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Chinese Journal of Sociology
Number of Followers: 3  
 
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ISSN (Print) 2057-150X - ISSN (Online) 2057-1518
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Sexuality in China: A review and new findings

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      Authors: Jia Yu, Weixiang Luo, Yu Xie
      Pages: 293 - 329
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Volume 8, Issue 3, Page 293-329, July 2022.
      In the past four decades, sexuality research in China has made considerable advancements. From historical and sociological perspectives, our study reviews the literature and provides a comprehensive overview of sexuality in contemporary China by drawing on recent survey data that we collected. First, we introduce sexuality in ancient and modern China and discuss the social contexts that gave rise to a sexual revolution in China. Second, we briefly review empirical research on sexuality in China. Finally, we present results on recent changes and socioeconomic patterns of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on our survey—the 2020 Chinese Private Life Survey. A cohort analysis reveals that sexual attitudes have become more liberal in China, with an earlier sex debut and more diverse sexual activities. Surprisingly, however, we find that sexuality seems to have diminished in its appeal among young cohorts, who have lower rates of sexual frequency than preceding cohorts. In addition, we find a reversal in educational gradient in relation to sexual activeness and diversity. Among those born before 1980, highly educated Chinese are more sexually active, while among those born after 1980 the lower educated are more sexually active—in terms of their sexual activity with their partners, seeking out sexual partners online, and engaging in commercial sex. Compared with women, men have higher levels of sexual well-being.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T03:54:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221114599
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Knowledge production and epistemic politics: A scientometric review of
           Chinese sexuality studies in English-language academia

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      Authors: Muyuan Luo, Gaoran Chen, Qing He, Shaojie Qi
      First page: 330
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      In recent decades, sexuality studies has become an increasingly important field of social scientific research in and beyond China. This paper uses CiteSpace and VOSviewer to carry out a bibliometric analysis of 26,975 sexuality-related papers included in the Web of Science database in the past four decades through mapping knowledge domains. Situating the literature on Chinese sexuality studies in global English-language academia, this study adopts performance analysis, collaboration network analysis, and co-citation network analysis to identify the main bodies that produce knowledge in the field and their networks of collaboration. We also depict the research trends and the hotspots in the field of (Chinese) sexuality research. Drawing on insights from postcolonial sociology, we discuss the epistemic politics in the social scientific knowledge production of (Chinese) sexuality that emerges from the findings. Specifically, we recognize the importance of a global intellectual division of labor whereby Westerners theorize the world and the rest of the world serves as data. We argue that the early stage of Chinese sexuality research was largely conditioned and profoundly influenced by this Western-centric global intellectual division of labor in terms of research problematics and themes. Recent development in the field, by contrast, indicates a departure from this labor division by challenging the Western-centric notion of sexuality and opening up possibilities of theorizing sexuality from an Asian/Chinese perspective.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T03:51:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221111523
       
  • Social class differentials in marital sex in China (2000–2015)

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      Authors: Yueyun Zhang, Xin Wang, Suiming Pan
      First page: 355
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines whether and how social class matters for marital sex in China since the beginning of the 21st century. We utilize data from a national sexuality survey that has been administered at four time points: 2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015. We use a composite socioeconomic status score deriving from education, occupation, and income to distinguish between the lower class (the bottom 25%), the middle class (the middle 50%), and the upper class (the top 25%). Marital sex aspects include sexual frequency, orgasm frequency, engagement in the woman-on-top and rear-entrance coital positions, and experience with oral and anal sex. Regression results with year-fixed effects reveal significant class differentials in all aspects but anal sex. Whereas the reported sexual frequency is highest in the middle class, the engagement in various coital positions and oral sex is characterized by a positive class gradient. Temporally, we observe an upward trend in all aspects but orgasm frequency. Results from the class–year interaction effects further show that most class differentials have remained stable over the period 2000–2015. The temporal increase in sexual frequency, however, has been the greatest in the lower class but relatively negligible in the upper class.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T05:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221107958
       
  • Sexual infidelity among the married in China

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      Authors: Weixiang Luo, Jia Yu
      First page: 374
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual infidelity in China has undergone a rapid increase in recent decades. Despite much speculation, social forces that help to prompt such increase have yet to be identified. Drawing on data from the Chinese Private Life Survey, coupled with the perspectives of attitudinal and institutional changes, we examine social determinants of marital infidelity that may reveal potential mechanisms of its diffusion. We find that more liberal attitudes toward extramarital sex, greater sexual dissatisfaction, and lower marital satisfaction were all positively associated with the likelihood of marital infidelity. Results also show that institutional factors such as personal income, living apart from one's spouse, and urbanity influenced the practice of extramarital sex. Taken as a whole, both attitudinal changes toward sex, love and marriage, and institutional changes as a result of social transformation may play a role in determining the rise of sexual infidelity in China.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T05:04:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221108574
       
  • The effect of parental divorce on the sexual life and marital well-being
           of offspring in China

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      Authors: Chunni Zhang
      First page: 398
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past few decades, the increasing divorce rate has been one of the most prominent behavioral changes influencing Chinese families and the nurturing and socialization of children. Research has found that parental divorce exerts only a limited negative impact on children's socioeconomic achievement in China relative to that in Western societies. However, few studies have explored the long-term consequences of parental divorce on children's demographic outcomes in China. Therefore, how parental divorce influences the timing of offspring's first sexual intercourse and marriage, as well as its impact on their sexual and marital well-being, were investigated in this study. Based on findings obtained using data from the Chinese Private Life Survey, children from divorced families were more likely to initiate sexual intercourse at younger ages than those from intact families, although the two groups entered their first marriage at similar ages. Regarding sexual and marital well-being, married men and women who experienced parental divorce during childhood were less satisfied with their current marriage and marital sex and exhibited a higher level of divorce proneness and more sexual dysfunction symptoms than those from intact families. The effect of parental divorce on marital well-being was also largely mediated by the onset of sexual intercourse at a younger age. Having more years of premarital sexual experience was associated with lower sexual satisfaction, more sexual dysfunction symptoms, and more liberal sexual attitudes and behaviors. The worsening of sexual life also further undermined marital well-being.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T01:12:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221105125
       
  • Sexual harassment experiences and their consequences for the private lives
           of Chinese women

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      Authors: Jiashu Xu, Chunni Zhang
      First page: 421
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual harassment is a global issue threatening individuals’ safety and rights, especially for women. Previous studies mainly focused on the negative impact of sexual harassment on women's health, work, and education. Using data from the Chinese Private Life Survey, this article examines the effect of sexual harassment in both physical and non-physical forms and probes the effect of the perpetrator's relationship to the victim on women's sexual behaviors, sexual and marital well-being, and desires for marriage and childbearing. The results indicate that both physical and non-physical sexual harassment lowered married or cohabitating women's sexual satisfaction and functioning. Sexual harassment by a family member/relative, an intimate partner or an acquaintance produced a larger negative effect on women's sexual well-being than that by others. Married women's marital satisfaction and stability were also undermined if they experienced sexual harassment. A family member/relative, an intimate partner and a stranger as the perpetrator had a larger effect on women's marital well-being than other perpetrators. For unmarried women, sexual harassment was not associated with the desire for marriage. However, those who were physically harassed by an acquaintance were unlikely to have a desire for childbearing. Comparing with non-physical sexual harassment, physical sexual harassment was found to have a larger negative impact on women's private lives.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T05:55:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221105717
       
  • Inside China’s state-owned enterprises: Managed competition through
           a multi-level structure

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      Authors: Kyle Chan
      First page: 453
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      China's state-owned enterprises are among the largest firms in the world, dominating key sectors of the Chinese economy and playing a major role in Chinese projects abroad through the Belt and Road Initiative. This article describes a system of “managed competition” among China's state-owned enterprises that attempts to harness the forces of competition while intervening to ensure a robust field of capable competitors. This system is implemented through a multi-level structure where parent state-owned enterprises coordinate and balance competition among a set of similarly resourced subsidiaries through the allocation of management personnel and resources. This article examines how this approach works in practice through an in-depth empirical case study of two of China's largest infrastructure construction firms: China Railway Group Limited and China Railway Construction Corporation. Understanding the internal structure and operations of China's state-owned enterprises sheds light on a crucial part of China's political economy and on China's efforts to extend its influence globally.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T06:10:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221123388
       
  • From bringing up sons to raising daughters for old age: Patrilineal
           beliefs regarding old-age security in the Chinese mainland

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      Authors: Iani Sam
      First page: 474
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      China has long held the belief that “raising sons prevents hardships in old age”, which constitutes the financial incentive for the son preference that still prevails in some Asian nations. Using the 2012 China Longitudinal Aging Social Survey, this research examines the current state of the elderly's patrilineal beliefs regarding old-age security and how they are shaped by several transformations within the family. This study yields three significant findings. First, elderly parents who have sons asking for too much help and support tend to believe that “having daughters is best for one's old age”. Second, having more living sons lowers the likelihood of abandoning patrilineal beliefs regarding old-age security, while being sonless raises the likelihood. Finally, daughters’ growing commitment to their parents’ well-being increases the likelihood of non-customary beliefs with regard to old-age security. As a result, this study emphasizes the significance of women's active role in old-age support and low fertility in fostering gender equality and undermining patrilineality.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-10-18T03:14:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221129338
       
  • Widening inequality: The evolution of the motherhood penalty in China
           (1989–2015)

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      Authors: Chao Shen
      First page: 499
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      The motherhood penalty is an important issue in the field of family and gender inequality research. China has experienced rapid economic growth and drastic social change in recent decades, but existing studies fail to provide an overview of changes in the effect of the motherhood penalty during this period. This article uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1989 to 2015 and applies a multi-layer mixed-effects model to study the severity of the motherhood penalty and the various mechanisms affecting it over that period. This study shows the following: (a) childbirth has a negative impact on women's wages and the severity of this impact continues to increase, showing that the effect of the motherhood penalty has become harsher over time; (b) although the motherhood penalty was initially lower for single mothers than for married ones, it has increased for both groups of women over the period and the rate of growth has been much faster for single mothers and, thus, the difference between the two groups in terms of the effect of the motherhood penalty has narrowed gradually over the period; (c) the long-term effect of the motherhood penalty is normally less pronounced than the short-term effect, but the long-term effect has grown at a much quicker rate over recent years compared with the short-term effect, and in more recent years these two effects are almost the same; (d) the higher the education level of women, the lower the effect of the motherhood penalty, but as the effect of the penalty has intensified over the period of study, the difference across different education levels has decreased; and (e) the effect of the motherhood penalty on female employees in the non-state sector is greater than that on female employees in the state sector, and the effect of the motherhood penalty on female employees in the non-state sector has increased rapidly, while the change has remained slow in the state sector, resulting in a widening gap between the two sectors. This study shows that the dramatic social and economic change in recent decades has subjected women to greater and greater maternal responsibilities but has afforded them disproportionately fewer benefits in relation to economic development.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T07:07:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221129343
       
  • Heroines who are rebuilding their country: State–society circumstances
           and coping strategies of female leaders in post-genocide Rwanda

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      Authors: Jie Li, Mireille Batamuliza, Evariste Karangwa
      First page: 534
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      The labor arrangement of industrial society makes “production and reproduction” a contradiction that is both separate and interdependent. One of the significant consequences is the re-establishment of the responsibilities and boundaries of production and reproduction between the modern state, market, family, and gender. After the genocide against the Tutsi in 1994, Rwanda has made world-renowned achievements in advancing gender equality, especially women's participation in politics. It is the “twofold full-time producers” model that continuously sustains this huge achievement, which means that female leaders not only bear a highly demanding responsibility for production, comparable to men, but also undertake significant labor in social reproduction. The public policy of Rwanda has assumed a dual role in this process: on the one hand, the state has promulgated a series of gender equality bills, policies, and measures from top to bottom that actively promote women's equal rights in various fields, especially their political participation. On the other hand, against the background of a severe labor shortage and insufficient public welfare facilities, the responsibility of private families for social reproduction has been maintained and strengthened, while the traditional family structure and community culture's share of responsibility for reproduction has been irreversibly weakened during the conflict and modernization process. While these female leaders rely on their individual strategies and informal social support systems to cope with the dual burden, they still face scrutiny and doubt from the community culture. The consensus on the destiny of the country's development and the sharing of historical responsibilities demonstrated by Rwanda's female leaders shares many similarities with the Chinese women's liberation movement, which also provides an important inspiration and reference point for rethinking the path of women's liberation characterized by economic independence and “the supremacy of production”.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T07:40:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221123622
       
  • Internet involvement, information consumption, and political participation
           in urban China

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      Authors: Xinxi Wang, Tianguang Meng
      First page: 562
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      The issue of whether the internet promotes political participation has always been a hotly debated topic in academia. However, current research lacks an effective classification of the modes of internet use, and it does not analyze their effect on different forms of political participation. Based on data from the 2015 and 2018 waves of the China Urban Governance Survey, this study offers an examination of the internet usage behavior of Chinese urban netizens from the perspectives of internet involvement and information consumption, as well as comparing the impact that different modes of internet use have on conventional and unconventional political participation. The results of this study confirm the “citizen-empowerment hypothesis” of internet use, and show that the “group involvement–social-information-oriented” mode of internet use has a positive effect on the conventional and unconventional political participation of urban internet users. However, the study fails to support the “time-displacement hypothesis”. It shows that the “individual involvement–entertainment-oriented” mode of internet use does not have a negative impact on the conventional and unconventional political participation of Chinese urban internet users. Similarly, the “group involvement–entertainment-oriented” mode of internet use has no significant effect on unconventional political participation. Taken together, the study shows that, in general, internet use has promoted the political participation of Chinese urban netizens, but there are significant differences between the different modes of internet use. As a revolutionary medium, the internet not only provides people with a convenient way of obtaining and communicating information, but also creates more challenges for state governance. The way in which the government should deal with different forms of political participation in the internet age will be an important research topic in the future.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T01:58:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221121698
       
  • Income disparity, perceptions of inequality, and public tolerance

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      Authors: Qingong Wei
      First page: 596
      Abstract: Chinese Journal of Sociology, Ahead of Print.
      In the process of rapid transition, high income inequality and high public tolerance for inequality coexist in China. This phenomenon and its empirical and theoretical conundrum require exploration and explanation. With data from the 2013 Chinese General Social Survey, this article identifies and tests two forms of income inequality and their impacts on public tolerance. Analytical results of the mediating effect of “social context–subject perception” suggest that objective income inequality and perceived inequality have different effects on public tolerance. The statistical data consistently show that objective income inequality has no direct impact on public tolerance. But the larger the perceived inequality, the less it is tolerated. Meanwhile, actual big disparities are not accurately perceived by individuals. The existence of “perception bias” and contextual segmentation effects makes it easier for individuals to “capture” income disparity at the district and county level rather than at the provincial level, and at the current time rather than in the past. The misperception of objective inequality manifests differently among subgroups. Women and urban residents, as well as groups of medium education level, high income, and a high degree of access to information, are often more sensitive to income inequality. There is also an inverted U-shaped relationship between age and perceived income inequality. The results point to the heterogeneous effects of distribution structure and localization of individual perceptions as the key to explaining the paradox between high income inequality and high public tolerance of inequality. In other words, it is due to status-structure constraints and temporal-spatial conditions that the majority of citizens see the current income disparity as being within its tolerable limits. The implication of this study is that one should not take the public tolerance of the status quo lightly but make greater effort to optimize the localized income distribution structure.
      Citation: Chinese Journal of Sociology
      PubDate: 2022-09-27T04:39:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/2057150X221124758
       
 
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