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Gender and Behaviour
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1596-9231 - ISSN (Online) 0117-7322
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [261 journals]
  • Effect of market access on the modernisation of smallholder women
           agro-food enterprises in free state province, South Africa

    • Authors: D. Mosia, V.M. Mmbengwa, J. Swanepoel
      Pages: 20350 - 20362
      Abstract: The study's main objective was to develop an empirical model that could be used to ensure that market access interventions could positively influence  the change of these enterprises. The quantitative data were collected using the survey method, while the qualitative data were collected using the focus  group sessions. The results showed that market access is highly correlated (r = 0.482, p = 0.000) with business ownership and moderately correlated with  management control. The results suggested that when business ownership, management control, and representative are included in the model with  market access, market access has minor but positively significant (β=0.059, p = 0.05) role to influence the smallholder women's transformation agro-food  enterprise. However, its effect on change is seen to the lowest compared to the confounding variables. These results imply that market access is not the  highest priority in effecting this farming system's transformation, rather business ownership, representation, and management control. For the Free  State province to modernize this farming system, it is recommended that the extension services should dwell more on ensuring that the women farmers  have ownership of land, representation in the value chain, and the management of the corporates dealing with market access. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Decolonisation through indigenisation in African literature: An

    • Authors: Funmilola Kemi Megbowon, Chijioke Uwah
      Pages: 20363 - 20374
      Abstract: The call for decolonisation in African societies remains a continual issue, even in contemporary times. One of the ways this is argued to be achieved is  through indigenization, a process that involves increasing incorporation of indigenous systems and resources in any context. Considering a literary  context and the position of African writers in Africa’s decolonisation pursuit, this study aims to answer the question “is the incorporation of African  proverbs in African literary text a valid tool for decolonisation through indigenization'” A textual analytical technique for the analysis of relevant proverbs  documented in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart is utilised in this study. The analysis reveals the indigenous African people’s worldview (dignity of labour and  hard-work, good character, and respect for elders) that was brought to light and reemphasised through the incorporated proverbs. Beside the  incorporation of African proverbs which promotes African identity, culture and uniqueness, this study concludes that African literary texts and the  embedded African proverbs are valid tools for decolonisation through indigenization. A deliberate reading of African literary works as well as both formal  and informal education on African proverbs will help in correcting obnoxious ex-colonial’s ideologies vis-à-vis deconstructing colonial-related  ideas, encouraging acceptable human behaviour, strengthening the mind with ideal values, and thereby promoting African societies sustainability.  
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Young unmarried fathers current relationship with their children: The
           South African Social Work perspective

    • Authors: Thembelihle Brenda Makhanya
      Pages: 20375 - 20391
      Abstract: The nature of relationship between young unmarried fathers and their children remains a concern in South Africa. The increasing rate of absent and  none involvement is on the high rise. Based on the qualitative research, this article discuses young unmarried fathers' current relationships with their  children. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine young and unmarried fathers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The participants  had a total number of fifteen children, four of whom lived with their fathers and paternal families. Findings indicated that high unemployment and  financial status of the father and his family impacted significantly on father-child current relationship. All the participants in the study desired to have  relationships with their children beyond being just providers. But Care and contact parental responsibilities and rights are reduced to financial support  only by maternal family. Thus, comprehensive social work services are recommended not only for psychosocial support but also for family and  community education. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Intermediate transition from an African language to English as a medium of
           instruction at primary schools in the Vhembe District, South Africa

    • Authors: Lufuno Netshipise, Shumani Eric Madima, Fulufhelo Oscar Makananise
      Pages: 20392 R - 20392 R
      Abstract: This article examines the intermediate phase transition from an indigenous language to English as a language of learning and teaching at Siambe  Primary School in Vhembe District Municipality. The South African Language-in-Education Policy (LiEP) states that the mother tongue should be the  preferred medium of instruction in the Foundation Phase (i.e., Grades R-3). From Grade 4 onwards, a First Additional Language (FAL) may be used as a  language of learning and teaching. Thus, indigenous South African official languages are utilized in the Foundation Phase as languages of learning and  teaching (LOLT), depending on their dominance in their respective areas. This study is an extract from comprehensive research, where a qualitative  method and interview were used to collect data from educators at Siambe Primary School through the purposive sampling technique. Data were  analyzed using Thematic Content Analysis which is relevant to a qualitative study. The study established that Grade 4 learners at Siambe Primary School  struggle to understand the basic concepts in English due to their low level of English proficiency. This article recommends that English could be  introduced from Grade R as the language of learning and teaching. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • An analysis of personal naming approaches by younger and older generations
           among the Bapedi Nation: An onomastic comparison

    • Authors: F.M. Kanyane, T.J. Rakgogo
      Pages: 20406 - 20424
      Abstract: The article aims to explore the naming approaches that have been used and still used among the Bapedi (Sepedi speakers) by both the older and the  younger generation. The article employed the qualitative approach where Sepedi personal names were collected randomly and were also analysed  qualitatively. As alluded to, two categories of names, those given by the older generation and those by the younger generation are investigated and  analysed. The article argues that naming is a linguistic act that is used to express and communicate different messages to the members of the society.  However, it is found that the name-giving process among the Bapedi has become problematic in the sense that a practice that used to be a prerogative of  and an assignment for elders, that is, grandparents and other senior members of the family in the past is now a project of both the older and younger  generation. Unfortunately, in the process of naming the young generation lacks transparency and neither consult the elders nor inform them.  However, the article explored if the naming system is used by both groups to effectively communicate and record some of the historical events and  happenings in the family prior and during the birth of the child. The research established similarities and differences in the naming process and the  names given to the newly born babies. 
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • The double life of Ghanaian women

    • Authors: Hubert Bimpeh Asiedu, Mary Sefa Boampong
      Pages: 20425 - 20439
      Abstract: While entrance of women into paid work has been celebrated globally as a progress, it has added to their already existing burden of caring for young  ones in the family and other household chores; a situation generally referred to as the ‘double burden’ or the ‘second shift’. In exploring this  phenomenon, scholars have brought to light the inequity existing in household labour that has left women doing most of the domestic unpaid tasks  associated with childcare and domestic work in addition to paid work. This qualitative research addressed the double life Ghanaian professionals  experience in combining work and family roles. The data for the study was obtained from 20 respondents who were wives, mothers and career women.  The result indicates that women generally want equal male participation in unpaid work in the private sphere. As a result, most women in the study  bargain out domestic tasks with men or contest men to get men to take part in unpaid work. It was concluded that instead of women’s actions to get  men involved in unpaid work bringing change, it rather brings resistance from the men. This illuminates the fact that gender equality may not be easily  achieved in relation to gendered practices around domestic unpaid work.
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Risky sexual behaviour among young women: lessons for local policy makers
           on reproductive health programmes in Nigeria

    • Authors: Daud Ayodele Lamidi, Kazeem Oyedele Lamidi
      Pages: 20440 - 20456
      Abstract: This paper investigated risky sexual behavior and unwanted pregnancy with a view to assisting local policy makers in designing reproductive health  programmes to stem the menace of risky sexual behaviours among young girls in Nigeria. This study made use of secondary source of data collection.  The data was obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data set of 2013. The 2013 NDHS sample was selected using stratified  three-stage cluster design consisting of 904 clusters, 372 in urban areas and 532 in rural areas. Results of the bivariate analysis reveals that there is no  significant relationship between risky sexual behaviour and unwanted pregnancy; multiple sexual partner (X2= 0.211, p>0.05), use of condom during sex (X2 = 2.6254, p>0.05); age at sex initiation (X2 = 2.1761, p>0.05). This paper recommended that efforts should be made by local policy makers to reduce  the prevalence of unwanted pregnancy among young girls by improving the quality of life, curbing inequality and women endangerment.
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Exploring mixed gendered peer-to-peer conversations as a primary cancer
           prevention communication strategy among South African youth

    • Authors: Elizabeth Lubinga
      Pages: 20457 - 20468
      Abstract: Cancer prevention face-to-face conversations are rare, particularly when held between male and female youth. Tailored, audience-specific communication  strategies targeting youth are necessary for primary cancer prevention to shape behaviour that could attenuate the spread of leading  cancers. This article explores potential effectiveness of using mixed gender face-to-face conversations among university students as a primary prevention  communication strategy that could lead to cancer prevention behaviour and promote early detection. Vignettes in qualitative research were  constructed to provoke conversations about cancer prevention between a mixed gender group of 21 male and female South African university students.  Findings show that the vignettes provoked conversations among participants about self-examination for cancer prevention as well as the types of tests  required for common cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and cervical cancer. The discussions revealed that there was a lack of knowledge  about self-examination as part of primary cancer prevention. Conversations revealed an openness to discussing self-examination for early detection.  Findings from this study provide insight into the potential of using peer-to-peer, face-to-face discussions between mixed genders as a primary prevention  communication strategy by health promotion organisations in South Africa and other countries.
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Who cares during a pandemic' Exploring the gendered nature of care work
           among staff at a SOUTH African University during Covid-19 lockdown

    • Authors: Carike Claassen, Alicia Fourie
      Pages: 20469 - 20486
      Abstract: The objective of this paper is to investigate how staff at a South African university have coped with care work in the home during lockdown. Care work  tends to be gendered and we therefore expect that lockdown will have impacted men and women differently. This study used mixed methods to  investigate the impact of Covid-19 lockdown on care work perfomed by different categories of staff at a South African university. Findings from thematic  analysis reveal common themes which emerged around care work in the home during lockdown. These are, inter alia, the importance of community,  balance, partnership and career. Within these common themes, different experiences are further dissected in this article. We conclude that gender norms  underpinning care work are complex, fluid and context dependent, but that the lockdown helped participants realise the importance of achieving  the right work–life balance.
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Psychosocial factors as predictors of quality of life among the elderly in
           a South Western Teaching Hospital Nigeria

    • Authors: Mojisola S. Ajayi, Joy E. Ukpoju
      Pages: 20487 - 20501
      Abstract: Among the elderly, more concerns have been raised about quality of life and its markers especially due to the incessant rise in hospitalization and  admission of old people into the geriatric wards. Scholars have suggested that empirical efforts be geared towards identifying relevant psychological  factors which may account for differences in quality of life among the elderly. Consequently, this study investigated the predictive role of psychosocial  factors of stress, anxiety, depression, social support, and meaning in life on quality of life among the elderly. The study employed cross sectional survey  research design and used structured questionnaire to collect data from 96 elderly persons whose mean age and standard deviation were 68.55 and 8.06  respectively. Result revealed that stress, depression and anxiety predict quality of life among the elderly [F (1,98) =10.684; P <.001]. Importantly, anxiety  and depression were significant factors that contributed to quality of life among the elderly. Social support (family, friends and significant others) and  meaning in life predicted quality of life [F (1,98) =9.609; P <.001]. However, only significant others social support independently accounted for variation in  quality of life among the elderly. Study findings have implications for clinical care and management of the elderly.  
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • “It is such a shameful experience…” barriers to help-seeking among
           male survivors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in Uganda

    • Authors: Deborah Nakalyowa-Luggya, Evelyn Lutwama-Rukundo, Consolata Kabonesa, Japheth Kwiringira
      Pages: 20502 - 20517
      Abstract: Female-perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against men in Uganda is a subject of debate, with arguments casting doubt about its existence,  nature and magnitude. Consequently, the majority of male IPV survivors have become hesitant to seek help following victimisation. Thus, the aim of this  paper was to explore the barriers that hinder formal and informal help-seeking among male IPV survivors following abuse by their female intimate  partners. Since the study’s focus was on victimised men’s subjective experiences, a qualitative design was employed. In-depth interviews were conducted  with a sample of 10 men from the central region of Uganda, who were identified through snowball sampling, as having experienced female-perpetrated  IPV. This sample included men who had sought help for their IPV victimisation from a range of sources and those who had not sought any help at all.  Drawing on evidence from the male survivors’ narratives, the study revealed a range of barriers that prevented them from seeking help. These are  presented in three themes: stereotypical help-seeking anticipations; lack of awareness about victim support services and interruptions during actual  help-seeking attempts. The findings make a case for societal recognition of male IPV, development of strategies to enhance men’s help-seeking  behaviours, a need for robust male-centred IPV survivor support and resources, as well as training of IPV professionals on gender responsive and  inclusive service support approaches.  
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • An epideictic event: The rhetoric of birthday messages among African
           diaspora communities

    • Authors: Anthony Naaeke
      Pages: 20518 - 20524
      Abstract: There are several scholarly articles on birthdays or sentimental messages within a ceremonial context arguing that epideictic rhetoric has the potential  for civic contribution or activism (Sheard, 1996; Agnew, 2008; Richards, 2009; Bostdorf & Ferris, 2014). While some scholars have analyzed the birthday  cake or sentimental messages in greeting cards (Keith, 2009: D’Angelo,1992) or social media (Morris, 2014), none has focused specifically on the  persuasive discourse, verbal or nonverbal, in birthday celebrations among the African diaspora. This paper covers the gap by arguing that there are  several levels of rhetorical discourse encapsulated in the birthday discourse among African diaspora, often with personal and public persuasive  implications. The paper explored the meaning of epideictic or ceremonial rhetoric in classical rhetoric and using cultural criticism, analyzed the discourse  in selected birthday celebrations among African diaspora in the United States of America and Canada published on YouTube and drew some conclusions  about the personal and public effects of birthday discourse among the African diaspora. The paper chose cultural criticism as the unit of analysis  because, as Harp observes culture permeates all aspects of communication (Hart 1997) and the beliefs, thoughts, values, myths, language, and  experiences of the African diaspora influence why and how Africans in the diaspora celebrate birthdays.   
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Socio-cultural predictors of teenage pregnancy in South Africa: A
           crosssectional study that compares rural and urban areas

    • Authors: S. Mkwananzi , R.S. Lebelo , A. Mashinini , A. Ngake , M.S. Paledi , L.S. Thwala
      Pages: 20525 - 20541
      Abstract: South Africa remains a country affected by teenage pregnancy accompanied by health, economic and social consequences. This study investigates the  residential-specific socio-cultural predictors of teenage pregnancy in South Africa. Data were collected from the 2016 Community Survey conducted by  Statistics South Africa, while methods included univariate and bivariate analysis as well as logistic regression to establish the association between socio-  cultural factors and teenage pregnancy among rural and urban adolescent women, respectively. Results show that of the 336 244 adolescent women  constituting the sample, 4% reported being pregnant. Teenage pregnancy occurred at higher levels in rural areas (4.57%) compared with urban areas  (3.43%) with a significant χ2 p-value=0.000. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences across all variable categories at p<0.05. Furthermore, socio-  cultural factors associated with teenage pregnancy were religion [no religious belief odds ratio (OR)=1.27; p-value<0.01], ethnicity (English-speaking  young women OR=0.39; pvalue<0.01) and age (OR=1.59; p-value<0.01). Ethnicity and religion had a greater influence in urban areas than in rural areas.  These results could be useful in designing appropriate programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy, specifically among target groups at higher risk.  Residential-specific community-based awareness programmes should be promoted to prevent teenage pregnancy in both urban and rural areas if sexual  and reproductive health among adolescent girls is to improve in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Factors influencing positive child birth experiences of first time mothers
           in healthcare facilities: Narrative literature review

    • Authors: Grace B. Baakeleng, Nokwanda E. Bam
      Pages: 20542 - 20550
      Abstract: Child birth is a substantial event in a woman’s life and a transition to motherhood. First time mothers birth experiences depend on a trustful relationship between the women giving birth and professionals. The relevant literature that focuses on factors that contribute to positive childbirth experiences for  first time mothers was explored. A search strategy was conducted using electronic database including Google Scholar, PubMed and EBSCOhost and  selected journal articles published between 2010 and 2022. The findings revealed first time mothers were treated with respect and interaction with health  care professionals was good. In this light it is evident that health care professionals provide quality care during labour. Midwives to compile health  education during antenatal care regarding coping with stress and anxiety during childbirth. All health care professionals working in labour ward  should practice good communication skills to creative relaxed and well coming atmosphere. Health systems should value the distinctiveness and  importance of each woman’s needs during childbirth. Women and their families often value emotional support and positive experiences of care as  significant components of health care. Therefore, healthcare providers should appreciate and respond to women’s needs and preferences. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • A changing culture in marital practices in South Africa: Experiences of
           urbanised Makotis and Mamazalas

    • Authors: Tebogo Rosina Nganase, Wilna Basson
      Pages: 20551 - 20563
      Abstract: This study explored the views of mothers- and daughters-in-law regarding the changing cultural practices in marital processes. The study was conducted  in Pretoria North, South Africa. The social constructionism approach provided a perspective in understanding the views of mothers and daughters-in-law  regarding the changing marital practices. A qualitative approach allowed the researcher to obtain data from interviews with 20 mother-in-law and 20  daughter-in-law participants who had been involved in a mother-and-daughter-in-law relationship for at least six months. Textual data were analysed  through interpretative phenomenological analysis. Six themes emerged from the analysis, namely traditional marital processes regarded as  confusing/tedious; the rebellion of makoti against traditional cultural roles; fading customs; the importance of cultural practices in the mother-and-  daughter-in-law relationship; lack of cultural knowledge by urban mamazalas, and the role of religion in changing practices. Recommendations are also  provided to assist in exploring the impact of cultural practices on the mother-and-daughter-in-law relationship. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Experiences of young males on gender-based violence at a selected village
           in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    • Authors: C.K. Selowa , V. Baloyi , M. Chueng
      Pages: 20564 - 20581
      Abstract: The scourge of gender-based violence (GBV) on young males is escalating at an alarming rate. It also brings awareness to the society that males are also  victims of GBV. The study explored the experiences of young males on GBV at Lwamondo Village, Limpopo province. The study was qualitative in nature  and applied phenomenological design to extract participants’ lived experience. A sample of (10) young males who experienced GBV that are aged  between 18 to 35 years were identified using purposive sampling through Munna Ndi Nnyi organization. A pre-tested unstructured interview guide was  used to collect data and interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data collected. The findings of the present study showed that  infidelity, unemployment, lack of trust or insecurities, physical abuse, emotional abuse and financial abuse were the main factors contributing to GBV  among young males. The findings further revealed that social stigma, family and friends’ separation were challenges faced by young males. Additionally,  young males used substance abuse, social support, support from Munna Ndi Nnyi organization and religion as a coping mechanism. The study  concluded by making important recommendations to different stakeholders to assist minimizing GBV in societies and future researches on new areas to  advance knowledge of the phenomenon.  
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • The awareness and perceptions of sexually transmitted infections among
           students attending the University of Kwazulu-Natal

    • Authors: Funeka Mthembu, Dhee Naidoo, Makandwe Nyirenda, Nathlee Abbai
      Pages: 20582 - 20597
      Abstract: University students in KwaZulu-Natal are highly susceptible to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to their active engagement in risky sexual  behaviours. Increased evidence on behavioural change is dependent on the awareness of STIs and comprehensive understanding and perception of  one’s own risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the awareness of STIs among students enrolled at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, by examining  their sexual risk behaviour. The study used a quantitative research approach, through the use of a purposive sampling technique, to obtain a sample of  142 students between 18 and 35 years old. STAT version 15.1 was used to analyse the data. Outcomes of the study revealed that 78% of the students  were aware of STIs. Despite the high awareness, the students still have low risk perceptions especially towards condom use, alcohol consumption and  age disparate relationships. Education from schools and social media could eliminate myths and ensure relevant information.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • The psychosocial support needed by nurses caring for patients diagnosed
           with Covid-19 infection in the North West Province, South Africa

    • Authors: Joan Dikobe, Miriam Moagi , Leepile Sehularo
      Pages: 20598 - 20607
      Abstract: Nurses caring for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection are exposed to many psychosocial challenges. Exploring and describing the psychosocial  support needed for the nurses caring for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 is significant to determine what type of support is needed by the nurses. The  objective of this study was to describe the psychosocial support needed by the nurses caring for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in the North  West Province of South Africa. A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological, contextual design was used to collect data. The study used a non-probability  sampling approach and purposive sampling technique to select four focus group discussions (FGDs) from the four hospitalsselected for this study. Data  were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysis was done using descriptive phenomenological data analysis to develop themes and  categories. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were considered throughout the study. The finding indicated that it is difficult for nurses to care for  COVID-19 patients because it is a novel disease. There is no specific treatment for COVID-19 and most patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 were  demised. Shortages of human and material resources to care for COVID-19 patients were also reported. Nurses caring for COVID-19 patients are at risk of  being infected and they are physically and psychologically affected. The study shows that nurses caring for COVID-19 patients are physically,  psychologically and socially affected by the disease. Therefore, they need the support of their managers through the appreciation of their work, provision  of adequate Personal protective equipment (PPE) and human capital to provide quality patient care. Nurses caring for COVID-19 patients need  psychological support when they are depressed. They also need colleagues from other wards to encourage them and not see them as the carriers of the  disease. Also, the community needs to understand the risks that nurses caring for COVID-19 patients take and support them.    
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • A rare phenomenon: Experiences of abused men by partners in Vhembe
           District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    • Authors: N.D. Neshunzhi , D.U. Ramathuba , L.H. Nemathaga , A.R. Tshililo
      Pages: 20608 - 20619
      Abstract: Intimate Partner Violence or Domestic Violence is a world-wide phenomenon. Domestic abuse is a mixture of physical, sexual, verbal, and coercive  behaviours designed to manipulate the other partner. Men abuse is a challenge in communities as men suffer in silence for fear of disclosure,  stigmatization by family members, friends, community members and victimization by the service providers. The study aimed to explore experiences of  men abuse by partners in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.A qualitative explorative descriptive and contextual research design was used.  The population were abused men who were purposively sampled. Data was collected through face-to face interview using an audiotape. Data was  analysed using thematic analysis. Trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to throughout the study. Findings revealed two themes,  experiences of multifactoral causes of abuse such as lack of financial resources, lack of intimacy, lack of decision-making in relationship and interference  from family members and in-laws, as well as experiences of social and professional support. A balance of power in relationships should be advocated for  both men and women. Men deserve protection from intimate partner abuse, and also have a right for better living as married men. The SDG no 5  reiterate gender equity for all. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • The effects of rape on the young girls in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Niyi Adegoke, Oyedolapo Babatunde Durojaye, Odedokun Ezekiel Adeyemi
      Pages: 20620 - 20634
      Abstract: Rape is a harmful and monstrous act, which has become prevalent in the Nigerian society. There has been an outcry against young girls’ rape in Nigeria,  which has attracted the attention of, not only the government and non-governmental organizations in Nigeria, but rate of rape in Ikorodu was increasing  as a result of violent criminal gang called ‘Badoo’ cult gang and other criminal groups’ activities. Hence, the study aims to examine the characteristics, the  causes and the effects of rape on the young girls in Ikorodu, Lagos State. Using explorative research design, which relied on in-depth interviews and  other secondary sources, the study reached the respondents through multi-sampling techniques such as purposive and simple random sampling. The  paper is anchored on social disorganization theory as its theoretical underpinning. The findings revealed that the causes of rape are many which include  cultism, ritual purposes, drug addiction and alcoholism, disease sharing, revenge purposes, indecent dressing, pride, poverty/unemployment and  disappointment in relationships. Among the measures recommended by the paper is that there should be adequate security street light, police patrol  and proper counseling by the parents as it concerns girl child. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Entrepreneurship as a strategy for empowering female survivors of intimate
           partner violence in Lagos State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Akangbe Tomisin Adedunmola, Fawole Olufemi Adeniyi, Balogun Obasanjo Solomon
      Pages: 20635 - 20642
      Abstract: Entrepreneurship has become accepted as an imperative means to improve livelihood, boost job creation and ensure economic independence. Economic  dependence on their abusers is one of the reasons battered women may not quit abusive relationships, hence the need to have a steady means of  sustenance both for themselves and their children. In-depth interview from ten female survivors of Intimate partner violence, were analysed using the  content analysis procedure, which was further predicated on the 1988 Gondolf and Fisher Survivor theory. The study revealed that female survivors of IPV  were able to cater to their needs through the financial aids received from the State Government and also through their participation in the skill  training and acquisition programmes put in place by the State. Entrepreneurship, when embraced can be the solution to this over-reliance of women on  their abusive partners. This paper looks at the role entrepreneurship can play in empowering women especially those who suffer economic abuse in  intimate relationships.  
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Fostering positive mental health among female teachers in Enugu State,

    • Authors: Uju I. Nnubia, Vivienne N. Ibeanu, Franca O. Okechukwu
      Pages: 20643 - 20657
      Abstract: This study investigated the role of various demographic and work-related factors in protecting mental health of female teachers. A sample of 2389 out of  22, 566 female primary school teachers were randomly selected in multi-stages from three educational zones in Enugu state, Nigeria. Data were collected  with a structured questionnaire and the English version of mental health continuum short form. The mental health scale elicited data on the  self–reported mental wellbeing of the respondents which was categorized as flourishing and not flourishing. Four research questions and three  hypotheses guided the study. Using descriptive and inferential analysis, findings showed a high (62%) prevalence of positive mental health among the  respondents. Older age (>40 years), being married, moderate educational qualification, fewer years of work experience (< 10 years), teaching larger class  (> 25 pupils) and working in private, urban schools were associated with flourishing mental health status of the respondents. The findings of this study  might be used by the government and public health advocates to carry out mental health sensitization seminars among teachers, particularly among  older teachers in public and urban schools, to further equip them with more effective abilities to deal with difficulties unique to them
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • How, what, when and where' A systemic review on dynamics of human
           trafficking, irregular migration and modern day slavery in Nigeria

    • Authors: John Lekan Oyefara, Bamidele Omotunde Alabi, Rosebelle Chinwe Nwanna, Pius Enechojo Adejoh
      Pages: 20658 - 20672
      Abstract: Human trafficking and irregular migration have become the largest manifestations of modern-day slavery which involves the illegal trade of people for  exploitation or commercial gain. Nigeria has been named one of the top eight of the 161 countries in the world identified as being a source, transit, or  destination country for victims of human trafficking, and the leading African country with substantial cross-border and internal trafficking. Using a  systemic review technique, we search different databases in English language for relevant literature published between 2000 and 2019 that address  various dynamics of human trafficking, irregular migration and modern-day slavery in Nigeria. Findings revealed that the victims of human  trafficking/irregular migration/modern-day slavery are either coerced or are recruited through their own voluntary cooperation with their assailants.  Specifically, the recruitment process often begins with seduction, cajolement and oath taken, through which they voluntarily cooperate with the  assailants, who are usually people they know closely such as friend or family member, who often play major roles in the trafficking trajectories of victims,  usually for their own profit. Considering the clandestine nature of operation and attendant negative consequences surrounding these phenomena, more  research is needed to better understand the complexity surrounding the menace of human trafficking/irregular migration/modern-day slavery in the  country. Furthermore, state and non-state actors need to put in more aggressive measures to stem and eradicate these phenomena in Nigeria. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Strategies utilised in combating abuse experienced by men in an intimate

    • Authors: Thanduxolo P. Mngomezulu
      Pages: 20673 - 20683
      Abstract: Most people in an intimate relationship (i.e. marriage, dating, family, friends, and cohabitation) experience domestic violence. So this paper seeks to  investigate the strategies that could be used to alleviate abuse against men in the province of KwaZulu-Natal which can minimise a number of problems  such as psychological, physical, emotional, economical, and health to mention a few. The theoretical basis of the study was informed by Social Learning  Theory developed by Albert Bandura in 1963. This paper used a post-positivist research paradigm which enabled the researcher to yield multiple  perspectives from participants/ target population rather than a single reality. In that light, this paper used both quantitative and qualitative research  methods for data collection. The study sampled 60 men who once experienced abuse from their intimate partners. The study managed to get responses  from all men as targeted by the study. Notably, the data collected were analysed through the use of qualitative content analysis. The study  acknowledged  the wealth of knowledge of the concept subjugation by the respondents. The study findings showed quite a number of strategies that  could be applied in preventing abuse. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Gender inequality in unpaid care and domestic work: A cultural inhibition
           to women’s entrepreneurship acumen and managerial position in
           Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Authors: Olukemi Grace Adebola, R.J. Kolawole
      Pages: 20684 - 20692
      Abstract: Gender inequality which essentially is a social definition of being male and female, remains a persistent challenge to economic growth in sub- Saharan  Africa (SSA) because it is cloaked fundamentally in cultural practices. The social categorization of sex as dictated by the society, has attached to it some  perceived duties that defines the line of work for both male and female differently. These society appellations assigned works that are reproductive as  well as housekeeping in nature as logically belonging to the female gender, notwithstanding other social statuses. The encumbrance of such unpaid care  and domestic work which is an indispensable part of gender socialization in SSA, is a major hindrance to women’s economic growth and managerial  dexterity. This paper through a thorough engagement with viable literature validated the enormity of unpaid care work as a deterrent to women  entrepreneurial opportunities and managerial successes specifically in SSA. The paper posits that except sporadic actions and policies are properly  engaged to recognise, redistribute and reward unpaid care work, women’s place in entrepreneurship and managerial positions will continue to be  lagging behind and this will invariably continue to hamper the growth and development of women and the economy at large. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Traditional midwifery and pre-colonial birth security strategies in
           Owoahiafor, Nigeria, 1929-1970

    • Authors: Kelechi Johnmary Ani, Adaeze U. Irondi
      Pages: 20693 R - 20693 R
      Abstract: Human survival is sustained through the management of the population of people from one generation to another. However, the sustained of existential  population all over the world is dependent on the process of managing birth and death across the different societies. This study focuses on traditional  midwifery in Owoahiafor. It traced the historical origin of the community and how their ancestors engaged in the act of birth management. The study  which used essentially key informant interviews found that traditional midwives had processes of managing the birth process from antenatal to the post-  natal level notwithstanding their areas of imperfections. It therefore called for the re-training of these traditional midwives into modern act of healthcare  management.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Patterns and predictors of childhood undernutrition in Nigeria from
           2008-2018: A pooled data analysis

    • Authors: Falade Adekunle Philip, Odusina Emmanuel Kolawole
      Pages: 20701 - 20714
      Abstract: Childhood undernutrition remain a public health problem, despite several policies and initiatives are being implemented to achieve Sustainable  Development Goals 2 and 3, which aim to eradicate all forms of hunger and malnutrition and to improve child well-being by 2030. This study examined  the pattern and predictors of Childhood Undernutrition in Nigeria from 2008-2018. The study used a cross-sectional dataset from Nigeria Demographic  and Health Surveys years 2008, 2013 and 2018. The respondents selected were 7,394 women of reproductive age with at least one child in the five years  preceding the surveys. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis of frequency distribution, bivariate analysis of Chi-square test and multivariate  analysis using binary logistic regression model. The stunting and underweight cases among children though slightly decreased over the years, were still  on high side. Stunting was 47.5% in 2008, 36% in 2013 and 36% in 2018 while underweight was 31.1% in 2008, 30.5% in 2013 and 22.7% in 2018. The  multivariate analysis showed that childhood stunting and underweight was statistically significantly associated with age of mothers, age at first birth,  region, religion, level of education, wealth status, place of delivery, birth order, antenatal visit, place of residence, visitation to health facility within the last  12 months, exposure to media and employment status, preceding birth interval, decision making on health care and contraceptive use (P < 0.05).The  study concluded that age of mothers, age at first birth, region, religion, level of education, wealth status, place of delivery and birth order were related to  childhood under-nutrition in Nigeria. The study ascertained the needs for intervention programmes against childhood under-nutrition would help to  mitigate short and long terms adverse outcomes among children in Nigeria. Also, social change programmes on undernutrition taking age of mothers,  age at first birth, region, religion, level of education, wealth status, place of delivery and birth order into consideration may help to reduce adverse  outcomes of under-nutrition among under-five children. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Effective strategies in HIV and AIDS prevention among adolescent girls and
           young women in Sub-Saharan Africa: Narrative literature review

    • Authors: Nokwanda E. Bam
      Pages: 20715 - 20725
      Abstract: The global community is geared to ending HIV/AIDS infection by 2030 and yet the HIV incidence remains very high particularly among the adolescent  girls and young women (AGYW) aged 15-24 years. This narrative literature review explored qualitative and quantitative studies in order to describe the  most effective strategies to reduce transmission of HIV/AIDS infection among AGYW. Results yielded 20 articles that were accessed, analysed and  synthesized in this review. Three main themes were identified as strategies that could be used to increase AGYW retention in HIV/AIDS prevention  services namely: i) need to strengthen HIV/AIDS prevention; ii) establishing context based services and iii) to monitoring of existing services. The study  concluded that there are needs to improve adherences rates by addressing gaps that keep the AGYW from accessing SRH services. The social divisions  between the rich and poor AGYW needs to be closed through demand creation for SRH. Hence, the study recommended that context-based strategies  may address inherent drivers of HIV/AIDS infection. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Gender health disparities among a nationally representative population
           sample of aging adults in India in 2017-2018

    • Authors: Karl Peltzer
      Pages: 20726 - 20740
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the gender health disparity in aging community-dwelling adults in India in 2017-2018. The cross-sectional national  sample included 52,393 individuals (≥50 years) from the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) Wave 1 in 2017-2018, 53.3% were female and  46.7% male. In the final adjusted logistic regression analyses, women had poorer self-rated health, poorer cognitive functioning, insomnia symptoms,  and higher functional disability than men. Current smoking, current smokeless tobacco use, and heavy episodic drinking was more frequent in men than  in women, and physical inactivity, general overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, injury, and recurrent fall were more common in women than in men.  Regarding chronic diseases, hypertension, angina, cancer, bone or joint diseases, persistent headaches, back pain or problems, physical pain, periodontal  disease, impaired vision, and stress incontinence were more prevalent in women than in men, while the prevalence of stroke was higher in  men than in women. Among the 36 health indicators evaluated, 20 had a female health disadvantage, 4 had a male health disadvantage, and 12 did not  differ between the female-male groups .
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • The effect of different mnemonic strategies and gender on ability to
           recall among secondary school students in Jos, Plateau State

    • Authors: Shadrack Bitrus Mwankon, Jackson Iheukwumere Osuh
      Pages: 20741 - 20753
      Abstract: Studies have shown that males and females differ in memory associated with gender-stereotyped objects and that mnemonic strategy differs in the  ability to recall information. However, specific findings have been inconclusive regarding the specifics of these differences. This study therefore,  experimentally investigated mnemonic strategies on student’s ability to recall, adopting an independent group-randomised design. Quantitatively, the  effect of mnemonic strategies on recall ability through the ecological validity of self-paced word repetitions, mental imagery and sentence-by-sentence  presentations by comparison to normal page reading with respect to comprehension and recall across three groups (A, B and C) were investigated  among senior secondary school students in Jos, Plateau state. The results showed that mnemonic strategies do not differ in recall ability (F2, 207 = 0.61,  p=.55). Female students recalled more and performed better on mental image mnemonic than male students (t (68) = 3.23, p = .002). Female students  recalled more and performed better on sentence mnemonic than male students (t (68) = 2.04, p = .045) and no significant difference was found between  male and female students in the recall task on word repetition mnemonic (t (68) = 1.48, p = .145). It was concluded that the ability to recall is influenced by  an interaction between stimulus and participant gender. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Board gender diversity and financial performance of listed deposit money
           banks in Nigeria

    • Authors: Olamide Lateef Ahmodu, Foluso Olugbenga Aribaba, Babatunde Afolabi, Morohunmubo Olayinka Akinrinola, Anthony E. Oyamendan
      Pages: 20754 - 20762
      Abstract: The study explored the relationship between the board gender diversity and financial performance of the selected deposit money banks in Nigeria. The  research design used was ex-post-facto research design with a population of 24 listed deposit money banks in Nigeria as documented by the central bank  of Nigeria. The Purposive and quota sampling techniques were used to select the sampling size of five (5) deposit money banks in Nigeria. These  five (5) deposit money banks in Nigeria were selected based on the availability of their annual financial statements. The data were obtained from the  audited annual financial statements of the selected deposit money banks in Nigeria between 2017 – 2021. The method of data analysis used were  descriptive and correlation statistics to test the research hypotheses. The study revealed that the efficiency of female board members was positive and  significantly related with the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Also, the female CEO and Board gender diversity were negative  but significantly weak related with the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Based on these findings, the study therefore concluded  that the efficiency of female board, female CEOs and board gender diversity were related to the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria.  Meanwhile, there is a negative and significant association between board gender diversity and the financial performance of deposit money  banks in Nigeria. The study therefore recommended that the female managers and other key players shall incorporate board gender policies and  regulations to enhance the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Also, deposit money banks in Nigeria should appoint board  members based on their skills, competencies, experiences and level of education attained. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Effects of gender based violence on women in Ikorodu Local Government Area
           of Lagos State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Agbegbedia Oghenevwoke Anthony
      Pages: 20763 - 20775
      Abstract: The study examined the effects of gender based violence among women in Ikorodu Lagos State, with the view of how women are violated mainly  domestically by their partners. Both primary and secondary sources of information gathering were adopted in this study. The secondary sources include  published textbooks, journals and internet materials while the primary source includes use of administered questionnaire to 100 respondents. Four  research questions were raised and answered with the use of descriptive statistics of frequency and percentage. Findings revealed that women in  Ikorodu are mostly violated by their partners. This is because most of the women depend on their husbands for daily living which give more opportunity  to violence in the homes. Empowerment programmes and jobs should be provided for women to make them financially self independent. The  government should employ strict laws to counter GBV among women, so as to repel those with such intentions.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Factors that facilitate and strategies that can curb female genital
           mutilation: An integrative review

    • Authors: Kamal A. Odunjo-Saka , Benjamin Oluwabunmi Omolayo , Grace Mobolaji Olasupo , Jones-Esan Larry
      Pages: 20776 - 20787
      Abstract: Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a serious and disturbing health concern across the world. This study aims to examine and explore factors that could  prevent or promote efforts targeted toward the elimination of FGM in all the places where this harmful practice persists. In the last three decades, several  attempts have been put in place by several international and national health-related organizations (such as UNICEF. WHO, USAID, and federal  ministries of health) to end the practice. Apart from the normal community-based sensitization and stakeholders' engagement on the harmful effects of  FGM, many countries like Egypt, Ghana, Senegal, and Uganda have instituted bans on female genital mutilation by criminalizing the practice, as part of  the efforts to eliminate this inhumane practice. Though the general knowledge, attitudes, and awareness about the practice have changed over time,  there is evidence of collective abandonment of FGM in some local communities. The prevalence of FGM is falling slowly in most countries and the practice  has sluggishly declined in some places like Nigeria, Ethiopia, Cote d’Ivoire, and Kenya. Nonetheless, the current underlying population growth in  most of the affected countries has constituted an additional challenge toward a timely eradication of female genital mutilation. Hence, a comprehensive  understanding of effective strategies that could speedily eliminate female genital mutilation becomes a top priority to achieve the United Nations  Sustainable Development Goal of eliminating FGM by the year 2030. Therefore, through an in-depth integrative review, this study explores some factors  that are considered capable of facilitating the timely eradication of FGM. The findings of this study show that culture, religion, illiteracy, and sexual control  are the key factors that promote the practice of FGM in most societies where the practice persists. The study, therefore, recommends key  strategies that could speedily facilitate the effective elimination of FGM. It is also suggested that adequate attention should be given to the emerging  female adolescents, who technically constitute the age group that is responsible for future reproduction and national population growth, and this  developmental status places them in a crucial position that offers them a unique opportunity to diligently and collectively discontinue this evil practice in  their communities.
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Gender disparities and teachers' soft skills as determinants of learners'
           attitude towards learning mathematics in Ekiti State Primary Schools,

    • Authors: Mensah Prince Osiesi, Sunday Ade Adeniran, Adebolu Folajimi Adekoya, Oluwayemisi Damilola Akomolafe, Adenike Lucia Aruleba, Sylvan Blignaut
      Pages: 20788 - 20802
      Abstract: Learners' attitude towards learning mathematics is fundamental to their performance in the subject as well as in other science-oriented subjects in the  primary school curriculum. This study investigated gender disparities and teachers' soft skills as a determinant of learners' attitude towards learning  mathematics in Ekiti State primary schools, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research of the non-experimental design. The population of study cuts  across all primary school teachers and learners in the State. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in selecting the sample for  this study. In all, the study sample consisted of 97 primary school teachers and 150 learners. Two self-developed research instruments termed "Teachers'  Soft Skill Questionnaire (r=0.86)" and "Learners’ Attitude Towards Mathematics Learning Questionnaire (r = 0.71)" were used for data collection. The Data  collected in this study were analysed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), and inference statistics (correlation and independent  t-test) at a5% level of significance. Results revealed that learners in Ekiti State primary schools possess a positive attitude towards learning Mathematics  as a subject; primary school teachers in the Ekiti State have both moderate and high levels of soft skills; significant positive relationship exist between  teachers' soft skills and learners' attitude towards the learning of mathematics; negative and non-significant relationship exists between teachers' soft  skills and their gender; and there was no significant gender difference in learners attitude towards the learning of mathematics. It is recommended,  therefore, that positive attitudes among learners should be encouraged or reinforced; teachers should be professionally trained and retrained on the  acquisition of soft skills; suitable working conditions that could foster and sustain teachers' soft skills, should be provided; and equal preference should  be accorded both teachers and learners, irrespective of gender disparities. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • The effect of women trafficking for prostitution in Nigeria

    • Authors: Niyi Adegoke , Ken Amaechi Egbo
      Pages: 20803 - 20814
      Abstract: Trafficking of human being is not a new phenomenon in the whole world but there have been increase in prevalent of women trafficking in Nigeria. This  has created a great concern for the policy makers, government, Non governmental agencies, religious bodies. This paper therefore seeks to examine the  causes, effects and ways of curbing the trafficking of women in Nigeria. The paper employed principally qualitative methodology and secondary sources  of data collection. The paper is anchored on rational choice theory for its theoretical framework. The argues that Poverty, war, lack of information, gender  inequality and high demand for cheap labor put demographic populations such as women and children at high risk. The paper concludes and  recommends that the laws made on human trafficking should be amended in such a that the penalty could include imprisonment, forfeiture of seized  assets and even death penalty for traffickers.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Examining the mediating influence of collective intelligence on the retail
           sector performance

    • Authors: Miriam Chisom Nnenna Onwugbolu, Emmanuel Mutambara
      Pages: 20815 - 20827
      Abstract: Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. This study provides an  understanding of the mediating influence of collective intelligence on retail stores’ performance. The principle of convenience sampling technique was  employed in this study to select three retail stores in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa for data collection. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data  collection. Simple random sampling was adopted to collect data from 296 employees of the retail stores. Statistical Package for Social Science, version 27  and SmartPLS were valuable in analysing the quantitative data. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to test the mediating  influence of collective intelligence on the relationship between talent development and retail stores’ performance as well as the relationship between  Community of practice and Retail stores’ performance. This study found that collective intelligence mediates the relationship between community of  practice and retail stores’ performance. The implication for practice was discussed in this study. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • Patriarchy-induced sexual violence and trauma in Nawal Saadawi’s
           Woman at point Zero

    • Authors: Ibitoye-Ayeni Naomi Kehinde, Ogunmodede Olabisi Bukola
      Pages: 20828 - 20838
      Abstract: Literary representations of patriarchy have shown the destructive effects of male-chauvinism on women. Most existing studies on patriarchal oppression  highlight physical abuses and assaults on women, undermining the psychological injuries suffered by such women. Domestic violence and sexual  exploitation have been identified by African writers as some of the common manifestations of patriarchal subjugation. This essay examines the literary  portrayal of the repressive experiences of patriarchy in the form of domestic violence and sexual exploitation, which culminates in traumatic memories.  Saadawi’s novel, Woman at Point Zero, is subjected to critical, qualitative analysis, highlighting traumatic memories induced by sexual exploitation and  patriarchal coercion. The critical discussion of the text focuses on the utterances and conducts of the characters, especially the protagonist, Firdaus who  battles with repressive experiences in a male-dominated environment. Caruth’s Trauma Theory is adopted in this study to account for the gradual process  of Firdaus’ plunging into deep despair. The textual analysis reveals that social factors like the repressive manifestations of patriarchy in the form  of domestic violence and sexual exploitation are capable of engendering trauma in women. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
  • The interconnections between armed conflict, Gender-Based Violence (GBV),
           and Congolese masculinities

    • Authors: Ndabuli Mugisho, Janet Muthuki
      Pages: 20839 - 20857
      Abstract: This paper is derived from a study investigating the relationship between armed conflicts and the understanding of GenderBased Violence (GBV) among Congolese male refugees living in Durban, South Africa. The theories of hegemonic masculinity and social stigma informed this research. Hegemonic  masculinity elucidates gender roles, inequality, power, and dominance. The concept of hegemonic masculinity is significant since it frames how socially  created and collected conventional notions about dominant masculinities come about. This helps to grasp the stigmatizing culture surrounding GBV in  the context of armed conflict. These theories help in linking masculine stigma and GBV, as well as how these connections may affect male survivors. The  research used a qualitative approach that included thirty in-depth interviews with Congolese male refugees. It also used thematic analysis to generate  the themes from the collected data. The results showed that war had played a significant role in how these men understood GBV. The findings reveal that  armed conflicts motivated men to be more violent by promoting violent masculinities and creating a structure that encouraged male dominance at  home and in society. The context of armed conflict reinforced power disparity between men and women, leading to increased sexual violence. Moreover,  many men felt a sense of security when carrying an arm, which predisposed them to a culture centered on hyper-masculine ideals. The perpetrators also  gang-raped men to take control of besieged communities, destabilize them, humiliate the victims, and incite unrest to spread fear and breach social  taboos by raping men and boys to undermine the manhood of the victims. Men were emasculated through rape, which generated stigma among the  victims, causing them to always feel less manly than their attackers. Men were humiliated everywhere as they became helpless creatures whose  masculinities had lost their social meaning.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2023)
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