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Contemporary Voice of Dalit
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ISSN (Print) 2455-328X - ISSN (Online) 2456-0502
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Editorial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Debi Chatterjee
      Pages: 135 - 135
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 135-135, November 2022.

      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-11-14T02:45:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221125978
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Dalit Politics in India: A Critical Overview

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      Authors: Bankim Chandra Mandal
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The origin of Dalit assertion and politics has a long tradition. The main objective of Dalit assertion and politics was to transform the age-old caste-based hierarchical structure of Indian society based on liberty, equality, fraternity and social justice as envisaged by Dr B. R. Ambedkar. During this long period, the nature of Dalit politics has varied from issue to issue and from context to context. During the seven and half decades of our independence, we have witnessed a massive change, like politics in general and Dalit politics in particular. Up to 1980, we have seen a comprehensive Dalit movement in different parts of India. After that time, it is tough to organize such comprehensive politics, especially in the urban centres. Due to selfishness, personal greed for power and other gains of Dalit leaders and activists, Dalit politics become much more fragmented, localized and depoliticized. Not only that, but identity politics also divided the Dalits into different caste and sub-caste groups. Due to these reasons, it is hard to make grand solidarity in politics among different Dalit castes and other weaker sections of Indian society. We have recently seen a new swing in Dalit politics that is very aware, assertive, organized, well-connected, inclusive and beyond party politics. In this study, the author wants to draw a brief sketch of the history of Dalit politics. Further, he wants to explore the changing nature of Dalit politics. In this context, he has tried to discuss the impact of the depoliticization of Dalit politics by the Dalit leaders and the caste identity politics within Dalit caste groups in forming grand solidarity in Dalit politics in India.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T05:26:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221131716
       
  • Quest for Social Justice: A comparative study of Panchanan Barma and Dr B.
           R. Ambedkar

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      Authors: Rup Kumar Barman, Juthika Barma
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The concept of ideal society largely depends on one’s perception, experience and interactions with the given society. Thus it is ‘contextual’ and ‘relational’ in reality. While reality determines the nature of one’s ideas, the transformation of his ideas gets denials from traditional perceptions, taboos and vested interests. All these features of ideas and activism have been found in the lives and works of Panchanan Barma (1865–1935) and Dr B. R. Ambedkar (1890–1956). Both of them were the products of their times. Thus their ideas on an ideal society got maturity through the interactions with their contemporary society. Hence, their attempts at attaining ‘justice’ and ‘equality’ for an ‘ideal society’ were the outcome of their ideas on ‘just society’ and ‘equality’ and finding probable ways for attaining ‘self-reliance’ to fight against injustice. This article seeks to analyse the concept of social justice of Panchanan Barma (the father of the Rajbanshi community of Bengal) and to compare it with that of Dr B. R. Ambedkar (who has been accepted as the ‘Father of the Indian Constitution’).
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-11-25T05:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221135313
       
  • Book review: Rup Kumar Barman, The Raidak: A Transnational River from
           Bhutan to Bangladesh Through India

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      Authors: Moniruna Debnath
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Rup Kumar Barman, The Raidak: A Transnational River from Bhutan to Bangladesh Through India. Mittal Publications, 2021, 126 pp., ₹600 (Hard Bound).
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-11-13T06:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221131381
       
  • Aesthetics and Politics of Dalit Women’s Writings Within Indian
           Pedagogic Practices

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      Authors: Kalyani Kalyani
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      With a postmodern shift and with the emergence of Dalit women’s standpoint, the feminist discourse itself has witnessed significant changes. The ‘double marginalization’ which Dalit women have been subjected to because of their caste location has graded down the monolith of gender identity. The emergence of Dalit women’s standpoint has also reworked how aesthetics and politics on Dalit women’s writings have been taken up within the Indian pedagogic practices. These new pedagogic engagements include processes such as the inclusion of newer curriculum and courses on Dalit writings, translation work of Dalit writings and the inclusion of theoretical works on Dalit women writings within the curriculum. This paper aims to understand the aesthetics and politics of Dalit women’s writings, particularly in the Hindi-speaking belt of India, and the interaction of such writings within the select Indian pedagogic practices. Through the select pedagogic practices the paper will explore the new kinds of discursive engagements that are done with these Dalit women’s writings per se. The paper will explore the absence/presence of Dalit women’s writings and also explore how the ‘representation’ of these writings is taken up within the mainstream Indian pedagogic practices. The paper further explores the popular spaces in which Dalit women’s writings have flourished and the tensions that exist, between what gets included and what remains excluded from the pedagogic practices, when it comes to Dalit women’s writings. The paper also explores the new aesthetic sensibility and the politics that have played a dynamic role in the emergence of Dalit women writings, and how the existing pedagogic practices have perceived them.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T11:08:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221122588
       
  • Locating Kashmiriyat in Ancient History: Tracing the Genealogy of
           Kashmir’s Syncretic Culture

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      Authors: Altaf Hussain Para, Haroon Rashid, Sana Shah
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The discourse on Kashmiriyat (or Kasheryut) was majorly invoked in the late twentieth-century Kashmir by diverse, often conflicting, ideological strands to legitimize their respective political positioning in the context of post-1947 political stirrings in Jammu and Kashmir. However, the discourse has remained shrouded in ambiguity owing to the multiple, disparate meanings and connotations attached to it. More commonly the term has been understood to imply a syncretic culture of Kashmir devoid of religious fundamentalism and exclusion.KLSo far as the historicity of Kashmiriyat is concerned, the existing scholarly writings on the discourse have tried to locate its origins in the medieval times when the interaction and subsequent synthesis occurred between Hinduism and Islam in Kashmir; a mystic manifestation, Rishism, is often referred as the best example of this ideational formation. However, the paper attempts to argue that while the idea of Kashmiriyat as syncretic culture of Kashmir devoid of religious fundamentalism holds ground, it cannot be clearly steered away from a particular religious affiliation altogether. Secondly, this paper challenges the existing historicity and ideational trajectory of Kashmiriyat and instead attempts to trace its genealogy to Kashmir’s ancient past.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T11:08:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221126861
       
  • Marginality, Educational Opportunity and Access to Higher Education:
           Experiences of Scheduled Caste and Tribe Students in India

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      Authors: Dhaneswar Bhoi, Neelima Rashmi Lakra
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This paper is based on the empirical data of the marginal section students who have come under the purview of the National Fellowship system at higher education level in India. The objective of the study is to find out their experiences with respect to the national fellowship system as a public policy measure and their educational attainment, participation and achievements within public policy discourse. Also, the study explores the educational opportunity, cultural capital and the socio-economic and political attainment of the marginal section students. Where, the study is based on both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The data are analysed through descriptive and thematic analysis methods. It addresses the major questions like: does the state become cultural capital for the marginal section students' How do the students from marginal backgrounds capitalize the public policy meant for them for higher education and what are their difficulties to avail this public policy'
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T11:07:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221129453
       
  • Navayana Buddhism and the Scheduled Castes of West Bengal

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      Authors: Rup Kumar Barman, Sanju Sarkar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Though Buddhism began to revive in India in the late nineteenth century, Buddhist organizations did not pay much attention to bring the Dalits into their folds. Rather, the lower caste communities had aspired for constructing respectable caste identities in the late colonial period. However, conversion of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (1891–1956) to a modified form of Buddhism (called ‘neo-Buddhism’) has appeared as a sociocultural tool for the Dalits to fight against the casteism. In this paper, we have highlightws the background of the introduction of neo-Buddhism and the location of the Scheduled Castes of West Bengal in it.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T03:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221128471
       
  • Caste, Social Inequalities and Maternal Healthcare Services in India:
           Evidence from the National Family and Health Survey

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      Authors: Bikash Das, Moslem Hossain, Piyal Basu Roy
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the level of access and utilization of maternal care health services among different socially disadvantaged groups in India. The study uses the data from the National Family Health Survey conducted in 2015–2016. We have used descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to assess the trends and prevalence of maternal healthcare services among different social groups. Using logistic regression, we have estimated the association of different socio-economic variables on maternal healthcare services among different socially disadvantaged groups in India. The results suggest tremendous inequality in access to maternal healthcare services among socially disadvantaged groups in India. It was found that several factors such as women’s education, working status, household wealth quintile and mass media exposure significantly impact access and utilization of maternal healthcare services among various socially disadvantaged groups. In addition, the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe women are subjected to socio-economic discrimination at multiple levels, and their maternal healthcare situation remains highly fragile. The social identity and caste-based socio-economic inequalities remain a major challenge in India to assure universal access to maternal healthcare services.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T03:14:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221125603
       
  • Book review: Sekhar Bandyopadhyay & Anasua Basu Ray Chaudhury, Caste and
           Partition in Bengal: The Story of Dalit Refugees, 1946–1961

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      Authors: Dhananjay Saha
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Sekhar Bandyopadhyay & Anasua Basu Ray Chaudhury, Caste and Partition in Bengal: The Story of Dalit Refugees, 1946–1961 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2022), 272 pp. ₹1,495, ISBN 978-0-19-285972-3 (Hardcover).
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T03:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221129450
       
  • Dalit Humanism: Marginal Spatial Reality as a Site of Dalit Counterpublic
           in Bama’s Sangati and Tulsiram’s Murdahiya

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      Authors: Anurag Kumar, Isha Malhotra, Nagendra Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      In India, one of the major counter-discourses constituted to critique the culture of violence, silence and impunity, harboured by the Indian public sphere, is offered by Dalit literary writings. Dalit counterpublic highlights the alternate cultural spaces that subvert and disrupt the dominant structures of repression by valuing the Dalit standpoint. The present article claims that the Dalit counterpublic is subaltern as well as locational; subalternity is based on the marginal position prescribed to Dalit people in the Indian social and cultural structure while location refers to the geopolitical territorial segregation. Bama’s Sangati and Tulsiram’s Murdahiya have been analysed using theoretical perspectives of counterpublic proposed by critics such as Nancy Fraser, Kanika Batra and Michel Warner. The findings suggest that Dalit people have transformed Dalit marginal site into a source of resistance.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T03:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221125602
       
  • Reclaiming the Body: Marital Rape and Self-sustainability in Meena
           Kandasamy’s When I Hit You

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      Authors: Joy Das
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      One of the burning issues of recent times is the domestic violence in forms of psychological tortures, physical assault, marital rape, etc., which are more or less visible in every society. This is the concern that leads this article to negotiate how individual identities get reshaped by the socio-cultural and political practices of the given systems of a society. Within this framework, this article analyses how ‘reclaiming the body’ helps ‘self’-sustenance of the female narrator while still contesting with the violated domestic life under the threat of patriarchal society in Meena Kandasamy’s When I Hit You: Or, A Portrait of the Writer as a Young Wife (2017). In the novel, Kandasamy not only portrays her protagonist as a mere object subjected to patriarchy but also shows the ways of her constructing own ‘self’, more explicitly female subjectivity which this article intends to explore through the theoretical framework of Michel Foucault and Judith Butler’s vision about construction of gender as mere rehearsed performative acts constructed to implement and cherish self-proclaimed supreme patriarchal ‘self’ of the society.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-09-25T02:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221122516
       
  • The State and the Madheshi Dalit Women’s Access to Citizenship in
           Nepal

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      Authors: Krishna Prasad Pandey
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The relationship between the state and Madheshi Dalit Womans (MDWs) with reference to the latter’s exercise of citizenship right has long been a contested issue in Nepal due to the latter’s alleged immigrant history and cultural and familial connection with the Dalits of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh of India. The MDWs who are at the lowest social order in Nepal because of their intersecting subordinate identities based on gender, caste, ethnic and class have been systematically excluded from the domain of Nepali citizenship during due course of hill-based national identity formation. Consequently, large number of the MDWs, their spouses and children have remained stateless or struggled hard to obtain citizenship owing to ethnic, caste, gender and class-based exclusion even after insertion of jus soli provisos for a brief period in the 2006 Citizenship Act. On this backdrop, this article, based on qualitative field study in the eastern Tarai, is an effort to explore the intricacies of the citizenshiplessness of the MDWs of Nepal’s eastern Tarai from their subjective experiences. The findings reveal a disappointing picture of citizenshiplessness of the MDW families by virtue of multiple forms of exclusion and also a sustained hierarchy within themselves based on access to different types of citizenship.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-09-25T02:01:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221122561
       
  • Learning Styles and Academic Achievement of Tribal Students

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      Authors: Sumitha P., R. Siva Prasadh
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Access to education for all is a hurdle task for a vast country like India. It is extra difficult when we consider the remote hamlets of tribal people. Tribal education was given prime importance by the different educational policies throughout the time. There are different issues like language, culture, lack of awareness, and so on, which are threat to achieving the goal. The educational goals mostly would not get fulfilled in the schools of tribal area. This may be related to the learning styles of tribal students as there is a close association between the learning styles of students and their academic achievement. In this context, the researcher studied the learning styles used by the tribal students in Alluri Sitarama Raju (ASR) district of Andhra Pradesh state, to identify the predominant learning style of tribal students. This article also discusses about the relation between learning styles and academic achievement of the students. If the student identifies their learning styles, it will help them to plan their way of learning. Similarly, if the teachers identify the learning styles of students, teaching learning activities could be planned accordingly.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T05:40:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221128107
       
  • Revisiting Major Approaches to Tribal Development in India: A Brief Review
           of Isolationist, Integrationist and Assimilative Approaches

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      Authors: Pradeep Kumar B.
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Three approaches, namely, isolationists, integrationists and Assimilative approaches are at the centre stage of philosophical and theoretical foundations that shape the discourses pertaining to the progress of tribal communities in India. Different schemes of tribal development implemented in India find their expression in at least one of these approaches. While the isolationist approach seeks to attain tribal development by treating tribal communities as specimens in a National Park, the integrationist approach calls for integrating the tribal communities with the mainstream. Undoubtedly, the isolationist approach has turned out to be an utter failure as it emphasizes confining the tribal communities within the forest, pushing them further to darkness and miseries. Integration is the ‘respectful merger’ of the tribal communities with the mainstream, staking a claim to an equal share of power and resources. Nevertheless, thrown into the ‘net’ of modernists from the ‘lap’ of nature in the name of integration, tribal communities have become the victims of modern industrialization. This calls for the ‘selective and slow integration’ of tribal communities with the mainstream population. However, this selective and gradual integration should be accompanied by suitable ‘protectionist’ instruments to devise an enhanced strategy aiming at the progress of the tribal communities.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T09:34:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221122600
       
  • Beyond Enrolment and Appropriation Politics in Dalit Girls’ Education:
           

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      Authors: Namrata Shokeen
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      While contemplating on Dalit girls’ education, a large body of research and policy drafts generally draws from the integration of enrolment and appropriation politics (around being a ‘Dalit’ and ‘women’) to explore the educational experiences and challenges of Dalit girls in the Indian education system. However, less attention is given to what lies beyond the enrolment and appropriation politics in Dalit girls’ education. This article is based on an empirical study conducted among households associated with ‘Unclean’ occupations from two urban cities of Haryana. In order to position Dalit girls’ education beyond enrolment and appropriation politics, the article attempts to unmask the ‘multiple patriarchies’ embedded in the socio-economic barriers often pervading Dalit girls in the Indian education system. While doing so, the article demonstrates the inseparable intersectionality of caste and gender, through the workings of external Brahmanical as well as internal Dalit patriarchy simultaneously functioning against Dalit girls’ education. Eventually, the article calls for a need to position Dalit girls’ education in a Dalit feminist standpoint framework.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T01:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221118491
       
  • Sairat Zaala Ji…

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      Authors: Morve Roshan K., Xu Wen
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      In Maharashtra, a few numbers of films have been produced on Dalit marginal or subaltern narratives, mainly based on the intersectionality of caste and gender conflicts. Unfortunately, these films have not received good responses nor got a box office success like Sairat movie did in the twenty-first century. In India, caste conflict, Brahminical hegemony and gender discrimination issues have produced fewer cinematic narratives about subalterns and badly left them without a voice. This article significantly exemplifies the Sairat movie to understand how a young generation in Maharashtra (especially from the rural areas) is facing caste hierarchy, class conflict, discrimination, gender-related issues and challenges in their lives. A class conflict and the characters’ struggle can be seen through the protagonists Parshya (Akash Thosar) and Archi (Rinku Rajguru) when they get married and start living their lives as an average couple, but nothing happens as a happy ending. This story re/presents the struggle of inter-caste marriage couples, social unacceptability and exclusion. They fail to resist the social, political and caste conflicts and get killed. In short, they become a victim of honour killing. To conclude, Sairat represents social, gender and caste conflict and reflects the struggle of youngsters in inter-caste marriages.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T07:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221117629
       
  • Becoming Dalit Women’s Voice: Engaging with Self-reflective
           Narrative in Bama’s Karukku

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      Authors: Shiv Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Dalit writings are considered to be centred on the issue of identity politics. Most analysis rests on their claim of identity as fixed and static. They ignore an embedded process of various spatial implications, characters’ interaction with it, and a self-reflexive narrative gaze that most of the prominent Dalit writers present through their autobiographical narratives. Concentration on these concepts provides a fresh perspective to critically analyse Dalit writings and presents a different understanding of identity formation. This article proposes to unearth this process through a reading of Bama’s Karukku (2012), in English translation. It attempts to establish that identity formation in Dalit writings is a process that is based on various kinds of spatial experiences that could be divided into three stages of development. This process culminates in transforming a character into a politically conscious Dalit figure. Also, this article attempts to chart a character’s development that corroborates to body’s spatial-cultural location and its response to/within that space. It is an attempt to understand various spatial ramifications that the character experiences in an attempt to forge an identity outside the traditional definition.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T07:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221117406
       
  • Dalit Literary Narratives: An Expression of the Lives of the
           Downtrodden—A Study

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      Authors: Mitul Sarkar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-09-04T06:45:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221117909
       
  • Towards Visibility: Subaltern Counterpublics in Paul Chirakkarode’s
           Pulayathara

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      Authors: Christina Romeo, Anupama Nayar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Christianity has always been celebrated as a catalyst towards modernity for the Dalits of Kerala. Though missionary accounts and ethnographic studies confirm the progress of the community, there was rampant casteism and separatism too. This is succinctly revealed in Dalit Christian texts. Pulayathara by Paul Chirakkarode stands as a testimony to the Dalit Christian dilemma and traces the history of the Kuttanadan Pulaya community in the pre- and post-conversion scenarios. Conversions could not change the existing public sphere of Kerala, where upper castes were the dominant party. They (Dalits) continued to be marginalized and subordinated and lacked a class consciousness. The article highlights the limitations in the public sphere that emerged in Kerala as part of the missionary endeavours in accommodating the converted Dalits. The article attempts to trace the emergence of subaltern counterpublics among the Dalit Christians to oppose the continued oppression and casteism by situating Pulayathara at the centre of the analysis.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T12:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221117639
       
  • Response of Local Government towards the Rural Dalits during the Second
           Wave of COVID-19: A Ground Experience from Remuna Block in the Balasore
           District of Odisha

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      Authors: Gayadhar Malik
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Dalit masses have historically been deprived of all sorts of privileges both socially and economically. But the debacle experience of rural Dalits during the pandemic in developing countries like India pose serious difficulties and challenges for accessing state-sponsored package and the state of Odisha is not an exception in this regard. Though Dalits’ conditions still remain unchanged due to ill practices of untouchability, the recent surge of coronavirus further pushed them into a deep catastrophic situation. This new experience brought multiple burdens on Dalits that affects their livelihood where poverty and malnutrition increased to some extent. In addition, the response of local governments during the first wave of COVID-19 across the country proved encouraging, but with the emergence of the second wave of COVID-19, it becomes pathetic in all aspects, which caused thousands of infections and deaths. The condition of rural Dalits of Odisha remains unchanged though the Constitution of India guarantees rights for all-round development of all sections of people, Dalits still suffer from exploitation and discrimination. This study attempts to understand the response of local government towards the rural Dalits of Odisha during the second wave of COVID-19 and tries to explore the ground reality that there is inherent local corruption and mismanagement of local funds, which caused the worst conditions for rural Dalits in the villages where majority populations are Dalits. The findings and inferences of the study reveal that Dalits of Odisha in general and Remuna Block of Balasore district in particular, faced more challenges in income, education and lack of health facilities during the second wave of COVID-19 due to their marginalization and lack of knowledge about COVID-19 having low economic status. The suggestive measures have been made at the end of the article to minimize such unpleasant conditions of Dalits and their miserable conditions at any stage, especially during the outbreak of any pandemic, natural calamities must be taken into consideration by focusing on different social and economic dimensions that empower the Dalits.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-28T03:44:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221115610
       
  • Disrupting Caste Hegemony in Punjab: A Reading of the Punjabi Dalit Poetry
           of the Pre-Independence Period

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      Authors: Ravinder Kaur
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The idea of caste has always been debatable, contested and controversial. Since the time of its inception, it has been prevalent throughout India. Any Indian cannot define his or her identity without referring to his or her caste. However, it also became and still is a reason behind the marginalization and exploitation of millions of people. Various activists, scholars, thinkers, political leaders and literary writers have tried to fight against the stigmatization of a particular caste. However, the experience of caste discrimination is not the same in all the states of India. Though the basic problems and concerns of Dalits such as untouchability and exploitation are the same, their degree and intensity vary from one state to another. Various cultural, social and economic moorings impact the way caste-based discrimination is practised in a particular society. Various critics from Punjab such as Ronki Ram, Harish Puri and Paramjit Judge argue that the experience of Dalits in Punjab is comparatively different than those in other parts of India because in Punjab casteism was practised not on the basis of purity/pollution syndrome but as a divide between the landless and the land-owning communities, so they have studied the material aspect of caste. It is observed that the literary writings by Dalits from Punjab highlight instances of untouchability and caste-based discrimination in the pre- and post-independence periods. They resisted and protested against the caste system and also claimed to overthrow it. Therefore, the article seeks to evaluate the notion of casteless in Punjab. It takes into account the poetry of Gurdas Ram Alam, Charan Das Nidharak and Pritam Ramdaspuri. Through the qualitative content analysis using theories of Dalit aesthetics, the article explores the major thrust areas of Punjabi Dalit poets and highlights how these poets express their caste identity and try to raise the consciousness of their fellow caste members and protest against the discriminatory practices of the dominant Punjabi society and culture. It also, in a way, makes these poets (and those communities to which they belong) a subcultural phenomenon that runs parallel to the dominant Jatt culture of Punjab.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T12:16:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221116028
       
  • Book review: Rup Kumar Barman, Caste, Class and Culture: The Malos,
           Adwaita Malla Barman and History of India and Bangladesh

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      Authors: Pritam Goswami
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Rup Kumar Barman, Caste, Class and Culture: The Malos, Adwaita Malla Barman and History of India and Bangladesh. New Delhi: Abhijeet Publications, 2020, 224 pp., ₹ 978-93-88865-49-4 (Hardback)
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T12:08:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221119034
       
  • Voices and Perspectives of Dalit Elected Women Representatives in Local
           Governance and Politics in Kerala, India

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      Authors: P. Akhila
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores how gender socialization as women along with other intersecting identities influence the perspectives of Dalit Elected Women Representatives (EWRs) on power relations in the political space of Kerala. The purpose of the article is to understand the perspectives of Dalit EWRs on power relations in local governance, which reveal the barriers, their interest and aspirations in local governance and politics. The perspectives are elicited through detailed interviews of EWRs for two time periods. The study finds that EWRs participation in local electoral politics and the extent to gain space for decision-making would depend on their ability to overcome barriers to their representation and acceptance in decision-making fora. They also faced caste discrimination and allegations of favouritism in the governance.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T12:07:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221116025
       
  • Democracy, Development and Political Representation: Notes on Dalit
           Assertion in Uttar Pradesh

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      Authors: Zeeshan Husain
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article takes three concepts, namely ‘democracy’, ‘development’ and ‘political representation’ as entry points to understand the functioning of democracy in Uttar Pradesh. India, since the 1980s, has seen a tremendous rise of ‘lowered’ caste people and a parallel rise of Hindu communalism by ‘upper’ castes. In this respect, it becomes pertinent to ask if the rise of plebeians in Uttar Pradesh’s political sphere brought about any actual change in the lives of the plebeians. In search for an answer to this question, this article looks at the conspicuous rise of Dalits from the early 1980s. It proposes that rather than looking from the vantage point of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Dalit assertion must be seen through non-BSP factors and broader socio-economic and demographic changes happening before the 1980s in the state. Thus, the article delves into the lives of All India Backward (SC, ST, and OBC) and Minority Communities Employees Federation (BAMCEF), Dalit Panthers, Ambedkarite social activists and Ravidasis-Buddhists. It argues that Dalit assertion is about the deepening of formal democracy, increment in substantive democracy and a demand for greater civility. Dalit movement is not ethnic, rather, it is universal, and the article explores it through secondary literature and fieldwork-based observations in Uttar Pradesh.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T12:06:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221115614
       
  • Retraction Notice

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      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T05:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221123837
       
  • Book review: Rup Kumar Barman, Migration, State Policies and Citizenship:
           A Historical Study on India, Bangladesh and Bhutan

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      Authors: Soumyajit Mukherjee
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Rup Kumar Barman, Migration, State Policies and Citizenship: A Historical Study on India, Bangladesh and Bhutan. New Delhi: Aayu Publication, 2021, xxviii + 242 pp., ₹1,895. ISBN: 978-93-89381-13-9 (Hardback).
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T06:34:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221119881
       
  • Caste and Access to Education in Rural Punjab: A Case of Premarket
           Discrimination

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      Authors: Harpreet Singh
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Education enables the growth and development of nations and individuals through multiple channels. However, everyone may not have access to education in general and to quality education in particular. This article is a modest attempt to explore the issue of caste-based premarket discrimination in rural Punjab. Caste-wise differences in access to education are analysed using the primary survey data collected in 2015–2016 from 12 villages spread across three districts—Bathinda, Jalandhar and Rupnagar—of Punjab. The analyses show that Scheduled Castes (SC) lack access to education facilities. Compared to the non-SC, a significantly larger proportion of the SC is found illiterate. It is observed that almost, at every level of education the percentage of SC possessing that level of qualification is lesser than that of the non-SC. The females are facing dual discrimination as their access to education is relatively poor in general and poorest for females belonging to the SC community in particular. Caste consciousness among the students is observed in case of their close friendship relations with peer group and seating preferences in the class.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T06:33:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221117403
       
  • A Plan to Exclude Ethnic Groups and Implement Partial Development
           Programme Under ‘Pradhan Mantri Ujwala Yojana’ in the Indian
           Subcontinent: A Case Based on Madurai District in Tamil Nadu

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      Authors: T. Amose, N. Sreedevi, KR. Jeyakumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Madurai district in Tamil Nadu consists of three forestry regions such as Kurinji Nagar, Alagammalpuram and Mokathanparai as the residence of ethnic groups. The central scheme Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) found that it has no beneficiaries from the regions, and as usual the ethnic groups consume firewood with several difficulties. Hence, the study focuses on cooking energy consumers among ethnic groups as beneficiaries in detail under PMUY. A total of 108 households were chosen for the analysis which is the actual total number of households of ethnic groups in the district. Collected data have been tested by statistical tools, such as Chi-square and ANOVA, to know the relationship and the efficiency of factors, which influences the results that a majority of ethnic groups are expected to benefit under PMUY with free of cost, and they face climatic difficulties in traditional energy consumption.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T06:32:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221115597
       
  • The Interfacing History and Narrative Representation of Bengali Dalit
           Refugeehood in Jatin Bala’s Stories of Social Awakening: Reflections of
           Dalit Refugee Lives of Bengal

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      Authors: Bidisha Pal, Md Mojibur Rahman
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Bengali Dalit refugees and refugeehood fall under the less discussed chapter in the streamlined flow of history and narratives. Often within the hegemonic macro-narratives of partition, the ‘common minimal narratives’ (Kaur, 2008, Narrative absence: An ‘Untouchable’ account of partition migration. Contributions to Indian Sociology, vol. 42, p. 286) of the Bengali Dalit refugees get suppressed and subsided. The Dalit refugee accounts contribute a significant lot to the constructing cartographies of history. The article focuses on the representation of Dalit refugees in the anthology Stories of Social Awakening: Reflections of Dalit Refugee Lives in Bengal (2017) by the refugee author Jatin Bala. While providing a vent for polyphonic refugee voices, Bala creates an interface of history and narrative representation of the existential and identity crisis of Dalit refugees with concepts of resettlement and partitioning reality, violence, trauma memory and struggle for sustenance. The study extends its inquiry to the much curious trajectory of history and narrative of Bengali Dalit refugeehood; how the lopsided relationship and crucial junctures between the objective history and the subjective narrative representations make interplay of past and present in portraying violence and memory in the lives of the Dalit refugees. The study also explores how the narrative short fictions deconstruct the ‘essential victimhood’ of the refugees who rise above the harrowing experiences of the spatiotemporal boundary of history and reconstruct the fractured identities to be the true conscious souls of the society in building solidarity.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-21T10:24:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221115410
       
  • Tribal Imprint on Goa’s Cultural Identity: Kunbi-Gawdaization of Goa

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      Authors: Mozinha Fernandes, Shaila Desouza
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Discussions around Goa’s unique cultural identity and debates around the need for a special status for the state of Goa within India are not new. Reasons ascribed to this have oscillated between Goa’s colonial history, the geography of being nestled in the Western Ghats with a long-indented coastline, the tourism industry and the friendliness of the local people. This article based on an ethnographic study of the Kunbi-Gawda tribal community in Goa explores the tribal contribution to the framing of Goa’s cultural identity. Using the tribal icon of dress, namely the dhentulli this article illustrates how Kunbi-Gawdaization is the current cultural identity of the State as tribal icons are used in the imaging of Goa.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-21T10:23:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221118793
       
  • Book review: Sunaina Arya and Aakash Singh Rathore, ed., Dalit Feminist
           Theory: A Reader

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      Authors: Srirupa Mukherjee
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Sunaina Arya and Aakash Singh Rathore, ed., Dalit Feminist Theory: A Reader. New York: Routledge, 2020, 245 pp., $8,315.92 (Hardback). ISBN: 978-0-367-43841-8.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-08-06T08:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221115590
       
  • Water and Dalits: A Historical Study of United Provinces (1900Ð1950)

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      Authors: Arvind Swaroop
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Water has been a critical resource for the survival of the biotic world. This paper explores the relationship between Dalits and access to water in the United Provinces. It documents the social condition and economic status of Dalits and their impact on livelihood structure. The fact is that the Dalit community is dependent critically on water and other natural resources due to its involvement with labour and agriculture. This paper seeks to explore the historical dimension of Dalit’s struggle to gain access to water in the United Provinces. The history of the relationship between water and Dalits in the United Provinces shows the way social exclusion manifested in the domain of access to water. This paper has been divided into four sections, the first section provides general information about Dalits, and the second section proposes a brief review of the literature. The third section attempts to trace the relationship between water and Dalits in the process of exclusion and inclusion of Dalits from natural resources in North India and the final section provides an illation of this paper.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T10:51:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221108299
       
  • Between Caste and Occupation: Issues of Sweeper Community in Kashmir

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      Authors: Khanday Mudasir Ahmad, Habibullah Shah
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by occupational ranking, intermarrying and ritual hierarchy. The hierarchy here includes disparities in status and access to goods and services. This disparity is mainly found among lower castes like sweepers. Sweepers belong to the lowest rung regarding caste and occupation from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. They use long-handled brooms and carts to sweep roads, gardens, marketplaces and other public places. This study attempted to review the existing literature to exhibit caste and occupation-based issues of this particular community in Kashmir. A systematic review methodology was espoused, and the relevant literature was searched through key databases, such as Google Scholar, Project Muse, PubMed, JSTOR and ScienceDirect, for this review paper by combining the keywords. The systematic review revealed that in Kashmir, the sweeper community was at the bottom of the caste and occupational structure. This mechanism institutionalizes the transmission of unclean work from generation to generation, and it was still a structural flaw that maintained inequality against the sweeper community. The people of this community are found educationally backward, socially ostracized and economically inferior. The upper castes typically forbid these people from entering their homes, whereas living amidst this community is deemed unpleasant. The process of caste mobility, such as Sayyidization, similar to Sanskritization and Ashrafization, is evident among the members of the sweeper community.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T10:50:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221108286
       
  • Book review: Akhila Naik, Bheda (Translated by Raj Kumar)

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      Authors: Kuber Nag
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Akhila Naik, Bheda (Translated by Raj Kumar) (Oxford University Press, 2017), 108 pp. ₹495 (paperback). ISBN-13:978-0-19-947607-7
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T01:38:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221110667
       
  • Formation of the Valmiki Heritage: Making Sense of Dalit Cultural
           Assertion in Punjab

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      Authors: Yogesh Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article seeks to understand the agenda of the government of Punjab behind the recent construction of the cultural heritage of sant/guru Valmiki which is attracting a sizable population of the Dalit community known as Balmikis in the state. In this context, the article explores the historical role of the Adi-Dharam Samaj, an anti-caste reformist movement by the Balmiki community. This movement has adopted various new modes and strategies to mobilize the community. It also subscribes to the philosophy of Ad Dharm to define a separate religious identity for Dalits, especially the Balmiki community separate from Hindus and Sikhs. It has also adopted a distinct path of ensuring Dalit social mobility without following the dominant modes like Sanskritization and conversion. The making of Dalit cultural heritage is a significant development in a realm that explores the extremely marginalized community within Dalits, and their attempt at identity articulation and assertion in contemporary Punjab.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T01:34:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221108317
       
  • Motherhood and Child Healthcare Experiences Among a Unique PVTG of West
           Bengal, India: A Case of Tradition, Transition and Transformation for the
           Sake of Existence

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      Authors: Pinak Tarafdar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      All over the world and, moreover, in the developing countries like India, women experience threats to their lives, health and well-being are also overburdened with work and lack power and influence; further, the situation is vulnerable among the marginalized segment. A unique PVTG of the northern part of West Bengal is struggling for its very existence through the life experiences of motherhood and childcare practices. It is noticed that most often they follow the age-old traditions while not completely unaware of the modern biomedical procedures. The lack of accessibility makes them less confident towards the latter. A typical state of transition is evident, although their conceptions regarding the pregnancy, delivery and childcare practices are not significantly hyper-medicalized. Rather a continuous existence of humanization of birth process is being practised. The article explores the conspicuous women participation and significant roles in the entire health-seeking behaviour in connection to pregnancy, childbirth and related health care issues. Furthermore, the entire discourse also elucidates the state of motherhood and its intrinsic decision-making behaviour in order to retain the economic viability of the population.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T01:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221108298
       
  • Status and Survival of Dalit Women-headed Households: Socio-economic
           Analysis

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      Authors: Yoganandham G, Jayendira P Sankar, Sasintha G
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      In both developing and developed countries, women play a primary source of the social-economic support of the families. Unless there is no adult male living in the family permanently, Dalit women are not considered the head of the household. Gender bias exists when it is stated that the head of the family must always be an adult male, even if a woman’s socio-economic contribution to household upkeep is equal to or higher than a man’s. Most female-headed households are unplanned, as humans rather than natural forces established them. When males leave the family or divorce for any reason, the Dalit woman is left with the massive task of looking after the children. The Dalit women-headed households belonged to a wide area to analyse the Ranipet district of Tamil Nadu. Women, on the other hand, are unaware of their rights. It is especially true for low-income women. They are also discouraged from obtaining legal help due to a lack of financial resources and the duration of the legal process. It is possible to conclude that regulations alone will not be sufficient to prevent discrimination against Dalit women. Hence, the researcher analyses the socio-economic conditions and the status and survival of women’s headed households in the Ranipet district of Tamil Nadu.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T11:08:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221109979
       
  • Educational Attainment, Literacy and Health Status of Scheduled Caste
           Students in Jammu and Kashmir

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      Authors: Bushan Kumar, Syed Zahoor Ahmad Geelani, Gh. Jeelani Bhat
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The issue of the reservation system and its impression on scheduled castes and scheduled tribes have generated considerable debate. It is crucial to comprehend how far the scheduled castes, a socially marginalized minority, fall behind the rest of India in terms of human development. This article aims to examine the many human development elements, such as the educational attainment of the scheduled caste community in Jammu and Kashmir. Secondary data have been gathered for this purpose from the Chief Educational Office Doda and Unified District Information for the Education System. The population and literacy data eventually came from the Census 2011, and the health data came from the National Family Health Survey (2019–2020). This study displays the literacy and health-related elements of the scheduled caste population. The study also relates the scheduled caste status to other social groups in Jammu and Kashmir.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T11:08:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221108028
       
  • Dalit Women and the Question of Representation: Issues of Caste and Gender

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      Authors: Bhavesh R. Gohel
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Gupta (2016) in The gender of caste: Representing Dalits in print points out that media and print are responsible for creating the stereotypical images of Dalit women. They are always represented by their caste identities and not as individuals. Female bodies are represented as closely knit to their caste identities; the characteristic of the caste becomes the representation of the bodies of Dalit women. On the one hand, Dalit women are represented by the upper caste as wicked, cunning, house breakers, immoral, ugly and polluted, and on the other hand, they are represented as weak and passive victims who need care and help to come out of their misery. But it is not the case when the Dalit women represent themselves. So, the question here arises: How are caste and gender related' What is the role of caste in the manipulation of the identity of Dalit women' How is caste identity related to the question of gender and the creation of stereotypes in the context of Dalit women' What are the structures which are working in the formation of stereotypes which are directly or indirectly related to such representations' This paper explores the complex relationship between representation, caste and gender concerning the representation of Dalit women through the analysis of Joseph Macwan’s The Stepchild.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T11:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221108302
       
  • Bengali Dalits Speak: A Critical Study of Jatin Bala’s A Verse as a
           Sharpened Weapon

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      Authors: Tarik Anowar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Dalit literature in India emerged as a movement of Ambedkarite ideology to challenge caste discrimination. Poetry as a popular genre has been adopted by Dalit writers to disseminate revolutionary ideas to bring about a change in society. They significantly unmask how the upper caste Hindus hold the supreme power to ostracize the Namashudras (Dalits) in the name of religion and caste. A Bengali Dalit poet Jatin Bala with a liberal vision and mission, used his words to protest, revolt and negotiate with the domineering ideology. His poetry A Verse as a Sharpened Weapon not only breaks the myth that West Bengal is a casteless society but also carries a note of dissent against the upper caste hegemony. He has successfully constructed the poetic device with aesthetic values to showcase the domination and oppression that Dalits face in Bengal. As a revolutionary poet, Bala breaks the chain of age-old caste oppression and reverberates the message of liberty, equality and fraternity through his verse. The present article examines Jatin Bala’s poetry to explore the theme of exploitation and protest. It also shows how Bala’s poetry becomes the voice of resistance, liberation and emancipation of his community from bondage.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T11:07:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221108295
       
  • Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar’s Context of Religious Conversion

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      Authors: Milind E. Awad
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      It is evidently seen that the history of religion has gone through various historical trajectories, such as conflicts and appropriation, spread and conversion, individual change and social transformation. In the recent history of conversion, Dr Ambedkar’s mass conversion to Buddhism is one of the important cultural phenomena in India. In this article, I intend to discuss the social–cultural context of Dr B. R. Ambedkar’s historical public conversion from Hinduism to Buddhism in 1956 at Nagpur, Maharashtra. Further, I argue that Dr Ambedkar’s conversion to Buddhism was an attempt of replacement of the ‘common sense’ of historically humiliated and stigmatized ‘untouchable’ castes. It was an attempt of the restructuring and culturalization of the untouchable castes through rejecting the ‘coercion’ and ‘consent’ of the hegemonic structure of caste Hindu cultural authority, which was functional as a culture authority and social power. I argue that Dr Ambedkar’s religious conversion was an attempt to establish the epistemological separation and formulation of social ontology through the cultural imagination of ‘ex-communicated’ castes with the refusal of the ideology of ‘pure and impure’.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T09:50:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221108039
       
  • Recasting the Tribal Warrior: The Politics of Paratexts in Mayilamma: The
           Life of a Tribal Eco-warrior

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      Authors: Liju Jacob Kuriakose
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article attempts to read the paratextual elements in Mayilamma: The Life of a Tribal Eco-warrior (2018), the translated autobiography of Mayilamma, a tribal activist from Kerala, India, who led the protest against a Coca-Cola plant in their village. This study also attempts to analyse how translations work to shape and control marginalized life narratives, within an academic framework that caters to predominantly Western imaginings of the marginal exotic. It further questions how a marginalized life narrative is conceived and processed within the larger academia, as well as by the publishing industry. It provides a detailed discourse analysis of the paratextual elements in Mayilamma: The Life of a Tribal Eco-warrior to bring out its market politics and the process of exoticizing the marginalized. This article argues that through paratexts, there is an attempt to formulate a subject–object out of Mayilamma, within the academic imaginings of a marginal exotic rebel tribeswoman.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-26T07:54:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106038
       
  • Understanding the Reasons of Decline of Pasmanda Movement: Insights from a
           Region

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      Authors: Shamsher Alam
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The Pasmanda Movement is nearly a 100-year-old discourse. However, this movement is not competent enough to unite Muslims, particularly the Pasmanda Muslims, under one banner. It could not develop as a vigorous sociopolitical movement to gain political benefit. In this context, this article attempts to divulge the causes of its deterioration. Analysing so, it tries to trace the unity among Muslims with regard to this discourse. This article also attempts to understand the political philosophy of this movement. This article aims to underline the protests managed by the followers of the movement regarding the Scheduled Caste status for Dalit Muslims. It highlights the assertion of movement in the upsurge of right-wing and secular versus communal politics. This also strives to understand the nature of this discourse in terms of its independency. This article analyses its silence upon the orthodoxy among the Muslim community and their activism through social media to continue this movement.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T06:25:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106045
       
  • Inequality of School Enrolment and Literacy Status Between Scheduled Tribe
           and Non-Scheduled Tribe Community: A Critical Study in West Bengal

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      Authors: Bapan Biswas, Kaushal Kumar Sharma
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Historically, the Scheduled Tribe (ST) community is deprived of primary education and suffers from a lower literacy rate in India, particularly in West Bengal. From this perspective, the study aims to find the trend of the primary gross-enrolment ratio (PGER) of 7–14 years aged children and the overall literacy rate in the ST community as compared to its non-ST counterpart. The study also focuses on gendered literacy disparity in ST and non-ST communities. Gendered literacy disparity is measured using modified Sopher’s disparity index of Kundu and Rao (Educational planning: A long term perspective, 1986 [pp. 435–466], NIEPA). Besides, paired sample t-test is applied for the empirical result. Apart from this, a comparative analysis of rural and urban Bengal is made. The study reveals that in India as a whole and particularly in West Bengal, the literacy rate and PGER have yet not achieved its desired goal. The condition was worse in the ST community in the previous census and has created a wide PGER and literacy gap with the non-ST community. Gendered literacy disparity exists in both the communities, though the level is very high in the ST community.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T06:25:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106048
       
  • Caste and Premarket Discrimination: Access to Civic Amenities and
           Healthcare Facilities in Rural Punjab

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      Authors: Harpreet Singh
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Access to civic amenities improves the quality of life as well as helps to overcome various health-related problems. The focus of the present study is to examine the caste-based premarket discrimination concerning access to civic amenities and healthcare facilities in rural Punjab. The primary data, collected from 12 villages of Punjab during the year 2015–2016, is analysed applying the univariate analysis technique. The analyses prove that the Scheduled Castes (SC), compared with non-SC households, have low access to the basic civic amenities of safe drinking water, drainage and toilet facility. A similar disadvantageous position of SC vis-à-vis non-SC households exists in rural Punjab so far as the ownership of the durable household assets of entertainment, household utilities, tools of information and communication technology, and means of transportation are concerned. The SC and non-SC were found to have equal access to the available healthcare facilities; nevertheless, both caste groups received different treatment from the medical staff.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T08:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106908
       
  • Governing Their Way: Traditional Self-governing Institutions Among the Tai
           Khamtis of Arunachal Pradesh

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      Authors: Chuchengfa Gogoi
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Democracy has the quality of governance as it encourages people’s participation in decision-making and provides ample space for a transparent and egalitarian society based on equality, freedom and justice. Many democratic institutions have the qualities of internal governance, which broadens the idea of transparency, accountability, equal participation, responsiveness etc. The traditional self-governing institutions also have similar internal and external qualities to a democratic institution. Notably, many tribal communities in the north-eastern part of India have several such institutions working enormously in establishing democratic temperament and quasi-judicial activities, which are otherwise the prime functions of a modern democratic institution. The Khamtis are also not an exception. Khamtis are the prime ethnic dwellers of the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh under the district of Namsai. They have their self-governing traditional institutions, which still have been actively performing their role in the administration of the village and the tribe. Many of the village-level decisions have been taken by the self-governing institutions along with the modern democratic institutions based on customary laws. Hence, it is interesting to study how the traditional institutions are rooted in the community life of the Khamtis and the present status of those institutions with the deepening of modern democracy. This study applied a case study method for the collection of information.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T04:23:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106031
       
  • Social Marginality, Adversity and Adolescent Thriving in India: A
           Narrative Review

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      Authors: Justin P. Jose, Sreehari Ravindranath, Vishal Talreja, Suchetha Bhat
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      All human beings are inherently motivated for self-improvement and growth. People tend to respond diversely in the face of adversity, from succumbing and recovering to remaining resilient and thrive. The present narrative review is not an exhaustive review of the existing literature on thriving but is an informed effort to add to the adolescent thriving discourse within the conceptual background of social marginality in the Indian context. This review thus defines and summarizes perspectives, determinants and assessment of thriving. It also discusses the interaction between social marginality, adversity and adolescences. Finally, this review discusses the opportunities opened by the new National Education Policy 2020 for thriving interventions and research.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T04:23:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221101683
       
  • Placing the Dalit Women at the Intersections: A Sociological Study of Dom
           Women of Kolkata

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      Authors: Atufah Nishat
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article uses Crenshaw’s (Standford Law Review, 1989, vol. 43, pp. 1241–1299) concept of intersectionality to understand the everyday experiences at the workplace of the lower-caste Dalit women belonging to the manual scavenging community (Dom community) of Kolkata, West Bengal. This article tries to map out and understand the concept of intersectionality by placing the Dalit women at the intersections of caste, class, and gender oppression and see how these structures play out in her everyday life. This article will attempt to place the experiences of the Dalit women vis-à-vis their male and upper-caste lower-class female counterparts to understand how their experiences are similar or different from them. This article is based on the narratives collected through interviews and tries to explore how lying at the intersections produces everyday instances of violence and humiliation for Dalit women. This article highlights how structures of oppression often overlap in various ways to produce our everyday lives.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T05:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106029
       
  • Book review: Ghanshyam Shah, Kanak Kanti Bagchi and Vishwanatha Kalaiah
           (Eds.), Education and Caste in India: The Dalit Question

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      Authors: Md. Rakibul Islam, Md Jakir Hossain
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Ghanshyam Shah, Kanak Kanti Bagchi and Vishwanatha Kalaiah (Eds.), Education and Caste in India: The Dalit Question (South Asia Edition). Routledge, 2020, 232 pp., ₹995 (Hardcover). ISBN: 978-0-367-74943-9.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T05:07:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106028
       
  • Book review: Rup Kumar Barman, Paribarta Anusandhan: Rashtra, Nagarikatta,
           Bastuchyuti O Itihascharcha

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      Authors: Partha Mukherjee
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Rup Kumar Barman, Paribarta Anusandhan: Rashtra, Nagarikatta, Bastuchyuti O Itihascharcha. Gangchil, 2022, 170 pp. ₹450 (Hardback), ISBN: 978-93-93569-38-7.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T05:03:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106026
       
  • How the COVID-19 Pandemic has Affected Transgender Community People:
           Findings From a Telephonic Survey in Odisha

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      Authors: Rajesh Barik, Shiba Shankar Pattayat
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Alike any other marginalized groups of people, the unexpected outbreak of COVID-19 virus has also catastrophically damaged the lifestyle of the transgender persons in Odisha. In order to understand the life struggle of transgender people during the world pandemic, this study is an attempt to examine their life experience throughout the pandemic and their strategic plans to deal with such tragic crisis. To materialize the above cited objectives, we have conducted 30 telephonic interviews from two cities (Cuttack and Bhubaneswar) of Odisha. We asked some open-ended questions regarding their struggle to survive, family support, availability of government assistances and accessibility of basic services and their mental conditions during the pandemic time. Our finding from the survey depicts that there was much fear and insecurity among the transgender people during the pandemic time. Because of the loss of basic earnings, shortage of foods and unavailability of other basic essentials, with the sense of group solidarity, they managed to survive with meagre substances. However, lack of family support during the pandemic, exclusion from government benefits, restrictions in social mobility and the fear of COVID-19 virus infection led to increase their mental distress and made their life more miserable.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T05:03:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221103664
       
  • The Myth of the Ten-Year Limit on Reservations and Dr Ambedkar’s
           Stance

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      Authors: Anurag Bhaskar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      It is a common perception that the reservation framework for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India was supposed to last only for a period of 10 years, and that B. R. Ambedkar himself was a proponent of this view. This article analyses the historical material to argue that the supposed time limit on reservations is a falsehood. The initial time limit was imposed only on political reservations (subject to few conditions) and not on reservations in services and education. It would be demonstrated that Ambedkar was not in favour of any time limit even on political reservations, and that the temporary 10-year limit imposed on political reservation was a decision adopted by other members, who formed the majority in the Constituent Assembly. It would be further demonstrated that Ambedkar had suggested the method of constitutional amendments to keep increasing the initial time limit on political reservations.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221101674
       
  • WITHDRAWAL – Administrative Duplicate Publication

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      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T11:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106569
       
  • Demystifying the Myths Associated with Caste-Based Reservation

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      Authors: Sandeep Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Affirmative action of the State policy (caste-based reservation) was essentially inserted into the Constitution of India to bring historically exploited, discriminated and marginalized scheduled castes and schedule tribes into the mainstream public life by ensuring the dignity of life through better representational opportunities in public employment. Contrary to its professed aim, it has, in practice, ensured only a skewed representation of people from reserved castes. The conscious attempts are being made to slowly eroding it by vilifying it on various pretexts such as reservation is a compromise with merit, efficiency and the most deserving candidates suffer and so on. The underlying objective of such disparaged attempts is to replace caste-based reservation with an economic-based reservation which evidently defeats the very purpose of caste-based reservation. The introduction of 13-points roster system and 10% reservation are twin attacks on caste-based reservation in recent times apart from the otherwise ‘normalized’ attacks like privatizing the public sector, recruitment on contract/ad-hoc basis and tardy implementation of reservation policy apart from attempts to weaken and demonise SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. These demonising and casteist attacks on caste-based reservation are clearly not isolated and disconnected but obvious manifestations of the interests of select castes. It defeats the essence of affirmative policy of the state. It is clearly a travesty of social justice. This article tries to explore and demystify different facets of reservation policy like the basis of reservation, flawed merit logic, the impact of privatization on reservation, newly introduced reservation for economically weaker section (EWS) and the way ahead to annihilate the caste system.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T10:50:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221101682
       
  • Feminism of Charal

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      Authors: Sutadripa Dutta Choudhury
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      My article intends to focus on the prevalent silent predilection for mainstream feminism. Dalit feminism perpetrates through discrimination on the caste, class and gender struggle, whereas mainstream feminism has portrayed the struggle that centres around those who are higher in the caste hierarchy. Mainstream feminism has not yet delved into the struggle of those who are striving to raise their voice against the ‘triple monster’ as is coined by Bama in an interview. The triple monster here connotes caste, class and gender bias. My article will read the struggle of women Bangla Dalit writers who are suppressed and oppressed by this ‘triple Monster’.My primary text includes Chandalinir Kabita and Chandalini Bhone by Kalyani Thakur Charal. The article will also read Ami Kano Charal Likhi. Along with these, my article will bring in the contrast of women Dalit writers from another state, for instance, Bama from Tamil Nadu and Urmila Pawar from Maharashtra. The conflict lies here in the fact that the women Bangla Dalit writers in Bengal are subjugated extensively.The article will confront the struggle of Dalit feminism in a world where mainstream feminism reigns and rules securely. Against feminism, Kalyani Thakur Charal asserts that she prefers the term womanism more since womanism has penetrated through those layers that are not yet being evaded by mainstream feminism. Thereby, the article will bring in the concept of Dalit womanism along with the aforementioned statements.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T04:32:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094358
       
  • Reclaiming Ambedkar Within the Feminist Legacy

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      Authors: Prachi Patil
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Historically analysing the presence of reformers and women’s liberators during the era of national struggle, Ambedkar emerges as a strong advocate of women’s rights in his times. This article discusses Dr B. R. Ambedkar’s role in empowering Dalit and caste-Hindu women through his social and legal strategies. The article begins with an analysis of Ambedkar’s sociological essay ‘Castes in India’ and his timeless analysis of ‘women as gateways of the caste system’. Furthermore, the article traces the national discourse on domesticity of Indian womanhood in Colonial India by analysing Ambedkar’s article in Bahishkrut Bharat on Grihalakshmification of the caste-Hindu woman. The article argues that Ambedkar’s advocacy for women’s entry into the public sphere through employment, as opposed to her domestication, redefined gendered labour within a modern caste society. Despite Ambedkar’s contribution to women’s rights in India, his acceptance in the mainstream feminist movement has been slow and reluctant. Ambedkar’s recognition in the mainstream feminist movement, I argue, results from constant effort and critique by Dalit women which has ruptured the elitist discourse of the mainstream feminist movement by pinpointing the prevalent caste-privilege and caste-blindness in these spaces.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T06:02:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221098290
       
  • Word, Books, and the World: Towards an Anti-caste Pedagogy

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      Authors: Anandita Pan
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The reservation policy in India claims to address caste discrimination by promoting equality through economic and educational opportunities. Equal opportunities, however, do not often translate into equality. Education remains one of the most prominent tools used to disseminate dominant ideologies and perpetuate oppression. Whether it is the Brahmanical control over Vedic knowledge or the colonial validation of English education as a superior form of knowledge, education inculcates among the oppressed the legitimacy of oppression. The traditional method of education suffers from what Paolo Freire calls ‘narration sickness’. In this form of imparting knowledge, there is usually a teacher who narrates/implants knowledge on the patient, silent, objectified students. This article argues that the challenges towards an egalitarian pedagogy emanate from the social identities rooted in caste that travel across the classrooms. By linking education with the nexus of networks of exclusion, this article aims to offer possible ways to achieve an alternative, emancipatory pedagogy.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T05:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094377
       
  • Adivasi Interface with Criminal Courts: A Research Study

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      Authors: Karan Goyal
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Adivasi people form the most marginalized strata in Indian society. They are mostly underrepresented and are widely ignored while formulating public policies. The present form of the criminal justice system was an outcome of British domination over the Indian subcontinent and is equally applicable to the Adivasi people in most of the pockets. It is often felt that the justice system is alien to the conditions of this country. Adivasi people who have a unique, distinct culture might have felt the same way about this system as well. Here, in the present research article, the author, after conducting non-doctrinal research, has made certain points regarding the interface between Adivasi and criminal courts. An impactful study with clear policy decisions is the need of the hour in order to stop the marginalization of Adivasi people even in the name of providing them justice. A community that has totally different perceptions about crime and justice must be given the liberty to do justice among themselves.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T05:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094375
       
  • Perception of Subjective Well-being of the Lodha Tribe in West Bengal

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      Authors: Koustab Majumdar, Dipankar Chaterjee
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article discusses the subjective perception of the well-being of the people of the Lodha tribe in West Bengal, India. Relying on the qualitative method of research, this study interviewed participants (n = 53) from the Lodha tribal community of West Bengal in eastern India. Positive effect, happiness and domain satisfaction were the framework to capture the subjective perception of well-being. The study finds that there are four major themes emerged as the perception of subjective well-being: health, traditional knowledge, festivals and social connectedness. Further, this study conclusively suggests not only that policies should be incorporated that can improve the material benefit (housing, livelihood and biological health) but focus should also be made beyond it (promotion of mental health, indigenous knowledge and social connectedness).
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T05:05:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221091624
       
  • Bowed, Bent and Broken: Investigating Enrolments of Scheduled
           Castes/Tribes to Technical Higher Education Programmes in Kerala

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      Authors: Kishore Thomas John, Rofin Thirunelvelikaran Mohammed Ali, Rejikumar G.
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The Kerala model of development is well regarded in the literature, with numerous authors citing how it brought forth high social development and egalitarianism into the state. Kerala, unlike its neighbours, has traditionally resisted private expansion of higher education, arguing for the cause of social equity, fairness and justice for deprived sections. However, post the millennium, growth in technical institutions offering professional higher education courses have been prolific in the state. Against this backdrop, this study investigates how the most backward sections of the state comprising Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) have fared in enrolments to such programmes. Using data retrieved from the available public records, the analysis finds that SC/ST sections are grossly under-represented across the entire spectrum of professional higher education courses in the state that offer technical programmes. The enrolments are far below the expected levels, underperforming all other South Indian states and the national average by a significant margin. The study suggests that this data is deliberately withheld by the government to the public. The research argues that Kerala is at a critical juncture, where in the absence of disruptive government intervention, the situation would worsen. These findings severely dent Kerala’s claims on being an inclusive society and its narrative on development orientation. A phenomenon of social exclusion encountered in the state is explained and illustrated. Thereafter, the article discusses the implications of the findings, while suggesting policy initiatives and regulatory actions that can help provide respite and relief for the deprived SC/ST communities.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T05:04:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221091621
       
  • Closet Dalithood: Traumatized Caste Performativity and the Making of an
           Urban Aesthetics of Caste in Yashica Dutt’s Coming Out as Dalit (2019)

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      Authors: Kunwar Nitin Pratap Gurjar, Srishti
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      With the publication of Yashica Dutt’s (2019) Coming Out as Dalit, a clear shift in Dalit autobiographical writing tradition is becoming visible, and this article tries to capture that shift by locating it within a global discourse on marginality and discrimination. This shift enables Dutt to rebrand a certain understanding of caste from a birth-marked identity to a more free-floating and performative understanding of caste. The emphasis on the performative aspect of caste provides it the necessary synergetic value to attach with multiple global discourses around marginality, discrimination, sexuality, and race. The article highlights how Dutt’s text is trying to develop a new urban aesthetics of caste to capture the sensibilities of a dominantly urban and global audience, and at the same time, expanding and signifying the understanding of caste. The article argues that it is this attempt to develop a new aesthetic formulation of caste that can explain the use of what is primarily a queer symbol of expression ‘coming out’ to couch the expression of caste discrimination. The article further indicates how similar synergies are developed with racial discourses and, finally, argues how these attempts can be understood as part of a global response to inequalities and the right to the city, making and expanding Dalit literature’s participation in the category of protest literature.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T05:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221091618
       
  • Book review: Servant’s Pasts, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Century South
           Asia

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      Authors: Amit Dey
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Servant’s Pasts, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Century South Asia, Vol.1. Edited by Nitin Sinha, Nitin Varma and Pankaj Jha. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2019, 440 pp., ₹1350 (Hardback).
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T04:48:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066098
       
  • Book review: Ashoka Kumar Sen, The Making of a Village: The Dynamics of
           Adivasi Rural Life in India

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      Authors: Nupur Pattanaik
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Ashoka Kumar Sen, The Making of a Village: The Dynamics of Adivasi Rural Life in India. London and New York, Routledge, 2021, 227, pp., ₹995 (Hardback). ISBN: 978–0–367–37403–7.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T03:30:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094372
       
  • Tracing the Contours of Hate Speech in India in the Pandemic Year: The
           Curious Case of Online Hate Speech against Muslims and Dalits During the
           Pandemic

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      Authors: Malavika Binny
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Though India is no stranger to either epidemics or hate speech, the COVID-19 crisis brought to the surface many of the pre-existing schisms and prejudices that subsequently led to both the Muslim minority community and the Dalit community being cast as miasmic and constant agitators against the central government. In the case of hate speech against the Muslim community, it has led to a peculiar situation wherein the invisible but pervasive Islamophobia that has been plaguing the country from the colonial times has risen it ugly head particularly across regional news channels and social media networks, making the phenomena hyper-visible. The Hindutva politicians from the extreme right parties have been indulging in spreading anti-Muslim propaganda, moulding the image of the Muslim community as not only disease-bearers and super-spreaders of COVID-19 virus but also as being anti-national, as the central government has proclaimed ‘a war against the COVID virus’ (The Print, 2020, 26 April).During the initial spread of the virus throughout the country, there was an increasing tendency to show the Muslim community as intentionally spreading the disease or as being ignorant of current medical practices, with multiple TV channels airing the views that the Tablighi Jamaat event (a religious congregation held in March 2020) was marked as a super-spreader event, and with multiple politicians engaging in rumour-mongering and hate-speech against the Muslims, framing the community as a miasmic community that needs to be cleared from India.On the other hand, the hate speech against Dalits in India is much more nuanced, indirect and layered. It began as WhatsApp and Facebook messages extolling the caste system and justifying the discriminatory practice of untouchability using the logic of social distancing and progressed to painting Dalits and Dalit spaces as unhygienic disease-scapes. This consequently led to the denial of livelihoods to thousands of domestic workers and unskilled workers who belonged to lower caste groups as they found themselves without jobs as most middle caste upper caste families and business owners fired their employees without notice. The study involves a hermeneutical analysis of news reports of the spread of COVID from newspapers and electronic media in English as well as interviews with at least 100 members of groups on social media (WhatsApp and Facebook) that propagate extremely communal and casteist material.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T03:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094364
       
  • A Sociopolitical Alternative for Dalits in Uttar Pradesh and Expectation
           From It

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      Authors: Aniket Nandan
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      In Indian electoral elections, Uttar Pradesh is one of those states that has witnessed a significant emergence of Dalit political awareness in past few decades. Yet in the current electoral climate, they have only been a passing cloud, which further necessitates an overhaul in their political leadership and style of politics. It is in this regard that a discussion on the alternatives for the Dalit politics becomes more important than ever. In such a discussion, one leader who cannot be overlooked is Chandrashekhar Azad ‘Ravan’. Thus, this commentary aims to address the question, what should this alternative represent'
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T08:23:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094365
       
  • Making of the Sacred in India: Religious or Social Othering'

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      Authors: D. R. Gautam
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Sacred in ecclesiastical terms is understood as something kept apart towards attainment of ‘real’ for the social group where real is transcendental. The group is generally considered as one unit, and, therefore, religion in this way becomes instrumental in attainment of higher end of all. Hinduism, when analysed as a religion, provides an epistemic reality of othering in the society and sacred text becomes basis for origin and continuation of peculiar social stratification in India. Looking in this way, Hinduism defies some universal characteristics assigned to the term ‘religion’, especially on the progressive count, and appears to be static and status quoist. This paper is an attempt to highlight such an aspect with the help of a meticulous and erudite analysis by Dr B. R. Ambedkar.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T03:56:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221095909
       
  • The Dalit Soldiers and the Colonial Apparatus: Lived Experiences of the
           Paraiyans in the Madras Presidency Army, 1801–1895

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      Authors: Manas Dutta
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The article deals with the Paraiyans, one of the Dalit sub-caste of the Madras Presidency, and their transformation from a marginalized group to one which was believed to be one of the worthwhile recruits for the colonial army. The narrative delves on their exalted status as a military subaltern within the general set up of the army department and also traces their subsequent socio-political positions in the southern society under the colonial rule after the 1880s. Despite their primary dependence on agriculture for their survival, several of them preferred to be enlisted in the army under the colonial rule in India for better livelihood and social standing. The official/archival documents highlighted that the Madras Presidency army had given much benefit to them and became a source of their social occupational mobility. Thus, It has been given them a new sense of identity and power and their empowerment as a caste.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T03:56:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094391
       
  • Kshatriya Movement Among Koch-Rajbanshis in Assam

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      Authors: Samujjal Ray
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The Kshatriya movement among Koch-Rajbanshis has been one of the most influential movements during the early 19th century. This article tries to locate Panchanan Barma’s influence within the Koch-Rajbanshi community in the context of Assam. This article also attempts to highlight the ongoing debates over the Kshatriya movement among Koch-Rajbanshis in Assam. It further argues that cultural analysis is necessary to re-examine the Koch-Rajbanshi identity.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T04:09:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221096546
       
  • Tracing An Archetypal Journey of Protagonists Towards Reforming the
           Parayar Dalit Identity

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      Authors: Chandna Singh Nirwan
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Vanmam centres around the lives of the Tamil Dalit Christian community, Parayars, in the Kandampatti village of South India—a space dominated by the people following the Hindu religion, that is, the so-called upper caste, Naickers and Tamil Dalit Hindu Community, the Pallars. The researcher would trace the archetypal journeys of the protagonists, Saminathan and Jayaraju, by employing the structure of the monomyth as given by Joseph Campbell. The heroes of Vanmam engage themselves towards the upliftment of their community, for which they keep a common goal in mind. This goal is to unite the two Dalit communities, the Parayars and the Pallars, which are divided on the lines of religion. The Parayars cherish the Ambedkarite ideologies that invigorates them to aim for the positions of power and authority. The first step towards this aim was to win the post of president through the village panchayat elections. This was crucial in reforming their identity and strengthening their sense of self. The stages of monomyth help in determining the various aspects of the narrative that are in alignment with it and those that are not. Campbell’s structure of monomyth is an established tool of analysis of the narrative, and the researcher would examine to what extent it can be applied to trace the journeys of the protagonists in Bama’s novel Vanmam.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T12:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221091620
       
  • Dalit Entrepreneurship Hard Nut to Crack: Empirical Evidence

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      Authors: Seema Nashier, Sanket Vij
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The life of people born in Dalit families is more challenging than others and the challenges upturn manifold if a downtrodden seek a livelihood in the field of entrepreneurship. Although, entrepreneurship is a risky affair for everyone it discommodes the Dalit community more. The paucity of societal support and resources, and above all lower caste label makes it highly troublesome for Dalit to cross the threshold of entrepreneurship and stay therein. Government and a few other organizations assure to provide all possible facilities and assistance to the Dalit aspirants through diverse schemes but many times these assurances are found outlying from reality. This empirical research article aims to provide qualitative insight into the previously published articles, research papers, and reports allied to the challenges of Dalit entrepreneurship. The thematic analysis technique has been applied for literature review using NVivo Software. The upshots of the study clearly depict that Dalit entrepreneurs are frequently confronted with severe difficulties, particularly due to the unfair conduct of various stakeholders. This research study will make a considerable contribution to the Dalit literature and outcomes will assist the policymakers to enhance the efficiency of entrepreneurial schemes to the expected level.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T06:56:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094367
       
  • Dalit Symbolism: A Journey Towards Renewed Aspirations and Democratic
           Public Space

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      Authors: Sangeeta Krishna
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The article talks about how Dalit symbolism has become an epitome of the Dalits’ assertion for democratic space in the contemporary period. The renewed aspirations of Dalits have emerged in the form of physical as well as cultural symbols. They are carving out their own public space through physical symbols such as imposition of icons through statues and monumental structures, and cultural symbols in the form of inventing popular myths, folk heroes, stories and history, which can be referred to as counter-publics or alternative public sphere. Treated as subservient and marginalized under the hegemonic power structure, the oppressed Dalits want to have their own voice and to present their own alternate views about State, culture and political philosophy. Nothing can be better than the exhibition of radical progressive Dalit symbols in the form of statues of Dalit icons at public places, calendars of Dalit heroes, Dalit blogs, Dalit songs, stories, poems and so on as mentioned, in order to develop an understanding of Dalit aspirations and history among the general public. Thus, the article endeavours to explore and analyse those symbols, narratives and songs, and their contributions towards Dalits’ renewed aspirations, historical claims and craving for democratic space.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T06:56:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221083726
       
  • The Process of Childbirth of the Malo Women in Bangladesh: Birth Ritual
           Based on Archaeological Evidence and Ethnographic Observation

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      Authors: Md. Rifat-Ur-Rahman, Mst. Sabrina Moonajilin, Muhammad Shohrab Uddin, Sharmin Rezowana, Snigdha Sarker, Md. Tajuddin Sikder
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Globally, tribal women are less privileged than mainstream or non-tribal women. Noticeably, the socio-economically backward tribal women usually follow the traditional methods instead of the so-called modern medical system for childbirth in Bangladesh. Conversely, archaeologically, terracotta plaques and sculptures found from several archaeological sites in Bangladesh, and globally childbirth motifs indicate that the delivery of the baby was carried out through some special ceremonial observances in the past. This study examines women’s personified acquaintance of pregnancy and childbirth, preparations during pregnancy for trouble-free birth and the responsibility of a traditional birth attendant in Malo community birthing customs. To conduct this study, ten Malo women were interviewed extensively relating to customary and transformed beliefs and practices of pregnancy and childbirth. This study revealed that the long-established childbirth practices have not disappeared from the tribal groups inhabited in the plains in Bangladesh. However, this traditional aspect is gradually diminishing from the mainstream society of Bangladesh. Therefore, this study may assist health professionals in understanding traditional birthing systems from diverse cultures. Subsequently, a profound and in-depth analysis of the tribal tradition of childbirth can lead to new insights, enriching the range of perceptions.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T04:35:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094366
       
  • Kalabhavan Mani: The Metaphysics of the Acting of a Dalit Actor from South
           India

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      Authors: Anilkumar Payyappilly Vijayan
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This monograph explores in detail the acting persona of Kalabhavan Mani (1971–2016), a prominent film actor of Dalit origin from Kerala, who acted as hero and villain in many south Indian movies. Well known and loved for his singing, acting, mimicking skills, comic anecdotes and spontaneous humour, this actor was never taken as a serious intellectual/thinker by the Kerala mainstream ostensibly because of him being a school dropout. Drawing on Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, a methodological inquiry is made into the casteist dimension of this strategy of framing, real as well as reel, by which the metaphysics of the acting out of laughter and laughing out of acting enacted/embodied by Dalit body/discourse is contained, distorted and nullified.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T04:33:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221089788
       
  • Hunger as a Political Critique: Memories as Resistance in M.
           Kunhaman’s Ethiru

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      Authors: Shalini M., Moncy Mathew
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The article looks at how memories and experiences of hunger in Dalit life writings form a strong political critique against the claims of modern welfare society. The instances of hunger recorded in Ethiru by Kunhaman are analysed in order to see how hunger itself constitutes a humiliating experience when it is combined with experiences of caste discriminations.Despite developing juridical as well as social sensibilities to irradicate hunger and poverty, caste-ridden contexts give rise to situations of death by hunger not due to any shortage of food but due to ostracization and alienation of the marginalized communities. These moments also expose the colonial and feudal views and prejudices about the poor, their attitude to hard work, and value of labour and charity which still lie deep in the social psyche of many developed countries. The article attempts to locate Kunhaman’s work within the context of emerging critiques from the marginalized communities against tall claims of the progressivism and development indices of Kerala society.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T04:33:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221089787
       
  • Book review: Aparna Vaidik, My Son’s Inheritance: A Secret History of
           Lynching and Blood Justice in India

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      Authors: Haroon Rashid
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Aparna Vaidik, My Son’s Inheritance: A Secret History of Lynching and Blood Justice in India. New Delhi: Aleph Book Company, 2020, pp. 173, ₹499. ISBN: 978-81-942337-8-7.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T12:57:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221091619
       
  • Creating Enterprise Ecosystem in Left Wing Extremism Affected Areas: A
           Case on Inclusive Entrepreneurship

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      Authors: Rajesh Gupta, Akash Sahu, Piyush Kumar Sinha
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Rural development is a key component and main pillar of the approach towards the development of the nation. Inclusive entrepreneurship (IE) has been propounded to support development of enterprises for the disfranchised and underprivileged section of population. This article studies the IE framework, as developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and implemented in many European countries, and applies the same to a village entrepreneurship development programme in left wing extremism affected rural areas of India. In the process it suggests an implementation framework for setting up and sustaining an IE ecosystem. The study is based on the implementation of SVEP programme in 12 blocks in 6 states which have been infested with Naxal extremities and have been classified as LWE by government of India. The learning brings out the importance of community ownership and the role of creating a team with members from the same localities. The role of capacity building and handholding of entrepreneurs comes up as a prime requirement of the sustainability of enterprises and the ecosystem.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T10:40:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094378
       
  • An Exploration into the History of ‘Unclean People’ Who Clean
           the City of Kashmir

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      Authors: Javid Ahmad Moochi
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Ideally, we want to believe, as Thomas Jefferson wrote in the Declaration of Independence in 1776 ce during the beginning of the American Revolution, that ‘all men are created equal’. But that is not always the case in the real world because some groups have greater access to the resources of society than others, due to the social and economic barriers that they have created for their own benefit, so as to exploit the lower and poor sections of the society. The sweeper community of Kashmir Valley is one of the communities that have remained behind socially, economically and educationally from ancient times till now. There is a deep and pertinent history of the discrimination that they have faced. There are well-established evidences that help us understand their sufferings and miseries from time immemorial. This community is one of several marginalized communities of Kashmir that were dominated by other groups on account of its socio-economic backwardness. This community has suffered through a wide range of social, economic and political disadvantages that have rendered their position to a sub-human living. In this article, an attempt has been made to highlight the problems and discrimination faced by this community for decades.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T10:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221091607
       
  • Dalit-Renaissance in Bengal: Relocating Namasudras’ Literature and
           Culture in Colonial Bengal

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      Authors: Mustakim Ansary
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The present essay investigates how the monolithic and mono-dimensional aspect of the Bengal-Renaissance which was pioneered and vanguarded by the so called upper-caste people somehow failed to address and attest crucial issues and multiple voices of the lower castes and other depressed and dispossessed people of Bengal province. One of the central postulates of this article is to foreground and put forward countless measures initiated by the Namasudra community in colonial Bengal through their socio-political and cultural assertions. It further critically engages with an investigative reading of existing archives and historiographies of Bengal that tend to explicate Namasudras’ ideological aspiration and identity consciousness as inseparable and integrative within the hegemonic dominance of upper-castes’ framework. Hence, it intends to provide a counter analysis against this approach by mapping countless Dalit political imaginative manifestos embedded within Namasudra movement during the latter half of the nineteenth century in undivided colonial Bengal province. The primary concern of this article, therefore, is to locate their sociocultural reform movement and other perceptions by tracing their fundamental texts—Sri Sri Harileelamrita and Sri Sri Guruchand Charita, Namasudras’ tracts, booklets, and their festivities, kabigaan, Harisangeet, and so on.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T06:49:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221094680
       
  • Reading the ‘Caste’ in the Minds of ‘Aspirant
           Teachers’

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      Authors: Seema Sarohe
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the notions of caste among the student-teachers of a popular teacher education programme in India. The study attempts to gauge the abilities of the student-teachers to delve into the structures of inequality and address issues from different social, political, economic and philosophical viewpoints. Findings reveal that the common concern for most student-teachers was their discontent with the reservation policy for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes. The majority of the student-teachers believed that economic class should be the single most criterion to define ‘deprivation’ while formulating any affirmative policies. Student-teachers’ narratives reflect how there is a need to engage in dialogue with their notions of caste as well as class. This article argues to take the preparation of teachers seriously as teacher’s own knowledge and beliefs on several issues of identity vis-à-vis caste come to influence their pedagogical interactions with the learners in a great way.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T02:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221088446
       
  • Can Valmiki Become a Poet'

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      Authors: Kashyap Deepak
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Dayachand Mayna is one of the most robbed folk poets of Haryana. The article attempts to highlight the ways in which his poetry is stolen by Jaat singers and editors to build the reputation of a Jaat poet, Mehar Singh. The aim of article is to present how Dayachand suffered due to caste barriers, and it is caste that becomes one of the hurdles that blocked his path to success. The hypothesis will present how Dayachand was a victim of caste-based politics that did not allow a talented Valmiki poet to flourish.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T08:05:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221082498
       
  • Socio-Political Representation of Dalit Fishing Community in Bangladesh in
           Harishankar Jaladas’s Novel Sons of the Sea

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      Authors: Tarik Anowar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Bangladeshi Dalit literature added a new chapter in the history of Dalit narratives. Dalits in Bangladesh are double marginalized because of their ‘low caste’ and ‘minority’ status in the Muslim majority state. In the post-partition and post-independence era, Harishankar Jaladas emerged as a strong voice of the Dalit fishing community. He gave representation to the community by writing about the social, political, economic and religious history of the Dalit fishing community through his novel Sons of the Sea. The major fishing communities like Malo, Jele, Jaladas, Jaila, Kaibarta and Keot hail from the Namashudra group and are treated as untouchables by the upper castes. They are all subjected to the negligence of administration and contempt of the society. The majority of mainstream Muslim society also treated them as ‘other’. The usurious moneylenders (Dadonders) would keep them under perpetual penury for generations by providing them net, boat and a little amount of money in advance for their survival. The author depicts the cultural identity of the Jaladas community with their beliefs, customs, feelings and social setup that represent their segregation from the mainstream social framework. Their socio-economic and educational status is still below the margin. There is no such research work that could seriously ponder over their issues. The present research article is a modest attempt to study the socio-political and economic position of the Jaladas fishing community in contemporary Bangladesh by focusing on the social structure and examining history. This work also critically examines the post-colonial challenges that the marginalized fishermen community encountered due to their caste status in Bangladesh. The study has followed the historical method, textual analysis and a comparative reading of other literary and non-literary texts to strengthen and support the arguments raised in the study.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T12:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221082495
       
  • Book review: Secular Sectarianism: Limits of Subaltern Politics

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      Authors: Kumar Rana
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Secular Sectarianism: Limits of Subaltern Politics. Edited by Ajay Gudavarthy (New Delhi: SAGE, 2019). viii + 280 pp, ₹1095. ISBN: 978-93-532-8677-4.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T11:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066099
       
  • Book review: Suraj Yengde, Caste Matters

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      Authors: Vicky Nandgaye
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Suraj Yengde, Caste Matters. New Delhi: Penguin Random House India Publication, 2019, 304 pp., ₹599 (Hardback). ISBN: 978-0670091225.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T05:07:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211020538
       
  • Book review: Amit Ahuja, Mobilizing the Marginalized: Ethnic Parties
           without Ethnic Movements

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      Authors: Vicky Nandgaye
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Amit Ahuja, Mobilizing the Marginalized: Ethnic Parties without Ethnic Movements. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2019, 266 pp., ₹550.00 (Paperback). ISBN-13: 9780197529515
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-06T05:05:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211020533
       
  • Book review: K. S. Chalam, Political Economy of Caste in India

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      Authors: Akanksha Sanil
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      K. S. Chalam, Political Economy of Caste in India (New Delhi: SAGE Publications, 2020), 270 pp. ₹1,250 (Hardcover). ISBN: 978-93-5388-407-9.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T05:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069475
       
  • Book review: Narrations about the Fringe Review of Reading the Margins,
           History, Culture, Literature

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      Authors: Bonita Aleaz
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Narrations about the Fringe Review of Reading the Margins, History, Culture, Literature. Edited by Provakar Palaka (Mumbai: People’s Literature Publication, 2020), 279pp., ₹750. ISBN-13: 978-8193485668 (Paperback)
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-04T05:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066082
       
  • Book review: Looking Back: The 1947 Partition of India 70 Years On, Edited
           by Rakhshanda Jalil, Tarun K. Saint and Debjani Sengupta

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      Authors: Rup Kumar Barman
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Looking Back: The 1947 Partition of India 70 Years On, Edited by Rakhshanda Jalil, Tarun K. Saint and Debjani Sengupta (Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan, 2019). xxxviii + 355pp, ₹995.00 (Paperback).
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T03:21:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066084
       
  • Book review: The Intersectional Ties of Caste, Class and Language in the
           Making of the Goanese

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      Authors: Bonita Aleaz
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Jason Keith Fernandes, Citizenship in a Caste Polity: Religion, Language and Belonging in Goa. New Delhi: Orient BlackSwan, 2020, 361 + xvi pp., ₹900 (hardback). ISBN-10: 9352879945; ISBN-13: 978-9352879946.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T03:21:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211042741
       
  • Book review: Judith Misrahi-Barak, K. Satyanarayana and Nicole Thiara
           (Eds.), Dalit Text: Aesthetics and Politics Re-Imagined

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      Authors: Sristi Mondal
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Judith Misrahi-Barak, K. Satyanarayana and Nicole Thiara (Eds.), Dalit Text: Aesthetics and Politics Re-Imagined. New York: Routledge, 2020, xxiv + 238 pp., ₹641 (paperback). ISBN: 978-0-367-21841-6.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T03:20:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211033220
       
  • The New Contours of Identity Politics: Saffron Mobilization of Dalit and
           Backward Caste in Uttar Pradesh

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      Authors: Shilp Shikha Singh
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The intense electoral competition has made it imperative for political parties to invent new languages and newer modes of organizing the demos. The interchanging registers of Mandal and Kamandal have so far configured the trajectory to power in the state. A careful reading reveals that both these registers have employed the discourse of ‘identity’ to mobilize people. The popularity of this discourse hinges on the fact that it is dynamic and can touch upon the idea of the ‘political’ of diverse people. However, the appropriation and reappropriation of this discourse has transformed its meaning over time. While caste remains the centre around which it is woven, the way in which caste entities are captured to form alignments has changed over time. While the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) used it for arousing critical consciousness of the Dalit-Bahujan caste to challenge caste hegemony, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) used it successfully for constructing a rightist identity and dismantling the Bahujan politics. BSP strengthened the Dalit-Bahujan identity to fight caste discrimination, turning caste disadvantage into caste advantage. To counter this BJP too engaged in caste-based community mobilization, while simultaneously giving a rhetoric of caste-free developmental politics to consolidated upper-caste–lower-caste Hindu alliance.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T08:10:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221082497
       
  • Representation of Dalits in Hindi Cinema After Liberalization

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      Authors: Amit Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article delineates the transition of the representation of Dalits in Hindi cinema. For that purpose, the article categorizes Hindi cinema into two phases—first, the pre-liberalization phase, and the second, is the post-liberalization phase for the understanding of—why Dalits are treated as ‘Others’. The question of Dalit is fixed in the imaginaries of upper-caste as a matter of consumption. In the pre-1991 era, Dalit’s were represented as poor, wretched, non-heroic, and absolutely clientele characters. In the post-1991 scenario, Dalits came up as educated, skilled, competent and confident in the modern institutional setup, but Hindi Cinema did not present Dalits as protagonists. The continuous clientele depiction of Dalit characters in Hindi Cinema aggravates upper-caste prejudices against Dalits. The article argues that there is an ‘Absence of Presence’ of Dalit experiences beyond upper-caste imaginaries, and also, there is a complete exclusion of ‘New Dalit Middle Class’ from the popular cinema narratives. A commoner troupe is used to represent the Dalit and it further extends the question of ‘Real’ and ‘Reel’ representation. Thus, this article tries to investigate the above-mentioned questions in the broad context of post-liberal Hindi cinema and flag some theoretical issues emerging from this engagement.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T08:10:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221082484
       
  • Under the Sentence of Caste: Twin Peak Dalit Massacres in the Siwalik

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      Authors: Nirmal Acharya
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) launched the ‘People’s War’ from 1996 to 2006. The 10-year long insurgency in Nepal claimed over 13, 000 lives, and left over 1, 300 missing. As the Maoists professed themselves as a vanguard of a rebellion against the structural inequalities, they lured the members of the Dalit community into their ideology, and drafted many of them in the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). State security forces, on the other hand, in a rapid escalation, targeted Dalit as Maoists or their allies. The shift in combat strategy of the Maoists in 2001, and the counter-insurgency tactics resulted in an increase of human rights violations against Dalit in the western hinterlands. By a qualitative interviewing of 17 Dalit families, of the two adjoining villages of west Nepal, of which 20 men were killed in two separate incidents by then Royal Nepal Army (RNA) in 2002, this article expounds the broad structural issues, the liberation and security discourses, and the local geography-time susceptibility of the families as the targets of state power enmeshed in the massacres as narrated by the family members, the contexts and grounds that culminated in the two events, and the social aftermath.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T08:09:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221082468
       
  • Karnan: An Assertion of Dalit Identity

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      Authors: Premila Swamy D
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Indian films, both mainstream Bollywood (Hindi cinema) and regional films have captured issues related to caste, class and gender disparities, and have enabled directors/producers to experiment with techniques so as to challenge stereotypical representations. Tamil cinema in this context has gone through a sea change in its representation of the subaltern class. From being silent and passive sufferers, the characters on screen now raise to speak for their community and assert their identity. This article explores the representation of Dalits on visual platform and how contemporary filmmakers seek to challenge and demystify the established narratives/canon. The article further analyses the recent Tamil cinema titled Karnan (April 2021) which challenges dominant ideologies that perpetuates discrimination, objectification, exclusion and silence to sustain its power. Using the Mahabharata mythical characters and employing cinematic techniques, the film resists and subverts dominant perception which aims to silence the other.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T05:22:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221088084
       
  • Pandit C. Iyothee Thass and Christianity

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      Authors: T. Maria Dhanaraj
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Iyothee Thass (1845–1914), a forgotten Dalit activist, has become part of serious academic discussions in the recent times. Various studies had been carried out, such as I. Thass as a Dalit journalist; I. Thass as a Forerunner of Buddhist Renaissance in the Tamil region and I. Thass as an anti-caste activist. This article analyses Thass’ articles related to Christianity. These articles can roughly be classified into two categories: articles that are exegetical (explaining the Biblical passages/events/personalities) and articles that are critical of the institution of the Church and its mission. The analysis of all the articles on Christianity reveals that Thass emerges both as a strong critic of Christianity in India, specially its adaptation of caste in its Indian version and a Buddhist exegete who could explain the whole Bible as a veiled doctrine of Buddhism.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T05:22:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221086440
       
  • Caste Maters: An Empirical Study on Asset Structure of Dalit Woman Labour
           Households

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      Authors: Dharam Pal, Gian Singh, Veerpal Kaur, Gurinder Kaur, Jyoti
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The primary data were collected from 927 Dalit woman labour households belonging to all the three geographical regions of Punjab (India) to analyse the asset structure of these households. The study revealed that a Dalit woman labour household had assets worth ₹128,750.98. Out of the total value of assets, 90.81% were durable assets and the remaining 9.19% were livestock assets. All the respondent households were found landless. The ratio of debt to household assets was found to be 0.41 which indicates that 41% of the household assets would be needed to pay off their current debt. More than 70% of the total value of durable assets was swallowed only by the dwelling house. Most of the durable items in these households were found useless, old and broken. Actually, the relatively rich households of the village used to give them these already used items in order to seek their cheap or free labour.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T05:21:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221086359
       
  • Rekhiyo Jugajug Aage: A Reading of Caste and Gender in the Aaradhivani of
           Kachchh

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      Authors: Keshabhai Marvada
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article attempts to read and analyse the aaradhivani of Kachchh in terms of caste and gender. The first section explores the genre and looks into the narrative style of Rekhiyo Jugajug Aage Aarth, a performance text that is deeply tied to Dalit spirituality in Kachchh. The second section looks at this narrative ethnographically, and it further studies its historical development and circulation in different media: oral, written and digital. It intends to understand the functionality of the performance. It will examine the question of authorship as it emerges through the circulation of such texts. In the third section, with the close reading of the text, I will examine the problematized ideas of caste and gender. Chamars or Shudras are at the bottom of the Hindu caste hierarchy. I argue that this Dalit narrative challenges this social structure and older ideas though radical perspectives so as to subvert caste hierarchy by means of narrating the great deeds of Meghwar (Dalit) sants. It also seeks to study the transactionality of caste and region across a pan-Indian imaginary.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T05:13:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221088078
       
  • Resonance of Ambedkar’s Vision of Social Democracy in Bama’s Karukku:
           Empowerment of Dalits Through Education

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      Authors: Meghna Mathur, Pallavi Thakur
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Social democracy demands existence of freedom, equality, justice and solidarity among masses. Doyens like John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx decrypted the social inequalities that deprived people of human rights. Dr B. R. Ambedkar, being the most influential figure vis-à-vis social democracy in Indian context, voiced the deprived status of Dalits. Inspired by John Dewey’s idea of social endosmosis, he concluded that education can help to dissolve the rigid boundaries of caste. He also vociferously advocated education for Dalits to erase the status quo of being a society’s underbelly and overcome the quotidian humiliations. Discourses on Dalits since then have converged to an infectious expansive debate on the concomitant subjugated status of Dalits in the Indian social structure. Many Dalits have procured agency through education and have been vociferously voicing the subjugated position of Dalits in the cultural apparatus of caste. Bama is one such educated Dalit woman who has laid bare through her writings the complexities existing in a Dalit’s life. Her autobiography invocates Dalits to empower themselves through education and transgress the rigid boundaries of caste. The article examines her vision of Dalits’ emancipation vis-à-vis Ambedkar’s notion of social democracy.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T05:13:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221088077
       
  • Forest, Adivasis and the Rule of Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled
           Areas) in Jharkhand: A Critical Inquiry

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      Authors: Anju Helen Bara
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Adivasis have always lived in symbiosis with the forest for generations. In the recent two decades, it has been realized that it is only through the process of democratic decentralization sustainable development could be achieved. The present model of development augments the participation of people in local governance. In the post-colonial India, the government enacted a new law known as Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996, popularly known as PESA. Jharkhand, which has been a home for adivasis, conducted its first panchayat election in 2010. Consequently, the next election was conducted in 2015, and in 2022, the third panchayat election is going to be held. Being a tribal dominated region, it is governed by the regulations of PESA. Though PESA has been projected as a progressive Act, however, it has not been successfully implemented. Lack of political willingness, political apathy, internal conflicts, lack of knowledge and awareness among people are some of the reasons for the failure of PESA in the region. For the people who lived in the forest, these laws essentially overturned their unstructured, undocumented and ‘symbiotic’ relationship with the land, rivers and forests. Under this backdrop, this article addresses the issue of local self-governance and the fate of PESA in Jharkhand. It aims to uncover the factors which are creating hindrances in the functioning of PESA in Jharkhand. This article seeks to unfold the struggle of the adivasis for the protection of their resources, livelihoods and their own lives.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T05:12:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221081648
       
  • Odia Dalit Migrants in Hyderabad City: A Case Study

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      Authors: Ganesh Digal, N. Atungbou
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Every thread of caste and occupation in India is intrinsically linked to the migration patterns. Migration of the upper caste is more of an economic, while the lower castes are both social and economic. Differential distribution of resources deprived the Dalits, reduced them to degraded social status. To escape from the clutches of caste discrimination, Dalits migrated to different places. In this context, this study unravels the lived experiences and socio-economic changes among the Odia Dalit migrant workers in Hyderabad city and how they reconstruct their identities in the urban landscape, reasons leaving their home, challenges, and difficulties in new social space. The study employed a qualitative research approach assisted by in-depth interviews and informal discussions. Hyderabad city is chosen for this study, as it attracts migrant workers across the country, and a majority of the Odia migrants are found working in different industrial sectors. Study shows migration offered an opportunity not only in economic and employment spheres but also in the socio-cultural spheres. The city gives a space to escape from caste discrimination, and significantly improved their lifestyle but fear psychosis of caste identity is prevalent. To escape their Dalit identity, they identify themselves as other backward classes (OBCs) or Khandayat. Improvement in economic life has little impact on the social structure. Migration brings wealth but not the alteration in caste structure. Methodologically and conceptually, the study contributes to the knowledge of the lived experience of the Odia Dalit migrants in city space, how they identify themselves, and how they make sense of themselves and others, and how Hyderabad shapes their experiences.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T06:23:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221088086
       
  • Oppari: A Tamil Musical Elegy Laced with Caste Prejudices and Identities

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      Authors: Deivendra Kumar A.
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Though popular culture is celebrated among people across the country, the admiration for folklore and performing arts is very limited. In the domain of folklore, performing art forms are categorized and stratified based on ‘who is performing it’ or ‘who is eligible to perform’ with a benchmark of the social status of purity and pollution. This article discusses and reflects the dilution of casteism and fabricated caste identities and prejudices in oppari, ancient folklore and a musical dirge song performed in Tamil Nadu, which is considered as a polluted, discriminated cultural outcome and custom to be performed and etched with people belonging to oppressed classes in society. It also keeps a close lens and discussion on change in oppari, the role of casteism and its revamp in the contemporary scenario and sociocultural aspects of oppari within the realm of caste and performance.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T12:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221088079
       
  • The Games People Play: A Psychological Analysis of Dalit Victimization in
           Ozhivudivasathe Kali

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      Authors: Mary Sapna Peter Miranda
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Ozhivudivasathe Kali is a 2003 Malayalam short story written by Unni R. which shot into limelight with the release of the Kerala State Award winning film with the same title by Sanal K. Sasidharan. As the title suggests, the story recounts an ‘off-day game’ played by four middle-aged men in a dingy lodge. The drunken revelry soon turns into a cruel game exposing the fissures that exist under the guise of equality and acceptance. It echoes Golding’s Lord of the Flies and is a scathing and unsettling expose of the Kerala mindscape where Dalits still continue to be considered less human. A deadly game where the victim is ruthlessly hounded and finally killed for his ‘fault’ of being different, the story is arresting for its foreboding tone, given the way reality is shaping out all over the world these days where being the ‘other’ is an invitation to harassment and even decimation.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T06:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221082501
       
  • Discrimination in Educational Institutions: A Case Study of Bihar

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      Authors: Aviral Pandey, Awadhesh Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      According to the state government report, 4% of Scheduled Castes (SCs) population in Bihar is able to study up to the graduate level or above, and the representation of SC communities is negligible in senior positions in government jobs in the state. In this report, discrimination and poverty have been identified as a contributing cause for the current situation of SCs in Bihar. In this context, this study examines the level of discrimination and constraints that SCs students face at school and college levels in Bihar. The analysis done in this article is based on primary data collected from five districts, namely, Kaimur, Gaya, Siwan, Katihar and Patna of Bihar state. This study examines the level of achievements, constraints and discrimination faced by SCs students at different institution levels and identifies the reasons behind the existing situation. The study finds discrimination between SCs and Non-SCs students in case of use of service/ facilities available at educational institutions in Bihar, state. SCs students get less benefits from education, as they face problems related to classroom teaching and understanding. Considering these facts, the state government should provide free guidance/counselling, vocational training and capacity building classes to SCs students in Bihar.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T09:04:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211067603
       
  • Determinants of Financial Inclusion Among Dalit Women in Kancheepuram
           District, Tamil Nadu

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      Authors: Vemulapalli Aparna, Victor Louis Anthuvan
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Over the years many efforts were made to improve the status of financial inclusion of people. Financial inclusion measures access and usage of financial products such as deposits, loans, insurance products and quality of financial services. Financial inclusion is the process of providing financial services to the people who are outside the formal financial system. High levels of financial inclusion improve economic development and equitable distribution of wealth. This study focuses on status of financial inclusion among Dalit women in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. It was found that education level of the people; government initiatives such as general credit card, Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana; satisfaction of the self-help group model; financial practices and financial literacy were positively and significantly associated with financial inclusion. Usage of non-bank agencies and cultural barriers were negative and insignificant.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T05:37:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221082486
       
  • Between Isolation and Autonomy: A Study of the Anti-caste Struggle in the
           University of Hyderabad

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      Authors: Munna Sannaki
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The Chinese adage goes: ‘Teach a person how to catch a fish but don’t catch one’. For a long time, Dalits have been represented or led by socio-economically dominant communities in all disciplines and walks of life. However, Dalits have been trying by their own means to maintain their autonomy in all domains. Specifically, in self-respect struggles or anti-caste movements, there are enough examples to reinforce the idea that isolated struggles led by Dalit-Bahujan’s must be acknowledged as autonomous. This article analyses Ambedkar’s engagement with parties led by caste elites, while maintaining his social/political/cultural autonomy. This article also draws attention to how caste elites have tried to appropriate Dalit-Bahujan movements. This article was presented at the South Asia Anthropologists Group (SAAG) Annual Conference. The main idea of this article is to register the autonomy and isolation of Dalit students’ struggle through a case study at the University of Hyderabad. The anti-caste ‘Rohith Vemula’ struggle provides an instance of how political representation was practiced and how autonomy can be maintained in future struggles. The article argues this case out through the author’s experiential opinions as a participant, Ambedkar’s views and the carefully carved out vision of Dalit-Bahujan political movements.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T07:31:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069686
       
  • Book review: Bellapu Anuradha and Gita Ramaswamy (eds.), Prison Notes of a
           Woman Activist

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      Authors: Vipanchika Sahasri Bhagyanagar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Bellapu Anuradha and Gita Ramaswamy (eds.), Prison Notes of a Woman Activist. Ratna Books, 2021, 195 pp., ₹399. ISBN-10: 9352907442, ISBN-13: 978-9352907441
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T07:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221074733
       
  • Housing Condition, Livelihood Pattern and Socio-cultural Life of Oraon,
           Munda and Santal Tribes in Dooars, Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal: The
           Migrants from Chota Nagpur Plateau Region

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      Authors: Pamela Deb
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The Oraon, Munda and Santal are the three major Scheduled Tribes of the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. During the colonial period (mainly between 1880 and 1930), their arrival from the Chota Nagpur region to the Dooars region (Jalpaiguri district) took place by the British. In the present article, an attempt has been made to assess housing condition, livelihood pattern and socio-cultural life of the concerned tribes. For this purpose, 650 household surveys were carried out with the help of semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussion, informal interviews and field visits. The study finds that, after being displaced from their homeland (Chota Nagpur Plateau region) and settled for long in the Jalpaiguri district, they undergone many changes in their habitat, economic condition and society, but it did not bring any improvement in their quality of life. The deplorable residence, lack of housing amenities and necessities, inadequate income, illiteracy, loosening of social organization are the major features presently prevalent among them.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T09:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069487
       
  • The Biopolitics of Caste: Analysing the (Dis)honour Killings in South
           India

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      Authors: Gurram Ashok, Ramdas Rupavath
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Even after 75 years of independence, India witnesses the increasing violence unleashed by the upper caste families against the individuals for inter-caste love or marriage. The objective of this article is to critically engage with the operational aspects of Michel Foucault’s biopolitics of caste system in enforcing endogamy in the marital relationship between two individuals. Caste as a social institution governs every aspect of Dalit’s life, ranging from cradle to graveyard. As such, the increasing incidents of (dis)honour killings, from South India, reflect the idea of endogamy, with the ulterior motto of controlling the sexuality of the Dalits and women, thereby ensuring the purity of the caste Hindu society. Thus, the patriarchy is an inseparable element of caste system in controlling the freedom of women in choosing her partner and it is prevalent in sub-castes of Dalit folds also. The question of discrimination and practice of endogamy within Dalit communities should be addressed in marching towards annihilation of the caste.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T05:43:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221076657
       
  • Understanding Identity, Education and Multi-religiosity Among the Nat
           Tribe of Paschim Champaran in India

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      Authors: Md Moshabbir Alam, Moksha Singh
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Invisible social groups are systematically left out of the process of development and have to make choices that are predetermined. Research suggests that the tribal and nomadic communities have been majorly affected by such processes. Nat, a peripatetic nomadic tribe in India has undergone similar exclusionary process. However, they continue to survive as a social group and maintain their distinguishing character. This study, therefore, is an attempt to understand their survival within the mainstream society by systematically analysing the following sociocultural attributes: identity construction, education and mobility, and multi-religious belonging. The Nat of Paschim Champaran, in the state of Bihar in India, were the focus of the study. Data was collected from 30 respondents and analysed by applying narrative inquiry. The findings suggest that their professional identity as acrobats continues to define their distinctiveness even when a few have chosen to shift towards other forms of livelihood. This distinctiveness continues to negatively influence their access to education and as a result no major change is witnessed in terms of social mobility of the group. However, it is observed that they have intelligently assimilated themselves within the popular culture by adopting multiple identities with respect to religion and which are activated for diverse purposes and at different times.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T05:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069494
       
  • Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme: ‘From Local to
           Vocal’

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      Authors: Krishna Dixit, Debashish Sakunia
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Rural entrepreneurship is one of the most attention-seeker segments nowadays because if we want to solve the various problems in the third-most rising economy with rural composition at 68.8%, we need to open new rural ventures. So rural entrepreneurship defines itself by creating new employment opportunities and creating new ventures. Through this article, researchers want to stress readers on the current schemes for rural ventures and focus on the Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP), introduced by the Ministry of Rural Development and supported by the National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), which provides sustainable employment to youths in villages. We have explained the whole process of SVEP by citing an example of two blocks of Chhattisgarh state then we measure the impact of this programme in 11 states on different social categories, gender-wise analysis in which female dominates, as well as overall impact among the different enterprise in India. It was found that the trading sector creates the highest overall impact among the new ventures. Among all the social categories we have, the list of beneficiaries includes OBC Category with the mean value of 475.90 in 2018, while 972.72 in 2019 followed by ST, SC, General and Minority. The result found could be a demographic dividend because of stratified random sampling.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T05:36:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211042723
       
  • Book review: Dwaipayan Sen, The Decline of the Caste Question:
           Jogendranath Mandal and the Defeat of the Dalit Politics in Bengal

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      Authors: Mustakim Ansary
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Dwaipayan Sen, The Decline of the Caste Question: Jogendranath Mandal and the Defeat of the Dalit Politics in Bengal. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2018, xii + 305 pp., ₹7725.00 (Hardcover). ISBN: 9781108417761.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T05:35:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211052209
       
  • Dalit Middle Class and the Crisis of Colonial Modernity: A Study of Ajay
           Navaria’s Yes Sir

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      Authors: Diksha Beniwal, Sayan Chattopadhyay
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This study attempts to understand the relatively new phenomenon of the rise of Dalit middle class by examining Ajay Navaria’s short story titled Yes Sir. The continued survival of caste in modern India compels one to ask if it is possible to enter modernity and achieve class mobility without shedding one’s caste identity as a Dalit. This study shall focus on how Narottam, a Dalit officer’s character, as a representative of the modern Dalit male, manages to renegotiate the very margins he comes from, as he is vested with the ultimate power of promoting Tiwari, his Brahmin clerk. To understand the contradictions inherent in the term ‘Dalit middle class’, the study traces the workings of caste and class since the British rule, to the contemporary notions of modern society driven by individuality and social mobility. It traces the emergence of the middle class, along with the transforming ideas of race and purity as they outlive the traditional understanding of caste as division of labour.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T04:14:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211042490
       
  • Contours of ‘Naming’ and ‘Renaming’: Mapping the Identity
           Discourse Among Scheduled Castes

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      Authors: Bhawna Shivan
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Scheduled Caste (SC) is an administrative term comprising touchable and untouchable groups of people. SCs are defined as ‘homogeneous’ classes under Article 341 for all constitutional purposes. It emerged as an official term for the recognition of groups to have preferential treatment in the form of compensatory measurements in the educational, governmental and legislative sectors. The emergence of the term ‘Scheduled Castes’ ignores the viable differentiation among them, existing on the basis of their status and identity. On the other hand, the problem of nomenclature among SCs is indirectly related to their social identification at the societal and community levels. The article will delve into the discourses of naming and renaming of SCs/Dalits/untouchables and various other terminologies that emerged as an imperative to represent them. Therefore, it is significant to understand the dilemma of homogeneity versus the heterogeneous nature of the identity of SCs.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T08:01:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069492
       
  • Sanitation Workers: A Neglected Community of Indian Civilized Society

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      Authors: R. H. Raghavendra, R. Anil Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Sanitation workers are those who work in any part of the sanitation chain. They perform one of the most important jobs in the society, and still, they remain unseen and unappreciated. The stigmatized caste system in India remains to be the key determinant of the fate of these workers. These workers often come into direct contact with human waste, working with no equipment or protection, which exposes them to a wide variety of health hazards and diseases that can cause unconsciousness or death. There is an urgent need to look into their problems, and this cannot be addressed without having a detailed understanding of the depth and width of their problems. Hence, the present study covers a number of areas such as the vast prevalence of sanitation workers in India, their pathetic conditions, their social and economic status, deaths due to sanitation related works and an alternative livelihood to sanitation work. Finally, this article suggests what the government needs to do for improving the lives of sanitation workers.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T10:43:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069683
       
  • Dalit Muslims and the State: Pasmanda Movement and Struggle for
           ‘Scheduled Castes Status’

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      Authors: Shamsher Alam
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This paper attempts to understand the state’s role in providing Scheduled Castes (SC) status for Arzal or Dalit Muslims, and the struggle of Pasmanda Muslims through the Pasmanda movement for inclusion in the SC list. While doing so, it traces the trajectory of marginalization of Dalit Muslims by the state. It argues that since the inception of SC status in independent India, it was reserved only for the Hindu religion. Later on, it was amended twice: first, in 1956 for the inclusion of Sikh, and second, for neo-Buddhist in 1990. It did not include Dalit from the Muslim community. It also attempts to map the effort of Pasmanda Muslims for SC status. In this context, the paper tries to comprehend the role of the Pasmanda movement along with the struggle of social organizations. Consequently, the paper argues that these organizations fight for SC status; however, unable to make any significant intervention at the policy level. This paper also argues that there is a dissensus and intra-community contestation among Muslims regarding the Pasmanda movement and the demand of SC status for Dalit Muslims.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T10:43:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069478
       
  • Traditional Ideas and Institutions of Democracy in India’s North
           East

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      Authors: Thongkholal Haokip
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the traditional ideas and practices of indigenous democracy among the tribal communities in North East India. Traditional institutions of governance in the region are repudiated today as autocratic and authoritarian, or at best oligarchic. This oversight is imminent unless their cultures and customs, which are closely linked to their institutions of governance, are examined. In most traditional tribal institutions at the grassroot level, there is either a direct participation of all adult male or a representative system in which each clan or sub-clan is represented in the village council. Thus, one finds pre-modern roots of direct and representative democracy in the traditional polity of indigenous communities in the North East. The article identifies ‘consensus’ as the heart of tribal democracy and argues for the strengthening of indigenous democracy for deepening democracy in India. However, more democratic reforms of the traditional institutions are needed to particularly include women and the ‘others’. The findings contribute to the growing literature on the pre-modern roots of modern democracy.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T08:29:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069680
       
  • Reflections on the Republican Party: (Prompted by Recollections of
           Encounters at 15 Janpath)

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      Authors: Ian Duncan
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Towards the end of the 1960s, the Ambedkarite Republican Party of India was facing a serious crisis. Its plight intensified with the death of the leader Dadasaheb Gaikwad at the end of 1971. This article takes the long view of the predicament of the party and asks why it had suffered such frequent and lasting instability. Drawing on interviews conducted at that time, including those conducted at the party New Delhi headquarters on Janpath, more recent discussions and a close examination of documentary records, the article examines the volatility and factional conflict exhibited by the party. In contrast to approaches that seek to find the roots of factionalism in personal rivalries and individual animosities, the article searches for more structural causes. It concludes that the inability of the party to broker differences about political cooperation and electoral alliances was a major cause of dissent. Particularly intense differences and division were generated by the issue of cooperation with the Congress party. Ultimately, it was the absence of any institutional procedures for settling disputes that caused the party to decline and eventually collapse into rival factional organizations.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T09:29:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066097
       
  • Economic Growth, Development and Education of Scheduled Castes: Line Drawn
           from Neoliberal Era

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      Authors: Dhaneswar Bhoi
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The economy of India was reasonably well during the world economic crisis and is performing well in the economic growth of the nation. However, relatively high aggregate economic growth also co-exists with the persistence of less social development for more than a decade. The exclusiveness of this growth rate is associated with region, locality, education, employment, living standard and social position. In this situation, this study poses questions: what are the changing impacts of neoliberalism in India and does economic growth co-exist with social development' What are the neoliberal experiences of marginal sections connected to economic growth' How are the educational attainments, retention and achievements of Scheduled Caste students connected to the structural changes in higher education'
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T02:41:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211073207
       
  • A Review of the Perspectives of Social Justice with Special Reference to
           the Ambedkarism

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      Authors: Bhimasen Hantal
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The social justice is very old concept, which germinated at its mature forms during the era of Gautam Buddha, Plato and Aristotle, and started continual academic and sociopolitical refinements over the centuries through rich contributions of many Kings, Queens, Social Workers, Scholars and so. The concept social justice as always been placed at prominent places by the academic community whether discussing of the colonialism, globalism, communism or so on. Karl Marx has ignited again the notion of social justice among the intellectuals. After WWII, most of the nations got independence, and thus significance of the social justice increased manifold than ever before—to see that how far these countries deliver justice to the marginal communities at their territories, since they are no more under the clutch of their erstwhile colonial masters. Thus, during the entire periods starting from Plato to Rawals and beyond many scholars have contributed through various perspectives on the issue of justice. The major theories have been grouped here as various perspectives and briefly reviewed, while emphasizing previously somehow neglected Ambedkarism, as author found that this ideology could be even more relevant and practical in the modern context of globalization.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T02:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221076623
       
  • Caste Environment and the ‘Unthinkability’ of
           ‘Annihilation of Caste’

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      Authors: Ishita Roy
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article revisits Ambedkar’s speech ‘Annihilation of Caste’, the delivery of which was stalled as permission for it was withheld by the organization who had originally invited Ambedkar to deliver a talk on curbing denigrating social practices like ‘untouchability’. The article revisits this moment of denial as well as the speech in its written form and argues for the political significance both (the ‘speech’ and the ‘final act of denial’) hold in contemporary Indian socio-political culture with respect to caste and its ideological mechanisms. It is argued that the consequent ‘final un-deliverance of the speech’, owing to its cancellation by the Mandal, the conference organizer, accounts for political Hinduism’s ‘unthinkability’ to accept any intellectual that does not belong to the ‘upper’ caste/caste dominant to exegete on any matter requiring intellectual exercise. This article attempts a critique of this ‘unthinkability’, which it argues is a basic paradigm in the ideology of caste.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T02:39:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211072995
       
  • Lived Realities of Socio-political Negotiations by Marginalized Groups and
           the Inherent Rationality of Caste-Based Power Negotiations: A Study of
           Khap Regions of Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

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      Authors: Tarushikha Sarvesh
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The article explores the lived realities of socio-political negotiations by marginalized groups and the inherent rationality of caste-based power negotiations at a micro level. It also explores the possibilities of alternate futures and alternate interpretations of the margins, through the study of caste-based negotiations and subversions in the Khap villages of western Uttar Pradesh. Stuart Hall, British Cultural theorist, draws attention to the perspective that cultural identification need not produce an essence but a positioning subject to the continuous ‘play’ of history, culture and power. B. R. Ambedkar had termed the hierarchical caste system in India as ‘graded inequality’, which resists any transformation in its oppressive framework because it gives a sense of superiority to each caste placed above the other in a descending order. Despite stiff resistance to any transformation, various forms of subversion—denting the rigid caste and cultural frames—exist in the Khap areas of western Uttar Pradesh.Ambedkar’s vision of a non-sectarian equitable new social order in combination with empirical study on the current socio-political negotiations by marginalized groups on the ground—with a hint to the possibilities of alternate futures through the efforts towards inducing a democratic environment—are explored here.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T02:38:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069689
       
  • Studying the Poetics of Violence: A Critical Take on the Selected Works of
           Dalit and Tribal Women Poets

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      Authors: Anjali Singh
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye helped me to understand what it meant to be born black, poor woman in the USA. Her work gave me an ideal platform to explore what it means to be born a poor Dalit woman in contemporary India. In order to understand the layered connotation of the lives of Dalit women, I deliberated upon the selected poetry by Dalit and tribal women poets and came to the conclusion that apparent similarity between the two contexts comes under scanner and ends abruptly with the following comment by Bell Hook in her book Feminist Theory: From Margin to Centre. She writes, ‘when the child of two black parents is coming out of the womb the factor that is considered first is skin colour, then gender, because race and gender will determine that child’s fate’. On the contrary, a child of two parents from a lower caste will remain a low caste because caste is infallible and independent of the truce of fate-determining the skin colour that may redefine the gender experience. As a Telugu Dalit poet, Chillappa Swaroopa Rani laments, ‘Stamped with a low caste, I was born/that day it-self branded slut.’ Thus, the thrust of this article is not to bring forth the comparative study between the two contexts but to crystallize the issues of Dalit women as enunciated in their poetry and to engage with the nuances of gender and caste that punctuate their day-to-day lives. This article encompasses the post-colonial feminism theoretical framework that resists the universalization of feminist issues seen and perceived only from the ‘Euro-American feminists’ point of view and ignores the differences in race, ethnicity, regional diversity, etc., through which a woman experiences her gender biases. The selected Dalit poets are Rajni Tilak, Poonam Tushamed, Rajni Anuragi, Sushila Takbhure, Kunti and Nirmal Putul. The main issues expressed in a tribal poet’s works remain Jal-Jungle-Zameen, human trafficking, a lack of legal documentation, witch hunting, etc., while Dalit poets stress on police atrocities, a lack of basic amenities, a lack of quality schools for their children, a lack of access to health care, the domineering influence of patriarchy that punctures their private and public domain, etc.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T02:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069597
       
  • What Numbers Never Revealed: Tracing Dalit Christian Modernity Through
           Malayalam Literature

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      Authors: Christina Romeo, Anupama Nayar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Kerala has a long-standing history of Christianity as well as conversions. Conversions can be dated back to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, which saw a large number of slave caste conversions. For the slave castes of Kerala—Pulayas and Parayas—Christianity offered a salvation from the circle of pollution. Scriptures provided the slave castes new vistas of knowledge which they encultured to form a counter discourse against the public sphere set up by the dominant castes. The public sphere of the Malayalee psyche was formed by the ideas of caste pollution, which restricted the slave castes from accessing the social space. A new Dalit perspective on the religious consciousness of the converted Christians will show the role of the Bible, Original Sin, and Repentance on their daily lives. Dalit Christian literature becomes the primary source where Christianity metamorphoses into an oppositional force in resisting oppression as well as in creating a social space with agency.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T02:35:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069497
       
  • Anand Teltumbde on Globalization and Ambedkar: A Left Perspective

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      Authors: Swamy Kalva
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The left leaning or the Marxian school deals with the social, economic and political ideology or a movement, which aims at establishing a communist stateless society. According to the left-leaning thinkers, the proletarian rule will exist for some point of time, after which the state will wither away. In this case, understanding Ambedkar from a left perspective would be a new paradigm. Anand Teltumbde on one side says that Ambedkar was not a Marxist and that he was under the intellectual influence of his teachers, who were known as the Fabian socialists, and on the other side says that he practiced the class politics.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T02:34:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211067591
       
  • Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar’s Image and Thought as Perceived in Thailand
           From 1975 to 2017

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      Authors: Pittikorn Panyamanee
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891–1956), popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination against untouchables (Dalits) while supporting the rights of women and labourers. This article examines how Ambedkar is characterized in Thai language academic and general writings published between 1975 and 2017. The paper is based on textual analysis that interprets the books and articles on Ambedkar in Thai language as primary sources for understanding his image and thought as portrayed in Thailand.Ambedkar’s forward-thinking ideas on democracy impressed Thai writers because Ambedkar attempted to dispense with the caste system and promote liberty, equality and fraternity among underprivileged communities in India. Ambedkar also served as chairman of drafting committee of Constitution and leader of the Dalit movement and community. Furthermore, Thai writers see Ambedkar’s ideas about Buddhism as qualifying him as a messiah or bodhisattva who revived a neo-Buddhist movement in India. Thai monks have served as significant intermediaries in narrating Ambedkar’s interpretation of Buddhism to the Thai Buddhist community because they have direct experience such as studying and staying in India. Academics and famous writers have also conveyed Ambedkar’s ideas about Buddhism and democracy, which qualify him as a modernist and maha manav [great man].
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T02:15:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066198
       
  • ‘No Means No’: People’s Protest Against Hydroelectric Development in
           Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India

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      Authors: Dandub Palzor Negi, Abdul Azeez EP
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Development projects, primarily hydroelectric power projects, are considered viable renewable energy sources and contribute to sustaining the economy at large. However, it has been contested over excessive exploitation and appropriation of environment and ecology. Such development models have been challenged worldwide for threatening human survival degrading ecology and the environment. Hydroelectric development in the geographically fragile regions of the Himalayas is on the rise owing to the great potential of hydro energy in the region. This article examines the public protest against the hydroelectric project, the Jangi-Thopan-Powari Hydro Electric project, in the Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T05:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211069481
       
  • Dalit and the Historiography of Temple Entry Movements in India: Mapping
           Social Exclusion and Cultural Subjugation

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      Authors: Suratha Kumar Malik
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The period between colonialism and the twenty-first century gives horrible glimpses of temple entry and the violence attached with that. Keeping temple entry as an important issue in mind, here, the article reveals the social exclusion and the cultural subjugation of the Dalits since the colonial period to the present day. Dalits in the colonial period and also in present day are denied their social and religious rights in Hindu religion. The right to enter the temple is a fundamental right of a citizen in a religion like Hinduism. Among the various issues that Dalits have voiced since the colonial period, the issue of temple entry along with untouchability is one of the most important. It is not only a matter of excuse that Dalits till the present day (after seven decades of India’s independence) are not allowed to enter inside the temple in some rural areas of the country. The temple entry bill and the legislations have also been adopted by the princely states and the Parliament of India in different times, but still, Dalits are not allowed to enter the Hindu temples even in various parts of India, for instance, in the Kendrapara district of Odisha. As temple entry is an important issue for Dalits as well as for upper caste Hindus in social and religious life, it is pertinent to revisit the historiography of temple entry movements including the contemporary movements which remain important in religious, social and academic spheres. With the aforementioned backdrop, the article first provides a synoptic view on the historiography of Dalit movements in India and on ‘the Gandhi–Ambedkar debate on caste, untouchability and the issue of temple entry’ as a background for the study, and the latter sections thoroughly explores the historicity of temple entry movements and the social exclusion and cultural subjugation inherited with it since the colonial period to the present day. The article also provides a particular section on the temple entry movement in Odisha (2005–2006) which is based on the empirical works of the author and examines the issue in a critical lens with observations and findings.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T04:50:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211063340
       
  • Basic Amenity and the Caste Conundrum: A Study of the Dalit Communities in
           East Uttar Pradesh

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      Authors: Bibhuti Bhushan Malik, Ajay Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Dalits lack the bare necessities, such as living in substandard houses with constrained space and rooms devoid of the kitchen, bathroom, and sanitation facilities; with a minuscule living area and limited access to safe drinking water. These aspects of civic amenities are empirically examined with qualitative and quantitative approach in east Uttar Pradesh using significant variables such as housing conditions, access to safe drinking water and toilet availability in households. The article also discuss the dimension and level of civic amenities in Dalit households. Based on research-based field data and ethnography, poverty and a lack of civic amenities are the convoluted pathways and fundamental causes of Dalit families living in poor health, unhygienic conditions and without sanitation. The explanation justifies how Dalits’ lack of public amenities, particularly in micro-settlements, intentionally manifests organized caste identity.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-06T05:55:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066189
       
  • Why the Aryans Still Matter' History, Historiography and Politics

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      Authors: Ashish Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This review article ponders over the debate on the river Sarasvati’s association with the Harappan civilization through a critical analysis of G. D. Bakshi’s book The Sarasvati Civilization: A Paradigm Shift in Ancient Indian History (2019, Gurugram: Garuda Prakashan). By identifying the Rigvedic river Sarasvati with the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra, scholars like G. D. Bakshi co-relate the Vedic-Aryan culture with the Harappans and, by doing this, they Aryanize the Harappan civilization. Since the Aryans are accepted as the ancestors of the modern Hindus, by locating the origin of the Aryans within India, right-leaning scholars put forth the exclusive claim of the Hindu community over the Indian nation. Contrary to them, the left-liberal scholars endorse the Aryan migration theory, and it allows them to explain the origin of the Indian civilization due to the contribution of different ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups that have had migrated into India from faraway lands. It is argued in this review paper that the Aryan debate is more about politics than academic endeavour, and its primarily focus is on the following question: Who has a righteous claim over the Indian nation'
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-06T05:54:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211063048
       
  • B. R. Ambedkar: The Messiah and Emancipator of Indian Women

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      Authors: Debjani Ghosal
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Dr Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was not only the father of the Indian Constitution or a vociferous critique of caste and untouchability but he was also a staunch supporter of women’s rights, their upliftment and emancipation. He strongly criticized the ancient lawgiver Manu and the Manusmrirti or Manav Dharma Shastra for showing contempt towards women and degrading them as slaves who are devoid of intellect. Manu denied women the right to chant Vedas, the right to education and the right to property. Ambedkar requested Indian women not to abide by the Manusmriti and to openly defy the laws of Manu. In order to ensure gender equality and the emancipation and progress of Indian women, he incorporated several articles in the Indian Constitution. As the first law minister of independent India, he introduced the Hindu Code Bill to safeguard the rights of Hindu women. It was due to his tireless efforts that the Constitution of independent India today incorporates several legislations to ensure the protection of women.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T11:59:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211067113
       
  • How the Absence of Caste in Curriculum Aids the Presence of Caste in
           Pedagogy

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      Authors: Damni Kain
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      While caste has been invisibilized in the Indian curriculum, it is practised strongly in a pedagogical sense which maintains hierarchy in higher education. There exists a mutually reinforced relationship of absence (of caste in curriculum) and presence (of caste in pedagogy). The current study aims at assessing inclusivity in academic curriculum and pedagogy with regards to the question of caste in papers related to gender/women’s rights/feminism at the University of Delhi. The curriculum of gender-related papers provided by six departments at the University of Delhi for undergraduate students is assessed. Along with textual analysis, in depth phenomenological interviews were conducted with 20 respondents coming from diverse caste backgrounds. Professors and students who either taught or studied any paper related to gender/women’s rights at undergraduate level of the University of Delhi were interviewed. The results of the study highlight several mutually reinforcing relations between ‘caste-less curriculum’, ‘sacred teacher’ and methods of evaluation, which can be seen as an explanation of how invisibilization of caste in curriculum aids caste as a pedagogical practice.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:55:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066185
       
  • Media Influences on Caste-based Untouchability Practices in India

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      Authors: Archana, Pushpendra Singh
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This study is an attempt to record the extent of untouchability practices prevalent in India as well as to examine the role of the media such as TV, newspaper and radio, as a source of communication which has brought about shift in the practice of caste-based untouchability. For addressing the above-mentioned issues, the study has used the data of India Human Development Survey-II conducted in 2011–2012 by the University of Maryland and the National Council of Applied Economic Research, New Delhi. The findings of the study reveal that 27% of households practise untouchability in contemporary India. However, the households watching TV (25.6%) practise less untouchability than those reading newspapers (26.1%) and listening to the radio (29.6%). The culturally disadvantaged groups are excluded from the decision-making process of the media that communicates the untouchability practices with society. Hence, it is visible from the findings that the role of media is beyond the expectation related to controlling the caste-based untouchability practices.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:54:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066088
       
  • Translating Intent: Developments and Challenges in Translating Dalit
           Literature

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      Authors: Kunwar Nitin Pratap Gurjar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      There have been many studies on locating the developments and challenges encountered in the translation of Dalit literature and the numerous impacts introduced by translators, editors and publishers. But hardly any attempt has been made to understand how Dalit writers themselves understand the process of translation. This is important because they often work very closely with these agents, and yet their opinions seem to get lost in the nitty-gritties of translation studies. It is perhaps for this reason alone that Limbale’s response to his translator evinces out this need when he says ‘You are worrying about my books and I am worrying about my movement’. It seems that Dalit writers have a distinct understanding of the role and process of translation which needs a necessary extrapolation. This essay then makes an attempt to suggest a theoretical framework which Dalit writers seem to have in mind when they advocate a need for a ‘socially committed translator’. The expression ‘Socially or politically committed translator’ itself needs to be explained as Dalit writers and their translators continue to use this expression, but the expression itself remains relatively untouched. This paper will therefore address these two important issues to contribute some insights into this field.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066085
       
  • Narayana Guru and the Formation of Political Society in Kerala: Anti-Caste
           Revolt, Religion and the Untouchables

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      Authors: K. V. Cybil
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article is an attempt to examine the salient features of a lower caste revolt began in Kerala in the nineteenth century. It was led by Narayana Guru (1854–1928), a spiritual leader with a distinctive urge to break free from the rules of pollution demarcated by Brahmins in the practice of knowledge. I argue that in the wake of this movement, a strong assertion of community was represented by the Ezhava, a caste which suffered pollution in Hinduism. The defining characteristic of this community today is that of a class—the OBC. In the existing lacunae of non-governmental categories to define the nature of this community, and the philosophy of Advaita remaining an impediment rather than an empowerment to expand the central notions of his thought, I argue that the transition from caste to community represented by Narayana Guru can no longer be situated in the discourse either of Sanskritization or of subalternity, but of the use of technologies of deification.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211063073
       
  • The Subaltern Dalit Counterpublic: Implications for a Social Media Age

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      Authors: Abigail Samyuktha Rabindran
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:51:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211042736
       
  • Understanding Social Exclusion of the Low-caste Muslims in Kashmir

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      Authors: Hafsa Sayeed Shah
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This paper attempts to establish the prevalence of the caste system among Muslims in Kashmir. This has been achieved by pointing to aspects like endogamy, ghettoization as well as hereditary passing of ‘menial’ jobs among the ‘low caste’ groups. Further, these findings have been substantiated by the fieldwork done over three months. The essential premise borrowed here to understand caste in Kashmir is that of social exclusion, which the low-caste groups face.Social exclusion, in the context of this study, can be understood as a process that places certain caste groups in a disadvantaged position. This especially stems from being kept out of the larger social networks, in addition to not being able to access employment and education. It is also rooted in the overlapping layers of socio-cultural and economic deprivation. Poverty, in terms of material depravity, is starkly reinforced by such a socio-cultural identity of being a low-caste person employed in a ‘menial’ job. The objective of this paper, as such, is to theorize social exclusion faced by low-caste groups in Kashmir through a capability framework.This paper also investigates the importance of relational deprivation which leads to the capability failure and hence poverty, as well as the dynamics of caste-class interaction in the similar framework of social exclusion.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:50:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066199
       
  • Relationship Between Livelihood Capitals and Livelihood Strategies of
           Dalit

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      Authors: Yam Nath Giri
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Dalit of Nepal are living with lack of opportunities and the high-level poverty of Dalit communities shows that capabilities or livelihood of Dalits have not been adequately increased in quantity and quality. In the absence of capabilities, they have been adopting unsecured livelihood strategies. In this context this study aims to find out the relationship between livelihood capitals and livelihood strategies adopted by the Dalit communities of Kusma municipality, Parbat, Nepal. The study was based on survey research design and 390 respondents were selected by using stratified random sampling method. The relationship between the livelihood strategies and livelihood capitals are found positive, statistically significant and moderate level strength with livelihood strategies. Access to capitals determines the livelihood strategies of the Dalit community. However, there is no rule and degree of relationship between the livelihood capitals and livelihood strategies. Likely, agency and structure of the society dominates the capabilities of the Dalit households. Therefore, even though they have good knowledge, skill, income and physical capital, they are not well supported to choose livelihood strategies. Similarly, livelihood strategies do not contribute to livelihood outcomes as well.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:49:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211060587
       
  • Dalit Bildungsroman: A Modernist Perspective into the Poetics of Self in
           Jhoothan

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      Authors: Bhargavi Jha, Vereendra Kumar Mishra
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyses the incompetency of Indian philosophy of ‘Absoluteness’ and Western genre of classical Bildungsroman to analyse process of self-formation in an odyssey of a Dalit. The modern contemporary era negotiates post-colonial and postmodern approach to provide a heuristic view to the subjected self of a Dalit. The modernist approach takes Dissensual Bildungsroman in consideration. Om Prakash Valmiki’s Jhoothan narrates an experience of a subjugated and unheard voice and his journey of self-acculturation. The paper pre-eminently concerns for unique and experimented form of self which can provide a tantamount status to the pariah community and their culture compared with elite Hindu community and among its wide range of readers and audience.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-01-30T05:28:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066087
       
  • Historiography of Caste: The Notion of the ‘Declassed’ Castes in
           Michel Boivin’s ‘Sufi Paradigm’

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      Authors: Ghulam Hussain
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The ethno-nationalist historiography in South Asia primarily emerged as the postcolonial critique of British colonialism. Alternatively, the anti-caste historiographers have criticized the postcolonial historiography for reflecting the similar hegemonic bias towards the possible pre-or-post colonial histories of the internally colonized classes and castes. In this article, while appreciating with epistemic humility the equally legitimate position of Michel Boivin, I interrogate the concept of the ‘declassed’ caste groups as it tends to relativize the erasure of caste, the structural aspect that is peripheral to Boivin’s avowed goal of capturing diversity instead of difference, but central to the contemporary critical anti-caste scholarship that I rely on as an alternative framework of reference. Contending his selective epistemic prioritizing of the privileged Amil, Khoja, Mirza castes, I argue that Boivin’s archival ethnography has not effectively attended to the embedded caste-based political orders. He has failed to adequately address the possible erasure of caste, thereby adding to the ahistorical portrayal of the underprivileged castes such as Kolhi, Bheel, Meghwar, and Jogi. Boivin’s rendering of the ‘Sufi Paradigm’, therefore, is in continuation with the scholarship on Sindh that undermines hierarchical differences based on caste discrimination, and facilitates Sindhi progressive intelligentsia to historicize the privileged caste myth of caste-neutral Sufi Sindh.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-01-30T05:27:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211063069
       
  • Gender Matters: Reappraising the Issues of Equity, Participation and
           Ownership in Watershed Management

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      Authors: Dhananjay Kumar, Dhiraj Kumar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Equal share in governance of managing natural resources is one of the strategic aspects of neoliberal developmentalism. Additionally, this process of natural resource governance (NRG) considers communities as a homogeneous entity by ignoring the cultural politics of gender division to maintain the latency and equilibrium of the existing gendered order and regime. Watershed developmental project is no exceptional in this regard. The existing empirical literature shows that the gender governance (GG) issues in development projects such as watershed is disproportionate between men and women.This article talks about GG by discussing the issues of equity, participation and ownership in NRG, and it argued that GG cannot be synonymous with gender mainstreaming. Watershed development in India has been taken to address the issues of conservation and production, but it doesn’t address the cultural politics of gendered division. Women are more inclined to be marginalized in the governance of watershed management due to the cultural politics of control and access over the ownership of the natural resource (land) which comes under the hegemonic control of their male counterparts. Women participation in watershed activities is merely for fulfilling the custom of the official quota. Considering the potential function of women participation in watershed activities, the present article seeks to explore the issues and approaches through which the participatory institutions must meet the emerging challenges. This study concludes that the role of women participation in NRG will help in the integration of various form of capital more effectively.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-01-30T05:26:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211063068
       
  • Demographic Descriptions and Socio-economic Status of Tribal People
           Subsisting in Rarh Region of West Bengal, India

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      Authors: Sandip Satpati, Kaushal Kumar Sharma
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      There is much discussion on the issue of forest-dependent livelihoods of tribes and their unique culture. It is essential to know the demographic structure of the tribal household and to understand the socio-economic status of the tribal household. The present study has attempted to analyze the demographic structure of the tribal household and to investigate the socio-economic status of the tribal household. The study mainly depends on the primary household survey. Only a base map has been collected from the secondary source. Purposive stratified random sampling technique has been used to collect primary data. A total of 150 households were surveyed. The findings indicate that the socio-economic status of the tribal household declined from east to west of the study region due to natural and human resources showing a declining trend towards the same direction. Also, the study compares inter-regional variation of different socio-economic factors. For their socio-economic empowerment, the tribal people deserve a very intensive development policy implementation with a bottom-up approach. The earlier studies are fragmented, haphazard and maximum works are on the cultural level, that’s why this study is very unique and important.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-01-30T05:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211060583
       
  • Quotidian Beliefs and Practices in Maternal and Child Health Care: An
           Empirical Study Among the Irula Tribe of Tamil Nadu

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      Authors: M. Roja Lakshmi, Kasi Eswarappa
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The present paper explores the cultural context of maternal and child health (MCH) care practices and beliefs of Irula tribes. It identifies the factors and analyses the pattern of their domiciliary deliveries and neonatal care among Irula, which is one of the PVTGs (Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups) in Tamil Nadu. The paper adopted a descriptive research design based on the pilot survey and ethnographic fieldwork. It examines the health care beliefs and practices relating to maternal and neonatal care connected with a holistic view of the Irula community’s cultural dimensions. The paper also demonstrates the factors for domiciliary deliveries, non-utilization of prevailing state’s health interventions, and incentives for maternal and child health care services among the Irulas. Keeping in view the aforementioned argument, an empirical study was carried out in six Irular settlements of Villupuram district in Tamil Nadu.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T03:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211066193
       
  • From Dalits as a Political Category to Becoming Dalits in Post-Political
           Conditions: Explaining the Dual Challenges in Contemporary India

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      Authors: Gouri Sankar Nag, Santosh Kumar Behera, Arpan Bhattacharya
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Dalit politics in India has substantially influenced the emerging post-political discourse. They have reinstated their dialectical mode of functioning in order to circumvent the dispersed social power and the disciplinary effects of civil society, albeit in its selective celebration of identity politics. However, this writing departs from locating the Dalit category as naively synonymous with the notion of victimhood of upper-caste violence. Rather, we contend that it is more important to conceive of the Dalit category in symbolic sense: to stay critical to the effects of dominant culture, lest it covertly imposes itself, and simultaneously to build and promote own counterculture with all sorts of folk forms and symbolic representation of identity that nurtures the existence and dignity of the ‘other’.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T03:43:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211054249
       
  • Contextualization of Curriculum: Inclusion of Caste Perspectives in Media
           Studies Curriculum

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      Authors: V. Ratnamala
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores caste as a site of communication. It also delves into how caste is a matter of concern in everyday news reporting, news selection, programme production, media history, community media, communication for development, advertising, gender studies, new media and film. It will also attempt to illuminate the role of caste in media ownership, newsroom diversity and creative content creation. This article will further examine the mandate for the inclusion of caste as a site of communication in media pedagogy. This study will analyse the data collected using desk research. Desk research refers to secondary data or the data collected without fieldwork. The data for this article are collected by reviewing published sources, that is, books, articles, reports, and the curriculum of media studies courses offered at different universities across the country.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T05:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211053577
       
  • Exploring the Presence of Avant-Garde in the Graphic Novel: Bhimayana

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      Authors: Rohit Pradhan
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This article attempts to understand the content and aesthetic of the graphic novel Bhimayana: Experiences of Untouchability, in determining if its nature could be understood as a work of the avant-garde. In order to do so, the article will closely examine the aesthetic style employed by the author, the essence of the story, the content and the nature of its publication. These aspects will then be linked to the various understandings of the avant-garde to find out whether the graphic novel resonates with the principles of questioning ideas, methodologies and power structures.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T03:07:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211060582
       
  • Trajectories of Persons with Visual Impairment: Narratives of a Woman

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      Authors: Preeti Panwar
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      This study discusses the lived-in experiences of a lady with visual impairment. The main objective of the study was to explore the trajectories of a female with visual impairment and understand life experiences from the lens of equality and justice perspectives. This study comes out with the finding that discrimination against visually impaired females is still prevalent in our society even after the enactment of acts and provision in Indian Constitution.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-01-16T03:57:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211055368
       
  • Vernacular Tradition, Dalits and Connected Social History in the Littoral
           Bay of Bengal

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      Authors: Debojyoti Das
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The Bengal delta has been a recipient of Islamic influences since medieval times through trade, commerce and cultural exchanges with Southeast and West Asia via the Bay of Bengal–Indian Ocean trade route. This aspect of Bengal’s cultural history and engagement with different religious traditions has gained attention in recent times through works done on subaltern literature, cultural history and global history. The vernacular tradition of littoral Bengal presents a strong frontrunner for this. Jatra (theatre), pala (lyrical play), scroll painting of pir, gazi, fakir and poetic discourse locally known as tarja demonstrate the diverse forms of vernacular philosophy in the littoral Bay of Bengal. In this article, I will engage with Bonbibis Johurnama, an Islamic text which illustrates the struggle of the protagonist Dukhe who is protected by Bonbibi (forest goddess) from the man-eating tiger, personified as Dakhin Ray, the Hindu god. The article will explore the cosmic and mundane aspects of marginalized seafaring communities who depend on the delta’s backwaters and the mangrove forest for livelihood. Bonbibi is venerated as the ultimate protector in this amorphous landscape, interspersed by land and water. The vernacular history of the region exposes the serendipity and the mundane everyday activities of Dalit fisherman who venture into the forests and backwaters to collect honey and wax. Through vernacular text – punthi literature – I will show how the ritual practices are shared and how this shapes the religious syncreticism that creates solidarity between Dalit Hindu and Muslim foresters and fishers in the delta. These syncretic and heterodox religious practices are part of the vernacular literary tradition that illustrates how the littoral villages have lived together. The maritime trade and cultural acquaintances with the wider littoral world has been an obvious influence on the creation of liminal religiosity.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-10-08T03:16:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106536
       
  • The Court of Bigotry: Contested Sexuality of Dalit and Non-Dalit Women

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      Authors: Jyoti Diwakar
      First page: 199
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      In the Indian context, women, especially Dalit women, have been subjected to scripturally and culturally sanctioned misogyny. These deep-rooted prejudices are manifested at both the societal and the institutional levels. In such a scenario, any assertion of justice by Dalit women is fraught with tensions. The sexual violence against them is routinized, normalized and invisibilized. For the victims, it is a lonely struggle as civil society scarcely registers such crimes; for the law and judiciary, it is another claim for meagre compensation. Their bodies are bereft of honour, and their sexuality is viewed with suspicion, easily accessible to any male of the dominant communities who can lay claim to it. This article explores two case studies—Khairlanji and Nirbhaya, geographically distinct spaces, where Dalit women were brutally raped and mutilated, and the perpetrators were let off lightly. The mainstream media largely ignored the developments. The article also focuses on the fissures within the feminist movement vis-à-vis caste and the politics of sexuality.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T11:32:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106537
       
  • Theory of Culture and Market by Wherry: Caste and Cultural Impact in
           Indian Market

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      Authors: Nitin Dhaktode
      First page: 224
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      The sociology of the market with the focus of cultural impact in the market demand and supply studies by Wherry and others is central part as a theoretical base to argue the idea of oppressed culture in India and its impact on the oppressed castes in Varna System and other marginalized groups, including women. In unequal caste and gender-based society, the market demands services and products that treat lower caste and women as a secondary stakeholder and keep them away from playing the role of a mainstream seller or buyer. The article focuses on business strategies in India where caste-based hierarchical culture is observed in businesses. The article also deals with the theoretical concepts such as caste, culture and market with arguments by Dr Ambedkar and Wherry with other references. The theoretical base of the article is drawn from Wherry’s book and builds on the argument with empirical data from India. The author tried to seek answers to three questions stated in the last part of the introduction. The author has used both qualitative and explorative data from various sources.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T10:46:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X221106545
       
  • Book review: Gaurav J. Pathania, The University as a Site of Resistance:
           Identity and Student Politics

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kalyani Kalyani
      First page: 249
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Gaurav J. Pathania, The University as a Site of Resistance: Identity and Student Politics. Oxford University Press, 2018, 1–236 pp. ₹895 (Hardback). ISBN: 0-19-948841-X.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T03:19:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211029436
       
  • Book review: Aakash Singh Rathore, Ambedkar’s Preamble: A Secret History
           of the Constitution of India

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      Authors: Sanjay Kumar
      First page: 251
      Abstract: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, Ahead of Print.
      Aakash Singh Rathore, Ambedkar’s Preamble: A Secret History of the Constitution of India. Penguin & Vintage Publication, 2020, 236 pp. (hardcover). ISBN 978-0-670-09324-3.
      Citation: Contemporary Voice of Dalit
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T03:19:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2455328X211030719
       
 
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