalent among children from socioeconomically more disadvantaged families, but is supported by more socioeconomically advantaged and more diverse school environments. In the majority of countries studied, switching to the language of instruction is associated with higher reading scores but not with higher educational expectations than continuing to speak mainly the language of origin at home. These relationships are to a large extent confounded (or in some cases potentially mediated) by family factors such as socioeconomic status and school-related factors such as school's socioeconomic composition. We conclude by highlighting the role that linguistically responsive pedagogies and a positive school climate can play for the education of all young people but in particular newly-arrived immigrants.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T00:00:00Z
  • Trade-Off Between Schooling and Labor for Children: Understanding the
           Determinative Factors Among Rural Households in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Rafiqul Islam, Md Mahmudul Hoque
      Abstract: This research is concerned with understanding the factors behind the trade-off between child labor and child schooling, given the well-documented links between the two. It examines parents' behavior in their decision-making on their children's schooling or practicing child labor. Depending on qualitative research methods including 28 semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions conducted in the rural areas of Bangladesh in 2020, this study reveals the following: subsistence needs compel households, particularly the ultra-poor and the female-headed, to trade off child labor with schooling; due to higher demand of labor, parents engage their children into work instead of schooling; parents of labor-intensive occupations tend to trade off child labor with schooling; sexual division of labor remains obvious; finally, credit constraints and cultural beliefs have negative impacts on parental decision-making on child schooling. Interventions aiming to reduce child labor and increase schooling in these rural areas must remain mindful of the socio-economic and cultural needs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T00:00:00Z
  • Refining a DEI Assessment Tool for Use in Optimizing Professional STEM
           Societies for Gender Equity

    • Authors: Gretalyn M. Leibnitz, Jan W. Peters, Rebecca Campbell-Montalvo, Heather Metcalf, Andrea Lucy Putwen, Donald L. Gillian-Daniel, Ershela L. Sims, Verónica A. Segarra
      Abstract: Historic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplinary cultures were founded in a system that was predominately male, white, heterosexual, and able-bodied (i.e., “majority”). Some societal norms have changed, and so has demand for inclusive STEM engagement. However, legacy mental models, or deeply held beliefs and assumptions, linger and are embedded in the STEM system and disciplinary cultures. STEM reform is needed to maximize talent and create inclusive professions, but cannot be achieved without recognizing and addressing norms and practices that disproportionately serve majority vs. minoritized groups. As leading voices in disciplinary work and application, disciplinary and professional societies (Societies) are instrumental in shaping and sustaining STEM norms. We, leaders of the Amplifying the Alliance to Catalyze Change for Equity in STEM Success (ACCESS+) project, recognize the need to provide Society diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) change leaders with tools necessary to foster systemic change. In this Perspectives article, we present the Equity Environmental Scanning Tool (EEST) as an aid to help Society DEI change leaders elucidate legacy mental models, discern areas of strength, identify foci for advancement, and benchmark organizational change efforts. We share our rationale and work done to identify, and, ultimately, adapt a Society DEI self-assessment tool from the United Kingdom. We share background information on the UK tool, content and structural changes made to create the EEST, and an overview of the resulting EEST. Ultimately, we seek to increase awareness of a Society-specific DEI self-assessment tool designed to help Society DEI change leaders advance inclusive reform.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T00:00:00Z
  • The Making and Breaking of Social Ties During the Pandemic. Socio-Economic
           Position, Demographic Characteristics, and Changes in Social Networks

    • Authors: Ariane Bertogg, Sebastian Koos
      Abstract: Contact restrictions and distancing measures are among the most effective non-pharmaceutical measures to stop the spread of the SARS-CoV2 virus. Yet, research has only begun to understand the wider social consequences of these interventions. This study investigates how individuals' social networks have changed since the outbreak of the pandemic and how this is related to individuals' socio-economic positions and their socio-demographic characteristics. Based on a large quota sample of the German adult population, we investigate the loss and gain of strong and weak social ties during the pandemic. While about one third of respondents reported losing of contact with acquaintances, every fourth person has lost contact to a friend. Forming new social ties occurs less frequently. Only 10–15% report having made new acquaintances (15%) or friends (10%) during the pandemic. Overall, more than half of our respondents did not report any change, however. Changes in social networks are linked to both socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and migration background, providing key insights into a yet underexplored dimension of pandemic-related social inequality.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T00:00:00Z
  • Efficient and Reliable Geocoding of German Twitter Data to Enable Spatial
           Data Linkage to Official Statistics and Other Data Sources

    • Authors: H. Long Nguyen, Dorian Tsolak, Anna Karmann, Stefan Knauff, Simon Kühne
      Abstract: More and more, social scientists are using (big) digital behavioral data for their research. In this context, the social network and microblogging platform Twitter is one of the most widely used data sources. In particular, geospatial analyses of Twitter data are proving to be fruitful for examining regional differences in user behavior and attitudes. However, ready-to-use spatial information in the form of GPS coordinates is only available for a tiny fraction of Twitter data, limiting research potential and making it difficult to link with data from other sources (e.g., official statistics and survey data) for regional analyses. We address this problem by using the free text locations provided by Twitter users in their profiles to determine the corresponding real-world locations. Since users can enter any text as a profile location, automated identification of geographic locations based on this information is highly complicated. With our method, we are able to assign over a quarter of the more than 866 million German tweets collected to real locations in Germany. This represents a vast improvement over the 0.18% of tweets in our corpus to which Twitter assigns geographic coordinates. Based on the geocoding results, we are not only able to determine a corresponding place for users with valid profile locations, but also the administrative level to which the place belongs. Enriching Twitter data with this information ensures that they can be directly linked to external data sources at different levels of aggregation. We show possible use cases for the fine-grained spatial data generated by our method and how it can be used to answer previously inaccessible research questions in the social sciences. We also provide a companion R package, nutscoder, to facilitate reuse of the geocoding method in this paper.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T00:00:00Z
  • The Impact of Academic Publication: Inequity for Women in Behavior
           Analytic Journals

    • Authors: Jennifer M. Krebsbach
      Abstract: The number of women in higher education has increased over the past few decades but are still not at an equal level to their male counterparts, especially at the tenured level. One area of note within the tenure process is research. This area is highly valued by certain universities and could shed light on discrepancies in the number of female faculty as the faculty position becomes more prestigious. The author downloaded 21 years of publication data for seven prestigious behavior analytic journals and used quantitative methods to determine if the rates of publication differed between a previous study and today. There were 8,778 final articles yielding 27,225 authors in total. Data showed that women are represented more frequently overall, across time and all journals, less frequently in prestigious authorship positions, and more often when the sex of the editor at the time of publication was also female. While women's participation has increased over time, and since the original study, there is still disproportionate representation compared to the entirety of the field, in the order of authorship positions, and for editor-in-chief positions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T00:00:00Z
  • Using Crisis Theory in Dealing With Severe Mental Illness–A Step
           Toward Normalization'

    • Authors: Johanna Baumgardt, Stefan Weinmann
      Abstract: The perception of mental distress varies with time and culture, e.g., concerning its origin as either social or medical. This may be one reason for the moderate reliability of descriptive psychiatric diagnoses. Additionally, the mechanisms of action of most psychiatric treatments and psychotherapeutic interventions are generally unknown. Thus, these treatments have to be labeled as mostly unspecific even if they help in coping with mental distress. The psychiatric concept of mental disorders therefore has inherent limitations of precision and comprises rather fuzzy boundaries. Against this background, many people question the current process of diagnosing and categorizing mental illnesses. However, many scholars reject new approaches discussed in this context. They rather hold on to traditional diagnostic categories which therefore still play a central role in mental health practice and research and. In order to better understand the adherence to traditional psychiatric concepts, we take a closer look at one of the most widely adopted traditional concepts – the Stress-Vulnerability Model. This model has originally been introduced to tackle some problems of biological psychiatry. However, it has been misapplied with the result of drawing attention preferentially to biological vulnerability instead of a wider array of vulnerability factors including social adversity. Thus, in its current use, the Stress-Vulnerability Model provides only a vague theory for understanding mental phenomena. Therefore, we discuss the advantages and allegedly limited applicability of Crisis Theory as an alternative heuristic model for understanding the nature and development of mental distress. We outline the problems of this theory especially in applying it to severe mental disorders. We finally argue that an understanding of Crisis Theory supported by a systemic approach can be applied to most types of severe psychological disturbances implying that such an understanding may prevent or manage some negative aspects of the psychiatrization of psychosocial problems.
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T00:00:00Z
  • Is There a Rural Penalty in Language Acquisition' Evidence From
           Germany's Refugee Allocation Policy

    • Authors: Samir Khalil, Ulrich Kohler, Jasper Tjaden
      Abstract: Emerging evidence has highlighted the important role of local contexts for integration trajectories of asylum seekers and refugees. Germany's policy of randomly allocating asylum seekers across Germany may advantage some and disadvantage others in terms of opportunities for equal participation in society. This study explores the question whether asylum seekers that have been allocated to rural areas experience disadvantages in terms of language acquisition compared to those allocated to urban areas. We derive testable assumptions using a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) which are then tested using large-N survey data (IAB-BAMF-SOEP refugee survey). We find that living in a rural area has no negative total effect on language skills. Further the findings suggest that the “null effect” is the result of two processes which offset each other: while asylum seekers in rural areas have slightly lower access for formal, federally organized language courses, they have more regular exposure to German speakers.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T00:00:00Z
  • A Change in Work-Family/Life or a Return to Traditional Normative Patterns
           in Spain' Systematic Review

    • Authors: Almudena Morero-Mínguez, Marta Ortega-Gaspar
      Abstract: Family policies to reduce conflict in work-life balance and promote gender equality advanced significantly at the legislative level in Spain in the first decades of the twenty-first century. These advances include the 2007 Law for Equality between Men and Women and the extension of paternity leave to 16 weeks in 2020. However, advances in care work and at the professional level have been limited. The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified existing imbalances in family-work responsibilities in general and the ICT gender gap in particular. In crisis situations, women adopt the role of caregivers more easily than men, and women with fewer educational, economic, and job resources are more likely to assume this role, contributing to increasing gender inequalities at work and in the family. COVID-19 has exposed these imbalances, highlighting the need for new narratives and laws that encourage gender equality. Post-COVID-19 scenarios thus present an opportunity for reflection and progress on Spanish family policy. From this perspective, the paradigm of work-family conflict, although interesting, must be examined and resignified. This article proposes to critically resignify the paradigm of work-family conflict based on the new narrative generated by COVID-19. The present analysis suggests a resignification that should involve changing the expectations and practices around work-family balance, based on family diversity, job insecurity, the technological revolution, and new masculinities. It is proposed a prior reflection to clarify definition of the indicators and indexes that enable operationalization of the concept of work-family reconciliation. It is expected that these measures will help to facilitate practical application of reconciliation in areas such as public or/and private organizations, while also enabling international comparative analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T00:00:00Z
  • The (Un)real Existence of ADHD—Criteria, Functions, and Forms of the
           Diagnostic Entity

    • Authors: Juho Honkasilta, Athanasios Koutsoklenis
      Abstract: The contemporary conceptualization of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a complex, multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder cannot be understood as such without a complex assemblage of political, economic, and cultural processes that deem the conceptualization to be valuable and useful. In this article we use the notion of psychiatrization as a lens through which to see parts of these processes that make up ADHD what it is. In the first part of the article, we critically assess the scientific basis of the ADHD diagnosis via examining its diagnostic criteria as presented in the current fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the so called “Bible” of modern psychiatry. The second part of the article asks what is done with the ADHD diagnostic entity and with the idea that it represents a natural neurodevelopmental state within an individual—something an individual has—as represented in the DSM-5. Drawn from our previous research, we analyze how ADHD becomes real in discourse practice as a powerful semiotic mediator through analysis of the various functions and forms in which it takes shape in institutional, social, and individual levels. We conclude that the frequent changes in the diagnostic criteria of ADHD do not reflect any real scientific progress. Among other reasons, they change to match better the maneuvers of individuals when navigating an increasingly psychiatrized society in the search for recognition, support, category membership, immunity, sympathy, and sense of belonging.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T00:00:00Z
  • The Vulnerability-Stress-Model—Holding Up the Construct of the Faulty
           Individual in the Light of Challenges to the Medical Model of Mental

    • Authors: Elena Demke
      Abstract: In the late 1970s, the course seemed to be set for a reconciliation of the controversy around the somatic vs. the social nature of mental distress. The biopsychosocial model and the vulnerability-stress-model were influential agents in this move, but a medicalized somatic view on mental distress persisted nonetheless. The reasons for this persistence are complex, and naturally include questions of structural power. However, the adherence to a certain fundamental framing of a problem may continue to be transmitted not only out of conviction, but also unwittingly. The vulnerability-stress-model allowed those who used it to effectively stick to the implications of a medicalized somatic view of the faulty individual who falls ill, while also allowing them to believe they integrated the social dimensions of the problem. A close reading and hermeneutical interpretation of the text by Zubin and Spring (1977) and an analysis of its use in psychoeducation serve as a case study in this respect. The vulnerability-stress-model (simply called “vulnerability model” by Zubin and Spring; more often “stress-vulnerability model” by English speaking recipients, and “vulnerability-stress-model” by German authors) seems to have been a success story: since its publication by Zubin and Spring (1977), it has been the point of reference for numerous scholarly and popular (“psychoeducational”) adaptations. It was soon extended from the diagnosis of schizophrenia to various psychiatric diagnoses, understanding mental distress as the result of a trait/state-interaction in the shape of “deviant coping patterns” (Zubin and Spring, p. 112). Recipients appraised the integration of environmental and dispositional factors, some of them opposing the supposed originally integrative intention of the VSM to reduced applications of it (Schmidt, 2012). However, it can be argued that this integration is a matter of rhetorics rather than argumentative essence. Their argument which significantly depends on the use of metaphors, as well as their referencing amounts to a confirmation of a medicalized view on mental distress and a dismissal of the role played by societal factors. Applied to psychoeducation, this paradoxical combination reinforced a view of the persons in question as individually vulnerable, rather than socially wounded. The consequences in terms of what appears as remedy are significant and contribute to turning individual difference into disability.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T00:00:00Z
  • Storm the Capitol: Linking Offline Political Speech and Online Twitter
           Extra-Representational Participation on QAnon and the January 6

    • Authors: Claire Seungeun Lee, Juan Merizalde, John D. Colautti, Jisun An, Haewoon Kwak
      Abstract: The transfer of power stemming from the 2020 presidential election occurred during an unprecedented period in United States history. Uncertainty from the COVID-19 pandemic, ongoing societal tensions, and a fragile economy increased societal polarization, exacerbated by the outgoing president's offline rhetoric. As a result, online groups such as QAnon engaged in extra political participation beyond the traditional platforms. This research explores the link between offline political speech and online extra-representational participation by examining Twitter within the context of the January 6 insurrection. Using a mixed-methods approach of quantitative and qualitative thematic analyses, the study combines offline speech information with Twitter data during key speech addresses leading up to the date of the insurrection; exploring the link between Trump's offline speeches and QAnon's hashtags across a 3-day timeframe. We find that links between online extra-representational participation and offline political speech exist. This research illuminates this phenomenon and offers policy implications for the role of online messaging as a tool of political mobilization.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T00:00:00Z
  • Forecasting and Responsible Innovation: A Book Review

    • Authors: António Brandão Moniz
      Abstract: The new book edited by Rodríguez and colleagues focuses on the topic of forecasting and responsible innovation. The original title is “Anticipación e Innovación Responsible: La construcción de futuros alternativos para la ciencia y la tecnologia” (Forecasting and Responsible Innovation: The construction of alternative futures for science and technology), and was published by Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid. Throughout this text, the reviewer is using the term forecasting instead of anticipation to convey the Spanish concept of “anticipación.” Both concepts are usually applied to “the act of looking forward” (Merriam-Webster dictionary1) or “the act of expecting or foreseeing something; expectation or presentiment” (Farlex free dictionary2) The concept of forecasting is usually used in scientific debate to mean “to estimate or predict in advance” (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2016) or “the process of making predictions based on past and present data and most commonly by analysis of trends” (Wikipedia3) (Glenn, 1994, p. 4) expressed this definition well by saying that “studying the future is not simply economic projections or sociological analysis or technological forecasting, but a multi-disciplinary examination of change in all major areas of life to find the interacting dynamics that are creating the next age.” The concept has been developed mainly by Armstrong (2001) and followed by Farrukh and Holgado (2020), Schnaars (2009), and Marinakis (2012), among others. The editors are professors and researchers from the University of Basque Country (EHU) and from the University of Mondragon (MU). The book involves a whole set of experts on the topic, including the editors themselves (Hannot Rodríguez, Sergio Urueña, Andoni Eizagirre, and Oier Imaz), and Armin Grunwald, René von Schomberg, Javier Garcia Fronti, Domingo García Marzá, Andoni Ibarra, and others. Although still published just in Spanish, it is an important contribution to the social sciences and philosophy of sciences regarding the analysis of alternative sociotechnical futures with strong ethical principles, which delineates an innovative approach in an era when the formation of public opinion largely suffers from systematic distortions based on vested interests.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T00:00:00Z
  • Understanding the Role of Stigma and Misconceptions in the Experience of
           Epilepsy in India: Findings From a Mixed-Methods Study

    • Authors: Kritika Gosain, Tannistha Samanta
      Abstract: It is surprising that although 12 million people in India suffer from epilepsy this remains a thoroughly under-researched area in the sociology of health and practice. We address this intellectual and policy neglect by reviewing the social, psychological and legal challenges governing the lives of people living with epilepsy (PWE) by paying particular attention to negotiations in arranged marriages and employment. Drawing on the analytical frameworks of the sociological study of stigma, critical race theory and paying attention to the cultural models of health and suffering, this study utilized a combination of (online) survey data (N = 100) and in-depth qualitative interviews (N = 10) with PWE and their families. The online survey was administered to map the level of awareness about epilepsy and its clinical management among the general population, whereas the in-depth interviews were conducted to understand the experience, self-perception and everyday struggles of those diagnosed with the condition. Findings from the survey on non-PWE suggest a general lack of awareness and fearful misconceptions around epilepsy related seizures. In-depth interviews with PWEs revealed concealment (of the illness) as a dominant coping strategy to attenuate the social alienation and rejection associated with epilepsy. Further, PWE participants reported persistent discrimination, harassment and prejudiced understanding of diminished cognitive capacities at workplaces as a result of cultural myths and popular representations of epilepsy-related seizures. The study also demonstrated the significance of institutional support groups in assisting PWE to cope with symbolic violence and forge solidarities. We conclude with reflections on the ethical dilemmas faced by medical practitioners while dealing with social-medical interventions of epilepsy treatment. Overall, results from this study undergird the significance to revisit the social-moral as well as legal frameworks that persistently restrict opportunities for PWE in India. In an attempt to reimagine inclusive futures regardless of disease, disability and affliction, we attempt to move beyond the biomedical gaze and instead privilege stories of individual personhood, struggles and aspirations.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T00:00:00Z
  • Do New Firms Recruit Employees From Small or Large Firms, and Do Small or
           Large Firms Recruit Employees From Firms That Cease to Operate'

    • Authors: Jarle Aarstad, Olav Andreas Kvitastein
      Abstract: Panel data of Norwegian industries show that when they increase in the number of firms, firm size inequality in employees decreases. Decreasing firm size inequality implies that large firms become smaller in employees, and an increasing number of firms in an industry implies that more new firms are established than closed, i.e., ceasing to operate and going out of business. Thus, new firms chiefly recruit employees from large firms. Similarly, the data show that when industries decrease in the number of firms, firm size inequality in employees increases. Increasing firm size inequality implies that large firms become larger in employees, and a decreasing number of firms in an industry implies that more firms are closed than established. Thus, large firms chiefly recruit employees from firms that cease to operate. An implication of our findings is that large firms are crucial in recruiting employees to new firms and in recruiting employees from firms that cease to operate.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T00:00:00Z
  • Not in Their Right Mind' Right-Wing Extremism Is Not a Mental Illness,
           but Still a Challenge for Psychiatry

    • Authors: Frank Schumann, Peter Brook, Martin Heinze
      Abstract: Most research in psychiatry on extremism focuses on the question whether there is a connection between extremism and psychiatric diagnoses. In addition, practitioners are increasingly asked to take part in programs aimed at preventing and countering violent extremism by assessing risk for radicalization. However, an issue that remains largely unaddressed is that the rise of the far right in many countries during the last years poses a challenge for psychiatric services as working with right-wing patients can be a source of conflict for practitioners and patients alike. In this article, we assert that the narrow conceptual scope on psychological vulnerabilities and the practical focus on risk assessment contribute to processes of psychiatrization and limit the scope of research on right-wing extremism in psychiatry. By giving a brief overview of social research into right-wing extremism, the article argues that right wing beliefs should not be conceptualized as an expression of psychological vulnerabilities but rather as attempts to deal with conflict-laden social reality. Thus, a shift of perspective in psychiatric research on extremism is needed. On a conceptional level, the scope needs to be broadened to grasp the interplay of individual and social factors in radicalization with sufficient complexity. On a practical level, it is necessary to further investigate challenges for practitioners and institutions working with right-wing extremist patients.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
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