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  Subjects -> SOCIOLOGY (Total: 553 journals)
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Tla-Melaua : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
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Societies
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2075-4698
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 96: The Perception of Eros and the Cinema
           Audience Experience in Cádiz (Spain)

    • Authors: Inmaculada Rodríguez-Cunill, Juan José Domínguez-López, Sonia Carlos-García
      First page: 96
      Abstract: The perception of the concept of Eros has evolved through shared cinematic experiences, to the point of shaping collective imagery in Cadiz, Spain. This city is known for its creativity and an extraordinary amount of performances during the period of carnival, and is represented annually by anonymous citizens. The research method employed consisted of an exhaustive analysis of bibliographic, press, and archival references on audience behavior from the introduction of the cinematograph to the present day. The authors have designed a table that organizes the emergence of movie theaters in the city and completed the background information, delving into the historical, geographical, and idiosyncratic factors that have contributed to collective creativity in the city. From there, we analyzed the evolution of the concept of Eros through the perspectives of Byung Chul Han and Georges Bataille. As a result, we recovered the value of projection interruptions in the analog environment as an opportunity for collective interaction, confronting them with the demands of technological perfection. We demonstrated the resilience of the analog through new experiences that show the evolution of the need for collective contact. Future studies will focus on other contexts, such as supermarkets and terraces, to contribute to a broader understanding of urban spaces, social cohesion, and perceptions of Eros.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070096
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 97: Collective Memory, Visual Communication, and
           Symbolic Interactions with Statues: The Case of the Charging Bull of Wall
           Street

    • Authors: Annosha Mubasher, Tim F. Liao
      First page: 97
      Abstract: This research is concerned with individuals’ symbolic interactions with the Charging Bull statue. We chose this statue because it is an extremely popular tourist attraction and the most visited nonhuman statue in New York City. However, there is no research devoted to understanding how visitors interact with the statue. To fill this gap in the literature, we examine people’s interactions as a unique way of communicating with the Charging Bull statue in New York City through a photo analysis approach. Using the general framework of symbolic interactionism, the paper investigates poses, gestures, and more generally interactions of individuals near or with the statue to gain insights into the impact of the Charging Bull beyond a mere visual representation. The findings reveal various forms of interaction, including souvenir photography, active participation, unexpected interactions, and public-made symbolism. This study of these interactions contributes to the literature on collective memory and the study of statues. Additionally, this research highlights the inventiveness of the dynamic relationship between individuals and statues as symbols in the urban environment.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070097
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 98: Prevalence and Impact of Hate Speech among
           Politicians in Switzerland

    • Authors: Joëlle Ninon Albrecht, Jérôme Endrass, Michal Sonja Dreifuss, Nina Schnyder, Astrid Rossegger
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Politicians may be particularly vulnerable to hate speech because of their public visibility and exposure to deviating opinions. They play a critical role in the functioning of a democratic system, and therefore, hate speech poses a potential threat because it can impede politicians’ freedom of expression or even lead politicians to resign from office. However, little is known about the prevalence and impact of hate speech targeting politicians. We therefore surveyed the politicians in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, 667 of whom participated (39.8% response rate). The prevalence of hate speech experiences was 29.7% in their total time as politicians and 20.6% in the past 12 months. Participants who had held a political office for longer and were affiliated with a political party on the poles of the political spectrum were more susceptible. Crucially, 29.4% of the affected politicians had contemplated resigning from politics due to hate speech. Thus, our study underlines a need for action. As the participants indicated they wanted to deal with hate speech as little as possible but still desired some form of intervention, political measures should strive for intervention options that require minimal contributions from the victims.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070098
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 99: Migration Intention of Rural Farmers to
           Urban Areas in Bangladesh and Its Determinants: A Partial Least Squares
           Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    • Authors: A. K. M. Kanak Pervez, Akira Ishida, Md Shahriar Kabir, Lixia Tang
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Internal rural-urban migration is becoming a priority in social research. However, no one has systematically studied the intentions of farmers to migrate internally to Bangladesh to seek permanent urban residence via paid employment yet. This paper develops a TPB (theory of planned behaviour) model to explain farmers’ intentions to migrate or not migrate to cities for paid employment; then, this paper tests the model against the data collected. A total 372 individuals (migrated farmers) were randomly chosen from 11,200 families who had left a rural area in Bangladesh to collect quantitative data about the issues raised in the model; the data were collected by a telephone interview. The socioeconomic profile of the respondents fits that of internal migrants identified in the literature, and the Cronbach’s alpha as well as composite reliability statistics suggest that the data are representative of the population. According to the structural equation modelling (SEM) data, attitudes towards migration (ATTs) and subjective norms (SNs) have an impact on migration intention (MI), while perceived behavioural control (PBC) show no significant effect. This study used a primary dataset from interviews with rural migrants working in different sectors in different cities in Bangladesh. This suggests that the planned behaviour model may help explain farmers’ decisions to migrate internally in Bangladesh and that policies based on the model may successfully reduce such migration.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070099
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 100: Understanding the Emotional Toll of Racial
           Violence on Black Individuals’ Health

    • Authors: Julien Quesne
      First page: 100
      Abstract: This paper discusses the pivotal role emotions can play in the higher prevalence of disease and mortality in Black populations in North America. There is a large body of research on the potentially harmful effect of negative emotions upon physical well-being. However, many scholars continue to interpret this link via a biological and reactive lens of emotion. By largely disentangling the embodiment of emotions from the traditional biological framework to which they are typically tied, we seek to analyze the nexus of race, emotion, and health through political, historical, and even ontological lenses. This analysis leverages Barrett’s theory of constructed emotion to elucidate the tangible impact of emotion on physical well-being and, in conjunction with Afropessimist metatheory on race, the potential contribution to understanding premature mortality among Black populations in North America. Barrett’s theory offers insight into how the persistent experience of negative emotions related to race can disrupt the delicate balance of an individual’s body-budget. The detrimental impact of White supremacy’s affective classifications and associated emotion concepts on Black populations is a stark reality, contributing significantly to daily health challenges faced by these communities in North America.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070100
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 101: WASTA in Arab Societies: Optimizing or
           Worsening Quality of Life' The Role of Religiosity

    • Authors: Ibrahim A. Elsaher
      First page: 101
      Abstract: WASTA, a word widely used in Arab society, implies using people’s connections to generate mutual advantages. WASTA is rooted deeply in the culture of Arab societies and has a double effect that stimulates a continuous argument. On one hand, WASTA is considered a valuable social practice that optimizes social bonds and dual support to improve the overall quality of life (QoL) for all parties. In contrast, WASTA is regularly criticized for extending inequality and corruption in the community, which might worsen QoL, taking into consideration the mediating impacts of religiosity. This paper investigated the dual effects of WASTA on QoL and the mediating role of religiosity in Arab societies. Three hundred and ninety small- and medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs’) owners in Saudi Arabia participated in a self-structured questionnaire that was analyzed using PLS-SEM. The results showed that the appearance of some dimensions of WASTA in Arab societies can optimize QoL. At the same time, other elements can worsen the QoL of the participating parties, but the adverse effect can be mitigated when religiosity is a mediator. These results suggest that WASTA can act as a positive connection method in Arab societies when accompanied by religiosity but can accelerate corruption in its absence; several practical and theoretical implications were discussed and elaborated.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070101
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 102: A Holistic and Multidimensional Methodology
           Proposal for a Persona with Total Visual Impairment Archetype on the Web

    • Authors: Esther Marin-Alvarez, Sonia Carcelen-Garcia, María Galmes-Cerezo
      First page: 102
      Abstract: The web was conceived in 1997 with the goal of universal accessibility. However, it still presents obstacles for users with diverse abilities. Although interactions in digital environments have improved the quality of life for many people, they remain a source of limitations and frustrations, up to twice as much for users with total visual impairment, which is commonly known as blindness. This article emphasizes the need to provide designers and developers with methodologies and tools that consider users with different abilities in all stages and from the beginning of the design, redesign, and development of digital products and services on the web, collecting their needs and goals and delving into their reactions and emotions. While an approach based on persona archetypes can optimally represent each group of users with disabilities throughout website design processes, serving as a communication and empathy tool for development teams and stakeholders, it is essential that this tool considers all dimensions involved in the experiences of people with disabilities. This conceptual paper develops a methodology that provides designers with a persona tool that effectively captures the goals and emotions of these users in their interaction with the web. This methodology proposal is multidimensional and holistic. It addresses conscious and subconscious dimensions, combines traditional user experience and neuroscientific techniques, focuses on total visual impairment, the most challenging in digital environments, and makes it adaptable to other disabilities.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070102
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 103: Hate and Perceived Threats on the
           Resettlement of Afghan Refugees in Portugal

    • Authors: João Prata Veiga, Luciana Oliveira
      First page: 103
      Abstract: The withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan in August 2021 precipitated a humanitarian crisis, prompting the displacement of Afghan refugees seeking sanctuary, including in Portugal. This study aims to rigorously assess public perceptions of Afghan refugee resettlement in Portugal by analyzing national news and subsequent Facebook reactions, seeking to discern sentiment, approval/disapproval, perceived realistic and symbolic threats, and potential hate speech toward migrant resettlement. Employing a mixed-methods approach with a qualitative emphasis, this cross-sectional study involved a volumetric analysis of 40 Facebook posts from mainstream news outlets, followed by a qualitative content analysis of 1000 comments from 10 selected posts based on popularity and controversy. Findings reveal a predominance of negative sentiments and low levels of approval for migrant resettlement. Emotional complexity suggests controversy and polarization, with negativity surpassing positivity. Concerns regarding economic impact ranked highest, followed by security, cultural, and religious considerations. Instances of hate speech, predominantly political in nature, with lesser occurrences of religious and nationality-based content, were evident. This research contributes to the scientific understanding of public perceptions concerning Afghan refugee integration in Portugal, providing valuable insights into societal attitudes towards humanitarian crises and refugee resettlement efforts.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070103
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 104: Comparative Analysis of Stakeholder
           Integration in Education Policy Making: Case Studies of Singapore and
           Finland

    • Authors: Ghalia Al-Thani
      First page: 104
      Abstract: This paper analyzes stakeholder engagement in educational policymaking in Singapore and Finland, two countries renowned for successful education systems. While both countries achieve high academic standards, they employ distinct approaches to engage stakeholders in shaping educational policies. Singapore adopts a centralized model where policymaking is primarily directed by the Ministry of Education (MOE), with limited participation from external stakeholders. In contrast, Finland adopts a decentralized approach, empowering local authorities and schools with significant autonomy and actively involving stakeholders in policymaking. Key stakeholders, including teachers, parents, students and the private sector, play different roles in each country’s education governance. In Singapore, stakeholders are consulted through formal channels but have limited influence on decision-making, whereas, in Finland, stakeholders actively steer fundamental policy directions through extensive participation and consensus-building. The paper highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and their impacts on education outcomes. Despite differences in governance models, both countries prioritize inclusive education, social cohesion, and holistic development. The analysis underscores the importance of meaningful stakeholder engagement in crafting effective education policies that align with national values and visions.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070104
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 105: ‘I Just Don’t Trust
           Them’: Reasons for Distrust and Non-Disclosure in Demographic
           Questionnaires for Individuals in STEM

    • Authors: Maria Goldshtein, Erin K. Chiou, Rod D. Roscoe
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Demographic data pertain to people’s identities and behaviors. Analyses of demographic data are used to describe patterns and predict behaviors, to inform interface design, and even institutional decision-making processes. Demographic data thus need to be complete and correct to ensure they can be analyzed in ways that reflect reality. This study consists of interviews with 40 people in STEM and addresses how causes of relational (dis)trust in demographic data collection contribute to pervasive problems of missing and incorrect responses and disobliging responses (e.g., non-disclosure, false responses, attrition, and hesitancy to use services). The findings then guide a preliminary set of recommendations for cultivating trustworthiness based on recent developments in trust theory and designing for responsive and trustworthy systems. Specifically, we explore how demographic questionnaire design (e.g., item construction and instructions) can communicate necessary reassurances and transparency for users. The ongoing research provides interview-based recommendations for improving the quality and completeness of demographic data collection. This research adds to other recommendations on improving demographic questionnaires.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070105
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 106: Artificial Intelligence on Food
           Vulnerability: Future Implications within a Framework of Opportunities and
           Challenges

    • Authors: Diosey Ramon Lugo-Morin
      First page: 106
      Abstract: This study explores the field of artificial intelligence (AI) through the lens of Stephen Hawking, who warned of its potential dangers. It aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of AI and its implications for food security using a qualitative approach and offering a contemporary perspective on the topic. The study explores the challenges and opportunities presented by AI in various fields with an emphasis on the global food reality. It also highlights the critical importance of striking a harmonious balance between technological progress and the preservation of local wisdom, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability. In conclusion, the analysis argues that AI is a transformative force with the potential to address global food shortages and facilitate sustainable food production. However, it is not without significant risks that require rigorous scrutiny and ethical oversight.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070106
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 107: The Moderating Role of Perceived Social
           Support in the Relationship between the Impact of Events and
           Post-Traumatic Growth among Syrian Refugees

    • Authors: Mustafa Selim Altınışık, Esat Şanlı
      First page: 107
      Abstract: The internal disturbances that have occurred in Syria since 2011 have led to the displacement of many Syrians and their exposure to stressful life events. In this context, this study aimed to examine the amplifying dimension of suffering experienced by Syrian refugees in terms of various variables. Within this scope, the moderating role of perceived social support on the impact of events on post-traumatic growth among Syrian refugees was investigated. This descriptive study, designed according to the relational survey model, was conducted on 448 Syrian refugees in Turkey, who were included using a random sampling method. The data collection tools in this study included the Impact of Events Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Post-traumatic Growth Scale. According to the analysis of the results, it was found that in Syrian refugees, the impact of events on post-traumatic growth is significantly moderated by family support, support from friends, and support from a significant other. Additionally, it was observed that the event impact variable has a positive and significant effect on the post-traumatic growth among Syrian refugees.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070107
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 108: Polish Mother and (Not) Her Children:
           Intersectional State-Violence against Minors in Poland

    • Authors: Aleksandra Sygnowska
      First page: 108
      Abstract: This article seeks to explain the political responsibility that Polish right-wing female politicians directly associated with the 2015–2023 Polish government and the then-ruling Law and Justice Party bear in the state-sanctioned violence against minors in the context of LGBT- and immigration-related issues. Its main assumption is that, in times of the nationalist surge that has been sweeping Poland, women using anti-LGBT and anti-immigration discourses helped to legitimize discriminatory state practices and, consequently, made a significant contribution to the enactment of white, Christian, and heteronormative identity on Polish children. Drawing upon Critical Discourse Analysis, this work examines the anti-LGBT and anti-immigration political talk by female politicians who, in their narrative strategies, adopt the position of a “Polish mother” on a mission to save a “child in danger”. Through my analysis, I aim to demonstrate that anti-LGBT and anti-immigration discourses are equally significant areas of women’s political engagement. Despite the prevalent cultural norms of caring motherhood, women do exercise their agency in political struggles as supporters of discriminatory state policies directed against minors by re-politicizing a symbolic figure of the “Polish mother”.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070108
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 109: Strengthening the Attachment to Local
           Brands through Consumer Ethnocentrism and Impactful Entrepreneurship
           Education

    • Authors: Herring Shava
      First page: 109
      Abstract: This study investigates whether consumer ethnocentrism, a concept that refers to the tendency of consumers to favor domestic products over foreign ones, and entrepreneurship education are variables that can be used to strengthen attachment to local brands. Brand attachment is a well-researched concept in marketing literature. Many variables have been found to have different impacts on brand attachment across the globe. However, studies linking consumer ethnocentrism and entrepreneurship education to brand attachment are scarce, and this study contributes in that regard. Furthermore, the study examines whether entrepreneurship education mediates the association between consumer ethnocentrism and brand attachment. The study adopted a quantitative research methodology. Primary data were gathered through a survey. Past and current entrepreneurship education candidates were targeted. Factor analysis, simple linear regression, and hierarchical regression analyses using PROCESS were performed to make sense of the data. The study’s findings reveal that consumer ethnocentrism and entrepreneurship education can be used to strengthen attachment to local brands. The study recommends that marketing practitioners, scholars, and policymakers collaborate to design an impactful entrepreneurship education curriculum with the goal of enhancing consumer ethnocentrism, leading to increased interaction between consumers and local brands.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070109
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 110: Effects of Work–Family Conflict and
           Facilitation Profiles on Work Engagement

    • Authors: Carla Carvalho, Lisete Mónico, Ana Pinto, Soraia Oliveira, Eduardo Leite
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Achieving the balance between work and family life needs a holistic viewpoint on how these two aspects interact. It poses a significant challenge due to its impact on individuals, organizations, and society. Research suggests that employees engaged in both spheres tend to exhibit more favorable work attitudes, and experience improved health and wellbeing. In this study, we examined the interplay between work–family dynamics and work engagement among 654 university professors in Portugal. Using several statistical methods, including confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis, cluster analysis, and multivariate analysis, we identified distinct conflict and facilitation patterns within work–family relationships. Our findings revealed four clusters representing different conflict-facilitation profiles: those characterized by either work → family facilitation or conflict, and, similarly, family → work facilitation or conflict. Notably, we observed a significant association between work engagement and work–family facilitation, particularly evident in dimensions such as vigor and dedication. Absorption showed fewer significant effects than the other dimensions. We discuss these results, suggesting interventions within the university professors’ careers, as well as further research directions.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070110
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 111: The Role of the Quality Management Process
           within Society 5.0

    • Authors: Biljana Maljugić, Dragan Ćoćkalo, Mihalj Bakator, Sanja Stanisavljev
      First page: 111
      Abstract: This paper conducts a comprehensive review following the PRISMA methodology to explore the evolution and necessity of quality management in the era of Society 5.0, covering publications from 2017 to 2022. Through a meticulous process involving planning, conducting and reporting the review, along with a theory-driven selection and analysis of content, it aims to construct a theoretical model for quality management in Society 5.0. This model underscores the integration of quality management with Society 5.0’s principles, focusing on human-centric technological advancement and addressing social challenges to enhance life quality. The findings reveal a framework that could drive the transition to Society 5.0 by leveraging key inputs for tangible outcomes. The paper’s originality lies in its in-depth analysis and the proposed model’s potential to guide industries and governments towards sustainable development in the context of Society 5.0, marking a valuable contribution to future research in this field.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070111
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 112: Despite Food Insecurity, University
           Students Remain Committed to Achieving Their Academic Goals:
           Cross-Sectional Single-Center Study in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Rawan K. Kahtan, Mahitab A. Hanbazaza
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Food insecurity is a pressing global concern affecting individuals across all age groups. Despite its widespread impact, a notable gap remains in the literature, particularly in reference to the literature concerning university students. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of food insecurity and examine its associated factors, including mental and general health and academic performance, among university students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 421 students from King Abdulaziz University participated in this study, completing a questionnaire that measured food insecurity, academic performance, and mental and general health. About 40% of the respondents experienced some level of food insecurity, which was categorized as mild (20.4%), moderate (13.0%), or severe (5.6%). Significant associations were observed between food insecurity and monthly household income (p < 0.001) and general health (p < 0.005), respectively. However, the associations were weaker between food insecurity and perceived stress (p < 0.066) and the impact of COVID-19. Notably, no significant correlation was found between food security and socio-demographic characteristics or academic performance. This study highlights the prevalence of food insecurity among university students in Saudi Arabia and emphasizes the need for further research to gain a better understanding of its complexities. Such insights can empower universities and policymakers to implement targeted interventions, thereby enhancing the learning experience and future success of university students.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070112
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 113: Elements of Historical Personal Identity
           Construction of Finnish-Speaking Students

    • Authors: Tanja Taivalantti, Johanna Norppa, Jan Lofstrom
      First page: 113
      Abstract: In this paper, the constructions of historical personal identity of Finnish-speaking students are analysed. The students participated in a larger study of historical narratives and identities, carried out in 2020 in two schools in Finland and in one European School outside Finland. In the mixed-method study, sixty-one students were interviewed and given writing and drawing assignments on historical identity. In this paper, the students’ visual representations of their personal historical identity and its relationship with wider official history are analysed. The aim is to increase understanding of how 14–16-year-old students visualise and articulate their historical personal identity constructions and the historical elements they use in negotiating this identity. The findings suggest that the students integrate personal and historical social narratives in diverse ways but that the majority of them find it challenging to connect their personal family history with the wider official history. Only twelve students made the connection. In addition to presenting the results for the whole group of students, the visual representations of two selected students are discussed in more detail so as to highlight the difference in the approaches to historical personal identity construction among the students.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070113
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 114: Influence of Sociodemographic and Social
           Variables on the Relationship between Formal Years of Education and Time
           Spent on the Internet

    • Authors: Ângela Maria Teixeira Leite, Ângela Sá Azevedo, Anabela Rodrigues
      First page: 114
      Abstract: This study aims to validate the impact of sociodemographic factors and differentiate the influence of social variables on the correlation between the number of years of formal education an individual has and the time they allocate to internet usage. To achieve this, we utilized a publicly available database, extracting relevant indicators for our investigation. Subsequently, we conducted analyses involving associations, regressions, and moderations among the variables under scrutiny. The results revealed statistically significant variations in daily internet usage time across different countries, residences, age groups, educational levels, and marital statuses. Factors such as living in an urban or suburban environment, being in the youth demographic, possessing a higher education, maintaining single status, having an extensive social network, holding a negative perception of health, lacking home internet access but having access at work and on the go, along with the facilitation of online communication and remote work, collectively explain the variance in daily internet usage time. The relationship between the number of years of education and the duration of internet usage is moderated by sociodemographic variables (gender, age, and marital status) as well as social variables (locations of internet usage and social contacts). These findings enable us to identify a user profile at a higher risk of developing problematic behavior in relation to internet usage, as indicated by the time invested.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070114
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 115: Transitioning from Communicative Competence
           to Multimodal and Intercultural Competencies: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Khomeshwaree Mootoosamy, Vahid Aryadoust
      First page: 115
      Abstract: The formulation of the construct of communicative competence (CC) was the consequence of the perceived “inappropriateness” of the theory of linguistic competence and performance. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of second language (L2) CC, a systematic review of 85 studies was conducted to assess how empirical studies have defined and operationalized the construct in the context of L2 learning and assessment. Four main themes emerged from the papers: (1) beliefs and perceptions about CC, (2) expansion of CC, (3) mixed specifications of CC, and (4) tests and measures of CC and communicative language ability (CLA). The analysis of these themes foregrounded several significant findings. First, the construct of L2 CC was significantly more prevalent in the body of research compared to L2 CLA. Second, CC has been perceived as a multifarious construct that has been researched from varied perspectives. It was found that older studies were more consistent with traditional approaches to defining CC and CLA, while the construct shifted focus to technology and self-appraisals in more recent studies. Third, there is no consensus amongst the reviewed studies about tests and methods of operationalization of CC, suggesting that the evidence provided is sample-specific and non-replicable. Importantly, it was found that over the years, CC has undergone a gradual evolution. With the multimodal and intercultural turn, CC has branched into new concepts namely intercultural and multimodal communicative competencies. Pertaining to these concepts, new notions such as telecollaboration, digital literacies, and multiliteracies have emerged. CC has also been, for long, analogous to performance, proficiency, social rules of language use, rules of appropriateness, willingness to communicate, self-perceptions of CC, and the goal of being a native speaker, which can add to the confusion surrounding the construct. The implications of the present research synthesis are two-fold. It becomes imperative to adapt world language classrooms to the rising trend in intercultural and multimodal communicative competencies. In addition, further replicable investigations should focus on developing optimal methods of operationalization that are in line with the new contemporary theoretical frameworks of language in the age of digital technologies and artificial intelligence.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070115
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 116: Sociodemographic Attributes and Dropout
           Intentions of Working University Students: Evidence from Estonia

    • Authors: Mohammad Abu Sayed Toyon
      First page: 116
      Abstract: This study examines the relationship between various demographic and situational factors and working students’ decisions to change their study programmes and abandon higher education. It utilises a sample of 1902 working students derived from the Eurostudent VII survey and employs cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings reveal statistically significant associations between several factors and students’ educational decisions. Males are more likely to consider abandoning higher education than females. Younger students, particularly those up to 21 years old, are more inclined to consider changing their study programmes. Financial difficulties significantly influence students’ considerations of both changing study programmes and abandoning higher education. Students in the arts, humanities, and ICT are more likely to consider abandoning their studies. Conversely, age does not significantly affect the likelihood of abandoning higher education. Parental educational attainment does not significantly influence decisions to change or abandon study programmes, whereas living situations, such as living independently and not living with parents, significantly affect changing the study programme. Qualification level affects the likelihood of changing study programmes, with bachelor’s students more likely to consider changes than masters and long-term national degree students, but it does not significantly affect the likelihood of abandoning higher education. Education–job mismatch significantly affects both changing study programmes and abandoning higher education, while the duration of working hours only influences the decision to alter study programmes. By revealing these findings, this research extends the student retention discourse as well as highlights how cultural, economic, familial, and workplace capital influence working students’ educational decisions.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070116
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 117: Dual Vocational Training Students in
           Andalusia: Perspectives and Challenges

    • Authors: Juan García-Fuentes, María Navarro-Granados
      First page: 117
      Abstract: The implementation of the dual vocational training policy establishes horizontal training between schools and the labour market, contributes to educational continuity and is an effective measure against early school leaving. In addition, it has a link with the business sector that enables labour integration and also participates in the training and qualification of students. To approach it, we start from a historical overview of education, where we analyse the different laws passed in recent decades and investigate dual vocational training as an effective policy for training for employment and training of skills, abilities and competences necessary for the acquisition of a job. To this end, we present a study in which we make visible, through interviews, the perspective of students in relation to vocational training in the autonomous community of Andalusia. The majority of those interviewed gave a positive assessment of these studies. Moreover, the interviews show how this educational policy has a positive impact on the labour market insertion of the participants.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14070117
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 7 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 74: Social Factors Associated with Insecurity in
           Nigerian Society

    • Authors: Cordelia Onyinyechi Omodero
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The study examines the societal issues that contribute to the level of insecurity in Nigerian society using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) co-integration technique with data from 1991 to 2022. The variables used as independent and societal factors generating insecurity include the unemployment rate; the high cost of living in society; insufficient funds for education, community social services, healthcare services, and infrastructure; and agricultural development. Among the criteria evaluated, inadequate school financing and the unemployment rate appear to be the most significant sources of insecurity in society as a result of young people’s involvement in abduction, violence, and other societal issues. The study recognizes that government measures aimed at reorienting society towards a peaceful environment for habitation are critical. It is of the utmost importance to provide employment for young people and adequately support schools in order to lower the number of youngsters who are not in school. These out-of-school children are readily persuaded to join groups that make society untenable. Thus, free education is strongly suggested to engage and develop their thoughts in a constructive manner so that they can be valuable to society.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060074
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 75: “You’ve Got to Put in the
           Time”: Neoliberal-Ableism and Disabled Streamers on Twitch

    • Authors: Juan Carlos Escobar-Lamanna
      First page: 75
      Abstract: This concept paper builds upon nascent research analyzing disability and the practice of videogame livestreaming on Twitch.tv. While a growing amount of scholarship analyzes the structure and organization of Twitch as a platform more broadly, with some attending to the platform’s marginalization of women and BIPOC streamers, few studies investigate the challenges that Twitch’s features and structures present to disabled streamers. This paper addresses this gap in the literature, considering the ways in which Twitch offers disabled streamers unique economic and community-building opportunities through its monetization and identity tag features while simultaneously presenting barriers to disabled streamers through these very same features. Utilizing a critical disability studies perspective and drawing upon forum posts made by disabled streamers and interviews with disabled streamers from online gaming news websites, I argue that Twitch reifies forms of neoliberal-ableism through its prioritizing of individual labour, precarious forms of monetization that necessitate cultures of overwork and ‘grinding’, and targeted harassment, known as hate raids, against disabled and other marginalized streamers to ultimately create a kind of integrative access where disability is tolerated but not valued.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060075
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 76: Valuation in Rural Social Innovation
           Processes—Analysing Micro-Impact of a Collaborative Community in
           Southern Italy

    • Authors: Federica Ammaturo, Suntje Schmidt
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Social innovation has been associated with contributing to ‘valuable’ rural development; however, usually, the impact of social innovation has been identified in the aftermath of its development or implementation. This might be too narrow an approach, as an ongoing social innovation process in itself may already lead to effects that contribute to regional and social changes in a local community and beyond. This paper argues that collaborative valuation processes are embedded in social innovation processes, generating effects that contribute to rural development. Focusing on a case study that exemplifies social innovation processes in agriculture and food production carried out by a rural collaborative community in southern Italy, we demonstrate how three valuation phases, such as contestations and negotiations of norms, symbolic capital accumulation and recognition of actions, as well as re-definitions of values, impact community development through joint sense-making, empowerment and societal change. Our empirical results suggest the close intertwining of both social innovation and valuation processes. The empirical results demonstrate how collective valuation processes have micro-effects on the agro-economic system, on local socio-cultural processes, and on place-making activities. Methodologically, this paper builds on ethnographic methods, including participatory observations, semi-structured interviews, oral histories, and socio-spatial analysis investigating moments of valuation embedded in daily collaborative practices.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060076
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 77: Catholic Parishes and Immigrants in Italy:
           Insights from the Congregations Study in Three Italian Cities

    • Authors: Marco Guglielmi, Olga Breskaya, Stefano Sbalchiero
      First page: 77
      Abstract: As shown by sociological studies, the Catholic Church in Italy is very active in conducting advocacy and providing political representation to immigrants. It is also highly effective in carrying out services for immigrants, as well as fairly receptive to sharing places of worship with them. However, these sociological observations have been mainly conducted at the national level rather than by exploring the life of parishes through an empirical lens. This article aims, by applying the congregations study methodology, to fill this gap by detecting faith communities as the basic social units of religious life at the city/country level. In doing that, we discuss quantitative data collected in 377 Catholic parishes in the cities of Bologna, Milan, and Brescia. The findings suggest that Catholic parishes: (i) illustrate a low proportion of immigrants in their communities; (ii) show high activity in providing services for immigrants; (iii) are not politically engaged in advocacy for foreign persons at the local level; and (iv) similarly position themselves as politically conservative and liberal while expressing commitments to immigrants. This study confirms the sociological argument regarding the solidarity approach of the Catholic Church in Italy toward immigrants, while highlighting some ambivalent aspects related to cultural diversity and grass-roots political engagement within parishes’ life.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060077
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 78: Did COVID-19 Put Language Certificate
           Acquisition on Hold' Uptake and Outcomes of Language Training amongst
           Refugees

    • Authors: Jonas Wood
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Most highly developed countries invest considerably in language training programmes for refugees, which are assumed to facilitate economic, social, and cultural integration. Although recent research has turned to particular patterns of host country language acquisition amongst refugees, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has hitherto remained understudied. Consequently, this article assesses changes in refugees’ uptake and outcomes of language training over the onset of the pandemic using longitudinal population data for Belgium (Flanders). Findings confirm theoretical expectations, as refugee cohorts entering the country after the onset of the pandemic exhibit lower Dutch language credentials, mostly due to lower enrolment and lower proficiency at intake for language courses. Furthermore, this study indicates that such changes are considerably weaker for highly educated and female refugees. These findings are interpreted in terms of increased vulnerability resulting from the pandemic as well as within-group diversity in potential barriers to integration in the host country.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060078
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 79: “Wasn’t in Our Game Plan”:
           Reflections of Older Grandparents Navigating Child Welfare Systems

    • Authors: Tina L. Peterson
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Kinship caregivers encounter complex issues when interfacing with the child welfare system. Most kinship care families are not connected to child welfare. The experiences and extent of child welfare connection among older grandparents raising adolescent grandchildren are understudied. This study describes in-depth reflections from older grandparents raising adolescent grandchildren about circumstances leading to kinship care and the extent of child welfare involvement. Nineteen older grandparents raising adolescent grandchildren participated in qualitative phenomenological interviews. Eligibility criteria included identifying as a primary caregiver aged 40 or older for a grandchild 12 years or older who lived with them at least three days during the week. Respondents were primarily married (58%), white/non-Hispanic (53%), and grandmothers (84%) and had some college education or were college graduates (79%). Older grandparent caregivers described three themes: the intensive child welfare path, the influence of indirect child welfare professionals, and guardians with influence. The onset of kinship care, with or without intensive child welfare involvement, stemmed primarily from child abuse and neglect linked primarily to adolescent pregnancies and parental substance use. Child welfare and other helping professionals must recognize and problem-solve with older grandparent caregivers to meet complex stage-of-life needs in and outside of traditional child welfare settings.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060079
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 80: Discontent, Populism, or the Revenge of the
           “Places That Don’t Matter”' Analysis of the Rise of the
           Far-Right in Portugal

    • Authors: Pedro Chamusca
      First page: 80
      Abstract: This research delves into the territorial nuances of political populism, examining Portugal’s CHEGA party as a case study. Through a comprehensive analysis of survey data and correlational studies, this study reveals that discontent, manifesting in the rise of populist movements, is intricately linked to the economic decline and neglect of specific regions. The unexpected success of CHEGA is not merely a socio-economic phenomenon but a product of deeply rooted territorial dynamics. The findings underscore the importance of adopting place-sensitive development policies that address the unique challenges of overlooked territories, steering clear of traditional compensatory measures. The urgency to counteract long-term economic decline, industrial decay, and brain drain demands innovative strategies that tap into latent economic potential and provide tangible opportunities. As we confront the rise of anti-establishment voting threatening European unity, this research advocates for a paradigm shift towards place-sensitive policies to navigate the crossroads of discontent and foster a more resilient, inclusive future.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060080
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 81: Transforming the Creative and Social
           Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: The Broker Roles of Rural Collaborative
           Workspaces

    • Authors: Chen Gao, Eleonora Psenner
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Creative social enterprises are increasingly emerging in rural regions, motivated by a desire to take social responsibility through creative approaches. These enterprises integrate entrepreneurial activities with creative social attributes and are sometimes set in rural collaborative workspaces (CWSs) facilitating entrepreneurial activities. Under the frame of entrepreneurial ecosystems (EEs), we argue that CWSs can be seen as brokers, who (1) link resources as liaisons, (2) hold and pass resources as gatekeepers, (3) enhance resource flows as coordinators, and (4) reproduce experiences as representatives. Against this backdrop, this paper presents a case study of two creative social enterprises in a CWS with a cooperative structure in rural Upper Austria by analyzing entrepreneurial biographies about the demand and use of entrepreneurial resources. Through a comparison between before and after the emergence of the CWS, the findings suggest that the EE for creative and social entrepreneurship undergoes two different types of transformation, a radical and a gradual one. The brokerage process of the CWS enhances local resource networks’ transformation of EE and brings the transformation in terms of translocal resources and integral EE of enterprises in the CWS. Additionally, the CWS generates social impacts on the local community through social enterprises. This paper contributes to ecosystem literature by introducing an actor-centric perspective and giving new insights into social entrepreneurship and the transformative power of CWSs as brokers.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060081
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 82: Rural–Urban Features of Social
           Innovation: An Exploratory Study of Work Integration Social Enterprises in
           Ireland

    • Authors: Lucas Olmedo, María José Ruiz-Rivera, Mary O’Shaughnessy, Georgios Chatzichristos
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Geography is a significant element of social innovation. This paper focuses on exploring differences and similarities in the characteristics and contributions towards impact of Work Integration Social Enterprises (WISEs), a form of social innovation which provides otherwise unmet services and opportunities to people at risk of social and economic exclusion and distant from the labour market, in rural and urban areas of Ireland. To do so, we use data from 336 surveys from urban (213) and rural (123) WISEs and conduct an exploratory and spatially sensitive analysis to compare the characteristics, in terms of organisational age, legal and governance form, multiplicity of activities, revenue diversification; and contributions towards impact, in terms of geographical focus/reach, employment, volunteers, and income generation. Our analysis shows that WISEs in urban and rural areas present rather similar organisational characteristics and ways of functioning (legal structure, multiactivity, multiple sources of funding), but their contributions to socioeconomic impact differ according to their spatial location, with urban WISEs generating significantly more employment and income than their rural counterparts. Our study illustrates that socially innovative organisations are spatially sensitive, and that context influences their capacity to create sustainable employment opportunities and contribute to the local economy.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060082
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 83: Human Rights and Territories: Academic
           Perceptions of the 2030 Agenda

    • Authors: Jesús Delgado-Baena, Juan de Dios García-Serrano, Laura Serrano, José Tomás Diestre Mejías
      First page: 83
      Abstract: This study is the result of the debate sessions held at the 1st International Conference on Human Rights and Territories at the Pablo de Olavide University in Seville, aimed at analyzing the impact and the agenda itself in the territorial and local contexts. To conduct the research, five focus groups were organized, focusing on the five elements of the agenda: People, Peace, Planet, Prosperity, and Partnerships, with the participation of over 30 international academics, followed by an analysis of the recorded speeches. The results provide a critical epistemic perspective on the 2030 Agenda and its connection with territories, concluding the difficulty of establishing human rights processes in territories from agendas that are centered from the global to the local level.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060083
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 84: Confession and Confusion: Misinformation
           about Religion in the Journalistic Sphere

    • Authors: Valentina Laferrara, Maria Carmen Fernández, Verónica Israel Turim
      First page: 84
      Abstract: The media often limit religious coverage to reporting on statements, appointments, opinions, and activities, ignoring in-depth treatment and emphasizing negative news. Media, rather than helping to combat prejudice and promote understanding between communities, have contributed to fuelling intolerance towards religious communities. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the presence and treatment of religious issues. Through a combination of content analysis focused on Catalan media publications between 1 January 2020 and 31 December 2021, and a focus group with 12 journalists specialized in religious coverage for Catalan newspapers, this research sheds light on the prevailing trends, seeking to answer what is the space of religious content, which can include both content messages produced by religious communities that refer to their own or other faiths and/or content that discusses issues related to religions or religious groups. Occupies in the media agenda, how this content is addressed, and which are the perceptions of journalists regarding the coverage of religious issues. Moreover, we seek to unveil potential actions needed to improve it. The results of this study suggest that there is a tendency to publish limited religious content in the media, potentially shaping perceptions of religion. Furthermore, when religious topics are covered, they focus on Catholicism and Islam, marginalizing other faiths. What is more, stereotypes and misconceptions persist, which could be due to their continued priority to cover scandalous or negative events related to religion.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060084
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 85: What Do We Know about Age Management
           Practices in Public and Private Institutions in Scandinavia'—A
           Public Health Perspective

    • Authors: Gloria Macassa, Ehsanul Huda Chowdhury, Jesus Barrena-Martinez, Joaquim Soares
      First page: 85
      Abstract: In view of global population ageing and of policies that support longer working lives, especially in developed countries, it is important to achieve diversity in organisations through age management. Age management is the “management of human resources, [often] with an explicit focus on the requirements of an ageing workforce.” Through age management practices, organisations will be better able to change their human resource management policies and practices towards accommodating their ageing workforce. Little is known about age management practices in Scandinavian organisations, considering the region’s high prevalence of workers beyond the age of 50 across both private and public organisations. There are indications that Scandinavian business organisations are already practicing age management for all ages, including older workers. Their age management practices include the dimensions of job recruitment, training, lifelong learning, development, and promotion. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how the health and well-being of workers is ensured in the context of age management practices in these organisations. Given the current and future importance of age management for all organisations globally, public health and other health science professionals need to collaborate with other disciplines, such as management and sustainability science, to better understand how they can contribute to an aged and healthier workforce as well as workplace health promotion. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion concerning age management in public and private institutions in Scandinavia through the public health lens.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060085
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 86: Voices from the Shadows: Intergenerational
           Conflict Memory and Second-Generation Northern Irish Identity in England

    • Authors: Liam Harte, Jack Crangle, Graham Dawson, Barry Hazley, Fearghus Roulston
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Recent scholarship has highlighted the heterogeneity of second-generation Irish identities in Great Britain, yet the varieties of self-identification espoused by the English-raised children of Northern Irish parents remain almost wholly unexplored. This article redresses this neglect by examining the relationship between parentally transmitted memories of the Northern Ireland Troubles (c.1969–1998) and the forms of identity and self-understanding that such children develop during their lives in England. Drawing on original oral history testimony and using the concepts of narrative inheritance and postmemory as interpretive tools, it demonstrates the complex correlation that exists between parents’ diverse approaches to memory-sharing and their children’s negotiation of inherited conflict memory as they position themselves discursively within contemporary English society. Based on a close reading of five oral history interviews, the analysis reveals a spectrum of creative postmemory practices and identity enactments, whereby narrators agentively define themselves in relation to the meanings they attribute to inherited memories, or the dearth thereof, as they navigate their tangled transnational affinities and allegiances. The article also explores how these practices and enactments are subtly responsive to narrators’ changing relationships to their narrative inheritances as their experience and awareness of their own and their parents’ lives deepen over the life course.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060086
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 87: Assessment of Children’s Fears:
           Impact of Cognitive Level

    • Authors: Aurélie Simoës-Perlant
      First page: 87
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to contribute to the debate concerning the intensity of fears in high-IQ children. Many authors have pointed out that this population presents a particular psycho-affective profile that can lead to greater anxieties and fears. One hundred and one children (normal-IQ vs. high-IQ) were subjected to an adaptation of the Fear Inventory (FSSC-R; Inventaire des peurs de l’enfant, IPE-R). The results show that fear of danger and death is significantly more intense than all other fears in children aged 5 to 12. However, the pattern of results obtained did not differ according to the cognitive abilities of the children questioned. These results are important because they challenge the preconceived ideas conveyed in the media and by many practitioners who have made giftedness their stock-in-trade. If there is indeed a difference, it may be linked not to the children’s perception of their own emotional state but rather to its behavioral manifestations, which may be more intense in high-IQ children. These results are discussed in relation to the literature, and research perspectives are proposed.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060087
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 88: Building the Prison to Legal Drug Dealing
           Pipeline: A Comparative Analysis of Social Equity Policies in Recreational
           Cannabis Licensing

    • Authors: Kelly L. Patterson, Robert Mark Silverman, Ambreen Rehman-Veal, Li Yin, Suiyuan Wang
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Since 2012, twenty-four states have legalized adult-use recreational cannabis. To varying degrees, state laws allow for the production, distribution, retail sale, and on-site consumption of cannabis in licensed businesses. Accompanying cannabis, some legalization has acknowledged that black and brown communities were disproportionately impacted by the war on drugs. To address this, social equity provisions have been a component of their public policies related to cannabis legalization. These provisions include measures to expunge cannabis-related criminal records and create social equity set-asides for cannabis business licenses. This paper’s research question asks if, under its current structure and implementation, recreational cannabis laws achieve social equity goals. The methods for the analysis apply content analysis to public policy documents and quantify recreational cannabis licensing outcomes. These methods were applied to a comparative analysis of social equity provisions in state and local cannabis laws applicable to large U.S. cities (2020 population > 600,000). This analysis focuses on the characteristics of set-asides for social equity licenses to sell recreational cannabis. The analysis examines the scope of social equity policies, their administration and implementation, and the characteristics of licensees. The findings from the analysis are used to identify a model policy framework and generate recommendations to strengthen social equity outcomes in recreational cannabis licensing.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060088
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 89: Artificial Intelligence’s
           Opportunities and Challenges in Engineering Curricular Design: A Combined
           Review and Focus Group Study

    • Authors: Ibrahim Mosly
      First page: 89
      Abstract: This study explores the opportunities and challenges of integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into engineering education. Through a review of the literature and a qualitative focus group study, an assessment was made for the role of AI in personalizing learning, enhancing simulation engagement, providing real-time feedback, and preparing students for AI-integrated workplaces. The study emphasizes how AI may significantly improve educational experiences by making them more dynamic, interactive, and successful. It also draws attention to important issues, such as moral questions, algorithmic biases in AI, infrastructure constraints, the need for AI literacy training for educators, and a range of student perspectives on AI engineering education. The results support a systematic approach to AI integration, highlighting the necessity of cooperative efforts by educators, legislators, curriculum designers, and technologists in order to overcome these obstacles. The study makes the case that AI can transform engineering education by negotiating these challenges and providing students with the information and skills needed for the digital future, all the while assuring fair and moral access to technology-enhanced learning.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060089
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 90: Gender and Age in the Travel Choice by
           Spanish Travel Agency Consumers

    • Authors: Ángel Rodríguez-Pallas, Myriam Yolanda Sarabia-Molina, María Dolores Sánchez-Fernández, José Ramón-Cardona
      First page: 90
      Abstract: The tourist intermediary industry has faced multiple challenges to adapt their offers to the heterogeneity of tourists, and understanding consumer interests from a gender and age perspective is considered crucial in the design and marketing of tourist products. The aim of this article is to examine the differences generated by the gender and age variables of consumers of Spanish travel agencies when choosing travel and tourist destinations, focusing on different types of travel, the choice between national and international destinations, and specific destination types. An explanatory quantitative methodology was employed with a hypothetical-deductive approach. A questionnaire was administered to individuals who booked through Spanish travel agencies and a sample of 879 was obtained. The data were analyzed using SPSS 26 software and the main statistical tool was the Pearson Chi-Square (χ2) test. The findings show that gender implies significant differences in travel preferences, with women favoring the exploration of new destinations and men preferring relaxation travel. Age groups impact the choice between national and international travel, but have a lesser effect on specific destination preferences. This research underscores the importance of considering gender and age in understanding consumer behavior within the travel sector, with the aim of developing more effective marketing strategies and catering to diverse customer needs. Within the implications, the growing importance of the older traveler segment should be highlighted, which requires future research and comparisons with the younger traveler segment.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060090
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 91: The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the
           Immobilized Lifestyle of Institutionalized Older Persons: An Empirical
           Study

    • Authors: Claudiu Coman, Carmen Bărbat, Cosmin Goian, Maria Cristina Bularca, Felicia Andrioni, Lavinia Popp, Adrian Netedu, Mihai Burlacu, Dănuț Bălăuță, Nicolae Talpă, Bogdan Popa
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Our study aimed to examine how care centers for older persons acted and adapted during the COVID-19 pandemic period by considering the opinions of the beneficiaries, employees, and managers of such centers. The research was conducted between February and June 2022, and we used a mixed-methods approach. For the quantitative research, we applied a questionnaire to 430 institutionalized older persons from Timis County, Romania. For the qualitative analysis, we conducted interviews with 31 institutionalized older persons, 7 employees, and 4 managers. Most institutionalized older persons were mainly satisfied with their lives in the care centers. The main difficulties they faced were the impossibility of being close to loved ones and the difficulty of adapting to the living conditions within the center. Additionally, the older persons were satisfied with their interactions with the staff of the care centers. The conducted research provides a view of the lifestyle of older persons in care centers during the pandemic. It highlights their struggles and can be used as a reference point for further improvement of the lifestyle of older persons within care centers.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060091
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 92: The Violent Implications of Opposition to
           the Istanbul Convention

    • Authors: Conny Roggeband, Andrea Krizsán
      First page: 92
      Abstract: This paper focuses on campaigns against the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention). These campaigns not only obstructed ratification processes in a number of countries, but also that the openly hostile and highly gendered attacks had a direct impact on women’s rights activists and their work, seriously hindering their work, but also affecting their well-being and safety. In this paper we explore the violent implications of the campaigns against the Istanbul Convention which are part of wider anti-gender campaigns. We argue that the violence of the campaigns and the violent implications should be considered gendered political violence, which effectively marginalizes women and other targeted groups and obstructs their participation in society and politics and as such is central to current autocratization tendencies and undermining of democracy.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060092
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 93: Keeping It Real: Insights from a Sport-Based
           Living Lab

    • Authors: Louis Moustakas, Marieke Breed, Nynke Burgers, Sarah Carney, Ties Greven, Patricia Grove, Lisa Kalina, Perry Ogden, Karen Petry, Simona Šafaříková, Ben Sanders, Arnost Svoboda, Julie Wittmannová, Pim van Limbeek, Fenna van Marle
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Sport for development (SFD) initiatives have faced numerous criticisms around the focus on individual-level (micro) outcomes and lack of integration at the community (meso) and structural (macro) levels. As a result, there is growing recognition that programmes need to find ways to work with and engage a wide range of community members and stakeholders through more inclusive, participatory approaches. One such approach is known as Living Labs. In the following conceptual article, we present the Sport and Social Cohesion Lab (SSCL) project, which implemented a Living Lab approach in various sport-based programmes from four different European countries. The main components of the Living Lab framework are presented, and practical insights are derived from the project. In addition, the unique and sometimes critical role of sport is reflected upon in relation to the Living Lab context. Through this, this article provides practitioners and academics with potential building blocks to implement Living Labs and/or embed participatory approaches in sport and physical activity contexts and social settings more generally.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060093
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 94: The Digitisation of Italian Schools and the
           

    • Authors: Domenico Carbone, Cristina Calvi
      First page: 94
      Abstract: This article analyses the ongoing processes in the organisational field of Italian schools in light of the innovations induced by digital education policies. Specifically, it focuses on the relationship between actors and digital policies concerning the experience of distance learning (DL) that characterised the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper reflects on DL outcomes regarding the three expectations that have often characterised the rhetoric associated with the promotion of digital educational policies, namely: the raising of learning levels, the development of digital competences and the increase in school inclusion. Through an analysis of a series of empirical studies exploring the point of view of the paper, this paper highlights what progress has been made in the digital schooling in Italy and what are still its main limitations. The results of the study show both the limits of the effectiveness of educational policies constructed with a top-down approach and highlight the potential for policy recalibration offered by a reorganisation of the decision-making process through the active involvement of all the actors in the educational system.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060094
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 95: Potential for Frugal Innovation in a
           Brazilian Regional System: A Study Based on a Multicriteria Approach

    • Authors: Gabriel Gomes Moreira, Robério José Rogério dos Santos, Victor Diogho Heuer de Carvalho, Francisco José Peixoto Rosário, Agnaldo José dos Santos
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Regional innovation systems (RISs) can stimulate knowledge sharing and collaboration, attracting investments and promoting economic and social progress. This is often linked to what is known as frugal innovation, involving small businesses developing and selling sustainable, low-cost products that meet local needs. This study aims to present and apply a model to measure regional innovation potential, using a multicriteria approach based on the principles of frugal innovation (FI). The analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to generate factor weights, enabling score calculation to provide insights into FI potential on a literature-based five-point scale. Data were collected in two stages: (i) from twelve main participants—working in a rural RIS—who responded to a questionnaire, and (ii) from cities through official government channels to collect information about their innovation development initiatives. The results reveal that the RIS analyzed still lacks assistance in the development of public policies to support the development of an innovative culture, indicating the need for appropriate mechanisms to boost innovation actions. The outputs of this study can help cities and regions to analyze their innovation potential, assist public managers in decision-making, support the creation of innovation-stimulating mechanisms, help RISs to address deficiencies, and promote local development.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14060095
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 6 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 56: The Role of News Media in Reducing Traffic
           Accidents

    • Authors: Antonio Javier Lucas, Francisco Alonso, Mireia Faus, Arash Javadinejad
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Traffic accidents represent a major problem worldwide. Public and private entities launch communication campaigns in order to educate the population about this problem. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the presence of road safety in the Spanish media and its influence on the reduction of road accidents. A content analysis of six major Spanish newspapers between 2000 and 2008 (an important period in the reduction of the accident rate in Spain) was carried out in which the presence of news related to traffic accidents and the intensity of them were quantified using a set of criteria designed for this study. Furthermore, the correlation between the accident rates and the presence and intensity of news in the same time frame was measured. There has been an evident increase in the news related to traffic accidents during the analyzed period, both in terms of the presence of such news in general and in terms of intensity. The correlation analysis also shows a strong relationship between the increase in news presence and intensity and a sharp fall in accident rates in Spain. Although correlation analysis is not enough to establish a causal relationship between the variables studied here, the findings suggest that informative campaigns had a positive effect on encouraging pro-social behavior, were successful in disseminating related information, and, therefore, contributed significantly to lowering accident rates, although that was not the only reason.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050056
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 57: Ethnic Variation in the Link between
           Women’s Relative Employment Positions and Entry into Parenthood in
           Belgium

    • Authors: Layla Van den Berg, Karel Neels
      First page: 57
      Abstract: This study investigates the association between women’s relative employment positions and the transition to parenthood, focusing on women of Maghrebi, Turkish, and Southern European origin in Belgium. Whereas gender specialization is associated with higher chances of entering parenthood in the older literature, the economic preconditions to parenthood have shifted and more recent studies indicate that couples where both partners work are more likely to start a family. However, whereas this shift has been extensively studied among majority populations, we lack insight into whether similar patterns can also be found among population subgroups with a migration background. This paper uses Belgian census data from 2011–2015 to explore how women’s relative employment positions are linked to the likelihood of entering parenthood and whether this association varies by women’s age, generation, and origin of the male partner. The results indicate that couples in which both partners are employed are more likely to enter parenthood regardless of migration background. However, the results for women of Maghrebi or Turkish background suggest that single-earner couples and couples where both partners are unemployed delay entry into parenthood to a similar extent.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050057
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 58: Socially Innovative Initiatives in Deprived
           Rural Areas of Germany, Ireland and Portugal: Exploring Empowerment and
           Impact on Community Development

    • Authors: Gabriela Christmann, Ariane Sept, Ralph Richter
      First page: 58
      Abstract: In many (remote) rural areas of Europe and the world, rural communities are facing various challenges. One response is residents leaving their communities. However, there are also many empirical examples of residents staying, launching project initiatives, developing new solutions and experimenting with new practices. This is what we call social innovation. What experiences do actors have in these processes' Can we speak of empowerment' To what extent can such initiatives have an impact on community development' In this article, we explore these questions, for which there is little related empirical research. By applying a multi-sited individualising comparison to case studies in three European countries (Germany, Ireland and Portugal), we obtain empirical evidence of the following dimensions of empowerment that Avelino et al. outline conceptually: the achievement of autonomy, competence and relatedness and also impact, meaning and resilience. Often, however, it is not the individual actors for whom such effects can be reported. Rather, the social initiative as such or the local administration has acquired new skills and autonomy. Regarding community development, ‘pathways to impact’, such as infrastructure improvements and/or the creation of new employment opportunities and/or the influx of new residents, could be identified. However, this development often depended on both opportunity and the cooperation and goodwill of many stakeholders.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050058
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 59: Verification Agencies on TikTok: The Case of
           MediaWise and Politifact

    • Authors: Antonio Díaz-Lucena, Pablo Hidalgo-Cobo
      First page: 59
      Abstract: This research aims to analyse the work of two international information verification agencies on TikTok—MediaWise and Politifact—according to their evolution, approach, content, and format. To this end, a quantitative approach has been used with an inductive content analysis with nominal variables, which offers specific nuances adapted to the unit of analysis. In a first phase, an empirical analysis was carried out, focusing on the measurement and quantification of the number of publications and interactions of the audience, from the time Fthey started operating on this platform until 31 December 2023. The total number of posts extracted was N > 704, which generated N > 4,166,387 user responses. In a second phase, an in-depth content analysis of all the posts published by these two agencies in four months (October and November 2021 and October and November 2023) was carried out, allowing us to analyse their evolution, but also to compare the two agencies in terms of approach, themes, and style. The most important findings show that both agencies adapt the style and narratives to this social network through the use of dynamic resources, a casual and informal tone, and elements of humour. In addition, both contribute to public reason through different strategies: MediaWise focuses on media literacy and Politifact on verification, using resources, effects and content in line with that purpose. Finally, we observe a downward evolution in terms of reach and impact on the audience, as well as a lower dynamism in 2023 than in 2021, which opens the door to future lines of explanatory research that delve deeper into possible causes.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050059
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 60: The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the
           Inclusion of Refugee Students in Greek Schools: Pre-Service
           Teachers’ Views about Distance Learning

    • Authors: Eleni Samsari, Nektaria Palaiologou, Georgios Nikolaou
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Over the last two years, the prolonged massive school closure due to COVID-19 has provoked significant constraints for refugee children. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of Greek pre-service teachers on refugee education during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was addressed to 32 native university students (n = 32) who attended Education Departments in Western Macedonia in Greece. The results showed that the prevalence of distance education affected pre-service teachers’ perceptions. The access to devices with internet capability as well as the cultural barriers was considered to be crucial factors for the school attendance of refugee children. Participants’ perceptions of the level of teacher preparation in a distance learning environment were related to their level of self-efficacy for supporting refugee students. The findings suggest that in the aftermath of COVID-19 pandemic, the international community should make efforts to ensure the school attendance of all refugee students.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050060
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 61: The Effect of Product Placement in Animation
           on Generation Z Consumers

    • Authors: Zitong Cheng, Yukari Nagai
      First page: 61
      Abstract: In recent years, the animation market in China has flourished, and many brands use animation as a popular promotional platform to showcase their products and brands through product placement, benefitting from this marketing approach. Therefore, there is an urgent need to investigate the impact of product placement on Generation Z consumers—the primary audience for animation. In this study, we used popular Chinese animation to investigate Generation Z consumers’ cognition, attitude, and purchase intention regarding product placement. The results show a significant correlation between brand cognition, attitude, and purchase intention. Low-profile brands achieve better product placement effects in animation than high-profile brands. This study also established a mathematical model of participants’ post-cognition, post-attitude, and post-purchase intention regarding product placement in animation through factor analysis. This mathematical model intuitively shows that the effect of product placement in animation is primarily determined by the audience’s post-attitude.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050061
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 62: Beyond the Walls: Patterns of Child Labour,
           Forced Labour, and Exploitation in a New Domestic Workers Dataset

    • Authors: Zoe Trodd, Catherine Waite, James Goulding, Doreen S. Boyd
      First page: 62
      Abstract: The new Domestic Workers Dataset is the largest single set of surveys (n = 11,759) of domestic workers to date. Our analysis of this dataset reveals features about the lives and work of this “hard-to-find” population in India—a country estimated to have the largest number of people living in forms of contemporary slavery (11 million). The data allow us to identify child labour, indicators of forced labour, and patterns of exploitation—including labour paid below the minimum wage—using bivariate analysis, factor analysis, and spatial analysis. The dataset also helps to advance our understanding of how to measure labour exploitation and modern slavery by showing the value of “found data” and participatory and citizen science approaches.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050062
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 63: To Retire or Not to Retire' A Comprehensive
           Examination of Retirement Decision Dynamics in Italy

    • Authors: Michele Fabiani
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The concept of active aging has become central to the public debate in many Western countries, given the increasing aging of the population and the future challenges associated with it. This phenomenon is tightly intertwined with choices regarding the retirement period, which can be postponed for different reasons by individuals in a society. The purpose of this paper is to understand the personal and family characteristics that influence future choices about retirement date in Italy. Utilizing data provided by the Bank of Italy in the Survey on Household Income and Wealth (SHIW), a logistic regression is performed to observe the impact of different covariates on the hypothesized retirement date of individuals close to retirement, i.e., over the age of 50 who are still in working status. The results show that the decision to delay retirement has increased in recent years, and is influenced by personal (e.g., matrimonial status), work, and economic factors. In addition, these factors have different impacts between males and females.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050063
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 64: The Impact of Biases on Health
           Disinformation Research

    • Authors: Carmen Peñafiel-Saiz, Lázaro Echegaray-Eizaguirre, Amaia Perez-de-Arriluzea-Madariaga
      First page: 64
      Abstract: This work analyses the treatment of elements such as biases and their relationship with disinformation in international academic production. The first step in this process was to carry out a search for papers published in academic journals indexed in the main indexing platforms. This was followed by a bibliometric analysis involving an analysis of the production and impact of the selected publications, using social media techniques and a semantic content analysis based on abstracts. The data obtained from Web of Science, Scopus, and Dimensions, relating to health, biases, and fake news as well as post-truth, show how these works have multiplied in the last decade. The question relating to this research is as follows: How have cognitive biases been treated in national and international academic journals' This question is answered with respect to the scientific or research method. The results, which date from 2000 to 2024, show a considerable academic dedication to exploring the relationship between biases and health disinformation. In all these communities we have observed a relationship between production with the field of medicine as a general theme and social media. Furthermore, this connection is always tied to other subjects, such as an aversion to vaccines in Community 10; disinformation about COVID-19 on social media in Community 5; COVID-19 and conspiracy theories in Community 6; and content for the dissemination of health-related subjects on YouTube and the disinformation spread about them. The community analysis carried out shows a common factor in all the analysed communities—that of cognitive bias.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050064
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 65: Do Societies Have Emotions'

    • Authors: Abilio Almeida
      First page: 65
      Abstract: In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the study of emotions, demonstrating their importance in understanding diverse human and social dynamics. However, as this field of study develops and diversifies, a structural yet simple question remains virtually undiscussed: Is it really possible to say that societies possess emotions or a certain sensitivity akin to individual experiences' This exploratory study, based on documentary analysis, endeavours to identify and examine emotional patterns across six different periods, spanning from the Middle Ages to the present day. Among the eight secondary findings, three fundamental conclusions stand out: (1) throughout history, societies have experienced different emotional atmospheres, sometimes simultaneously; (2) although societies generally propose an emotional model to follow, the reality does not always conform to it; and (3) it is mainly through the culture that society creates a certain emotional harmony, allowing the social body to remain cohesive and develop, thus postponing or preventing its disintegration. This study aims to offer a modest contribution to the complex and under-explored discussion on the correlation between specific emotional climates and particular social contexts.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050065
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 66: Digital Competencies in Verifying Fake News:
           Assessing the Knowledge and Abilities of Journalism Students

    • Authors: Amparo López-Meri, Hugo Doménech-Fabregat, Silvia Marcos-García
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The surge of disinformation in the digital sphere following the COVID-19 pandemic presents a considerable threat to democratic principles in contemporary societies. In response, multiple fact-checking platforms and citizen media literacy initiatives have been promoted. The fact checker has indeed become a new professional profile demanded by the sector. In this context, this research delves into the study of digital skills applied to information verification by journalism students. Adopting a comprehensive understanding of digital skills that extends beyond technical proficiency to encompass a shift in mindset, journalism students’ perceptions of their verification abilities are examined using a quantitative survey technique. This examination is based on an original list of competencies prepared specifically for this study. The results indicate that journalism students demonstrate awareness of the implications of disinformation, exhibiting scepticism towards content from unfamiliar sources or displaying clear signs of deceptive intent. Furthermore, they emphasise the importance of verification and fact-checking practices and express confidence in their proficiency in analysis, critical thinking, and social skills. However, their confidence in handling computer applications for verification and specialisation in data journalism is comparatively lower. Notably, significant gender disparities were observed in these areas, with women exhibiting greater confidence in social skills, collaborative work, and innovation, while men displayed a heightened proficiency in computer applications. Consequently, there is a need for improvements in teaching practices, which could potentially create new job opportunities for journalism students.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050066
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 67: Online Mothering: The Empowering Nature of a
           Hashtag Movement Founded on Social Sharing and Stereotype Deconstruction

    • Authors: Rosa Scardigno, Carmela Sportelli, Paolo Giovanni Cicirelli, Angelica Lops, Francesca D’Errico
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Online mothering is an arising and multifaceted phenomenon as the online world offers unique opportunities and risks in a particularly challenging period. The overall aim of this work is to investigate the features of the hashtag movement #itcouldbeme, which was born after a terrible news event concerning a newborn’s death, specifically concerning (a) the e-activation levels; (b) the emotional arousal; (c) the potential presence of deconstruction of stereotypes concerning intensive mothering. To investigate positioning, reactions, and emotions, a database of 394 online posts gathered from popular Italian social networks was created, manually codified, and analyzed through the chi-square test. The results enabled us to deepen the associations among these variables, thus revealing the opportunities for empowerment offered by the socio-cultural positioning, different emotional pathways, and adhesion to this online movement. Finally, implications for professionals and public health issues are discussed.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050067
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 68: Proposal for a Flipped Classroom Program
           with Massive Open Online Courses to Improve Access to Information and
           Information Literacy in Primary School Teachers

    • Authors: Ana Lendínez Turón, José Manuel Ortiz Marcos, Oswaldo Lorenzo Quiles, Fiorela Anaí Fernández-Otoya
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to propose a teacher training program based on the flipped classroom model with MOOCs to strengthen access to information and information literacy among primary education teachers in the Lambayeque region of Peru. The non-experimental design was assumed with a quantitative approach and a propositional, descriptive type. A diagnosis was made using a questionnaire given to 917 primary school teachers. It was discovered that nearly all of the items in the questionnaire revealed a deficiency in the ability to navigate, search, and filter information, data, and digital content; the highest percentages were at the Basic level, with the exception of the item expressing information needs in an organized manner, which was at the Advanced C2 level. The lowest percentage was at the Advanced C1 level, and the majority of the lower percentages were at the Advanced level. In addition, there are competency deficiencies in the evaluation of information, data, and digital content of nearly all the items: the highest percentages were at the Basic level, with the exception of the item involving the processing of information, data, and digital content, where 26.4% were at the Intermediate B1 level and just 2.8% managed to be at the highest level, which is Advanced C2. Furthermore, when it came to storage and retrieval of information, data, and digital content competency, all the high percentages were at the Basic level, and all the low percentages were at the highest level, that is, Advanced. These findings helped us to understand that teachers have only a basic knowledge of information literacy and information competency. As a result, it is necessary to advocate for a teacher training program based on the flipped classroom model with MOOCs. This idea was supported by the opinions of five experts, who stated that its implementation would enable primary teachers of Regular Basic Education in the region of Lambayeque (Peru) to develop their access to information and information literacy competency area.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050068
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 69: Motherhood, Human Trafficking, and Asylum
           Seeking: The Experiences and Needs of Survivor Mothers in Birthing and
           Postnatal Care

    • Authors: Lois Bosatta, Mariana Crespi de Valldaura, Kevin Bales, Helen Spiby, Laoise Ni Bhriain
      First page: 69
      Abstract: This article aims to illuminate the little-studied phenomenon of asylum-seeking child-bearing women in the UK, survivors of violence and human trafficking. This is a significant issue in terms of the proportion of women affected and the paucity of care and support currently available to them as mother survivors. This study looked to examine the frontline support services of one project to survivor mothers through two collaborating organisations, Happy Baby Community and Hestia, and how their services support mothers’ experiences of perinatal mental health, infant feeding, and the general experiences of migrant women and trafficking survivors in maternity care in the UK. Using evidence collected from semi-structured service-users’ interviews and focus groups, and an anonymous online staff survey, this article shows the types of care and support that are required to address not only the challenges faced by any new mother, but also the additional challenges experienced with trafficking and seeking asylum such as mental health, housing, and legal and access to other support. This article illustrates the many complex and inter-related challenges these women face, and the way the project meets practical, informational, emotional, appraisal, and social needs. It concludes by identifying several implications of the support provided and/or needed, which could be considered by other services or policymakers looking to meet the fundamental needs and rights of this cohort.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050069
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 70: Centering Black Women’s Voices:
           Illuminating Systemic Racism in Maternal Healthcare Experiences

    • Authors: Carla Brailey, Brittany C. Slatton
      First page: 70
      Abstract: The racial disparity in Black maternal healthcare outcomes in the U.S. reflects the devastating impact of systemic racism embedded within the healthcare system. This study addresses Black maternal health by centering Black women’s perspectives to illuminate how systemic barriers, racism, and unequal care manifest in their maternal health experiences. We conducted six focus group discussions with 27 Black women in Harris County, Texas, an area with an alarmingly high Black maternal mortality rate. The analysis revealed three main themes: (1) institutional barriers to equitable maternal care, (2) inequitable clinical care and provider–patient interactions, and (3) navigating experiences of everyday interpersonal racism. The women’s narratives provide insights into how systemic factors such as racism and unjust policies compromise the pursuit of optimal maternal care. By centering their situated knowledge, we can understand and develop solutions that emerge directly from the lived realities of this community.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050070
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 71: Hopeful, but Worried for the Future: An
           Analysis of the Lived Consequences of Colonisation as Narrated by Older
           South Sámi in Norway

    • Authors: Tove Mentsen Ness, Mai Camilla Munkejord
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Various forms of colonisation and discrimination processes are unfortunately common to Indigenous Peoples worldwide. In this article, the focus is the lived consequences of colonisation in the Norwegian part of Sápmi (the Sámi traditional lands), where systematic state-imposed colonisation officially ended decades ago. Thus, based on a thematic analysis of qualitative in-depth interviews with 12 South Sámi aged 67–84, the aim was to examine how stories about hopes and worries for the future can shed light on how colonisation is experienced among older South Sámi today. The voices of these participants are important, as they can be considered triply muted, due to (a) ageism and (b) continued yet unconscious colonising practices against the Sámi in general and (c) against the South Sámi people in particular, a minority within the minority. Inspired by decolonising perspectives, this article reveals that older South Sámi are worried for the future, not only due to memories from the past but also their experiences with persisting colonial practices such as the ongoing enlargement of windmill parks and cabin areas in the midst of the winter pastures of the South Sámi reindeer herders. Hopefully, the time has come to finally put an end to colonial practices and take collective responsibility for creating a more just future for both coloniser and colonised. Similarly to the participants in this study, the report from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission also stresses issues such as loss of language, experience of racism, and reindeer husbandry being under pressure. This report may therefore be used as an important tool to ameliorate the conditions of the Sámi people if taken into consideration in the time to come.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050071
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 72: Making Typicality: The Birth and Rebirth of
           the Torta Mattone of Bressana Bottarone, Italy

    • Authors: Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco
      First page: 72
      Abstract: This article addresses the concept of “typicality” in community products, proposing a performative interpretation of this category. It ethnographically demonstrates how identifying products as “typical” is a process that involves a community in constructing both the product and its meaning. To illustrate this, this study delves into the case of Torta Mattone from Bressana Bottarone (PV) and its history. It highlights how, over 50 years, this dessert has been created and recreated as a symbol of the community in response to the pressing needs it faced amidst socio-economic changes. In doing so, this paper details its micro-gastronomic history, illustrating how the Torta Mattone has become instrumental in maintaining the social and cultural cohesion of the Oltrepo Pavese area.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050072
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 73: Controlling Reproduction and Disrupting
           Family Formation: California Women’s Prisons and the Violent Legacy
           of Eugenics

    • Authors: Vrindavani Avila, Jennifer Elyse James
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Prisons in the United States serve as a site and embodiment of gendered and racialized state violence. The US incarcerates more people than any other nation in both numbers and per capita rates. Individuals incarcerated in women’s prisons are 10% of the total prison population, yet women’s prisons remain understudied, and the violence that occurs in women’s facilities is rampant, widespread, and operates in particular racialized and gendered ways. This paper centers the forced sterilizations that occurred in California state prisons over the last two decades. We consider how reproduction and the nuclear family have served as a primary site of racial capitalism and eugenic ideology. While eugenic policies were popularized and promoted across the US and globally in the 20th century, the violent ideas underlying eugenic ideology have been a constant presence throughout US history. The height of the eugenics era is marked by the forcible sterilization of institutionalized ‘deviant’ bodies. While discussions of eugenics often center these programs, the reach of eugenic policies extends far beyond surgical interventions. We utilize a reproductive justice lens to argue that the hierarchical, racialized social stratification necessary for the existence of prisons constructs and sustains the ‘deviant’ bodies and families that predicate eugenic logic, policies, and practices. In this conceptual paper, we draw from ongoing research to argue that prisons, as institutions and as a product of racial capitalism, perpetuate the ongoing violent legacy of eugenics and name abolition as a central component of the fight to end reproductive oppression.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14050073
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 43: Disinformation and Fact-Checking in the Face
           of Natural Disasters: A Case Study on Turkey–Syria Earthquakes

    • Authors: Sandra Méndez-Muros, Marián Alonso-González, Concha Pérez-Curiel
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Natural disasters linked to contexts of unpredictability and surprise generate a climate of uncertainty in the population, resulting in an exponential increase in disinformation. These are crisis situations that cause the management of public and governmental institutions to be questioned, diminish citizens’ trust in the media, and reinforce anonymity in social networks. New digital algorithms create a scenario plagued by fake news and levels of viralization of rumors never before contemplated. Our objective is to analyze the verification capacity of fact-checking agencies at X at times of information disorder, such as the Turkey–Syria earthquakes in 2023. We apply a mixed methodology of comparative content analysis to government, news agency, and IFCN accounts, generating a general sample (n = 46,747) that is then subjected to thematic categorization to create a specific sample (n = 564). The results indicate a low commitment to fact-checking on the part of official bodies and news agencies, as opposed to fact-checking agencies’ accurate handling of the facts. The lack of debate and engagement generated by digital audiences in the face of the discursive intentionality of disinformation is significant.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040043
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 44: Social Justice Profiles: An Exploratory
           Study towards an Empirically Based Multi-Dimensional Classification of
           Countries Regarding Fairness of Participation in Higher Education

    • Authors: Pepka Boyadjieva, Kaloyan Haralampiev, Petya Ilieva-Trichkova
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The aim of this article is to suggest a better—theoretically and empirically grounded—understanding of the complex character of social justice in higher education. Theoretically, this article conceptualises social justice in higher education as mediating participation in, completion of and outcomes from higher education. It introduces the concept of composite capability for achieving higher education that captures capabilities to participate in, complete and gain outcomes from higher education. This study also develops a methodology for building an empirically based classification of countries regarding social justice in participation in higher education, taking into account the assessed inequality in students’ pathways to higher education as well as inequality in their social conditions, associated with students’ social origin. In so doing, it develops three indices: the index of inequalities in students’ pathways, the index of inequalities in students’ social conditions and the index of participation in higher education. Using microdata from the EUROSTUDENT VII survey (2019–2021) for 12 European countries, it applies the developed methodology to classify countries, for which data are available, by the degree of fairness in participation in higher education. This study’s results demonstrate the social embeddedness of social justice in higher education in different economic and political contexts.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040044
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 45: Informing the Design of an Accessible Arabic
           Typeface: A Visual Analysis to Identify Letterform Features of
           Dyslexia-Friendly Typefaces

    • Authors: Muneera Mohamed Hejres, Amanda J. Tinker
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Dyslexia-friendly typefaces for the Latin script have been proliferating during the past decade. The typefaces are designed to tackle the challenges faced in a dyslexic reading experience by manipulating their letter forms and typographic attributes; several studies reported a positive effect on the reading experience. To this date, no working dyslexia-friendly Arabic typefaces are available for the public. The present study is part of a larger practice-based research, where a novel dyslexia-friendly Arabic typeface is designed using a user-centred design approach. The current visual analysis marks the developmental phase, identifying the letterform features of dyslexia-friendly Latin typefaces that can be mapped to the Arabic script. This article explores the typographic features of dyslexia-friendly Latin typefaces by conducting a qualitative visual analysis; a proposed modified version of Leeuwen’s Typographic Distinctive Features Framework is employed. The results are discussed considering the Arabic script’s visual implications in a dyslexic reading experience. The findings of this study are used to create a list of design considerations for a dyslexia-friendly Arabic typeface.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040045
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 46: The Perspectives of Māori and Pasifika
           Mate Kirikōpū (Endometriosis) Patients in Aotearoa New Zealand

    • Authors: Katherine Ellis, Jordan Tewhaiti-Smith, Deborah Munro, Rachael Wood
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Experiences with endometriosis have been understudied in indigenous and people of colour populations. This study aimed to investigate the experiences of Māori and Pasifika endometriosis patients in Aotearoa New Zealand. Twenty-seven Māori endometriosis participants from 21 iwi (tribes), and 10 Pasifika participants from 8 different island nations participated in online, asynchronous, anonymous text-based discussions about their endometriosis journeys. Their explanations were analysed qualitatively with an inductive thematic approach. The average delay from symptom onset to a confirmed or suspected endometriosis diagnosis was 11.6 ± 7.8 years in the Māori cohort and 12.4 ± 6.2 years in the Pasifika cohort. There were high levels of dissatisfaction with the availability of treatment, with 66.7% of Māori participants and 60.0% of Pasifika participants feeling that endometriosis treatment was not readily available to them. Poor experiences with the medical profession might dissuade Māori and Pasifika patients from seeking care, exacerbating a culture of distrust and perpetuating healthcare inequities. This could potentially be improved by increasing the capacity to take time for relationship building within general practice or through the incorporation of cultural advisors to support relationship establishment that emphasises holistic consideration of patient well-being and culturally safe care.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040046
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 47: Taking Back Control: Human Rights and Human
           Trafficking in the United Kingdom

    • Authors: Todd Landman, Ben Brewster, Sara Thornton
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Modern slavery and human trafficking are well recognized as significant problems in need of legislation, policies, and actions from a wide range of stakeholders in the United Kingdom. The passage of the UK Modern Slavery Act 2015 is a hallmark of these concerns and has made the UK a world leader in the fight against modern slavery and human trafficking, a legislative development that is in line with the country’s broader formal commitment to the international and European human rights regime. In the post-Brexit period, however, there has been an increasing de jure conflation of modern slavery and human trafficking with efforts to curb immigration, leading to a significant questioning of the UK’s commitment to human rights. This article locates the consideration of human rights and human trafficking within these broader political trends in order to understand the prospects for meaningful measures to combat modern slavery and human trafficking in the future.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040047
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 48: Toward Gender Understanding: Examining
           Ambivalent Sexism among University Students and Its Impact on Faculty
           Evaluation

    • Authors: Amaia Yurrebaso Macho, Raquel Guzmán-Ordaz, Eva Picado-Valverde, Álvaro Jáñez González
      First page: 48
      Abstract: This study examines gender differences in levels of sexism among university students and evaluates variations in assessing sexist attitudes toward professors. The aim is to analyze potential disparities between men and women regarding ambivalent sexism (both hostile and benevolent) and to determine if these differences influence the evaluation of specific behaviors by teaching faculty. Additionally, the present study seeks to validate the variability hypothesis, asserting that men are over-represented in the extremes of distributions compared to women concerning analyzed sexist attitudes. Eighty university students participated voluntarily and anonymously, completing three questionnaires on ambivalent sexism, neosexism, and the assessment of sexist behaviors by their instructors. Consistent with prior research, the results reveal higher levels of sexism among men in this context. Despite these differences, both men and women align in evaluating specific behaviors in teaching faculty, irrespective of their individual levels of sexism. Finally, the data presented support the variability hypothesis, indicating greater variability in sexist attitudes among men than women. These findings suggest that general attitudes assessed in most questionnaires might not be representative of the behaviors and attitudes that people display in real specific situations. This could change how future research and interventions approach these issues.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040048
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 49: From Scientific Journals to Newspapers in
           Spain: Interest in Disinformation (2000–2023)

    • Authors: Beatriz Catalina García, María del Carmen García Galera, Mercedes Del Hoyo Hurtado
      First page: 49
      Abstract: As disinformation has become a topic of conversation in the media in recent years, the theory of agenda setting is once again making its presence known. The aim of this research is to verify the degree of interest in disinformation by the media (mainstream press) and in academic writing (scientific communication journals) according to frequency and whether or not such disinformation can be observed in the field of science. The primary research has been carried out through quantitative content analysis of three Spanish newspapers (El País, Abc, El Mundo) and 32 Spanish scientific communication journals included in the SJR-SCImago Journal Rank database from the year 2000 to 2023. The results were 732 units of analysis. From those, it can be concluded that once again, the pandemic represents a before and after. Firstly, a general increase in disinformation has been observed, as well as a corresponding rise in false information in certain fields of science, especially that of health. Secondly, a gradual increase in public interest in disinformation has also been detected, which indicates that the issue is on the agenda of both the media and citizens.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040049
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 50: Enhancing Productivity at Home: The Role of
           Smart Work and Organizational Support in the Public Sector

    • Authors: Barbara Barbieri, Marina Mondo, Silvia De Simone, Roberta Pinna, Maura Galletta, Jessica Pileri, Diego Bellini
      First page: 50
      Abstract: In recent years, Italian Public Administrations (PAs) have swiftly adapted to flexible work arrangements due to the impact of COVID-19. The flexible work has led to addressing new challenges including the need to balance work demands with family commitments, a lack of social support, struggles with inadequate technology, and managing home interruptions that negatively affect home performance. Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study aims at examining the negative impact of home interruptions on smart working performance and the moderating role of two potential job resources: organizational support and perceived quality of the smart working. A convenience sample of 301 Italian public employees engaged in smart working completed an online questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that organizational support plays a moderating role in reducing the negative effect of interruptions on home performance. However, the findings did not support a moderating role for the perceived quality of smart working. Overall, these findings highlight the critical role of social factors in buffering the negative effects of smart working, as compared to the quality of the technological arrangements. This information could be valuable for organizations looking to enhance the effectiveness of smart working by focusing on organizational support.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040050
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 51: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking: Adult
           Women’s Experiences While They Were Adolescents

    • Authors: Karla Lorena Andrade-Rubio, José Moral-de-la-Rubia, Simón Pedro Izcara-Palacios
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The concept of vulnerability to sex trafficking has been the subject of intense academic debate. It is well documented in the literature that child sex trafficking is facilitated by the abuse of a position of vulnerability, though limited research has focused on children’s order of birth as an element of vulnerability to sex trafficking. The objective of this article, based on a sample of 112 Central American women smuggled to the United States for the sex trade before they had attained the age of eighteen years, is to examine whether the order of birth constitutes an element of vulnerability to sex trafficking. Trafficked minors had vulnerabilities linked to structural-level and individual-level factors. We conclude that sisters occupying the first place in the order of birth are the most susceptible to being recruited by an international network that smuggles women for prostitution. On the contrary, the youngest and middle sisters are less at risk due to the protection and guidance of the other sisters.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040051
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 52: Medical Students’ Views on Cannabis
           Use in Recreational Contexts Are Related to Their Own Consumption
           Intention

    • Authors: Anca-Livia Panfil, Simona C. Tamasan, Lucretia Marin-Bancila, Bianca Matei, Minas G. Musca, Claudia C. Vasilian, Alina Petrica, Diana Lungeanu
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Health professionals are regarded as important sources of information and guidance for healthy living. Knowing health determinants and risks, and invested with credibility in society, many struggle with their own human limits to apply these principles. A cross-sectional study was conducted among advanced medical students to assess their attitude towards recreational cannabis consumption, intention to use it, and their opinion of its legal status. Secondary objectives were to explore the relation of these primary outcomes to: (a) potentially addictive habits (such as smoking and drinking); (b) individuals’ disturbances in self-organization (DSOs), defined in the ICD-11 as pervasive chronic effects of traumatic experiences or stressful events. An anonymous online questionnaire active in November 2022 collected data from 171 medical students, of which almost 56% were in favor of recreational cannabis legalization. In a logistic regression analysis, each additional point of own consumption intention (on a scale from 1 to 5) was found to increase the odds of a positive opinion of legalization by three times, when controlling for gender, age, smoking, drinking, onset age of smoking, and DSO: OR = 2.918, 95%CI (1.893–4.497). In conclusion, health professionals’ personal beliefs and practices regarding substance use have a significant subjective component.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040052
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 53: What Are the Current Directions in the Local
           Marketplaces Fiscalization' The Online Media Content Analysis

    • Authors: Stefan Denda, Marko D. Petrović, Zlata Vuksanović-Macura, Milan M. Radovanović, Edna Ely-Ledesma
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Local markets have been a special setting throughout human history. Apart from their important social role, they had immeasurable economic importance as primary forms of exchange of goods (trade). Nonetheless, they experienced numerous transformational changes that affected their functioning. Like other countries, Serbia has a long tradition of market activity. However, several novelties have been introduced in recent years. Among many, the process of e-fiscalization is the main issue. Therefore, the focus of our research is based on a qualitative analysis of online media content (news and comments) related to the fiscalization of market activity. The attitudes of different categories of participants (state authorities, vendors, and customers) were analyzed. LIGRE open-access software was used for this purpose. The results of the analysis showed conflicting parties. Legislators emphasize the exclusive positive effects, while vendors point to the negative side of fiscalization. As a third party, customers (service users) have an undefined attitude in relation to fiscalization (pros/cons/neutral). There is an agreement to introduce market activity into legal flows. However, the key prerequisite is the prior resolution of a number of problems (working conditions, business costs, market monopoly, etc.).
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040053
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 54: Unveiling the Complex Facets of Poverty:
           Unidimensional and Multidimensional Insights from Rural Areas of Suri
           Sadar Sub-Division, Birbhum District, Eastern India

    • Authors: Ranajit Ghosh, Prolay Mondal
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Poverty, particularly in developing regions, is a complex, multifaceted issue deeply embedded in various interrelated factors. It extends beyond mere financial insufficiency, encompassing limited access to essential services such as healthcare, education, and overall living standards. This study examines both the unidimensional and multidimensional aspects of rural poverty in Suri Sadar Sub-Division, located in Eastern India. For the unidimensional aspect, this study employs the poverty headcount ratio and the Poverty Gap Index to gauge the incidence and intensity of poverty. In contrast, the multidimensional approach utilized three dimensions and 12 indicators to assess the incidence, severity, and multidimensional poverty index utilizing the Alkire–Foster (AF) methodology. The unidimensional analysis, focusing on income and consumption, highlights significant economic disparities, particularly in the western Community Development Blocks, namely, Khoyrasole, Md. Bazar, and Rajnagar. The highest levels of multidimensional poverty are generally consistent with the unidimensional findings, particularly in the western blocks. These results underscore the need for comprehensive poverty reduction strategies that address both economic and broader aspects of poverty. In areas like the western blocks, where both income-based and multidimensional poverty rates are high, strategies should integrate economic development, improved healthcare access, enhanced educational quality, and living standards improvement. Therefore, this study serves not only as an academic endeavor but also as a vital tool for informed policymaking in poverty alleviation, providing planners, administrative officials, and researchers with essential insights to develop effective, localized, and sustainable poverty reduction strategies.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040054
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 55: Exploring Narratives of Teachers Working
           with Culturally Diverse Students: Any Insights about Inclusion'

    • Authors: Eleni Samsari, Nektaria Palaiologou, Georgios Nikolaou
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The aim of the present study is to capture the teachers’ reflections and lived experiences on the inclusion of culturally diverse students in Greek school settings. Through a qualitative narrative inquiry approach, teachers share their personal accounts and stories about their efforts, initiatives, and moves towards more inclusive schooling, as well as the barriers they face in the school environment. Five (n = 5) primary school teachers were recruited purposefully because of their work experience with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students in mainstream, integration or reception classes. Narrative-discursive analysis unravels the effectiveness of inclusive practice in Greece for culturally diverse students according to specific aspects of inclusive pedagogy such as progressive education, transformative learning, innovative practices, and strategies, as well as school–family partnership. Teachers’ experiences revealed their complex work to handle the increasing diversity in schools and to respond to all students’ needs in a context of slow but steady measures towards inclusion.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14040055
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 4 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 31: From Theory to Action: A Saudi Arabian Case
           Study of Feminist Academic Activism against State Oppression

    • Authors: Lana Sirri
      First page: 31
      Abstract: This article explores the intricate landscape of women’s rights in Saudi Arabia, an authoritarian state within the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC), where the pursuit of modernization strategically utilizes women’s issues as symbols of national identity and markers of progress. The article focuses on the transformative potential of academic activism, exemplified by the work of Hatoon Ajwad al-Fassi, in countering oppression against women. It demonstrates how women navigate the realms of academia and activism to reshape gender dynamics and shape their nation’s modernization trajectory. By emphasizing the critical intersection between academic inquiry and activism, this article dispels the misconception that academia and activism are mutually exclusive. In contexts such as Saudi Arabia, where women’s rights face suppression, this intersection emerges as imperative for informed research and frontline advocacy, effectively addressing state-sponsored violence. Furthermore, this article critically evaluates the persistent challenge of feminist neo-Orientalist scholarship, which often distorts the depiction of Saudi women’s experiences. It offers a contribution to a nuanced understanding of women’s theorization that includes the ethico-political context within which women operate.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030031
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 32: Social Theory and Navigating Indeterminacy:
           A Configurational Analysis of Iranian Youth’s Identity Construction
           in Contemporary Iran

    • Authors: Abbas Jong
      First page: 32
      Abstract: An emerging disparity within contemporary social science highlights a disconnection between the world in the process of metamorphosing and cosmopolitanization and the knowledge of the social world that is still trapped in the cognitive assumptions of modern episteme, which provided the conditions for the emergence of modern social sciences a century ago. This divide inhibits the efficacy of social analysis in comprehending and elucidating contemporary phenomena. This article advocates for a shift in the ontology of social theory and science towards the cosmopolitanization of the world, characterized by the prioritization of indeterminacy and fluidity in the construction of social phenomena. It investigates the epistemological implications and prerequisites of this ontological transformation, favoring a post-foundationalist approach as the most suitable epistemological framework. In response to the challenges posed by the uncertainty and indeterminacy of cosmopolitanization, after reviewing some of the existing theoretical efforts to address and provide alternatives to this challenge, the article proposes the examination of social configurations as the most fitting subjects for study. This approach necessitates the suspension of conventional, given, regulated categories, and trans-historical theories. It underscores the importance of recognizing configurations as incomplete, contingent units shaped within specific historical contexts and moments. The fluidity, relationality, and indeterminacy of configurations situated between the universal and the singular make them suitable for analysis at the level of particular. After elaborating on the most important features of social configurations, finally, by employing the proposed theoretical framework, this article aims to investigate its effectiveness in analyzing the process of identity construction among Iranian youth in Tehran in the context of the cosmopolitanization of reality, particularly in the face of the Islamist regime of Iran’s official politics of identity. Through a review and revision of selected empirical studies on youth identity construction in the consumer spaces of Tehran, based on the idea of social configurations within the framework of cosmopolitanization, it is argued that the genuine understanding of identity politics in contemporary Iran is not rooted in conventional analytical norms and categories but rather in a comprehensible conceptual apparatus characterized by fluidity and indeterminacy, capable of effectively making sense of the conflict between the politics of determinacy and indeterminacy in Iranian everyday life.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030032
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 33: Connected Art Practice: Transformative
           Learning Environments for Transdisciplinary Competences

    • Authors: Dan Norton, Frances-Ann Norton, Stella Veciana
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This article explores the implementation of Connected Art Practice in diverse learning environments, serving as an immersive entry point for students and researchers to develop collaborative transdisciplinary skills. This innovative approach integrates audio, educational, and sustainability research, employing sound-interaction methods applied to tangible objects. Participants engage in exploring the interplay between objects representing interests or values, fostering the creation of a visual and linguistic network of interconnectedness. Inspired by artistic research, particularly Dérive, the practice provides experiences of connectedness to others and the environment, intertwined with reflections and discussions that foster a community of inquiry. This community collaboratively designs shared practices or projects, encouraging a holistic approach to transformative learning, addressing heterogeneity, complexity, authenticity, critical awareness, and emotional connectedness. All three case studies utilized qualitative analysis in artistic and academic settings. Datasets were collected in case study two from group discussion, participant observation, press releases and documentary photographs. In case studies one and three, audio–visual recordings, participant observation, field notes, and photo-documentation were collected. This study demonstrates that “Connected Art Practice” enhances competences in artistic expression, communication, and collaboration across disciplinary, social, and cultural boundaries. Specifically, it contributes to creative reinvention, personal sharing, self-reflection, and the capacity to co-design diverse projects. The paper concludes by discussing findings and pointing out the essential qualities of Connected Art, providing insights and resources for educational and research institutions seeking to foster transdisciplinary engagement and transformative learning in their curricular activities.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030033
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 34: “Part of Who We Are…”: A
           Review of the Literature Addressing the Sociocultural Role of Traditional
           Foods in Food Security for Indigenous People in Northern Canada

    • Authors: Naomi Trott, Monica E. Mulrennan
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Indigenous people in northern Canada have relied on sustained and safe access to traditional foods for millennia. Today, however, they experience higher rates of food insecurity than non-Indigenous people or Indigenous people living in urban settings. Changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the Canadian north have altered traditional food acquisition and consumption patterns, with implications for health and wellbeing, and cultural continuity. To assess the breadth and depth of scholarship on the sociocultural role of traditional foods in northern Indigenous food security, we conducted a scoping review of online peer-reviewed articles. The 22 articles selected and screened for comprehensive review affirmed that traditional foods remain vital and central to food security for northern Indigenous populations. However, our review brings to light a recurring tendency in these studies to disregard or inadequately consider the complex sociocultural dimensions of traditional foods, such as the critical role of food processing, cooking, and sharing in supporting Indigenous food security. To address this gap and ensure food security is aligned with Indigenous-defined needs and priorities, community-led research is needed, grounded in Indigenous knowledge that promotes access to traditional foods and affirms Indigenous food sovereignty.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030034
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 35: Oops, I Did It Again! The Humour of
           

    • Authors: Philip Welding
      First page: 35
      Abstract: This article explores the incongruous results of creativity and risk-taking within art practice and everyday life as encountered through the photographic image. The impetus for this study was a humorous experience that took place during health and safety training that raised questions about the role of humour within everyday life. Research was conducted into two forms of visual media, including pamphlets and guides from the British Safety Council (BSC) archives and viral images that demonstrate accidents (tagged with an ‘epic fail’ hashtag). This led to a practice-based approach to research involving the production of photographic works for an exhibition that tested the role of risk-taking and improvisation within the creative process. This article uses humour theory including superiority, incongruity and relief theory in relation to Louise Peacock’s model for the analysis of slapstick, to analyse these different types of photographs and draws comparisons between the risk-taking creative behaviours of both employees and artists. These creative approaches are considered in relation to Michel de Certeau’s notion of tactics within everyday life. Ordinary thinking and improvisational tactics are present within both art and work, and improvisation heightens the potential for risk-taking. This may lead to incongruities represented through a photograph which can impact the viewer’s engagement through humour, fascination or self-reflexivity. It is proposed that the viewer response to images containing risk is made up of a balance between an embodied understanding of the dangers and an awareness of the artifice, which can shift depending on the conditions of the photograph’s production and display. The peculiarities of the photograph are seen as conducive to a humour response because of the photograph’s ambiguous relationship with the reality that it represents.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030035
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 36: Parenting Experiences of Informal Kinship
           Caregivers: Similarities and Differences between Grandparents and Other
           Relatives

    • Authors: Eun Koh, Laura Daughtery, Yongwon Lee, Jude Ozughen
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Informal kinship care, an arrangement that is made without the involvement of a child welfare agency or a court, makes up the majority of kinship arrangements in the United States. However, the current literature on informal kinship care is very limited. In response, this study explored informal kinship caregivers’ parenting experiences, comparing those of grandparents and other relatives. Anonymous survey responses from 146 informal kinship caregivers (114 grandparents and 32 other relatives) were analyzed. This study found similarities and differences between grandparents and other relatives. Compared to other relatives, grandparents were significantly older and less likely to be married. Over 60% of the caregivers, both grandparents and other relatives, had an annual household income of USD 50,000 or less but did not receive any governmental benefits. Furthermore, other relatives accessed and utilized community resources at significantly lower rates. This study observed significant challenges of informal kinship families, including financial difficulties and child mental health/behavioral issues. At the same time, it noted their strengths and resilience, with most participants reporting a positive perception of their caregiving experience. Programs and services for informal kinship families should reflect their unique experiences, building upon their strengths and resilience.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030036
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 37: COVID-19, Race, and Crime: An Early Look at
           Racial Disparities in U.S. Arrest Data throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Calvin Proffit, Ben Feldmeyer
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Background: This study explores how arrests changed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic across race. Daily life changed for everyone across the country with the onset of the pandemic, and early works have shown that crime changed in this period. Method: Official arrest data were pulled from the Indiana State Police database for several violent and property crimes covering 26 counties. Data were gathered from 2017 to 2021 for a comparison of pre-COVID-19 versus after the onset of COVID-19 (2020–2021). An OLS regression was run to assess differences in these patterns of arrests across Black and White populations. Results: This analysis finds that Black homicide, White homicide, and total Black violent crime arrests were significantly related to COVID-19 measures after controlling for other variables. The COVID-19 measures indicate that these crimes saw an increase in arrest after the onset of the pandemic and that these effects may not have been identical across race. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was linked to crime across race in the state of Indiana. Moving forward, it is important to uncover how crime changed across race in other locales and exactly what mechanisms may have driven these changes.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030037
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 38: Examining Financial Hardship and Caregiver
           Subgroups in Kinship Foster Placements: A Machine Learning Approach

    • Authors: Imani Careese Johnson, Solomon Hadi Achulo, Kanisha Coleman Brevard, David Ansong
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Children placed with kinship foster parents can experience less disruption and stronger family ties than children in non-kinship placements. However, financial hardship can restrict kinship caregivers from taking in relatives’ children. This study investigated (1) kinship caregivers’ financial standing compared to a national subsample of caregivers and (2) whether certain factors moderate the likelihood that a kinship caregiver will be able to provide care for additional non-relative children without additional financial assistance from the Department of Social Services (DSS). This study utilized primary data from 345 relatives across North Carolina and nationally representative secondary data on 6394 individuals’ financial circumstances. One-sample t-tests and chi-square goodness-of-fit tests revealed that caregivers who participated in our study generally fared better financially than caregivers at the national level. Model-based recursive partitioning results showed that if an additional child is placed in the home, the caregiver’s perceived capacity to provide care without extra DSS support decreased by approximately 19%, with a greater decrease (35%) among a subgroup of caregivers with low financial well-being status. The heterogeneity in caregivers’ experiences, capacities, and financial needs buttresses the need for nuanced interventions and programs targeting these caregivers, enabling them to provide more stable care for children placed in their homes.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030038
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 39: Translation and Validation of the German
           Version of the Ikigai-9

    • Authors: André Hajek, Tadanori Imai, Larissa Zwar, Hans-Helmut König
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Background: The Japanese concept of “ikigai” embodies the feeling of having a meaningful purpose in life. It is associated with several positive outcomes. This study aimed to translate and validate the German version of the Ikigai-9 scale (Ikigai-9-G)—and ikigai scores for certain groups of interest were presented. Methods: Data were taken from a quota sample of the German adult population aged 18 to 74 years (n = 5000; representative in terms of age, sex, and state). Data were collected in August/September 2023. The translation process was conducted in accordance with the existing guidelines. Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha; McDonald’s omega) was assessed. Moreover, we evaluated the structure’s soundness using confirmatory factor analysis for construct validity and examined concurrent validity by exploring pairwise correlations between the Ikigai-9-G with life satisfaction, happiness, health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Additionally, we presented ikigai scores for specific sociodemographic groups of interest. Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the Ikigai-9-G equaled 0.88. The results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the original three-factor model as initially proposed. A higher sense of ikigai was associated with less depressive symptoms (r = −0.43, p < 0.001), less anxiety symptoms (r = −0.39, p < 0.001), higher health-related quality of life (r = 0.42, p < 0.001), higher happiness levels (r = 0.62, p < 0.001), and higher satisfaction with life levels (r = 0.57, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The Ikigai-9 scale is a psychometrically sound tool offering the possibility for assessing ikigai among German speakers. Additional translation and validation studies are required to facilitate comparisons across different countries.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030039
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 40: Beyond Words: Tapping the Potential of
           Digital Diaries While Exploring Young Adults’ Experiences on Apps

    • Authors: Rita Alcaire, Ana Marta M. Flores, Eduardo Antunes
      First page: 40
      Abstract: In the dynamic landscape of online interactions, this article explores the use of digital diaries to unravel the intricacy of Portugal young adults’ experiences within the realm of apps and their connection to gender dynamics. By designing a digital participatory research method, we were able to reflect on the participants’ experiences in maintaining the requested diaries, scrutinize the major themes in the narratives generated through this approach, and examine how participants interacted with the prompts sent to them. Therefore, we delved into how participants both challenged and (re)negotiated these solicitations and how their agency led to an untapped reservoir of insights for the project in ways that went beyond words. There were visual and non-verbal elements that brought insights into young adults’ interactions with mobile applications, offering a comprehensive exploration of four key themes: mobile apps as part of young adults’ routines, between performance and authenticity, making the diaries their own, and elaborating on feelings. We also explored diary methods at the convergence of various disciplines and their high potential for contributing to topics related to gender, mental health, productivity, relationships, online identity management, apps in everyday life, intimacy, and more in creative ways.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030040
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 41: An Exploratory Typology for Understanding
           Family-Relationship Issues in Kinship-Care Placements

    • Authors: Amilie Dorval, Sonia Hélie, Marie-Andrée Poirier
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Family relationships are a distinctive feature of kinship-care placements, but very few studies have examined how the dynamics of these relationships affect the placement experience. This article does explore these dynamics and identifies some possible patterns, as experienced and reported by parents of children placed in kinship care. The findings presented here come from a qualitative study employing a life-story methodology, in which nine parents were interviewed on two occasions each. All of them had experienced the permanent placement of at least one of their children with a member of their extended family, under the direction of a government child-protection agency. Drawing from significant themes in parental narratives, particularly that of relationships, we analyzed and delineated three distinct profiles. In the first profile, a family solidarity was present between the parents and the kinship caregivers before the placement and was maintained during the placement. In the second, the parents struggled to keep their place in their children’s lives, thus experiencing conflicts both with the kinship caregivers and with the child-protection agency. In the third profile, the dynamics of the current relationship between both biological parents influenced the other family relationships of the parent who was interviewed.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030041
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 42: Innovation 4.0 Policies in Italy: Strengths
           and Weaknesses of the Innovation Ecosystem of the “Transition
           4.0” Plan from an International Perspective

    • Authors: Francesco Orazi, Federico Sofritti
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Innovation 4.0 is a strategic lever of industrial policies. That is the reason why, over the last decade, many European countries have introduced national plans to implement it in their economic fabric. Within this context, this paper focuses on the effects of Industry 4.0 policies in Italy and Europe by presenting the results of a research study on the national and continental ecosystems of innovation. In particular, the study was conducted by involving the main key bodies introduced by the “Transition 4.0” plan in Italy: Competence Centers (CCs), Digital Innovation Hubs (DIHs), and Punti Impresa Digitale (PID). The study adopted a qualitative–quantitative approach: an analysis of gray literature, semi-structured interviews, and a survey involving Italian and European DIHs were carried out. The results highlight an ambivalent scenario: on the one hand, the research suggests that the consolidation of the ecosystems of innovation is underway in Italy and relies on good organizational capacity; on the other hand, the international comparison indicates that the Italian system still suffers from a marked territorial and institutional fragmentation that needs to be addressed in the coming years.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14030042
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 18: An Analysis of the Demand for Tourist
           Accommodation to Travel with Dogs in Spain

    • Authors: José E. Ramos-Ruiz, Minerva Aguilar-Rivero, Jaime Aja-Valle, Lucía Castaño-Prieto
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Pets, generally, and dogs have become an essential part of families. This situation implies that people consider their dogs when planning family holidays, excluding moving to a second home. This study aims to investigate the perceptions of dog owners according to the demand for tourist establishments where they can stay with their pets. A total of 1391 dog owners’ surveys were collected and analyzed, and various covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM) was developed to determine the suitability of the measurement model, the second-order factors, and the relationships between the different constructs. The main results of this research show that the motivations for traveling with the dog, the limitations this encounters, and, above all, the attachment that the family has with its pet significantly influence the choice of accommodation. The findings of this research will help hotel managers with the design of policies that meet the needs of families travelling with their dogs. The analysis of dog owners’ motivations for choosing tourist accommodation due to their attachment and the limitations for travelling allows us to obtain more accurate information.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020018
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 19: The Fifth Industrial Revolution as a
           Transformative Step towards Society 5.0

    • Authors: Rushan Ziatdinov, Madhu Sudhan Atteraya, Rifkat Nabiyev
      First page: 19
      Abstract: This concept paper aims to shed light on the emergence of the first to the fifth industrial revolutions, their evolution, and their transformative steps towards Society 5.0. By explaining the nuances of the different phases of industrial revolutions and their positive and negative externalities, we found that the fifth industrial revolution can be considered a transformative step for the emergence or coevolution of Society 5.0. By examining how Society 5.0 affects various aspects of human society (e.g., advances in healthcare and improved life expectancy; business, the economy, growth, and industry; education and skills; privacy and cybersecurity; smart cities; labour and the workforce), we conclude that Society 5.0 should move forward by adhering to the harmonious integration of humans and technology to address the world’s pressing problems in the future.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020019
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 20: How Young Italians Negotiate and Redefine
           Their Identity in the Mobility Experience

    • Authors: Mauro Giardiello, Hernan I. Cuervo, Rosa Capobianco
      First page: 20
      Abstract: In this article we analyze the formation of different identity models of Italian young people experiencing mobility. The article contributes to study the link between youth mobility and identity. It does so through the development of a theoretical perspective that combines Butler’s post-structuralism with Bourdieu’s category of embodied cultural capital. Drawing on this theoretical framework, we analyze the identity formation of young Italians who emigrated to Australia in the last 10 years. The data show the emergence of an identity made up of a complex set of interconnected levels, composed of an incorporated dimension that constitutes the basis of their roots and the performative part that represents the mobile dimension subject to transformation in the course of life evolution. This interpretative lens enables the understanding of how the process of incorporation is connected to the performative and self-transformative one of identity, but also how the different combination of fixed and mobile aspects defines different profiles of identity and a different way of perceiving being Italians.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020020
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 21: A SWOT: Thematic Analysis of Pedagogical
           Practices at Inclusive School of Pakistan

    • Authors: Mahwish Kamran, Nazia Bano, Sohni Siddiqui
      First page: 21
      Abstract: In Pakistan, where the subject of special/inclusive education is still taboo, there is a need to promote inclusivity in education. However, the journey begins at the grassroots level by accommodating children with disabilities in a mainstream setup at the primary level. This paper presents the findings of an exploratory research study conducted in an inclusive private primary school in Karachi, Pakistan. This case study research draws on the pedagogical practices of classroom teachers in a private primary inclusive school in Karachi where children with disabilities study alongside their peers who do not have special educational needs or disabilities. The research study aimed to explore the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threat factors that could optimize the teaching and learning process of children with special educational needs (CWSN) or children with disabilities (CWD) in the context of an inclusive school located in Karachi, Pakistan. Through an analysis of 16 semi-structured interviews and multiple classroom and field observations, teachers’ understandings of their school’s institutional values and their pedagogical practices to accommodate children with disabilities and inclusion were explored. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a SWOT–thematic qualitative method. The results of the SWOT analysis indicate how an inclusive school caters to the strengths of CWD and provides them with opportunities to sustain themselves in an educational setup.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020021
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 22: Validation Using Structural Equations of the
           “Cursa-T” Scale to Measure Research and Digital Competencies
           in Undergraduate Students

    • Authors: Rocío Elizabeth Duarte Ayala, Antonio Palacios-Rodríguez, Yunuen Ixchel Guzmán-Cedillo, Leticia Rodríguez Segura
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Research competencies are considered essential in fields such as science, academia, and technology, and this research seeks to provide a reliable tool to evaluate them. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to validate the “Cursa-T” scale through an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, as well as through structural equations, to ensure that the data collected fit the proposed theoretical model. The study sample consists of 1104 university students, mostly female, and a questionnaire based on previous studies is used. The most important results of the research include the validation of the “Cursa-T” scale through advanced statistical methods, such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The scale is found to be reliable and valid for measuring undergraduate research and digital competencies, and the data collected fit the proposed theoretical model. The discussion of the research highlights the importance of technology, devices, software, and the use of platforms in the development of research and digital competencies in Health Sciences students. It also reflects on the role of social networks in these competencies, as they can facilitate participation in academic communities. Ultimately, the research underlines the relevance of preparing undergraduate students in health areas.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020022
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 23: The “Clockwork” Model for
           Deployment Technology Innovations in Sports Industry Ecosystem: Holistic
           Approach

    • Authors: Ekaterina Glebova, Michel Desbordes, Orsolya Czegledi
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The use of technology in different aspects of the sports industry is widespread across the world, affecting sports training, performance, judging, and spectating. However, the integration, deployment, and evolution of technologies in the sports industry ecosystem are still unclear and unexplained. In this paper, we aim to build and explain the conceptual model for deployment technologies in the sports ecosystem in a holistic approach. This conceptual model is based on a literature review and theoretical synthesis, coupled with 15 qualitative unstructured interviews with high-profile sport and technology experts. Then, we formulated 4 hypotheses and confirmed them using 15 qualitative unstructured interviews with technology and sports experts. The in-depth analysis of the literature and collected data let us build the “Clockwork” Model. To better visualize and explain the development of the model of deployment technologies in the sports ecosystem, based on the analysis of theoretical and empirical data, we compare the mechanism of the model with clockwork. Technology deployment is a complicated operational process and involves the continuous sequence of consecutive elements (stages), ideally functioning as a mechanism. Together, the hypotheses underscore the symbiotic relationship between traditional sports infrastructure and technological advancements, highlighting the importance of a balanced and well-functioning ecosystem for overall success and development in the sports industry. All four hypotheses were confirmed during the second set of interviews (N = 15). Furthermore, their synthesis brought us to build and refine the “Clockwork” conceptual model, which explains, articulates, and visually demonstrates the process of how technology innovations appear and evolve in the sports ecosystem; in other words, the continuous and cyclic process of technology implementation and deployment.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020023
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 24: “They Finally See Me, They Trust Me,
           My Brother’s Coming Home” Recognising the Motivations and Role
           of Siblings Who Become Kinship Carers

    • Authors: Lorna Stabler
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Despite a widespread focus on grandparents, a large proportion of kinship care in the UK is provided by older siblings. What drives older siblings to become kinship carers, and how this might differ from other kinship carers, is not well represented in academic literature. In this study, narrative interviews were carried out with thirteen adults across England, Scotland, and Wales who had experience being the main carer for their younger sibling(s) when their parents could not care for them sufficiently. The narrative method elicited holistic accounts of participants experiences of being a sibling carer, and the analysis generated three groups of narrative accounts highlighting how and why some sibling kinship care arrangements come about—with siblings wanting to bring their younger siblings back into their family; siblings trying to keep their younger siblings in their family; or older siblings stepping in to fill a gap in parenting at home. The paper draws on the narrative accounts of participants to build the groups, presenting an illustrative narrative account to represent each group. Importantly, these accounts demonstrate how becoming a kinship carer as an older sibling may, or may not, be recognised or fit into wider narratives of what becoming a kinship carer looks like. It is hoped that these accounts will prompt practitioners and policymakers to look more closely at the role of siblings when considering who is and who should be involved in deciding how to support children to remain within their family network.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020024
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 25: Retaining Non-EU Immigrants in Rural Areas
           to Sustain Depopulated Regions: Motives to Remain

    • Authors: Elisete Diogo
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Rural areas face multiple challenges. Among these are population decline and the attendant economic and social problems, namely demographic issues. Although the factors that draw immigrants to other countries are known, comprehending the factors that result in immigrants remaining in rural areas after their arrival could support informed local policies and practices. The purpose of the study is to explore the motivations that shape immigrants’ intentions to stay in Alentejo, a depopulated region in Portugal. The research questions are as follows: What motivates immigrants to remain in depopulated regions in Portugal' Furthermore, what contributions can practitioners and immigrants make to local policies and practices' Practitioners (n = 8) and non-European Union immigrants (n = 15) living in this region were interviewed between 2020 and 2021. The empirical data were analyzed using the MaxQDA software. The results indicated that the intention to remain in rural areas arises from a progressive process: this is a process that immigrants experience that motivates them to stay there long-term. The factors influencing the process include four components described throughout this work: (1) Instrumental and material motivations; (2) Emotional and social motivations; (3) Motivations based on the quality of life; and (4) Motivations based on the political dimension. The conclusions highlight the implications for policies and practices, suggesting more investment into rural regions to reverse the depopulation trend.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020025
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 26: Parental Status Connection and Social
           Network Variety in Adulthood

    • Authors: Adam Gemar
      First page: 26
      Abstract: This study enriches the literature on social networks and social capital by investigating how parental status potentially impacts social network diversity in adulthood. Using the 2018 iteration of the General Social Survey (GSS, n = 2348), a high quality nationally representative survey of the United States, we utilize latent class and regression analyses, finding that parental status, especially medium and cross-status occupational connections contribute to social capital in the form of network diversity. Yet, personal socio-economic factors, notably income and race, largely offset parental effects. This underscores the complexity of network composition, emphasizing the influential role of individual resources, attributes, and mobility in shaping social networks and forming bridging social capital.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020026
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 27: Expectations of Egyptian and German Sports
           Tourists Depending on Destination and Travel Companions

    • Authors: Jacqueline Tuchel, Luisa Hente, Alexander Hodeck, Sarah El El Beih, Mohamed Zoromba
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The expectations of (sports) tourists are individual and, therefore, particularly diverse. This study investigates the question to which extent expectations differ with regard to various aspects (accommodation, food, activities, meeting new people and fears) according to the destination in the home country or abroad and the travel companion. This study also investigates whether differences can be identified between the two studied countries. A total of 39 people in Egypt and 42 in Germany were asked about their individual and group expectations and fears by using the scenario technique. In small groups, the expectations of travelling with different travel companions (friends, partner and children or grandmother) and to different destinations were discussed to develop concrete wishes and goals. Results show that both the country of origin and the destination, as well as the travel companions, have an influence on expectations.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020027
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 28: “We Are Just Supposed to Be an NGO
           Helping”: A Qualitative Case Study of Health Workers’ and
           Volunteers’ Perceptions of the Government and Civil Society’s
           Role in Fighting Jiggers in Bungoma County, Kenya

    • Authors: Åse Walle Mørkve, Jackline Sitienei, Graziella Van den Bergh
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Non-governmental organizations (national and international) are important actors in addressing health issues in Kenya. Sandflea/jigger infections (tungiasis) are a public health challenge that severely affect children, older adults, and other vulnerable people in poor communities worldwide. In Kenya, NGOs have been involved in sandflea eradication for more than twenty years. Without treatment, the flea may cause debilitating infections and sores, resulting in difficulties with walking and grasping, as well as social harassment. This paper aims to shed light on health workers’ and volunteers’ perceptions of the government and civil society’s role in fighting jigger infections. Data were collected through a qualitative case study design, with a three-month fieldwork including participation in mobile jigger removal programs, 18 semi-structured in-depth interviews, informal talks, and observations, in five villages in Bungoma County. The thematic analysis of the data resulted in three recurring themes: (1) the NGO-driven jigger program as a (fragile) resource for local communities, (2) the need for more consistent collaboration between NGOs and public health services, and (3) the local perceptions of the governments’ responsibilities in combatting the plague. The findings imply that the 10-year-old national policy guidelines on the prevention and control of jigger infestations need to be updated; this includes the coordination of the public and private actors’ roles, the incorporation of lessons learned, and the need for a multisectoral One Health approach to combat the jigger menace in the country.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020028
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 29: The Human Rights of Sex Trafficking
           Survivors: Trends and Challenges in American Vacatur Laws

    • Authors: Patricia C. Rodda, Heather Smith-Cannoy
      First page: 29
      Abstract: For years, survivors of sex trafficking, people compelled by force or circumstance to engage in sex acts, were often wrongly convicted of prostitution and many collateral crimes in the United States. These convictions became a permanent part of survivors’ criminal records, inhibiting their ability to satisfy necessities for a dignified life—finding work and a place to live, or going to school. Since 2010, forty-five state legislatures across the US have sought to solve this problem by passing vacatur laws. These laws allow the survivors of sex trafficking a means to erase certain charges and convictions from their records. The American movement to support the human rights of sex trafficking victims is part of a larger, global non-criminalization movement to support survivors’ human rights. This article surveys the recent and robust diffusion of American vacatur laws, situates them amidst the larger, global non-criminalization movement, and highlights both the strengths and weaknesses of the current US vacatur laws with an eye toward closing the rights gap for sex trafficking survivors. We argue that extant vacatur legislation should be expanded to include all crimes traffickers compel victims to commit, should incorporate trauma-informed means for establishing victimhood, and should be passed at the federal level to ensure complete and uniform protection.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020029
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Societies, Vol. 14, Pages 30: Cripping Girlhood on Service Dog Tok

    • Authors: Anastasia Todd
      First page: 30
      Abstract: This article explores how disabled girl handlers crip girlhood on service dog tok, the emergent subculture on TikTok comprised of disabled handlers who upload and post videos about their everyday life in partnership with a service dog. Looking at the TikTok accounts and self-representational practices of three disabled girl handlers—Ava of @avaandcheddar, Claire of @rosie.the.sd, and Lexy of @muslimservicedogmom28—this article traces how their videos evince an audio–visual representation of interspecies intimacy, a becoming with, that complicates the familiar story of the disabled girl handler/service dog dyad that one might see or scroll past online—one of rehabilitative exceptionalism, disability disavowal, and chrononormative understandings of girlhood. On service dog tok, Ava, Claire, Lexy, and their service dogs broadcast the quotidian and move against a service dog sentimentalism that seeks to depoliticize disability and the relationship between disabled handlers and their service dogs. Their videos produce and circulate a nuanced understanding of interdependence, care, and ableism forged via the mutual entanglement with their service dogs. Ultimately, this article argues that disabled girl handlers on service dog tok upend what we think we know about disabled girls and girlhoods, recasting the meanings ascribed to their bodyminds, experiences, and their relationships with their service dogs in their own terms.
      Citation: Societies
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/soc14020030
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2024)
       
 
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