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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
Showing 401 - 382 of 382 Journals sorted alphabetically
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Secuencia     Open Access  
Seminar : A Journal of Germanic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sens public     Open Access  
Senses and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Serendipities : Journal for the Sociology and History of the Social Sciences     Open Access  
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sexualization, Media, & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Signs and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Simmel Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Social Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Social Change Review     Open Access  
Social Currents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Social Dynamics: A journal of African studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Social Forces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Social Inclusion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Networking     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Social Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Social Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Social Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Social Transformations in Chinese Societies     Hybrid Journal  
Sociální studia / Social Studies     Open Access  
Sociedad y Discurso     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Sociedad y Religión     Open Access  
Sociedade e Cultura     Open Access  
Società e diritti     Open Access  
SocietàMutamentoPolitica     Open Access  
Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Society and Culture in South Asia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Society and Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Society Register     Open Access  
Socio-Ecological Practice Research     Hybrid Journal  
Socio-logos     Open Access  
Sociolinguistic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sociologia : Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto     Open Access  
Sociologia del diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sociologia del Lavoro     Full-text available via subscription  
Sociología del Trabajo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sociologia della Comunicazione     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sociologia e Politiche Sociali     Full-text available via subscription  
Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale     Full-text available via subscription  
Sociología Histórica     Open Access  
Sociologia Ruralis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sociologia urbana e rurale     Full-text available via subscription  
Sociología y Tecnociencia     Open Access  
Sociologia, Problemas e Práticas     Open Access  
Sociológica     Open Access  
Sociological Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sociological Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sociological Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Sociological Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sociological Jurisprudence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sociological Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Sociological Methods & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Sociological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Sociological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sociological Research Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sociological Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sociological Spectrum: Mid-South Sociological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sociological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Sociologie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sociologie du Travail     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Sociologie et sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SociologieS - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sociologisk Forskning     Open Access  
Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188)
Sociology : Thought and Action     Open Access  
Sociology and Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sociology Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sociology Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Sociology of Health & Illness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Sociology of Islam     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sociology of Race and Ethnicity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Sociology of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Socius : Sociological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Solidarity : Journal of Education, Society and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sosiologi i dag     Open Access  
Sospol : Jurnal Sosial Politik     Open Access  
Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South African Review of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Southern Cultures     Full-text available via subscription  
Soziale Probleme : Zeitschrift für soziale Probleme und soziale Kontrolle     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Spaces for Difference: An Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
Sport in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Studia Białorutenistyczne     Open Access  
Studia Iranica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studia Litteraria et Historica     Open Access  
Studia Socialia Cracoviensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Sociologia     Open Access  
Studies in American Humor     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in American Naturalism     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Latin American Popular Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Studies of Transition States and Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sudamérica : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Surveillance and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Swiss Journal of Sociology     Open Access  
Symbolic Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Søkelys på arbeidslivet (Norwegian Journal of Working Life Studies)     Open Access  
Teaching Sociology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Tecnología y Sociedad     Open Access  
TECNOSCIENZA: Italian Journal of Science & Technology Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Terrains / Théories     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The British Journal of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
The Philanthropist     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Social Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Sociological Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
The Sociological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
The Tocqueville Review/La revue Tocqueville     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Forskning i Sygdom og Samfund     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for ungdomsforskning     Open Access  
Tla-Melaua : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Todas as Artes     Open Access  
Tracés     Open Access  
Trajecta : Religion, Culture and Society in the Low Countries     Open Access  
Transatlantica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transmotion     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Transposition : Musique et sciences sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Travail et Emploi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Treballs de Sociolingüística Catalana     Open Access  
TRIM. Tordesillas : Revista de investigación multidisciplinar     Open Access  
Universidad, Escuela y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Unoesc & Ciência - ACHS     Open Access  
Urban Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Valuation Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Variations : Revue Internationale de Théorie Critique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visitor Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Vlast' (The Authority)     Open Access  
Work, Aging and Retirement     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Cultures eJournal     Open Access  
World Future Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Religion, Gesellschaft und Politik     Hybrid Journal  
Социологический журнал     Open Access  

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Socius : Sociological Research
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2378-0231 - ISSN (Online) 2378-0231
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • The Social Overload Thesis Revisited: Exploring the Mechanisms of
           Size-Dependent Participation Behavior in Voluntary Communities

    • Authors: Yongren Shi, Qianyi Shi
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Sociological and urban studies have consistently reported that human behavior exhibits a discernible correlation with population size, following a power-law function. Individuals residing in larger communities exhibit significantly higher levels of activity in contrast to their counterparts in smaller communities. However, the underlying processes responsible for such behavioral patterns remain unclear. The authors propose that organizational crowding tends to generate competitive pressure that results in social overload for individuals, who in turn divide time and energy among many groups while reducing the time spent in each. The social overload thesis predicts integration, rather than mutual exclusion of groups, when experiencing competition. A large-scale event participation dataset from 11 major U.S. technology clusters over a period of 10 years is used to test these hypotheses. The results support the mediating role of competition in the relationship between population size and participation intensity. The authors demonstrate the impact of competition on network structure.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T07:11:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231209140
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Workers and Their Foes: Customer Scapegoats in the Service Triad

    • Authors: Taylor Laemmli
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The author reconceptualizes the service triangle as a Simmelian triad and draws on 16 months of fieldwork to analyze restaurant servers’ experiences of income and interactional precarity. Precarious work frustrates servers. However, triadic dynamics position customer scapegoats as responsible for servers’ frustrations. Employers passively benefit from this dynamic, which continually minimizes opposition to the structure of employment. This is a new mechanism for the reproduction of precarious service work that can explain why service workers consent to exploitation. These findings apply to workplaces in which workers experience low levels of autonomy and encounter customers who are interactionally salient and can control workers’ behavior. In such workplaces, the triadic dynamics identified in this article could weaken the potential for worker-customer alliances and complicate the promise of anti-tipping campaigns.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T12:01:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231204845
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Comparing Perceived Disruptiveness and Effectiveness of Protest Tactics

    • Authors: Katherine Furl, Todd Lu, Austin Hoang-Nam Vo, Neal Caren
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      How do U.S. voters view the disruptiveness and effectiveness of social movement tactics' Strategically-used assertive tactics can enable movement success, though tactics considered too disruptive or violent may reduce public support. The authors investigate how U.S. voters perceive the disruptiveness and effectiveness of various protest tactics. In a representative survey experiment, 497 U.S. voters ranked the disruptiveness and effectiveness of 65 tactics. The authors find that tactics’ perceived disruptiveness and effectiveness exhibit an inverse relationship and a continuous character. The findings suggest that multiple, contextual factors influence public perceptions of protests.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T04:53:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231212374
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • A Sociological Model of Agency and Parent-Child Negotiations of Sex

    • Authors: Maria S. Grigoryeva
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Agency theory explains many processes of interest to sociologists, such as overcoming conflicts of interest, information management, delegation of power and control, and the social dilemmas that arise when one acts on behalf of another. Despite its explanatory power, agency theory has been underused in sociology. To better use and contribute to agency theory, the author proposes a sociological agency model (SAM). This model incorporates a wide range of motivations and behaviors for both principals and agents, embeds the principal-agent dyad in meso- and macro-level structures, and considers the role of legitimacy of control. The author uses SAM to explain how parents and children negotiate teen sexual behavior. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health support the expectations of SAM as applied to parent-child negotiations of teen sex. Teenagers avoid parental supervision and control and strategically conceal information to have sex against the wishes of parents.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-15T10:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231204853
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • “Optimizing” Health in the Time of COVID-19: How Neoliberal Health
           Orientations Dictate Families’ Responses

    • Authors: Hillary Steinberg, Stefanie Mollborn
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Neoliberal health orientations that emphasize specific health behaviors provide frameworks for how class-advantaged Americans understand themselves and their health. The family is a consequential pathway for such privilege to be enacted. Using dyadic interviews with U.S. parents and teenagers, the authors explore how families in two middle- to upper-middle-class, health-conscious cities reoriented their beliefs and practices around health in response to coronavirus disease 2019. Neoliberal health orientations were still the logic many families used to approach health, even as public health messaging focused on protecting vulnerable groups. The authors find that before and during the pandemic, teenagers experienced intense pressure to maintain a classed, thin body via diet, participation in sports, and exercise. Families that adhered closely to neoliberal ideals and encouraged these practices felt that their health behaviors boosted immune defenses against coronavirus disease 2019. However, parents and teenagers worried about the worsening of their fitness and diet. The authors discuss implications for public health and inequalities.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-07T11:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231207638
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Visualizing Children’s Family Structure

    • Authors: Gabrielle Juteau, Krista K. Westrick-Payne, Susan L. Brown, Wendy D. Manning
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      This visualization illustrates the multidimensionality of family life among U.S. children. The authors used the 2022 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to examine the intersection of three family structure domains: number of parents, relationship of child to parent(s), and parental union type. Even as 74 percent of children live with two parents, only 60 percent lived with their two biological or adoptive married parents, and substantial variation was evident in children’s family configurations. By focusing on child’s relationship to parent, the authors revealed that a minority of children lived with only their stepparent(s). A consideration of parents’ parental union status shows that parents within stepfamilies are almost nearly as likely to cohabit than marry. Children not residing with their parents were mostly living with other family members, mainly their grandparents, and these relatives were largely married or single. The results suggest that limiting family structure to one domain conceals its complexity by providing a narrow lens on families.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-07T11:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231205216
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Documenting the Rise of Anxiety in the United States across Space and Time
           by Using Text Analysis of Online Review Data

    • Authors: Balázs Kovács
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      In this article, the author demonstrates how one can use large-scale and publicly available online review data to study the rise in anxiety in the United States. Using the anxiety keyword list from the dictionary compiled by Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, the author analyzed the text of approximately 7 million online reviews submitted by Yelp reviewers across 13 U.S. states from 2006 to 2021. The overall pattern confirms existing discourse that anxiety has been constantly rising in Western societies since 2000. Beyond documenting the overall pattern, online review data enable the disaggregation of this pattern by geographies, price levels, and individuals, thereby providing a more comprehensive and detailed picture than previously documented in existing literature. Additional analysis shows that anxiety is increasing faster than other emotions, such as anger and sadness.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-07T11:40:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231207635
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Medically Assisted Reproduction in the United States: A Focus on Parents
           40 and Older

    • Authors: Katherine I. Tierney, Karen Benjamin Guzzo
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      As age at first birth continues to increase in the United States, the use of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has likely increased. Using population-level data of births in the United States from the National Vital Statistics System from 2010 to 2021, the authors document the proportion of births due to MAR with a focus on parents 40 years or older, disaggregating by parental age combinations and parity. Although MAR-related births constitute a small proportion of all births, there is a growing and sizable proportion of first births to women 40 years or older due to MAR. Specifically, 28.2 percent, 21.5 percent, and 15.3 percent first births involved MAR among mothers 40 or older with an unknown father’s age, both parents 40 or older, and mothers 40 or older with fathers younger than 40, respectively. Thus, for some groups, MAR is a particularly important component of the pathway to parenthood.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-07T11:40:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231205191
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Myriad Living Arrangements of U.S. Single Men and Women in Midlife

    • Authors: Christopher A. Julian, Susan L. Brown
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Attention to the living arrangements of singles has centered around young adults who increasingly reside with their parents. By comparison, midlife singles remain overlooked despite a substantial rise in singlehood during this life-course stage. Using the 2021 American Community Survey five-year estimates, the authors uncovered the disparate living arrangements of midlife single men and women household heads, defining midlife as those aged 30 to 49 and single as those who were neither cohabiting nor married. The findings revealed that the living arrangements of men and women were near inverses of each other, with most men living alone, whereas most women lived with someone else. Relative to men, a far greater share of women were residing with their children, whereas a larger share of men were in arrangements that did not include children. The distinctive living arrangements speak to the potential differences in familial obligations and available support sources.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-07T11:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231205211
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Visualizing the Evolution of Discourse in Cannabis Ballot Initiatives

    • Authors: Burrel Vann
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The past decade has seen numerous efforts to enact cannabis policy reform at the state level. This visualization captures discursive shifts in statewide ballot initiatives devoted to legalizing cannabis for recreational use between 2012 and 2022. The topics discussed in ballot initiatives exhibited substantial variability over time, with discussions of drug use consequences and legislative processes becoming more dominant in later years. The evolution of discourse in ballot initiatives has important implications for our understanding of the impact of language on support for policy change.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-11-07T11:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231205195
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Predictors of Adopting an Atheistic Worldview: An Analysis of Survey Data
           Containing a Retrospective Measure of Belief in God

    • Authors: Christopher P. Scheitle, Katie E. Corcoran
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Many studies have used retrospective survey measures to examine changes in individuals’ religious affiliation, but studies examining changes to individuals’ core religious beliefs are comparatively rare. This is likely because surveys rarely contain measures of both current and past beliefs. Using data from a probability sample of U.S. adults that includes a measure of individuals’ current and age 16 belief in God, the authors examine the predictors of an individual’s adopting an atheistic worldview. Overall, 6 percent of the sample report moving from a nonatheistic worldview to an atheistic worldview. This rate is higher among those who said they had weaker belief in God at age 16, men, those with higher incomes, and some sexually minoritized groups. This rate is lower among older individuals, political conservatives, and some racially or ethnically minoritized groups. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for the study of nonbelief and the measurement of religious change.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T07:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231204850
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Visualizing the Spatial Distribution of Energy Insecurity in the United

    • Authors: Jennifer Laird, Mateo Cello, Allen Mena, Diana Hernández
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Prior to 2020, little was known about how energy insecurity varies across U.S. states. The recent release of energy insecurity data from the Energy Information Administration facilitates the exploration of energy insecurity at the state level using the Residential Energy Consumption Survey. In this visualization, the authors use choropleth maps to show spatial variation in (1) forgoing basic necessities such as food or medicine to pay an energy bill and (2) keeping the home at an unhealthy temperature. Both are strategies used by households to prevent energy insecurity. The visualization highlights the state-level prevalence of each indicator.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-10-17T07:15:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231205209
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Student Debt Forgiveness and Economic Stability, Social Mobility, and
           Quality-of-Life Decisions: Results from a Survey Experiment

    • Authors: Jason Jabbari, Stephen Roll, Mathieu Despard, Leah Hamilton
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      As policymakers grapple with whether or not to forgive student debt, for who, and how much, it is important to explore how student debt forgiveness would relate to intended household decisions and behaviors. We conducted a survey experiment that asked participants with student debt to imagine a scenario in which the federal government forgave a certain amount of student debt. We then had these participants report on how this would affect their decisions and behaviors. A total of 1,053 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions that featured different levels of student debt forgiveness. Our results indicate that student debt is strongly influencing intended decisions and behaviors that can have large implications for household economic stability (e.g., emergency savings) and social mobility (e.g., saving for a down payment on a home). These results also demonstrate that the amount of student debt forgiveness matters.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-10-17T07:12:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231196778
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Consequences of Financial Strain for Psychological Distress among Older
           Adults: Examining the Explanatory Role of Multiple Components of the

    • Authors: Alex Bierman, Laura Upenieks, Yeonjung Lee, Megan Harmon
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Guided by a sociological perspective on mental health encapsulated in a stress process perspective, the authors examine the role of mastery, self-esteem, and mattering in explaining how financial strain is associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and anger in older adults. Analyses focus on the Caregiving, Aging, and Financial Experiences study, a national longitudinal survey of Canadian older adults conducted in the fall of 2021 and 2022 (n = 3,977). Financial strain is associated with greater psychological distress across outcomes, but most strongly with anxiety. Although financial strain depletes mastery, self-esteem, and mattering, only mastery and self-esteem act as mediators between financial strain and psychological distress, with mastery predominant. This research suggests that a sociological perspective on stress and mental health can inform efforts to enhance the well-being of an aging population by identifying how reinforcements to the self-concept may truncate the consequences of financial challenges for psychological distress in later life.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-10-13T12:10:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231197034
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Children’s Academic Achievement and Behavior Problems at the
           Intersection of Gender and Family Environment

    • Authors: Michael Kühhirt, Markus Klein, Ibrahim Demirer
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      This article investigates whether gender differences in children’s math, reading, and behavior problems vary across mothers’ education and family structure. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-Children and Young Adults (N > 6,200; age range = 5–14; 51 percent female; 30 percent Black, 20 percent Hispanic, and 50 percent other ethnic backgrounds), we hypothesized that boys growing up with less educated mothers and in single-parent families may lag behind girls more significantly in reading and behavior problems. They may be less ahead in math than their peers from more advantaged backgrounds. Our findings demonstrate this heterogeneity of gender differences by maternal education but not by family structure. This may indicate that cultural norms associated with gender play a significant role in explaining the observed heterogeneity across family circumstances. We replicated these findings for academic achievement using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class 1998–1999.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-10-12T08:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231199395
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Durable Change in U.S. Urban Mobility Networks, 2019–2022

    • Authors: Thomas Marlow, Kinga Makovi, Bruno Abrahao
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic significantly altered how people move between neighborhoods. Tracking these changes is important because a growing literature demonstrates that mobility networks influence social and environmental exposures that interact directly with urban inequalities. Using four years of weekly smartphone-based mobility data in the 25 largest U.S. cities, we investigate how mobility changed in 2021 and 2022. We measure mobility networks with three previously used indices and introduce a fourth, the Dissimilar Mobility Index, to capture the demographic dissimilarity experienced in a mobility network. We find that although mobility hubs and their associated patterns of segregated mobility returned to pre-pandemic levels in 2021, neighborhood isolation remained depressed until the end of 2022 compared to 2019. Together, these results indicate that despite vaccine availability in 2021, structural changes in urban mobility networks caused by the COVID-19 pandemic were durable for over two years after its onset.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-10-09T12:18:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231198857
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Enduring Relationships: Social Aspects of Perceived Interactions with the

    • Authors: Karen A. Cerulo
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Is it possible to interact with the dead' Belief in such encounters is more widespread than we might think. Yet sociologists, unlike other disciplines, have not fully engaged the question. Here, I review both long-standing theoretical objections to such research and recent theories that encourage attention to the issue. Leaning on the latter, I use closed- and open-ended survey data collected from 535 Americans to explore what I call “living-deceased perceived interaction.” My data show that nearly half of my study participants report meaningful and regular interactions with deceased relatives and friends who were important in their lives. I examine the characteristics of such interactions—how and when they are performed and what these experiences mean to respondents. I also investigate the role of one’s social location in initiating interactions with the dead. Finally, I explore the social benefits, if any, these interactions provide for individuals who engage in them.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-10-07T12:04:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231203658
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Role of Early Schooling in Shaping Inequality in Academic, Executive
           Functioning, and Social-Emotional Skills

    • Authors: Marissa E. Thompson, Christina Weiland, Meghan P. McCormick, Catherine Snow, Jason Sachs
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Children from historically marginalized racial/ethnic and socieconomic groups on average, score lower on widely used assessments of academic, executive functioning, and social-emotional skills at kindergarten entry, but the extent to which these differences are shaped by exposure to early schooling is unclear. Using data from a public prekindergarten and kindergarten program in Boston, we leverage a seasonal comparison design to examine how patterns change during the school year relative to summer periods. Although trends vary somewhat by the skill domain and groups compared, we largely find that exposure to early schooling is compensatory or neutral in shaping inequality. This suggests that prekindergarten and kindergarten together contribute to more equitable outcomes than would otherwise be expected in the absence of schooling. However, we find no evidence of systematic differences in access to high-impact classroom processes, which leaves open the question of which aspects of early schooling are most associated with declining inequality.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-10-07T11:33:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231199375
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Racial Steering in U.S. Housing Markets: When, Where, and to Whom Does It

    • Authors: Matthew Hall, Jeffrey M. Timberlake, Elaina Johns-Wolfe
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Housing discrimination has long been thought to contribute to the persistence of racial segregation, yet evidence indicates that many forms of discrimination have waned over time. We argue that past work has not fully considered the role of racial steering in maintaining segregation. To explore patterns of steering, we leverage experimental audit data from the 2012 Housing Discrimination Study to examine how neighborhoods of homes shown by real estate agents to auditors change dynamically throughout the search process and to assess the conditions under which steering is most likely. As with past research, we find no evidence of steering in Asian-White or Hispanic-White audits. However, we find consistent evidence that agents steer Black homeseekers away from White neighborhoods and toward Black ones, particularly female homeseekers and those with children. We also find that agents steer relatively early in the search process and especially when searches begin in racially-homogeneous neighborhoods.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-10-07T11:28:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231197024
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Inheriting the Grade: HOLC “Redlining” Maps and Contemporary
           Neighborhood Crime

    • Authors: Christopher J. Lyons, María B. Vélez, Xuanying Chen
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Communities and crime research often invokes historical housing policies to explain vast disparities in crime. However, these assertions are rarely tested. Using lending security maps from the government-sponsored Home Owner’s Loan Corporation (HOLC), we examine the consequences for neighborhood crime of a notorious policy intervention in the housing market: the practice of “redlining” that discouraged investment in Black, non-White, and poor areas. The HOLC maps represent class and race biases embedded in the housing market and may have institutionalized the practice of redlining. Pairing data from the National Neighborhood Crime Study (Wave 2) with HOLC maps, we find neighborhoods with relatively poor HOLC grades inherited more violence and burglary some 70 years later. Furthermore, greater concentrations of contemporary neighborhood disadvantage, racial segregation, and housing instability largely explain these associations. Findings underscore the long shadow of historical interventions in the housing market for inequalities in the spatial distribution of crime today.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T12:09:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231197030
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Valid and Reliable Measures of Generalized Trust: Evidence from a
           Nationally Representative Survey and Behavioral Experiment

    • Authors: Blaine G. Robbins
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Generalized trust has been one of the most frequently examined constructs since researchers first introduced measures of it in the 1940s. Despite its significance, there is a growing consensus that traditional measures of generalized trust are prone to measurement invalidity and nonequivalence, calling into question sociological knowledge about generalized trust. In this article, I advance trust research in sociology by (1) refining two new self-report measures of generalized trust—the Stranger Face Trust scale (SFT) and the Imaginary Stranger Trust scale (IST)—and (2) assessing their empirical performance on a nationally representative probability sample (N = 1,264). I compare the reliability and validity of SFT, IST, and traditional measures of generalized trust across a range of measurement validation tests. Results suggest that SFT provides the most accurate and consistent measure of generalized trust.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-29T12:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231192841
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Every Month Like Clockwork' Patterns and Prevalence of Serial Eviction
           Filing among Landlords

    • Authors: Henry Watson, Philip M. E. Garboden, Brian J. McCabe, Eva Rosen
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      In this study, the authors draw on a unique dataset of eviction filings in Washington, D.C., over a six-year period, merged with building ownership data from the District of Columbia Office of Tax and Revenue, to better understand patterns of serial filing, a practice whereby landlords file for eviction on a single household in a single unit multiple times. The authors create an empirical typology of serial filing chains to categorize the patterns observed in the dataset. They then test a series of hypotheses about the relationship between landlord portfolio size and serial filings. Households that are filed against in buildings owned by larger landlords are substantially more likely to experience serial eviction filing, and longer serial filing chains, relative to households living in buildings owned by smaller landlords. These results offer the first empirical evidence documenting multiple patterns of serial eviction filing and underscore how landlord filing strategies differ by portfolio size.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-28T09:03:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231196274
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Communication with Kin in the Wake of the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Megan N. Reed, Linda Li, Luca Maria Pesando, Lauren E. Harris, Frank F. Furstenberg, Julien O. Teitler
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      This study investigates patterns of communication among non-coresident kin in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic using data from the New York City Robin Hood Poverty Tracker. Over half of New Yorkers spoke to their non-coresident family members several times a week during the pandemic, and nearly half increased their communication with non-coresident kin since March 2020. Siblings and extended kin proved to be especially important ties activated during the pandemic. New Yorkers were most likely to report increased communication with siblings. A quarter of respondents reported that they increased communication with at least one aunt, uncle, cousin, or other extended family member. Although non-Hispanic White respondents reported the highest frequency of communication with kin, it was those groups most impacted by COVID-19—foreign-born, Black, and Hispanic New Yorkers—who were most likely to report that they increased communication with kin in the wake of the pandemic.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-27T09:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231199388
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Elder Abuse by Household Members and Education of Elders’ Own Children
           Living in the Same Household: Empirical Evidence from Vietnam

    • Authors: Truc Ngoc Hoang Dang, Pungpond Rukumnuaykit
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors focus on a traditional culture in which the elderly tend to live with their children, aiming to shed light on whether the education of own children within the same household helps reduce the chances of elderly parents’ being mentally and physically abused by family members. Using multivariate analysis to investigate the association between children’s education and domestic elder abuse from the Vietnam Aging Survey 2011, comprising 2,700 elderly individuals aged 60 years and older, the authors find that the higher the education level of an elderly person’s children living in the same household, the lower the risk for the elderly person’s being abused. Those facing the highest risk for violence are women aged 80 years and older, those who have some difficulty with daily activities, and those who live in urban areas. The authors call for policy attention to an issue that is rarely investigated, especially in traditional households where elderly parents live with their children.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-21T12:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231196788
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Visualizing Social Change with Ryder Plots: The Rise and Fall of Verbal
           Ability in the United States

    • Authors: Ethan Fosse
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Sociologists and demographers often use Lexis diagrams to visualize temporal data. However, the traditional Lexis plot arranges the data in a matrix of right triangles, with age on the vertical axis and period on the horizontal axis. This representation of the data subordinates cohort to an off-diagonal of unequal length. Not only does this violate the proportionality principle of effective statistical graphics, but it implicitly treats cohort as a residual or epiphenomenal dimension and makes it difficult to compare variation within and across cohorts. As an alternative, the author introduces the Ryder plot, a novel graphical tool that displays cohort, age, and period data as a grid of equilateral triangles, thereby providing an unbiased representation of all three dimensions and facilitating the analysis of intra- and intercohort variability. The author uses Ryder plots to chart the rise and fall of verbal ability in the United States, revealing two epochs of social change across three centuries of cohorts.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T11:24:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231197302
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Greater Diversity or Fewer Whites' Disentangling Heterogeneity and
           Marginalized Group Share at Macro and Micro Levels

    • Authors: Maria Abascal, Flavien Ganter, Delia Baldassarri
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Scholarship claims that diversity undermines trust and cooperation. Critiques focus on studies’ inability to discern diversity’s causal effects. In fact, most studies are unable to distinguish diversity (i.e., mixture) and marginalized group share (e.g., percentage Black). The authors argue for preserving this distinction and identify obstacles to doing so. First, homogeneously disadvantaged communities are acutely underrepresented in North America and Europe, the settings of most diversity research. The second issue, a case of the ecological fallacy, concerns our inability to infer associations between individual outcomes and diversity from associations between macro-level outcomes and diversity. Much diversity research would be better served by using group share measures that align with the in-group/out-group theories they draw on to motivate research and explain findings. The authors clarify the data and analytic requirements for research that seeks to draw conclusions about diversity per se. Practically, the distinction between diversity and marginalized group share is also relevant for policy.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-11T07:33:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231196507
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Myth of Men’s Stable, Continuous Labor Force Attachment:
           Multitrajectories of U.S. Baby Boomer Men’s Employment

    • Authors: Adrianne Frech, Jane Lankes, Sarah Damaske, Adrienne Ohler
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Over the past several decades, U.S. men’s paid work has transformed from a state of high stability and continuity to a state of increased instability and precarity. Despite this, full-time employment throughout adulthood remains the presumed standard for modern American men. The authors investigated the diversity of men’s workforce experiences using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth “National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 cohort” and identified six multitrajectories of men’s time spent employed, unemployed, and out of the labor force from ages 27 to 49. The authors identified one multitrajectory of steady work, three of increasing unemployment or time out of work, one of increasing steady work, and one of intermittent work. Contrary to conventional assumptions, only 41 percent of men followed a trajectory of continuous, high employment over the duration of their prime earning years. This suggests that most men do not achieve the “ideal worker norm,” raising implications for how research and policy conceptualize men’s work experiences.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-09T11:23:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231197031
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • How (Not) to Use Risk Ratios in Sociological Research

    • Authors: Kristian Bernt Karlson, Lincoln Quillian
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      A small but growing literature uses the risk ratio as an association or effect measure. Unlike odds ratios, risk ratios are unaffected by rescaling or noncollapsibility bias and are straightforward to interpret. However, the risk ratio has one unattractive property that researchers need to be aware of: it is not symmetric with respect to the outcome definition. The ratio between two groups’ probability of success does not equal the inverse of the ratio between the two groups’ probability of failure. Choosing the category of a binary outcome to use as the “success” category can significantly affect substantive conclusions, particularly in research comparing risk ratios with highly different base rates of the “success” outcome. The authors give examples from discrimination and social mobility studies that illustrate this point and present rules of thumb for the use of the risk ratio depending on the base rate of the outcome.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T08:59:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231192394
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Effects of Head Start on Low-Income Mothers

    • Authors: Catherine T. H. Yeh, Geoffrey T. Wodtke
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Head Start is a federal antipoverty program that provides free childcare, preschool, and related services to disadvantaged families. Research on Head Start has focused almost exclusively on impacts among children. Using data from the Head Start Impact Study, a nationally representative field experiment, the authors estimate treatment effects on maternal employment, economic hardship, and depression. The authors find that Head Start admission generates some improvements among Black mothers but not among other subpopulations. In analyses accounting for treatment intensity, noncompliance, and program substitution, the authors find suggestive evidence that Head Start participation may lead to even greater improvements in these outcomes specifically among Black mothers who would otherwise look after their children at home and when they participate in the program full-time. In conclusion, Head Start likely improves outcomes for some groups of low-income mothers, but these effects are heterogeneous, and they may be small, dose-dependent, or otherwise difficult to detect for many women.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T08:54:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231192392
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Antifeminist Sentiments and Marital Desire among Young Men: Evidence from
           South Korea

    • Authors: Joeun Kim
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Emerging research on antifeminism documents widespread antagonism among young men toward women and marriage. However, no quantitative study has explicitly investigated the connection between men’s antifeminist ideals and marital desire. Using a nationally representative sample of young Korean men (n = 1,061), the author examines the latent variables of men’s antifeminist sentiments and their association with marital desire. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two dimensions of men’s antifeminist ideals: support for male superiority (e.g., men deserve greater power in society than women) and perceived male victimhood (e.g., male discrimination due to feminism). Support for male superiority predicted more positive attitudes toward marriage. On the contrary, male victimhood predicted substantially less favorable attitudes toward marriage and marital intention. The findings emphasize the multidimensionality of antifeminist sentiments and suggest a new avenue for understanding young men’s marital disinterest in a postindustrial context, that is, perceived male victimhood due to feminism.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T06:32:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231196791
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Top Wealth and Its Historical Origins: Identifying Entrenched Fortunes by
           Linking Rich Lists over 100 Years

    • Authors: Daria Tisch, Emma Ischinsky
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors examine the historical origins of Germany’s 1,032 largest fortunes. The innovation of this research is to link a rich list from 2019 with rich lists from 1913 and genealogical data provided in Wikidata. The authors find a remarkable historical continuity of large fortunes despite two world wars, the Great Depression, regime changes, and different currency reforms. One third of the companies associated with today’s largest fortunes were founded before World War I. About 8 percent of today’s fortunes can be traced back to fortunes on rich lists from 1913. Regression analyses show that these entrenched fortunes rank on average higher on the rich list than fortunes of younger origin. Network analyses indicate that some of today’s largest fortunes are intertwined through marital lines, hinting at social closure at the top. These findings indicate that the accumulation and perpetuation of fortunes over many generations is an important feature of top wealth in Germany.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T05:41:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231192774
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Mapping Anti-Asian Xenophobia: State-Level Variation in Implicit and
           Explicit Bias against Asian Americans across the United States

    • Authors: Nari Yoo, Harvey L. Nicholson, Doris F. Chang, Sumie Okazaki
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Using national data from Project Implicit, the authors examine state-level variations in implicit and explicit bias against Asian Americans held by non–Asian Americans (n = 196,678) from 2018 to 2022. The authors also explore state-level sociodemographic correlates of both types of bias. The findings reveal considerable heterogeneity in implicit and explicit bias across states. Moreover, Republican and swing states had higher levels of implicit bias against Asian Americans, and states with older median ages and greater percentages of Asian populations were associated with less explicit bias. This study underscores the importance of state-level variation in and structural factors of biases against Asian Americans as contexts for examining attitudes toward Asian Americans.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-07T11:57:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231196517
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Stable and Shifting Sexualities among American High School Students, 2015
           to 2021

    • Authors: Joel Mittleman
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      In a context of widespread attacks on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) youth, statistics on rising LGBTQ+ identification need to be addressed with precision and care. In this visualization, the author presents nationally representative sexuality data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Using stacked horizontal bar graphs, the author summarizes American high school students’ reported sexual identities and same-sex sexual contacts from 2015 to 2021. In contrast to sensationalistic reporting claiming that these data show “explosive” and “skyrocketing” growth, this visualization illustrates that most measures of American adolescent sexuality have been fairly stable. Since 2015, the only substantial changes that have occurred are in female students’ reports of being bisexual or “not sure.” These changes in sexual identity have been accompanied only by very modest changes in female students’ same-sex sexual contacts. Among male students, sexual identities and contacts have been almost entirely stable since 2015.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-09-04T02:17:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231196012
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Still Separate and Unequal: Persistent Racial Segregation and Inequality
           in Subsidized Housing

    • Authors: Junia Howell, Ellen Whitehead, Elizabeth Korver-Glenn
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Initially, U.S. federally funded low-income rental housing was racially segregated and unequal. Activists decried this injustice and pressured legislators to introduce new practices and procedures. Since the passage of these initiatives in the 1960s, scholars have repeatedly documented ongoing racial inequality in housing at large. Yet rarely have researchers investigated whether racial inequality persists within governmentally subsidized housing units. By merging the restricted American Housing Survey with the American Community Survey at a Federal Statistical Research Data Center, the authors find that low-income renter subsidies are effective and beneficial but disproportionately grant White residents access to cheaper and higher quality units. Moreover, subsidized renters remain racially segregated across program type and neighborhoods. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for future research and policy decisions.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-08-26T10:10:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231192389
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Shared Nationality in Social Exchange: A Trust Vignette Experiment in the
           United States, South Africa, and Switzerland

    • Authors: Johanna Gereke, Didier Ruedin
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Empirical research suggests that societies that are diverse as a result of international migration have lower levels of social trust, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The authors test one possible mechanism: that conationality increases interpersonal trust and the willingness to reciprocate trust. As part of large-scale surveys in the United States, South Africa, and Switzerland, respondents were presented with trust vignettes in which information about the nationality of the interaction partner was systematically varied. Despite overall country-level differences in levels of trust and trustworthiness, no in-group bias associated with conationality was found in these types of interactions. This suggests that the negative association between ethnic diversity and social trust cannot be explained by differences in relational trust conditional on sharing the same nationality.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-08-18T08:29:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231189945
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Family Structure and Cohort Trends in Childhood Family Income Volatility

    • Authors: Airan Liu, Siwei Cheng
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors examine cohort trends in childhood income volatility among U.S. children born between 1970 and 1990. In contrast to previous studies that focused mainly on period trends, the authors adopt a cohort-life-course perspective and measure children’s exposure to income volatility from birth to age 17, which provides a more adequate account of the economic environment during early life stages. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the authors investigate (1) how income volatility among U.S. children has changed across cohorts, (2) how cohort trends in income volatility differ by family structure, and (3) the extent to which the increasing prevalence of single-headed families and the growth of income volatility among single-headed families contribute to the overall trend in childhood income volatility. The results show that (1) income volatility in childhood has increased over time; (2) children who lived in single-headed families experienced greater increase in childhood income volatility than those from two-headed families; and (3) both the increasing prevalence of single-headed families (“composition effects”) and the fact that single-headed families’ incomes have become less stable (“volatility effects”) in the past decades account for a significant proportion of the increasing income volatility for U.S. children, yet their relative contributions differ between White and Black families.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-08-07T08:09:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231182515
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Punishing Protesters on the “Other Side”: Partisan Bias in Public
           Support for Repressive and Punitive Responses to Protest Violence

    • Authors: Jason R. Silver, Luzi Shi
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors investigated public support for government repression of protests (police repression, legal repression, and punishment of protesters) following incidents of violence and harm. Using two factorial vignette experiments embedded in a national Qualtrics survey (n = 1,229), the authors examined whether partisan bias (i.e., polarized responses to actions by ideological opponents or allies) characterized public preferences for repressive government responses to intentional violence (i.e., rock throwing) or incidental harm (i.e., coronavirus disease 2019 transmission) occurring at protests. The authors also examined whether violence or harm severity, or violence against or harm to police, influenced the degree of partisan bias in public responses. The results indicated partisan bias in support of police repression and punishment preferences and, to a lesser extent, legal repression. Members of the public preferred more repressive responses to political opponents and less repressive responses to political allies. Partisan bias in preferences for punishment was also heightened when a police officer was the target of intentional violence.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-08-04T05:20:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231182908
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Mental Health Effects of Income over the Adult Life Course

    • Authors: Tamkinat Rauf
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      While a gradient between income and depression is well documented, associational estimates are subject to bias due to measurement errors, reverse causation, and other sources of confounding. Causal studies are few and report small and divergent estimates, even in their direction. But prior research has important limitations for causal inference, such as relying on comparisons between individuals sensitive to each other’s relative income or capturing only a subset of pathways through which income affects well-being. This study leverages longitudinal and genomic data to assess how much some known biases affect the income-depression gradient and to what extent the gradient might be reflective of a causal effect. Findings from three U.S. samples—representing early midlife, late midlife, and older adulthood—are suggestive of a beneficial effect of income on mental health, especially in late midlife and beyond. The results have implications for interpreting the nature of socioeconomic disparities in mental health.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-28T10:11:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231186072
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Conspiratorial Ideation Is Associated with Lower Perceptions of Policy
           Effectiveness: Views from Local Governments during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Adam Mayer, Stacia Ryder
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Governments around the world struggled to formulate an effective response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, which was hampered by the widespread diffusion of various conspiracy theories about the virus. Local governments are often responsible for the implementing mitigation measures such as mask mandates and curfews but have received very limited attention in the scholarly literature. In this article, the authors use data from local policy actors in Colorado to evaluate the relationship between conspiratorial beliefs and perceptions of mitigation policy effectiveness. The authors find that many local policy actors hold conspiratorial beliefs, which combine with partisanship to contribute to lower perceptions of policy effectiveness. The authors conclude by discussing future research directions, noting that the broad adoption of conspiracy theories likely changes enforcement at the local scale.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-27T08:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231177154
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Masculinity and Femininity by Racial Identification: Racialized
           Differences in Responses to Self-Rated Gender Scales for Cisgender Men and

    • Authors: Christina Pao
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Gradational gender scales, which ask respondents to rate their masculinity and femininity, have become increasingly popular on social surveys. Nonetheless, there is little descriptive work to show differences in response to gradational gender scales by other socially relevant identities, such as race and ethnicity. This data visualization uses original survey data (N = 2,483) to display the means and 95 percent confidence intervals of responses to self-rated masculinity and femininity for cisgender men and women. Across all racial groups, there are high levels of masculinity and femininity for the “sex-typical” scales (e.g., femininity for women) and lower levels for the “sex-atypical” scales (e.g., masculinity for women). Nonetheless, there are significant differences between racial groups that align with intersectional theories of gendered racialization (e.g., higher self-rated masculinity for Black women and higher self-rated femininity for Asian men than their White counterparts). The findings encourage further subgroup analysis with gradational gender scales in the future.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-26T07:30:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231186073
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Scars from a Previous Epidemic: Social Proximity to Zika and Fertility
           Intentions during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Leticia J. Marteleto, Molly Dondero, Andrew Koepp
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      We examine whether women’s social proximity to Zika during the Zika epidemic predicts intentions to avoid a pregnancy because of the COVID-19 pandemic either directly or indirectly via subjective assessments of the pandemic. We apply path models on unique microdata from Brazil, the country most affected by Zika and an epicenter of COVID-19, to understand whether a novel infectious disease outbreak left lasting imprints shaping fertility intentions during a subsequent novel infectious disease outbreak. Findings show that Zika social proximity is associated with fertility intentions through an indirect path related to subjective assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings emerged regardless of whether a woman herself had or suspected she had Zika and speak to the transformative consequences of novel infectious disease outbreaks that go beyond mortality and health.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-26T07:26:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231184767
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Parallel Development: Medicalization and Decriminalization in the Changing
           Media Framing of the Opioid Overdose Crisis

    • Authors: Xinyan Wu
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Drawing on content analysis of 517 New York Times news reports published between 1995 and 2016, the author examines the institutionalization of opioid responses in terms of changing media framing of opioid use. The findings indicate that news frames were situated between the lenses of medicalization and decriminalization. Modes of penal social control shifted as early as the 1990s because of budgetary concerns. Drug reform efforts pushed law enforcement agencies to criminalize doctors and big pharma. Consequently, medical professionals and social activists advocated for new cultural frameworks about opioid use. However, the expansion of medical concepts alone did not medicalize opioid use, as evidenced by persistent news frames opposing opioid maintenance treatments. Instead, medicalization materialized as part of the public health solution when law enforcement agencies adopted new modes of medical social control. This article illustrates the making of a new penal-medical nexus regulating drug use.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-25T09:04:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231186731
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Next Step: Current Sexual Lifestyles and Future Intentions

    • Authors: Jennifer Schweers
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Using data from a nationally representative survey of sexual behavior in the United Kingdom, this visualization shows participants’ current sexual lifestyles and their ideal lifestyles five years from now. It demonstrates strong preferences for relationship progression toward cohabitation, marriage, and monogamy. Only a small minority of participants express a long-term preference for casual relationships, no sexual relationship, or any nonmonogamous lifestyle. Of currently nonmonogamous participants, a majority indicate a preference for a monogamous future, although a significant minority of nonmonogamous participants who are cohabiting or married wish to keep their lifestyles in five years’ time.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-24T08:44:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231188335
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Whose Social Capital': Citation and Co-citation Patterns of a
           Fragmented Concept

    • Authors: jimi adams, Kate Vinita Fitch
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Despite its wide use across the social sciences, social capital research has been regularly criticized as having fuzzy conceptualization, resulting in multiple (potentially conflicting) operationalizations. Our analyses employ bibliometric analytic tools to demonstrate the disconnected structure of social capital research. The resulting visualization illustrates one potential source of the confusion surrounding social capital—that there are many, potentially nonoverlapping versions of the idea rather than one unified social capital concept.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-17T11:32:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231184766
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Which Grandparents' Multigenerational Education Associations by
           Grandparent Gender and Paternal versus Maternal Side

    • Authors: Anita Li
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      A growing body of research focuses on multigenerational mobility, but few studies show how grandparents’ gender and gender-specific lineage (paternal vs. maternal side) are differentially associated with the process of status transmissions across generations. This article uses data from the Health and Retirement Study 1992–2018 (N = 15,623) to examine gender and gender-specific lineage differences in grandparent-grandchild education associations. Grandfathers’ educational attainment is more strongly associated with grandchildren’s education than is grandmothers’ education. Variation in shared lifetimes and residential proximity do not account for these differences, but shared lifetimes between grandmothers and grandchildren are positively associated with grandchildren’s educational attainment.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-14T09:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231184221
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Political Ramifications of Judicial Institutions: Establishing a Link
           between Dobbs and Gender Disparities in the 2022 Midterms

    • Authors: Udi Sommer, Or Rappel-Kroyzer, Amy Adamczyk, Lindsay Lerner, Anna Weiner
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      In the American system of government, courts are designed to operate within the legal sphere, with limited political interference. Is it possible, though, that a behavior that is at the heart of the political process can be influenced directly by a judicial decision' Focusing on voter registration big data for the universe of voters in North Carolina around the time of Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, the authors assess the roles of gender, political party affiliation, and age in voter registration. North Carolina is the only state whose voter registry has the necessary granularity over time and information needed. Women and Democrats were more likely to register to vote after information about the ruling was released, suggesting that Dobbs influenced their behavior. This effect on voter registration gender gap was unique to June 2022, unlike previous midterm election years (2014 and 2018). Interrupted time-series analyses lend further support to these findings.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-08T09:44:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231177157
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Preaching to Social Media: Turkey’s Friday Khutbas and Their Effects
           on Twitter

    • Authors: Ozan Aksoy
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The author analyzes through unsupervised machine learning the content of all Friday khutbas (sermons) read to millions of citizens in thousands of mosques in Turkey between 2015 and 2021. The author focuses on six nonreligious and recurrent topics that feature in the sermons, namely, business, family, nationalism, health, trust, and patience. The author demonstrates that the content of the sermons responds strongly to events of national and political importance. The author then links the Friday sermons with about 4.8 million tweets on these topics. The author finds generally strong associations between the topics of the sermons and of the subsequent tweets, controlling for the tweets posted before the sermons. There is also heterogeneity by topic. The link between sermons and tweets is strongest for nationalism, patience, and health and weakest for business. Overall, these results suggest that religious institutions in Turkey are influential in shaping the public’s social media content on salient issues. More generally, these results show that mass offline religious activity can have strong effects on online social media behavior.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-06T05:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231182909
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Right-Wing Protest in the United States, 2017 to 2022

    • Authors: Neal Caren
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The past few years have seen a resurgence of right-wing demonstrations in the United States. Using new protest event data collected by the Crowd Counting Consortium, this visualization presents monthly trends in the size and count of protests by topic between 2017 and 2022. Conservative protest in the first three years was at a notably low level but with some very large events and a focus on abortion and gun rights. Protests swelled, starting in 2020, with demonstrations against coronavirus disease 2019 restrictions and in support of police officers, followed by election fraud rallies. Finally, 2022 was marked by lower levels of participation overall and increased events targeting LGBQT+ rights.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-05T10:14:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231181900
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Child Tax Credit, Educational Investments, and the American Dream: A
           Moderated Mediation Analysis

    • Authors: Jason Jabbari, Cameron Anglum, Stephen Roll, Leah Hamilton
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      In March 2021, the American Rescue Plan substantially increased the maximum per-child child tax credit (CTC). However, research has yet to explore educational investments associated with the CTC. Thus, the authors leverage a probability-based panel survey of CTC-eligible families across 49 states to examine how parents’ investments in tutoring and college savings relate to the degree to which parents believe that their children will have better lives than they did. Through mediation models, the authors find that even though families that used the CTC for tutoring and college savings perceived an impact, intentions were related only to increased optimism through actions for college savings. Moreover, through their moderation models, the authors find that the direct effects of using the CTC for college savings on increased optimism were significant only for lower income families and that converting savings plans into actions was substantially more common among families with previous savings experiences.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-05T07:33:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231181899
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Mobility and Inequality in the Professoriate: How and Why First-Generation
           and Working-Class Backgrounds Matter

    • Authors: Vincent J. Roscigno, Elizabeth M. Lee, Allison L. Hurst, David Brady, Colby R. King, Anthony Abraham Jack, Kevin J. Delaney, Monica McDermott, José Muñoz, Wendi Johnson, Robert D. Francis, Debbie Warnock, Margaret Weigers Vitullo
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Social science research has long recognized the relevance of socioeconomic background for mobility and inequality. In this article we interrogate how and why working-class and first-generation backgrounds are especially meaningful and take as our case in point the professoriate and the discipline of sociology, – i.e., a field that intellectually prioritizes attention to group inequality and that arguably offers a conservative empirical test compared to other academic fields. Our analyses, which draw on unique survey items and open-ended qualitative materials from nearly 1,000 academic sociologists, reveal significant background divergences in academic job attainment, tied partly to educational background. Moreover, and especially unique and important, findings demonstrate significant consequences across several dimensions of inequality including compensation and economic precarity, professional visibility, and isolation at departmental, college or university, and professional levels. We conclude by highlighting how our discussion and results contribute in important ways to broader sociological concerns surrounding mobility, group disadvantage, and social closure.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-07-05T07:25:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231181859
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Visualizing the Decline in Cultural Participation in Europe Post-crisis

    • Authors: Omar Lizardo
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Whether cultural practices change gradually—at the timescale of generations—or can be lastingly affected by short-term exogenous shocks is a question that continues to inspire much debate in the social sciences. Previous work shows that trends in cultural participation, if they exist, tend to be slow and gradual, responding to cohort changes and impervious to period-specific events. Here I use data from the two Eurobarometer surveys fielded just before (2007) and in the immediate aftermath (2013) of the Great Recession-related eurozone crisis to visualize the impact of a once-in-a-generation period-specific shock for the four national cases most deeply affected: Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Greece. In all cases, with the possible exception of Spain, we can observe steep increases in rates of nonparticipation, impacting particularly the less educated, except for Greece, for which we can see general negative impacts of the crisis on participation across all levels of education. Overall, the results depicted in this visualization suggest that cultural participation practices can be affected by large exogenous shocks at timescales below gradual cohort change.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-29T08:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231184968
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Measuring and Explaining a College Dignity Divide in America

    • Authors: Matthew A. Andersson, Steven Hitlin
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Prominent, multidisciplinary perspectives on inequality in America contend that receiving a four-year college degree matters not just for life chances but also for achieving a sense of dignity or respect from others. In this study, the authors assess subjective dignity, or dignity as perceived in one’s own life, according to four-year college degree status and how it overlaps with different economic and psychosocial college-linked resources. Drawing on multiple years of national Gallup survey data (2017 and 2021), the authors find a college gap in subjective dignity as large as the difference linked to full-time work itself. Consistent with Lamont’s perspective on America’s dignity crisis, a lack of perceived socioeconomic standing in society most strongly coincides with why those without a college degree also perceive a lack of dignity within their lives, although finances, work, perceived control, and mattering to others all significantly coincide with the college dignity gap as well.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-26T08:57:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231180381
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Irony of Accountability: How a Performance-Inducing Policy Reduces
           Motivation to Perform

    • Authors: Jose Eos Trinidad
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Although sociological and organizational studies have focused on the influence of quantification on behavior, the author focuses on quantification’s increasingly important consequences on well-being and motivation. Using the case of U.S. education, which has long relied on accountability policies, the author finds that attendance at schools with high-stakes accountability predicted lower student self-efficacy, that is, decreased task motivation and resilience as well as increased fear of failure—salient for low-income, urban, and public schools. These associations, however, did not spill over to social and life satisfaction dimensions of well-being. Taken together, these findings suggest the irony of accountability, where data used to induce performance may unintentionally reduce people’s motivation to perform, particularly consequential in disadvantaged contexts. This article is an attempt to contribute to a broader theorization of quantification, affecting not only external behaviors and organizational structures but also internal personal dispositions. Finally, the article provides implications for the study of well-being, organizations, and education policy.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-22T11:36:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231180387
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Reproductive Oppression Enters the Twenty-First Century: Pressure to Use
           Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) in the Context of “LARC

    • Authors: Mieke C. W. Eeckhaut, Yuko Hara
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The common emphasis on the superior pregnancy protection of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) may result in medical providers’ pressuring women, especially those belonging to groups experiencing reproductive disciplining, to use LARC. The authors consider reports of having felt pressured to get or keep LARC in the 2021 Delaware and Maryland Survey of Women (1,058 current users and 1,788 ever users of LARC) and examine variation in these outcomes by women’s sociodemographic characteristics. The results reveal a high prevalence of both pressure to get (26 percent of current users) and keep (11 percent of ever users) LARC overall and among young (
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-22T11:31:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231180378
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Don’t You Be My Neighbor! Perceptions of Homosexuality in Global
           Cross-Cultural Perspective, 1990 to 2019

    • Authors: Wade M. Cole, Claudia Geist
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Authors draw on cognitive sociology and attribution theory to infer whether people classify homosexuality as an identity or a behavior. Using six waves of World Values Survey data covering 85 countries, the authors conduct factor and multilevel regression analyses to examine patterns of intolerance toward gay people alongside racialized groups, immigrants, and users of alcohol or illicit substances, in the context of who constitutes an undesirable neighbor. The authors examine changes in these patterns over time and variation across broad cultural zones. Evaluations of homosexuality tend to cluster with alcohol and substance use in non-Western societies, albeit less strongly over time, but with race and nativity among Western and Latin American publics. The authors suggest that homosexuality is widely perceived as an identity in Western and “West-adjacent” countries, whereas elsewhere it is more often understood in behavioral terms. Over time, homosexuality is increasingly interpreted as an identity trait rather than a deviant behavior.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-21T12:20:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231178426
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Roles, Relationships, Resources, and Renal Exchange: Applying Social
           Capital Theory to Role Effects on Living Kidney Donation Behaviors

    • Authors: Jonathan Daw, Ashton M. Verdery
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Two largely separate schools of sociological theory seek to explain to whom we turn in times of need. The first argues that we turn to network members who occupy socially important roles, highlighting how support behaviors cluster in certain social roles (i.e., role effects). The second argues that we turn to network members possessing relevant resources and with whom we have strong ties. The authors unite these perspectives, examining how role effects on living kidney donation behavior are explained by role groups’ endowments of situationally relevant resources and tie strength. The authors analyze two original data sets: a sample of kidney transplantation patients reporting on their social networks (n = 70 patients and 1,421 ties) and a separate sample surveying kidney disease patients’ family members (n = 1,560). The authors find that role effects on living kidney donation behavior are largely explained by the conjunction of relevant resources and tie strength, which offers several key lessons for medical support-seeking research.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-19T05:41:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231171097
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Changing Mix of Gay Bar Subtypes after COVID-19 Restrictions in the
           United States, 2017 to 2023

    • Authors: Greggor Mattson
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic marked a dramatic change in the gendered composition of gay bars and a slowing rate of overall decline. Trends are drawn from historic data from printed business guides supplemented with two national censuses of online business listings for LGBTQ+ bars. An online census shows a rebound from a nadir of 730 gay bars in spring 2021 to 803 in 2023. Bars serving mostly or only cisgender men plummeted in their share from 44.6 percent of all gay bars to only 24.2 percent. Bars serving men’s kink communities also declined, from 8.5 percent to 6.6 percent of all gay bars. Bars serving men and women together increased from 44.2 percent to 65.6 percent of all gay bars. Lesbian bars nearly doubled from 15 to 29 establishments to 3.6 percent of the total. Bars serving people of color experienced a small decline in their share from 2019 to 2023.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-16T12:18:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231181902
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Trends in Neighborhood Social Cohesion among Families with Children during
           the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Makayla Davis, Colin Campbell, Dmitry Tumin
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had far-reaching economic and social consequences, affecting economic well-being, health, mobility, relationships, and daily routines. What effect did the COVID-19 pandemic have on neighborhood social cohesion' Drawing on data from the National Survey of Children’s Health, the authors examine trends in neighborhood social cohesion as reported by caregivers of U.S. children from 2016 to 2021. Despite the substantial changes spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic, the authors find that the pandemic did not lead to a significant change in perceived neighborhood social cohesion. These findings reveal the durability of perceived neighborhood social cohesion, showing that it appears to be unaffected even by sizable changes in social and economic contexts. Moreover, the findings provide additional evidence of disparities in perceived neighborhood social cohesion across social groups and contribute to ongoing debates related to potential declines in neighborhood relationships.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-15T12:38:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231180386
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Co-opting “Danger” in Specialized Media for the Police

    • Authors: Daanika Gordon, Peter Nadel
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Widespread protests for racial justice during the summer of 2020 raised foundational questions about the role of the police in U.S. society. In this article, the authors analyze an underexplored body of media representations that perform ideological work in this context. The authors examine specialized media targeting a law enforcement audience, asking how news articles published on the Web site Police1 represented the police profession and the protests for racial justice over a two-year period. The authors map major themes using topic modeling and qualitative content analysis. They find that the articles represent police work as dangerous and heroic and as simultaneously professional, legitimate, and accountable to broader legal and political systems. In addition, articles disproportionately represent the dangers experienced by police officers relative to the dangers caused by policing. Co-opting the concept of danger may reinforce the warrior mentality of police occupational culture, while precluding recognition of the patterned and racialized harms of policing.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-15T12:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231180379
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Effect of Gender on French High School Students’ Dream Jobs and
           Professional Ambition

    • Authors: Laurent Cordonier, Florian Cafiero, Nicolas Walzer, Gérald Bronner
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      In France, women and men often do not engage in the same occupations, with “feminine” occupations being on average paid less than “masculine” ones. It has been shown that this gender-based occupational segregation is not explained by a difference in professional ambition between female and male students at high school age. In contrast, studies have shown that in France, as well as in many other countries, students’ occupational aspirations are highly gendered. In this visualization, the authors replicate these findings about high school students’ professional ambition and aspirations with new data and indicators, introducing a distinction between their dream jobs and their expected jobs. This research confirms that the persistence of the gender-based occupational segregation has more to do with students’ gender stereotypes than with a difference in ambition between girls and boys.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-13T12:27:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231181898
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Structural Sources of Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: A
           Cross-National Perspective

    • Authors: Lucy Barnes, Peter A. Hall, Rosemary C. R. Taylor
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      This article investigates how macro-level structures condition the sources of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Drawing on multiple social science disciplines, the authors develop theoretically grounded propositions about how different types of welfare states, varieties of capitalism, and social structures give rise to cross-national variations in the sources of health inequalities. They consider how these macro-level structures affect the distribution of five key resources important to health, estimate the relative contribution that each resource makes to health inequalities, and compare those contributions in 21 developed democracies. Moving beyond a current literature focused on welfare states, the authors show how different types of political economies and social structures also condition the health gradient. This research carries implications for policy and suggests agendas for further investigation into the relationship between macro-level structures and inequalities in health.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-10T10:14:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231174832
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Stitching the Social World: The Processing of Multiple Social Structures
           in Communication

    • Authors: Jan A. Fuhse
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Sociological theory has rarely engaged with the processing of multiple social and cultural structures in communication. The concept of “stitching” is suggested to capture this coprocessing of contexts. In line with the metaphor, communication is always imprinted by multiple social and cultural structures, thereby stitching them together. This makes communication quite complex, and it brings irritations into the structures involved. In “cross-field effects,” these have to deal with the communicative imprint of other structures and adapt to it. As a result, “structural couplings” between contexts can develop: patterns of expectations about their regular interplay. This includes the emergence of institutions spanning multiple fields (rather than springing only from one field, as in neoinstitutionalism). The construction of individual actors with multiple involvements serves as another mechanism facilitating the interplay of social structures. The social world houses various “publics” (from councils and talk shows to Twitter) that foster stitching communication between different contexts.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-09T06:37:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231171110
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Visualizing Beliefs in Biological Racial Difference and Ordering across

    • Authors: Mireia Triguero Roura
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The author plots the proportions of people in 20 European countries who believe in biological racial differences, contributing to debates about the role of race and racism in Europe: whether Europeans think in biological racial terms and whether thinking about racism is an adequate framework in the European context. The main new insight is simply providing concrete empirical evidence that beliefs in biological race are widely spread in Europe. Second, this visualization highlights that ideas about races being born “more hardworking” are a more socially acceptable and widely spread form of belief in racial differences. Third, it shows how the difference (than beliefs in races being born “less intelligent”) between the two types of biological racial beliefs organizes countries into an east-west axis, whereas no such division is apparent when looking only at the magnitudes of the proportions of people who hold racial beliefs.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-08T07:17:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231178416
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Racial Segregation in Everyday Mobility Patterns: Disentangling the Effect
           of Travel Time

    • Authors: Karl Vachuska
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Nascent research documents that U.S. racial segregation is not merely a residential phenomenon but is present in everyday mobility patterns. Better understanding the causes of mobility-based segregation requires disentangling the spatial macrosegregation, which constitutes an obvious confounding factor. In this work, the author analyzes big data on everyday visits between 270 million neighborhood dyads to estimate the effect of neighborhood racial composition on mobility patterns, net of driving, walking, and public transportation travel time. Matching on these travel times, the author finds that residents of Black and Hispanic neighborhoods visit White neighborhoods only slightly less than they visit other Black and Hispanic neighborhoods. Distinctly, residents of White neighborhoods are far less likely to visit non-White neighborhoods than other White neighborhoods, even net of travel time. The author finds that this travel time–adjusted visit homophily among White neighborhoods is greater in commuting zones where White neighborhoods are situated closer to non-White neighborhoods.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-08T07:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231169261
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Mating in Captivity: The Influence of Social Location on Sexual
           Satisfaction through Phases of the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Elizabeth E. McElroy, Samuel L. Perry, Joshua B. Grubbs
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The recent global pandemic provides a natural experiment “intervention” to examine how differing baseline social dynamics such as gender, education, and politics shaped diverging patterns of well-being during rapidly shifting societal conditions. Using married adults from a nationally representative panel study in the United States from August 2019 to August 2021, discontinuous growth curves reveal a large drop in average married sexual satisfaction in both quality and frequency directly following the pandemic onset. Moreover, sexual satisfaction remained largely suppressed for the subsequent 18 months, apart from a brief “optimism blip” in the fall of 2020. Race, age, income, employment, parenthood, education, and political affiliation all appear as meaningful predictors, but these differ across various phases of the pandemic and by gender. These results reveal evidence of lingering changes in subjective sexual well-being as well as patterns of catastrophe risk and resilience moderated by social location factors.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-06-06T10:19:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231173899
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Has Trust in the European Parliament Polarized'

    • Authors: Paul C. Bauer, Davide Morisi
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Scholars usually investigate how average levels of trust in institutions vary across countries and over time. Focusing on average levels, however, ignores distributional properties that might be equally relevant for institutional legitimacy and, more broadly, democratic stability. In this study, the authors investigate how the distribution of trust in the European Parliament has changed over time and across European Union member states. Drawing on pooled cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey for the period from 2002 to 2020, the authors find that confidence in the European Parliament has not only declined over time but also polarized as citizens have increasingly moved away from the “average citizen.” Furthermore, the authors find that trust has polarized, especially among the young versus the elderly and the employed versus the unemployed. These findings have implications for the legitimacy of European Union institutions.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-05-29T09:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231175430
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Stand by Me: Social Ties and Health in Real Time

    • Authors: Alyssa W. Goldman, Erin York Cornwell
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Sociological research has documented myriad associations between individuals’ overall social connectedness and health but rarely considers the shorter-term dynamics of social life that may underlie these associations. The authors examine how being with others (“social accompaniment”) is associated with momentary experiences of symptoms, drawing smartphone-based ecological momentary assessments (n = 12,760) collected from 342 older adults from the Chicago Health and Activity Space in Real-Time study. The authors find that patterns of social accompaniment are distinct from global measures of social integration such as network size. Older adults who are in the company of friends or neighbors are significantly less likely to experience momentary fatigue and stress, even after accounting for global measures of social integration. These results suggest that social accompaniment has unique implications for short-term health outcomes. New theoretical perspectives and empirical analyses are needed to better understand the dynamic nature of everyday social accompaniment and its longer-term implications for well-being.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T10:44:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231171112
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Measuring Hispanics/Latinxs: Racial Heterogeneity and Its Consequences for
           Modeling Social Outcomes in U.S. Population Samples

    • Authors: Jiannbin Lee Shiao
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Quantitative sociologists have recognized the challenges of studying Latinx Americans, given their unique racial heterogeneity and unique measurement in surveys through dedicated Latinx-ethnicity questions. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, the author examines who identifies as Hispanic/Latinx when the option is a permitted response on a combined race/ethnicity question. The study reveals that national origin, connection to Latinx communities, racial appearance, and consistency in prior ethnic identification as Latinx affect the likelihood of racial identification as Latinx. These associations have heterogeneous consequences for modeling social outcomes in samples with both Latinx and non-Latinx respondents. Latinx Americans divide on skin tone in models of education and health, but they divide on national origin in models of interracial dating. This suggests that researchers should operationalize Latinxs using measures recognizing a modal group of Latinx-only identifiers while capturing heterogeneity by skin tone and national origin across the broader ever-Latinx population.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-05-23T12:50:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231174830
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Corrigendum to “Unjust Income Inequality Prevails Across 29

    • Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.

      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-05-22T11:36:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231176483
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The COVID-19 Pandemic, Social Ties, and Psychosocial Well-Being of
           Middle-Aged Women in Rural Africa

    • Authors: Victor Agadjanian
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The study contributes to the understanding of the societal impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the Global South by examining longer term implications of pandemic-induced disruptions and deprivations for social ties and psychosocial well-being. Using data from a survey of middle-aged women in rural Mozambique, the author finds a negative association between the pandemic-triggered household economic decline and perceived changes in the quality of relations with marital partners, non-coresident children, and relatives, but not with generally more distant actors, such as coreligionists and neighbors. In turn, multivariable analyses detect a positive association of changes in the quality of family and kin ties with participants’ life satisfaction, regardless of other factors. Yet women’s expectations for changes in their household living conditions in the near future show a significant association only with changes in the quality of relations with marital partners. The author situates these findings within the context of women’s enduring vulnerabilities in low-income patriarchal settings.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-05-20T12:35:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231171868
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Unsorted Significance: Examining Potential Pathways to Extreme Political
           Beliefs and Communities on Reddit

    • Authors: Marcus Mann, Diana Zulli, Jeremy Foote, Emily Ku, Emily Primm
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Violent political extremists often point to online communities as motivating their behavior. However, researchers studying online exposure to extremism through structural mechanisms such as algorithms have not found strong evidence of their influence. At the same time, models of offline radicalization processes emphasize the importance of personal motivations, such as desire for significance and community, but do not fully account for online contexts. The authors integrate these approaches, which are both interested in worsening political extremism, asking, (1) What are the pathways to extreme content and communities online' and (2) What are the perceptions of extremism in online communities' Through interviews with politically active Redditors, the authors identify three motivations for initial engagement with fringe political communities: political unsorting of the self, political exceptionalism, and virtuous participation. The authors argue these motivations are potentially important seeds of political extremism and discuss the implications for supporting healthy political discourse online.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-05-19T06:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231174823
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Classed Beginnings: Status Socialization in Two Preschool Classrooms

    • Authors: Hannah W. Espy, Freda B. Lynn
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Research on class inequality in education shows how the hidden curriculum—the tacit yet systematic lessons taught alongside the official curriculum—tends to favor the cultural capital that class-advantaged students bring from home over that of their less advantaged peers. This ethnography instead explores variation in what schools implicitly teach and how organizations potentially class their members. Comparing one Head Start with one tuition-charging preschool, the authors document how Head Start implicitly treats preschoolers, who are from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds, as students who lack decision-making power and occupy the lowest position in a rigid status hierarchy. In contrast, the advantaged preschoolers were implicitly encouraged to take ownership of their actions, make the curriculum work for them, and activate support from teachers and administrators. Insofar as this “internal control” mindset of the tuition-charging preschool is favored in later academic and professional arenas, the authors argue that organizations can be agents of class socialization.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-05-19T05:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231171109
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • On Track or Off Track' Identifying a Typology of Math Course-Taking
           Sequences in U.S. High Schools

    • Authors: Seong Won Han, Chungseo Kang, Lois Weis, Rachel Dominguez
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors examine students’ linear progression histories in mathematics throughout high school years, using the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009. Although scholars have attended to this before, the authors provide a new organizing framework for thousands of heterogenous mathematics course-taking sequences. Using cluster analysis, the authors identify eight distinctive course-taking sequence typologies. Approximately 45 percent of students take a linear sequence of mathematics, whereas others stop taking mathematics altogether, repeat coursework, or regress to lower level courses. Only about 14 percent of students take the expected four-year linear sequence of Algebra 1–Geometry–Algebra II–Advanced Mathematics. Membership into different typologies is related to student characteristics and school settings (e.g., race, socioeconomic status, and high school graduation requirements). The results provide a tool for schools’ self-assessment of mathematics course-taking histories among students, creating intervention opportunities and a foundation for future research on advancing our understanding of stratification in math course-taking patterns, postsecondary access, and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-05-09T10:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231169259
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Unjust Income Inequality Prevails Across 29 Countries

    • Authors: Cristóbal Moya, Jule Adriaans, Carsten Sauer
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The aim of this visualization is to describe justice evaluations of income inequality from a cross-country perspective for more than 72,000 respondents in 29 countries. The analyses were based on data from two large, cross-country survey programs. The International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) asked for an evaluation of the overall income distribution, and the European Social Survey (ESS) asked for justice evaluations of both bottom and top incomes. The authors find that injustice of the income distribution prevails in all studied countries except Denmark and that injustice of bottom incomes prevails in all countries. Moreover, in the countries included in both the ISSP and ESS, the share of respondents evaluating the overall income distribution as just always falls between the share evaluating bottom and top incomes as just. These results suggest that depending on the country context, different parts of the distribution (top and bottom incomes) influence its overall evaluation.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-04-28T11:55:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231171581
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Rising Coauthorship in Sociology, 1895 to 2022

    • Authors: Dustin S. Stoltz
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      More than 180,000 articles published in 110 sociology journals over 130 years reveal that coauthoring is increasingly a disciplinary norm in sociological publications. More than 55 percent of all articles published in 2022 were coauthored, and only five journals had lower average coauthoring in the past five years than their overall average. The sample includes both U.S. and non-U.S. journals, as well as specialist and generalist journals. The U.S. journals include those published by the American Sociological Association as well as various regional and specialty journals. When disaggregating the articles by these subcategories, the trend toward increased coauthoring remains.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-04-28T11:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231171115
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Inequity Z: Income Fairness Perceptions in Europe across the Income

    • Authors: Fabian Kalleitner, Sandra Bohmann
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Using data from the European Social Survey, we examine income fairness evaluations of 17,605 respondents from 28 countries. Respondents evaluated the fairness of their own incomes as well as the fairness of the incomes of the top and bottom income deciles in their countries. Depicted on a single graph, these income fairness evaluations take on a Z-shaped form, which we call the “inequity Z”. The inequity Z reveals an extensive level of consensus within each country regarding the degree of unfairness of top and bottom incomes. With rising income, respondents consistently judge their own incomes to be less unfair. Across countries, the gap in fairness ratings between top and bottom incomes rises with income inequality. Perceived underreward of bottom incomes is more pronounced in countries where bottom incomes are objectively lower. Thus, this visualization suggests that, when people are confronted with information about actual income levels, perceived inequity increases with inequality.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-04-13T10:23:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231167138
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Limitations of Intergroup Friendship: Using Social Network Analysis to
           Test the Pathways Linking Contact and Intergroup Attitudes in a Multigroup

    • Authors: Thoa V. Khuu, David R. Schaefer, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Allison M. Ryan
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Recent research on intergroup contact theory has emphasized the potency of cross-group friendship for reducing prejudice. Evaluating this claim requires consideration of competing friend influence and selection processes. Few studies have jointly tested these mechanisms and often only in limited, majority/minority group contexts. In this study, the authors articulate several mechanisms linking friendships with intergroup attitudes and test them in a diverse U.S. context (two large high schools with significant representations of multiple ethnoracial groups). The analysis involves a longitudinal network model of friendship and attitude coevolution. The findings indicate that ingroup friends influenced intergroup contact attitudes (ICAs) over time, while more open ICAs promoted selection into cross-group friendship. By contrast, effects of cross-group friendships on ICAs were limited to White students with Black friends. These findings suggest that the effect of intergroup contact is overstated in the context of friendship and that more focus should be paid to understanding other friendship dynamics.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-04-08T08:32:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231161048
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Love in the Time of COVID-19: The Social Dimensions of Intimate Life under

    • Authors: Alexander Borsa, Maximillian Calleo, Joshua Faires, Golda Kaplan, Shadiya Sharif, Dingyu Zhang, Tey Meadow
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Although popular media across the United States reported that the coronavirus disease 2019 COVID pandemic incited dramatic transformations in personal relationships, identities, and practices, little sociological research examines these developments. What exists elaborates the “how” and “how much” of sex, the frequency of sexual conduct, and changes in the patterning of sexual behavior. In this study of the intimate trajectories of 46 young adults, conducted during the height of U.S. quarantine restrictions in 2020 and early 2021, the authors explore the “whys” of sex. They find that the exogenous force of the pandemic profoundly altered individual relationship trajectories, prompted sexual introspection projects, shifted understandings of sexual risk, and promoted new modes of intimacy. These findings suggest that pandemic life reached deep into subjective self-understandings and ways of relating to others. They also reveal the benefits of foregrounding cultural meanings over behaviors, changes in thoughts over actions, and social processes over individual outcomes.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-04-08T08:29:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231161046
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • “Doesn’t Seem Like a Place to Interact, or Interact Well”:
           Motivations to Discuss (and Not) Science and Religion on Social Media

    • Authors: Will Marler, Eszter Hargittai
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Incivility in online discussions is an ongoing concern in academic and popular circles alike. Although social media offers the possibility for meaningful discussion, research has identified many barriers to this potential including disrespectful interactions, echo chambers, misinformation, and participation gaps. Most such scholarship focuses on just one topic of discussion, however. By comparing two domains of exchange, the authors are able to examine whether and how the subject of conversation may influence online experiences. The authors analyze interviews with 45 adults from across the United States about their experiences discussing science and religion on social media. People approached the two topics differently, which influenced whether they contributed to related conversations. The intrusion of politics into conversations across both topics broadly limited participation. Curiosity, knowledge, and interacting in private groups or with strangers encouraged joining discussions. Understanding participation dynamics across topic domains is fruitful for future research on the social media public sphere.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-04-06T07:14:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231157685
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Analyzing Text and Images in Digital Communication: The Case of
           Securitization in American White Supremacist Online Discourse

    • Authors: Daniel Karell, Michael Freedman, Noam Gidron
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Sociological research on online discourse increasingly uses digital data consisting of messages combining multiple modes of media, with meaning arising from contents’ interaction across modes. Yet, techniques to study this interplay are underdeveloped relative to the toolkit for analyzing solely texts. The authors introduce an automated approach for relationally analyzing texts and images, focusing on how to examine the discursive meaning emerging from concepts’ connections across associated text and image modes. The authors validate this approach using a crowdsourced task and obtain results suggesting that applying social network metrics to semantic space can generate useful insights into how people understand discourse. To illustrate this approach, the authors examine the concept of “securitization” in online white supremacist discourse. The findings indicate that ideas of securitization link notions of personalistic leadership with imagery of space and place. This analysis demonstrates how the authors’ approach helps researchers understand multimodal material and meaning-making in digital discourse.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-04-04T09:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231161049
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Education and Public Support for COVID-19 Mitigation Measures

    • Authors: Volha Chykina, Charles Crabtree
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Governments around the world have adopted many mitigation strategies to stop the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Public support for these strategies varies widely. In this visualization the authors examine whether college education might play a role in support for various COVID-19 mitigation strategies. To do so, they leverage original data from surveys conducted across six countries. The authors find that the association between education and support for COVID-19 restrictions varies considerably in direction, both by restriction type and by country. Given this finding, in many contexts, the educational status of the intended audience should be considered in how public health messaging campaigns are developed and targeted.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-29T06:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231159538
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Household Joblessness in U.S. Metropolitan Areas during the COVID-19
           Pandemic: Polarization and the Role of Educational Profiles

    • Authors: Thomas Biegert, Berkay Özcan, Magdalena Rossetti-Youlton
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors use Current Population Survey 2016 to 2021 quarterly data to analyze changes in household joblessness across metropolitan areas in the United States during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The authors first use shift-share analysis to decompose the change in household joblessness into changes in individual joblessness, household compositions, and polarization. The focus is on polarization, which is the result of the unequal distribution of individual joblessness across households. The authors find that the rise in household joblessness during the pandemic varies strongly across U.S. metropolitan areas. The initial stark increase and subsequent recovery are due largely to changes in individual joblessness. Polarization contributes notably to household joblessness but to varying degree. Second, the authors use metropolitan area–level fixed-effects regressions to test whether the educational profile of the population is a helpful predictor of changes in household joblessness and polarization. They measure three distinct features: educational levels, educational heterogeneity, and educational homogamy. Although much of the variance remains unexplained, household joblessness increased less in areas with higher educational levels. The authors show that how polarization contributes to household joblessness is shaped by educational heterogeneity and educational homogamy.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-28T06:28:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231158087
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Spatial and Sociodemographic Vulnerability: Quantifying Accessibility to
           Health Care and Legal Services for Immigrants in California, Arizona, and

    • Authors: Ethan Roubenoff, Jasmijn Slootjes, Irene Bloemraad
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Nonprofits provide a range of human and social services in the United States, producing what some call the delegated welfare state. The authors aim to quantify inequities in nonprofit service provision by focusing on two types of vulnerabilities: spatial and socio-demographic. Specifically, the authors develop a service accessibility index to identify mismatch between population demand and locational supply of nonprofits. The authors apply the index to an original data set of more than 1,500 immigrant-serving legal and health organization in California, Nevada, and Arizona. The authors find that immigrants living in rural areas are underserved, especially in access to justice, compared with those in metropolitan areas but that residents of smaller cities have better access, especially to health services, than those in larger cities. The service accessibility index not only brings such inequities into relief but raises critical questions about the determinants and consequences of service-access variability, for vulnerable immigrants and others dependent on the nonprofit safety net.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-27T11:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231157683
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Gender Differences in Scaling Back: Family Formation and Aspirations
           toward Work Achievement among Japanese Adults

    • Authors: Yuko Hara
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Previous research suggests that family responsibilities can negatively affect work attitudes, particularly for women. The opportunity structure theoretical perspective posits that positions in opportunity structures in the workplace, not gender, shape work attitudes. But few studies have examined how work attitudes change during adulthood or identified which life events precipitate changes in work attitudes. Using six waves of panel data and fixed-effects models, the author examines changes in work attitudes, focusing on aspirations toward work achievement and upon becoming a spouse and subsequently a parent in Japan, a highly gendered, industrialized society. For women, transitions to marriage and parenthood are negatively associated with aspirations, even when controlling for job characteristics, whereas family formation has little association with changes in the aspirations for men. Women scale back their aspirations toward work achievement when forming families, and marriage triggers shifts in the work attitudes.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-27T11:28:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231157682
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Neighborhood Racial and Economic Composition Predicts Incidence of Various
           Emergency Service Responses

    • Authors: Karl Vachuska
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Sociological research has investigated neighborhood inequality across various consequential events. Crime and violence continue to be dominant phenomena examined. Less sociological attention has been given to other types of adverse incidents involving emergency services responses. In this article, the author draws on a unique data set on medical emergencies, fires, traffic collisions, gas leaks, carbon monoxide leaks, and hazardous incidents from more than 600 local first-responder agencies across the United States to examine neighborhood inequalities in prevalence. The author finds that across nearly all outcomes, neighborhood proportion Black is a dominant predictor of incidence that persists net of a battery of controls. The author additionally finds socioeconomic disparities across a few of these outcomes, including medical emergencies, fires, and traffic collisions. The author concludes by broadly encouraging more sociological research on these understudied events.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-24T06:56:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231157679
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Estimating Firm-, Occupation-, and Job-Level Gender Pay Gaps with U.S.
           Linked Employer-Employee Population Data, 2005 to 2015

    • Authors: Joseph King, Matthew Mendoza, Andrew Penner, Anthony Rainey, Donald Tomaskovic-Devey
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Merging 2005 to 2015 Internal Revenue Service, Social Security, and Census records, the authors calculate national average gender pay gaps for various population definitions and then decompose trends in the contribution of firm, occupation, and job segregation to these pay gaps, as well as the size of the average residual “within-job” pay gap. In general, observed segregation tends to explain about half of age, education, and hours of work adjusted gender pay gaps, but the other half remains within occupations in the same firm. Although between-firm pay gaps rose and within-job pay gaps declined through 2009, the authors find little decline in firm- or job-level gender pay gaps after 2009. The results indicate that to reduce gender pay gaps, public policy and employers should target gender disparities in hiring and job assignment as well as potential disparities in pay setting.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-24T06:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231157678
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Black Protesters in a White Social Movement: Looking to the Anti–Iraq
           War Movement to Develop a Theory of Racialized Activism

    • Authors: Fabio Rojas, Michael T. Heaney, Muna Adem
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      On the basis of ethnographic and historical accounts, many movement scholars hold that differences in political expectations and interaction styles inhibit cross-racial collaboration in social movements. Inspired by this research, the authors ask three questions about minority participation in social movements and address them using a survey of more than 6,000 participants in the anti–Iraq War movement. First, the authors ask about relational inequality. Did Black protesters have fewer ties with the antiwar movement than Whites' Second, the authors ask about siloing. Were Black protesters disproportionately concentrated in specific movement organizations' Third, the authors ask if patterns of inequality were similar for Latino and Asian activists' The authors find evidence of relational inequality for Black activists but not Latino or Asian activists. They find evidence of siloing for all three ethnic groups. These empirical results are used to articulate an account of racialized activism with special attention to organizational processes.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-21T05:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231157673
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Crossing the Line: Disgust, Dehumanization, and Human Rights Violations

    • Authors: David L. Rousseau, Brandon Gorman, Lisa E. Baranik
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      What leads Americans to support human rights violations' The authors explore the role of disgust on dehumanization and support for retaliatory human rights violations, including support for torture, targeting noncombatants, and extrajudicial killing. Using a survey experiment, the authors find that American respondents are disgusted with outgroups whose behaviors violate global human rights norms. These feelings of disgust lead respondents to dehumanize these outgroups and support hypothetical human rights violations against past violators as well as noncombatants ostensibly affiliated with them. Although the experimental vignettes also triggered anger and sadness in participants, only disgust reactions consistently produced dehumanization and support for human rights violations against outgroups. The results indicate that global human rights norms delineate not only acceptable behavior toward others but also the boundaries between those deserving and undeserving of human rights protections.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-18T10:34:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231157686
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Changes over Time in COVID-19 Vaccination Inequalities in Eight Large U.S.

    • Authors: S. Michael Gaddis, Colleen M. Carey, Nicholas V. DiRago
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors estimate the associations between community socioeconomic composition and changes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination levels in eight large cities at three time points. In March, communities with high socioeconomic status (SES) had significantly higher vaccination rates than low-SES communities. Between March and April, low-SES communities had significantly lower changes in percentage vaccinated than high-SES communities. Between April and May, this difference was not significant. Thus, the large vaccination gap between communities during restricted vaccine eligibility did not narrow when eligibility opened up. The link between COVID-19 vaccination and community disadvantage may lead to a bifurcated recovery whereby advantaged communities move on from the pandemic more quickly while disadvantaged communities continue to suffer.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-17T05:16:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231161045
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Visualizing Underemployment Dynamics in Australia: Combining Sankey and
           Sequence Analysis Plots

    • Authors: Sophia Fauser, Irma Mooi-Reci
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      This visualization uses annual data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey to illustrate the dynamics of underemployment for Australian men and women in their early careers (ages 25–34 years). Visualizing the dynamics of underemployment reveals that it is a persistent and gender-biased issue. Women are more likely to experience underemployment in their early careers compared with men. Additionally, women are more likely to become trapped in a cycle of underemployment and inactivity, leading to unfavorable long-term work experiences. This disparity highlights the need for policies that improve women’s human capital and productivity by addressing underemployment in their early careers.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-17T05:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231160640
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Time Transfers by Age and Gender in 28 Countries

    • Authors: Lili Vargha, Bernhard Binder-Hammer, Gretchen Donehower
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Transfers of services that are produced through unpaid care work (such as cooking, cleaning, shopping, household maintenance, and direct care) sustain our societies. Yet they differ considerably between genders and across countries. This visualization highlights the cross-country differences in giving and receiving unpaid household services (time transfers) by gender and age for 28 countries. It demonstrates how much more unpaid care work is done by women compared with men across the lifecycle in all countries. The visualization also shows that the highest amount of time transfers is received by the youngest generations.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-16T05:04:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231153615
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Increased Age Heaping in Mobile Phone Surveys Conducted in Low-Income and
           Middle-Income Countries

    • Authors: Stéphane Helleringer, Samantha W. Lau, Shammi Luhar, Jethro Banda, Bruno Lankoande, Malebogo Tlhajoane, Georges Reniers
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the number of surveys conducted remotely by mobile phone in low-income and middle-income countries has increased rapidly. This shift has helped sustain data collection despite restrictions on mobility and interactions. It might also allow collecting data more frequently on important demographic and socioeconomic topics. However, conducting interviews by mobile phone might affect the accuracy of reported data, for example, if respondents have difficulties understanding questions asked remotely, or data collectors have less time to probe and cross-check answers. In this visualization, the authors explore time trends in age heaping, a strong signal of reporting errors, in six African countries. They show that mobile phone surveys have generated noisier data on age than recent household surveys and censuses, thus possibly affecting researchers’ understanding of demographic processes and confounding multivariate analyses of socioeconomic outcomes.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-03-09T09:16:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231158766
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Decline Is Not Inevitable: Changes in Science Identity during the
           Progression through a U.S. Middle School among Boys and Girls

    • Authors: Julia McQuillan, Patricia Wonch Hill, Joseph C. Jochman, Grace M. Kelly
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      In the United States, science capital is important for navigating many aspects of life. Yet during middle school, science interest declines more for girls than boys. It is unclear, however, whether science identity also declines during the middle school years and if there are differences by gender. The authors advance prior research by modeling changes in science identity and associations with changes in identity-relevant characteristics using growth curve analyses on four waves of data from 760 middle school youth. For girls and boys, science identity changes over time; about 40 percent of the variance is within-person change, with the remainder explained by aggregate between-person differences. The associations of all identity-relevant characteristics with science identity are not significantly different for girls and boys, yet declines in average values of identity-relevant characteristics are larger for girls than boys.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-25T09:30:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231152195
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Prospective Attitude about the Importance of Planning Pregnancies Is
           Associated with Retrospective Attitude toward a Specific Pregnancy

    • Authors: Arthur L. Greil, Karina M. Shreffler, Stacy M. Tiemeyer, Julia McQuillan
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Several theories of fertility behavior assume that planning is important to women. Is this a reasonable assumption' To answer this question, the authors used the National Survey of Fertility Barriers. Among women with unsure or positive fertility intentions at wave 1, most (75 percent) agreed with the statement “It is important to plan my pregnancies.” Logistic regression, adjusted for control variables, indicated that fertility intentions are a distinct construct from pregnancy planning attitudes. Multinomial regression of retrospective pregnancy attitude three years later among a subsample of women who had pregnancies during that period indicated that women who felt that it was more important to plan pregnancies had higher odds of describing their intentions at the time of a subsequent pregnancy as “trying to” become pregnant compared with “okay either way.” Therefore, it is useful to measure and include pregnancy planning attitude, in addition to intentions, in fertility research.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-24T06:41:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231153619
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Black-White Differences in Parental Happiness

    • Authors: Jennifer Augustine, Mia Brantley
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Lower levels of happiness among Blacks compared with Whites are well documented, as are lower levels of happiness among parents compared with nonparents. Yet it remains unclear whether the parenting happiness gap is larger among Blacks compared with Whites. Drawing on the General Social Survey (2010–2018), the authors investigate this question. The authors find that White mothers reported less happiness compared with their White female nonparent counterparts, but contrary to research highlighting the profound challenges of parenting for Black women, a parental happiness gap among Black women was not observed. Among Black men, parents reported a much higher probability of being very happy than their nonparent counterparts, whereas White fathers’ happiness was no different from that of their male counterparts without children. These findings are discussed in view of stereotypes about Black mothers and fathers, their resilience to stressors such as racism and discrimination, and emerging research on the salience of fatherhood for Black men.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-24T06:35:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231153617
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Income Inequality in U.S. Voting: A Visualization

    • Authors: Daniel Laurison, Ankit Rastogi
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Although it is clear that the 2020 election broke turnout records, we do not know how levels of voting changed across income groups. Journalistic accounts emphasized increases in turnout across demographic groups but relied on self-reported voter data. The authors use validated voting data from both the Common Election Study and the Pew Research Center to examine the relationship between income and voting across the two elections (along with education and race in supplemental analyses). The authors show that levels of inequality in political participation were the same or higher in 2020 compared with previous years and that there are substantial differences in coefficients for income between the two data sets, raising questions about the accuracy of validated voter data.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-22T06:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231154358
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Does the Musk Twitter Takeover Matter' Political Influencers, Their
           Arguments, and the Quality of Information They Share

    • Authors: Deana A. Rohlinger, Kyle Rose, Sarah Warren, Stuart Shulman
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      In October 2022, Elon Musk took over Twitter. Although conservatives cheered the takeover, progressives decried it as dangerous for democracy. Despite scholarly interest in Twitter, little is known about the impact of “old” Twitter’s policies on the information environment, making it difficult to speculate about Musk’s effects. The authors begin to address this gap through an analysis of 245,020 tweets collected before and after Twitter suspended eight accounts calling for state audits of the 2020 presidential election results. In this analysis of message amplifiers, or accounts receiving 200 or more retweets, and message drivers, or top-ranked accounts, no evidence is found that the Twitter ban improved the ideas or the quality of information shared about the election, nor did it dramatically change who posted about the audit. The authors conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings for future research on Twitter under Musk’s control.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-13T12:27:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231231152193
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Urbanization and the Paradox of Rural Population Decline: Racial and
           Regional Variation

    • Authors: Daniel T. Lichter, Kenneth M. Johnson
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors redress the commonplace narrative of rural decline. Data from the decennial censuses since 1980 reveal that rural growth is often counted as metro growth; that is, it is added to the expanding universe of metro counties. First, nonmetro counties (defined in 1980) grew from 55 million people in 1980 to roughly 70 million in 2020. Yet, because of nonmetro-to-metro reclassification, the 2020 census reports a nonmetro population of only 46 million. Second, nonmetro growth has been due almost entirely to endogenous growth of minority populations. Reclassification transferred disproportionate shares of America’s rural White population to the metro side of the demographic ledger, leaving behind rural minorities. Third, these racial differences in growth–both endogenous population growth and growth due to reclassification–are most apparent in the South, where most rural minorities live. Our goal is to provide both substantive and didactic lessons for studying population growth and decline.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-07T11:56:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221149896
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The (In)Flexibility of Racial Discrimination: Labor Market Context and the
           Racial Wage Gap in the United States, 2000 to 2021

    • Authors: Felipe A. Dias
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Does racial wage discrimination increase during economic downturns' In this article, the author tests empirically the association between economic conditions and racial wage discrimination for black, Hispanic, and Asian workers. Using data from the Current Population Survey, the author finds that the wage gap between Hispanics and whites, and between Asians and whites, increases with the job-seeker rate and unemployment rate. However, the wage gap between black and white workers increases slightly with the unemployment rate and does not change at all with the job-seeker rate. The author advances the concept of “wage discrimination flexibility” to argue that racial wage discrimination against black workers is more rigid and resistant to changes in economic environments, whereas wage discrimination against Hispanics and Asians is more flexible and responsive to economic conditions. The author discusses the implications of these findings for theories of discrimination and for policies aiming to foster equal opportunities in the labor market.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-04T05:18:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221148932
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Political Economy of the COVID-19 Pandemic: How State Policies Shape
           County-Level Disparities in COVID-19 Deaths

    • Authors: Yue Sun, Erin M. Bisesti
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors examine how two state-level coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) policy indices (one capturing economic support and one capturing stringency measures such as stay-at-home orders) were associated with county-level COVID-19 mortality from April through December 2020 and whether the policies were more beneficial for certain counties. Using multilevel negative binominal regression models, the authors found that high scores on both policy indices were associated with lower county-level COVID-19 mortality. However, the policies appeared to be most beneficial for counties with fewer physicians and larger shares of older adults, low-educated residents, and Trump voters. They appeared to be less effective in counties with larger shares of non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic residents. These findings underscore the importance of examining how state and local factors jointly shape COVID-19 mortality and indicate that the unequal benefits of pandemic policies may have contributed to county-level disparities in COVID-19 mortality.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-02T06:16:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221149902
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • How Parental Internal Migration within China Affects the Aspirations of
           Left-Behind and Migrant Children: From Comparative and Multidimensional

    • Authors: Zhenxiang Chen
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The author explores how parents’ internal migration within China affects their children’s socioeconomic aspirations and extends previous research by (1) comparing left-behind and migrant children, (2) considering multidimensional aspirations, and (3) testing mechanisms that explain the effects of parents’ migration on their children’s aspirational pathways. The first finding is that left-behind and migrant children have higher migratory aspirations than rural children. However, left-behind and migrant children do not differ from rural children in terms of occupational aspirations. The multidimensional perspective revealed that migrant children do not want mid-status or high-status occupations in smaller cities; rather, they prefer traditional rural-to-urban labor migration pathways, working in low-status occupations in big cities. Finally, the findings verified that most of the hypothesized mechanisms cannot explain the effects of parental migration. The persistence of the effects of parental migration on migrant children suggests that institutional mechanisms may exist to explain the effects.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T06:28:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221149903
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • How Americans Assess Intimate Partner Violence: Evidence from a Survey

    • Authors: Anne Groggel, Fabio Rojas
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Most Americans view intimate partner violence as wrong. Less is known, however, about how the general population evaluates threats from romantic partners. When do third parties support interventions such as police involvement, restraining orders, or prohibiting the abuser from owning a gun' Through a survey-based experiment, participants reacted to a separated dating relationship scenario in which three elements were manipulated: the race of the couple, the medium of communication between the perpetrator and the victim, and whether the male character referenced a gun. Using a structural equation model, the authors find that the inclusion of a gun dramatically increases concern, which in turn fosters support for interventions. However, participants’ race and gender and the race of the couple shape these effects. When the victims in the separated dating scenario are Black, participants were less likely to call for the abuser to be prohibited from owning a gun, even when they have expressed concern about the situation. This suggests that although a gun has a clear and strong effect, racial and gender effects are more complex.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T06:16:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221149627
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Changes in Smoking Prevalence from Adolescence to Adulthood among Asian
           Americans: Evidence of Selective Acculturation across Gender

    • Authors: Zobayer Ahmmad, Kim Korinek, Ming Wen, Daniel E. Adkins
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      It is well established that immigrant adolescents have lower smoking rates than their native-born counterparts. Although smoking rates among immigrants have been theorized to increase with U.S. acculturation, this hypothesis has seldom been tested using longitudinal data spanning multiple developmental stages. The authors address this limitation using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to model age-based smoking trajectories by gender and nativity status among Asian Americans (ages 10–33 years), adjusting for a range of control covariates. Trajectory analyses indicate that the gap between immigrants and natives generally increases as individuals age, but this process varies by gender, with immigrant women exhibiting a significantly less steep smoking growth trajectory (b = −.011, p 
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T06:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221148154
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Impact of the Pandemic on Poor Urban Neighborhoods: A Participatory
           Action Research Study of a “Favela” in Rio de Janeiro

    • Authors: Anjuli Fahlberg, Cristiane Martins, Mirian de Andrade, Sophia Costa, Jacob Portela
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The pandemic provoked by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) devastated poor urban neighborhoods across the world, particularly in the Global South, although empirical data on this remain limited. In this article, the authors present data collected through a mixed-methods, participatory action research approach on the impacts of the pandemic in Cidade de Deus, a “favela,” or poor informal settlement, in Rio de Janeiro. The authors find that the indirect consequences of COVID-19, in particular economic and mental health problems, were experienced as more severe than the direct effects of the virus itself, despite high rates of infection and mortality. The study also revealed that residents relied heavily on one another through local systems of mutual aid to address immediate crises. These findings suggest that the pandemic provoked a complex and diverse set of challenges and actions in the economic, social, physical, and mental spheres of poor urban neighborhoods.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T06:11:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221137139
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Are Supervision Violations Filling Prisons' The Role of Probation, Parole,
           and New Offenses in Driving Mass Incarceration

    • Authors: Michelle S. Phelps, H. N. Dickens, De Andre’ T. Beadle
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Advocates for reform have highlighted violations of probation and parole conditions as a key driver of mass incarceration. As a 2019 Council of State Governments report declared, supervision violations are “filling prisons and burdening budgets.” Yet few scholarly accounts estimate the precise role of technical violations in fueling prison populations during the prison boom. Using national surveys of state prison populations from 1979 to 2016, the authors document that most incarcerated persons are behind bars for new sentences. On average, just one in eight people in state prisons on any given day has been locked up for a technical violation of community supervision alone. Thus, strategies to substantially reduce prison populations must look to new criminal offenses and sentence length.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T09:43:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221148631
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • A Seat at the Table: A New Data Set of Social Movement Organization
           Representation before Congress during the Twentieth Century

    • Authors: Charles Seguin, Thomas V. Maher, Yongjun Zhang
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The authors ask descriptive questions concerning the relationship between social movement organizations (SMOs) and the state. Which movement’s SMOs are consulted the most by the state' Do only a few “spokes-organizations” speak for the whole of movements' Has the state increasingly consulted SMOs over time' Do the movements consulted most by the state advise only a few state venues' The authors present and describe a new publicly available data set covering 2,593 SMOs testifying at any of the 87,249 public congressional hearings held during the twentieth century. Testimony is highly concentrated across movements, with just four movements giving 64 percent of the testimony before Congress. A very few “spokes-organizations” testify far more often than typical SMOs. The SMO congressional testimony diversified over the twentieth century from primarily “old” movements such as Labor to include “new” movements such as the Environmental movement. The movements that testified most often did so before a broader range of congressional committees.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T09:42:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221144598
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • The Effect of Marital Name Choices on Heterosexual Women’s and Men’s
           Perceived Quality as Romantic Partners

    • Authors: Kristin Kelley
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      Are women and men judged for breaking gender norms in the context of heterosexual marriage' Using the case of marital name choice, the author compared the effect of gender-conventional choices (woman takes man’s surname) to gender-egalitarian choices (both partners keep or hyphenate their surnames) on the perceived quality of heterosexual women and men as romantic partners. Relying on a survey experiment (n = 501), the author found that U.S. respondents perceived women who kept their surnames and women who shared hyphenated surnames with their husbands to be less committed and loving and to conform less to respondents’ image of the ideal wife than women who changed their names. These results show that gender-norm violations, not preferences for a shared spousal surname, explain the marital name penalty. Men in norm-breaking couples were also judged, albeit not as harshly as women, suggesting that there are contexts in which women are granted less gender flexibility than men.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-01-10T10:51:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221148153
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
  • Trends in the Parenthood Gap in Health and Well-Being among U.S. Women
           from 1996 to 2018

    • Authors: Kei Nomaguchi, Melissa A. Milkie
      Abstract: Socius, Volume 9, Issue , January-December 2023.
      The notion that U.S. mothers with minor children are less happy and more depressed than nonmothers largely relies on data collected in the 1990s or earlier. Although the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic brought much attention to the stressfulness of parenting, we lack knowledge of how mothers fared relative to nonmothers in the 2000s and 2010s, before the pandemic. The authors investigate trends in the parenthood gap in happiness, depression, and self-rated health among women aged 18 to 59 years, using the 1996 to 2018 General Social Survey (n = 13,254) and the 1997 to 2018 National Health Interview Survey (n = 263,110). Results indicate that twenty-first-century mothers with younger children were better off than nonmothers on two measures, reporting less depression and better health. Mothers’ “depression advantage” grew across this time. However, mothers with older children reported less happiness than nonmothers, a continued trend from the 1990s. The study underscores the importance of examining various well-being indicators across the changing contexts of parenting.
      Citation: Socius
      PubDate: 2023-01-10T10:49:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/23780231221145067
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2023)
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