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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
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Behavior Analysis in Practice
Number of Followers: 19  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1998-1929 - ISSN (Online) 2196-8934
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • A Family-Centered Care Approach to Behavior-Analytic Assessment and
           Intervention

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      Abstract: Abstract An essential aspect of behavior-analytic services is collaborating with stakeholders to develop interventions that incorporate stakeholder preferences, needs, and contextual variables in addition to those of the client. Recent research has illuminated a gap in practitioners’ use of compassionate care to develop interventions that take into account family values and dynamics. Family-centered care is an approach that emphasizes the client as part of a larger family system and is used in a variety of medical and mental health services to promote family–provider collaboration and improve care. Given the importance of collaboration, shared decision making, and consideration of contextual variables when implementing behavior-analytic services, we introduce an adaptation of the family-centered care approach for behavior analysis. We provide practical resources for behavior analysts to assess and address family contextual variables, tools for promoting collaboration throughout service delivery, and a framework for navigating misalignment among client, family, and practitioner preference.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Excuse Me, I’m Speaking: Analysis of Women’s Representation as Keynote
           and Invited Speakers in Behavior Analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Researchers have recently had greater interest in publishing data on women’s participation in behavior analysis. This emphasis has resulted in analyses of women’s representation as authors of peer-reviewed publications, and the results have been largely encouraging. Another area to study in this line of research is serving as a keynote or invited speaker at conferences. Although there are some limited data published in this area, no study has yet examined women’s participation in these roles across all U.S. state associations for behavior analysis. Thus, we analyzed all U.S. state association keynote and invited conference speakers from 2015 to 2020.
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Professional Development of Behavior Analysts in Europe: A Snapshot for 21
           Countries

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      Abstract: Abstract Behavior analysts are not recognized or regulated as a distinct profession in Europe. For the most part, European behavior analysts adhered to the standards set by the U.S.-based Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB). However, the BACB certification has not been recognized officially in any European jurisdiction. The recent decision by the BACB to discontinue eligibility of non-U.S. residents to apply for the BCBA exam by the end of 2022 has brought the issue of professional regulation outside of the United States into sharp focus. This article offers a snapshot in time of professional recognition of behavior analysts in 21 European countries. It stems from the Erasmus+ funded EuroBA project and its Professional Advisory Group (PAG). The EuroBA project aims to develop common standards and competences for behavior analysts to facilitate national regulation and mutual recognition across Europe.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
       
  • Simultaneous Prompting to Teach Initial Listener Responses to a Child with
           Down Syndrome

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      Abstract: Abstract Simultaneous prompting procedures are infrequently published in the behavior analytic literature yet represent a potential method for promoting nearly errorless learning. No research on simultaneous prompting has targeted early skill repertoires for young children with developmental disabilities. The current study compared simultaneous prompting and constant prompt delay procedures on the acquisition of simple listener responses for a 4-year-old male with Down syndrome. Simultaneous prompting produced responding at mastery levels in less than one third of the total sessions required in the prompt delay condition and substantially fewer errors.
      PubDate: 2022-11-09
       
  • Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis in Mainland China: A
           Review of 20 Years of Research

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      Abstract: Abstract In the West, the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) evolved over 7 decades from the experimental analysis of behavior. In this evolutionary process, seven dimensions of ABA emerged: applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptual, effective, and generality. In contrast, ABA was introduced into mainland China only about 20 years ago as a direct result of the rise in autism diagnosis in that country, and only since then has it become an area of research there. The purpose of this study is to critically evaluate ABA research published in China by focusing on its seven dimensions. The results of our review reveal that the level of acceptance of and interest in the seven ABA dimensions varies across the studies sampled. Recommendations for the future development of ABA research in China are offered.
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
       
  • Transformation of Hierarchical Multiply Controlled Verbal Relations in
           Children With Autism in a Game of I Spy

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      Abstract: Abstract We evaluated the development of mutually entailed arbitrary hierarchical relations and associated transformations of stimulus function across 3 children with autism in a game of I Spy. Top-down hierarchical relational training was efficacious in establishing 4 relational categories (A) containing a total of 5 stimuli (B), where 3 of the stimuli were contained in 2 different categories. Following relational training, all participants demonstrated a transformation of function by identifying the stimuli when provided a multiple verbal stimulus with two category names during I Spy. The procedures were adapted from the PEAK Relational Training System.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
       
  • Evaluation of a Telehealth Parent-Training Program in Japan: Collaboration
           with Parents to Teach Novel Mand Skills to Children Diagnosed with Autism
           Spectrum Disorder

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      Abstract: Abstract This study developed a telehealth parent-training program to teach parents of children with autism spectrum disorder the process of mand-training implementation in Japan, and to further the international dissemination of evidence-based training strategies. Parent-training sessions were based on a behavioral skills training (BST) model, combined with weekly graphic and video feedback. The sessions were conducted by a board-certified behavior analyst-doctoral residing in Japan. Four parents with children with autism spectrum disorder participated in this study. The results preliminarily support the effectiveness and social validity of the program. This study extends previous parent-training research conducted in Japan by comprising all of the following features: (1) online program design; (2) mand training; (3) BST model; (4) session-by-session data on children’s behavioral changes and procedural integrity; (5) within-subject experimental design; and (6) social validity evaluation.
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
       
  • Discussion and Conceptual Analysis of Four Group Contingencies for
           Behavioral Process Improvement in an ABA Service Delivery Quality
           Framework

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      Abstract: Abstract Applied behavior analysis (ABA) organizations that provide services to children with autism can apply contingencies to improve employee performance or behavioral processes. Such contingencies may be especially important for maximizing ABA service delivery quality (ASDQ). For some behavioral processes, group contingencies applied to the behavior of individuals within the process may be more appropriate than individualized contingencies. In the history of the profession, behavior analysts have used group contingencies at the operant level of selection, such as independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies. However, recent experimental work in culturo-behavioral science suggests the metacontingency, an analogue of the operant contingency at the cultural level of selection, can also control the behavior of individuals in a group. This article discusses how such group-oriented contingencies could be used by managers in organizations in behavioral process improvement efforts to target key performance indicators of quality in an ASDQ framework. The paper ends with a discussion of limitations and future research.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
       
  • Toward a Data-based Approach to the Selection of Applied Behavior Analysis
           Program Characteristics

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      Abstract: Abstract There is a paucity of data that describe how program characteristics relate to program outcome goals. This gap limits the use of data to guide and support decisions concerning the selection of applied behavior analysis (ABA) program characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to describe a methodology for the evaluation of the relationships between program characteristics and program outcome goals in the context of identifying the ideal program characteristics to propose for a new master of science in ABA program at Franciscan Missionaries of Our Lady University (FranU). For FranU, 11 program characteristics, enrollment, and the 2019 board certified behavior analyst (BCBA) pass rates were selected as variables. We provide a description of the procedures, data analysis and a general overview of our findings. The utility of the methodology for future research is also discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-10-14
       
  • Teaching Compassion Skills to Students of Behavior Analysis: A Preliminary
           Investigation

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      Abstract: Abstract Socially valid practices are at the heart of applied behavior analysis and can influence how interventions are experienced by families. However, the training of practitioners of applied behavior analysis is primarily focused on the implementation of technical procedures with little focus on therapeutic approaches. Empathy and therapeutic rapport have been associated with improved outcomes in allied professions (Beach et al., Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 15(1), 25–38, 2006; Hojat et al., Academic Medicine, 86(3), 359, 2011; Horst et al., Journal of Child & Family Nursing, 3, 5–14, 2000), but have been minimally studied within the field of behavior analysis. In the present study, several sources were utilized to identify and define empathic and compassionate care skills. These skills were divided into three skill areas (i.e., basic interviewing skills, interest in the family, joining with the family) and taught to ABA master’s students using behavioral skills training via a telehealth platform. All four participants significantly improved their engagement in compassionate care skills following training and maintained these skills in follow-up probes and with a different experimenter. Several post-study measures of outcome were taken, including social validity measures from participants, ratings of compassion from consumer and professional experts, as well as comparison measures on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Participant reports of social validity were high, as were consumer and professional ratings of compassionate behaviors. Improvements on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy were also observed. Implications for training practitioners and for expanding the focus on compassionate care skill development within the field are explored.
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
       
  • Treatment of Self-Injury in Bainbridge-Ropers Syndrome: Replication and
           Extensions of Behavioral Assessments

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      Abstract: Abstract Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome (BRPS) is a rare and understudied developmental disorder associated with medical (e.g., sleep disruption) and behavioral (e.g., self-injury) challenges. There are no published treatments for BRPS. We targeted self-injury in a child with BRPS using a functional analysis and differential reinforcement, with several extensions to common procedures. Results present the first example of behavioral reduction for self-injury in BRPS. • ABA strategies can reduce self-injury in BRPS • Evaluating multiply maintained self-injury following identification of an automatic function is important. • Sleep deficits may complicate assessment.
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
       
  • Recommendations for Recruitment and Retention of a Diverse Workforce: A
           Report from the Field

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      Abstract: Abstract There has been increased interest and attention to the need for equity, diversity, and inclusion, in the field of applied behavior analysis in recent years. Several publications have focused on these topics and educational curricula and professional development opportunities have been developed. One aspect that has received less attention is how companies providing behavior analytic services can help to promote and sustain a diverse workforce. The purpose of this article is to provide examples and recommendations for how these overarching goals can be addressed. The examples and recommendations are described in the context of a small company that has made important strides in addressing this topic through its mission to serve members of marginalized communities.
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
       
  • On the Disruptive Effects of Behavior Analysis on Behavior Analysis: The
           High Cost of Keeping Out Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Training

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      Abstract: Abstract ACT is entering its 40th year of development. Despite its undeniable historical origins in behavior analysis, extensive basis in behavior analytic research, and now enormous body of empirical research supporting its basic claims, some are still arguing that ACT is not legitimately part of behavior analysis. We agree with the target article that it is. We argue, however, that critics are right to feel that ACT will disrupt the field. It will do so not because of ACT per se, but because it brings relational frame theory (RFT) in with it and vice versa, and relational operants operate on other behavioral processes. This empirically established effect means that the vast literature on direct contingency control will need to be reexamined piece by piece while considering relational learning abilities. Such an agenda is exciting, but it is also daunting and disorienting. For behavior analysis to reject either ACT or RFT, both must be rejected. That appears to be the only way to avoid the coming disruption, but the cost would be in the distortion of the field itself that would result. Sometime the products of a scientific field require a fundamental rethinking of that field. In our view, that is the situation behavior analysis now faces. It is a kind of test, and we do not yet know if behavior analysis will pass it.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
       
  • Supervision for Aspiring Behaviour Analysts in Australia: An Exploration
           of Current Practices, Challenges, and Opportunities

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      Abstract: Abstract Effective supervision is a key component of the development of effective and ethical behavior analytic repertoires. However, the provision of supervision may be challenging in countries where behavior analysis is an emerging profession and there are few qualified practitioners. We conducted a mixed-methods survey study to examine the supervision practices of board certified behavior analysts (BCBAs) in Australia, and perceived challenges related to the provision of supervision. Respondents reported using a variety of supervisory practices to meet the demand for supervision, but a lack of time, resources, and geographical location posed challenges. Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations for addressing identified challenges. Although each recommendation has been contextualized to meet the needs of the Australian behavior analytic community, these recommendations may be useful in other parts of the world where behavior analysis is an emerging profession or there are few BCBAs to meet the needs of a growing behavior analytic workforce.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
       
  • Repetitive Speech and Problem Behavior: Functional Analysis of Precurrent
           Contingencies

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      Abstract: Abstract When mands and problem behavior co-occur within an individual’s repertoire, a functional analysis of precurrent contingencies helps to identify any relation between the two responses, as well as the function of problem behavior. Repetitive behaviors may function similarly to mands and also co-occur with problem behavior; particularly when repetitive behavior is blocked, or when caregivers refrain from participating in repetitive behavior episodes (e.g., the repetitive behavior involves a verbal or physical interaction with a caregiver). The current study presents assessment and treatment results for two participants diagnosed with autism, who demonstrated repetitive speech and problem behavior. Informal observations suggested that problem behavior occurred when an adult failed to emit a specific response to the participant’s repetitive speech. Functional analysis results confirmed the informal observations and suggested that problem behavior functioned as a precurrent response to increase the probability of reinforcement for repetitive speech. We report treatment results and discuss the application of precurrent contingency analyses for problem behavior and repetitive behavior.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
       
  • Effectiveness of Environmental Manipulation to Enhance Engagement and
           Ecological Validity at an Agency Serving Individuals With Autism Spectrum
           Disorder and Other Disabilities

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      Abstract: Abstract The ecological validity of interventions can be enhanced when we first consider the environment in which our students participate. Antecedent interventions such as environmental manipulations can be easily and effectively implemented to enhance student engagement and decrease challenging behaviors in classrooms. The current study explored the use of a measurement system developed for widespread use within a school for students with autism spectrum disorder that helped to inform a classroom-wide environmental manipulation in the form of classroom arrangements. Baseline data across three classrooms suggested high, variable rates of challenging behavior and low rates of engagement with staff and materials. After the introduction of the antecedent intervention, engagement increased and challenging behavior decreased. Helping practitioners develop environmental and systems changes may help to complement individual behavior intervention plans.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40617-019-00392-z
       
  • The Collateral Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Stereotypy and Other
           Nonstereotypic Behaviors Exhibited by Individuals with Autism Spectrum
           Disorder: A Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Abstract The presence of stereotypy is one of the core features exhibited by individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Stereotypy can interfere with academic engagement and become a major barrier to appropriate education and social development of individuals with ASD. Studies have shown that antecedent physical exercise can produce reductions in stereotypy and positive collateral effects. The purpose of the current systematic review was to examine the collateral effects of antecedent physical exercise on stereotypy and engagement in nonstereotypic behaviors. The findings suggest that individuals with ASD can benefit from incorporating antecedent physical exercise with regard to stereotypy and other positive collateral behaviors. Implications of the results and areas for further research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40617-022-00746-0
       
  • A Cultural Generalization: An Effective Training for Staff Integrity on
           DTT in the Application of the PEAK in Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge (PEAK) direct training is an evidence-based curriculum with extensive research. Treatment integrity is one of the critical components of an effective treatment. In developing countries where training opportunities are scarce, providing precise training poses a challenge. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) role-play to train three staff members to implement the PEAK-DT language curriculum, using discrete trial teaching (DTT) with three learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Not only did the staff members implement the programs with high treatment integrity, but the learners also improved their performance on targeted skills. In addition, this study considered maintenance and generalization of the skills learned. Overall, data show that the BST role-play was successful as the staff members enhanced the skills of three learners with autism.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40617-022-00745-1
       
  • An Evaluation of Ethnicity-Matching for Caregiver Telehealth Training in
           India

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      Abstract: Abstract Telehealth has become an increasingly viable service delivery option for function-based treatment of problem behavior (Lindgren et al., 2016). However, few applications have occurred with participants outside the United States and little research exists evaluating the role that culture plays in service delivery. In the current study, we compared functional analyses and functional communication training delivered via telehealth by ethnically matched and ethnically distinct trainers to six participants in India. We measured the effectiveness using a multiple baseline design while collecting supplemental measures of sessions to criterion, cancellations, treatment fidelity, and social validity. We directly assessed preference for the ethnically matched and ethnically distinct trainers using a concurrent chains arrangement. Sessions with both trainers were effective in reducing problem behavior and increasing functional verbal requests for participating children, and treatment fidelity was high across training modalities. There were no major differences in sessions-to-criterion or cancellations across trainers. However, all six caregivers demonstrated greater preference for sessions with the ethnically matched trainer.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40617-022-00738-0
       
  • Teaching Graduate Students to Translate Nonbehavioral Treatments Into
           Behavioral Principles

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      Abstract: Abstract Behavior analytic translations of nonbehavioral treatments were recommended by Brodhead in Behavior Analysis in Practice, 8(1), 70–78 (2015) as part of a decision-making framework for practitioners working on interprofessional treatment teams. Professionals from different disciplines often have overlapping scopes of practice and competence, yet each recommends interventions according to their discipline-specific worldview and training. Nonbehavioral treatment recommendations may be especially challenging for behavior analytic practitioners who are committed to the science of human behavior and who are also ethically obligated to work cooperatively and in the best interest of the client. Learning to translate nonbehavioral treatments into behavior analytic principles and procedures may function as a valuable means of improving professional judgment, thereby promoting evidence-based practice and effective collaboration. Behavioral translations may expose procedures that are, in fact, conceptually systematic, creating more opportunities for behavior analysts to partner in interprofessional care. Using a behavioral skills training package, graduate students of applied behavior analysis were taught to translate nonbehavioral treatments into behavior analytic principles and procedures. All students produced more comprehensive translations following training.
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40617-022-00736-2
       
 
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