Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)

Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Computational Toxicology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Protocols in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Clinical Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ecophysiology and Occupational Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C : Toxicology and Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances     Open Access  
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Immunotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Translational Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Toxicologia     Open Access  
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicologie Analytique et Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology Communications     Open Access  
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Toxicology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicology Research and Application     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Toxics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Toxicological Research
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1976-8257 - ISSN (Online) 2234-2753
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Short-term inhalation exposure to cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress
           and inflammation in lungs without systemic oxidative stress in mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Smoking is a well-established risk factor for various pathologies, including pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and cancers. The toxic effects of cigarette smoke (CS) are mediated through multiple pathways and diverse mechanisms. A key pathogenic factor is oxidative stress, primarily induced by excessive formation of reactive oxygen species. However, it remains unclear whether smoking directly induces systemic oxidative stress or if such stress is a secondary consequence. This study aimed to determine whether short-term inhalation exposure to CS induces oxidative stress in extrapulmonary organs in addition to the lung in a murine model. In the experiment, 3R4F reference cigarettes were used to generate CS, and 8-week-old male BALB/c mice were exposed to CS at a total particulate matter concentration of either 0 or 800 µg/L for four consecutive days. CS exposure led to an increase in neutrophils, eosinophils, and total cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. It also elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde (MDA), markers indicative of tissue damage and oxidative stress, respectively. Conversely, no significant changes were observed in systemic oxidative stress markers such as total oxidant scavenging capacity, MDA, glutathione (GSH), and the GSH/GSSG ratio in blood samples. In line with these findings, CS exposure elevated NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent superoxide generation in the lung but not in other organs like the liver, kidney, heart, aorta, and brain. Collectively, our results indicate that short-term exposure to CS induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the lung without significantly affecting oxidative stress in extrapulmonary organs under the current experimental conditions. NOX may play a role in these pulmonary-specific events.
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
       
  • Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls and risk assessment in finless
           porpoises from the East China Sea

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      Abstract: Abstract Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are bioaccumulative persistent organic pollutants with a great impact on cetaceans. To examine the content of PCBs and their risks to finless porpoises, this study determined the concentrations of seven typical PCB congeners in 56 tissue samples of East Asian finless porpoises (EAFPs) sampled in 2009–2012 from Ningbo (29.8835° N, 122.0644° E), Pingtan (25.5133° N, 119.8172° E) and Lvsi (32.1035° N, 121.6078° E). PCB138, PCB153 and PCB101 were the predominant congeners, accounting for 31.15%, 18.59% and 15.75%, respectively, of all PCBs detected. The content of PCBs increased with age in males but decreased from juveniles to adults in females due to transfer to calves by reproduction and lactation. EAFPs in Ningbo and Pingtan accumulated more PCBs than those in Lvsi Port. The trophic positions of EAFPs from Lvsi, Pingtan and Ningbo were 9.41, 8.95 and 9.43, respectively. PCB concentrations did not accumulate significantly with increasing trophic levels. The risk quotient index indicated that the risk of trichlorobiphenyl (3-PCB), tetrachlorobiphenyl (4-PCB), pentachlorobiphenyls (5-PCB), and hexachlorobiphenyls (6-PCB) to EAFPs in the East China Sea was generally low and within safe limits thus far.
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
       
  • Toxicity of a novel antifungal agent (ATB1651 gel) in Yucatan minipigs
           (Sus scrofa) following 4 weeks of daily dermal administration

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      Abstract: Abstract ATB1651 gel is an antifungal drug candidate that enhances antifungal activity through substitution of several aryl rings, alkyl chains, and methyl groups. To ensure safety of use of ATB1651 gel, assessment of its potentially toxic side effects is necessary. In this study, we examined the repeated-dose toxicity of ATB1651 gel to Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) in accordance with the Good Laboratory Practice guidelines. Five doses of ATB1651 gel (0%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0%) were administered dermally to the left and right flanks of 38 minipigs daily for 4 weeks. Mortality, clinical symptoms, dermal scores, body weights, and physiological, biochemical, pathological, and toxicokinetic analyses were performed after the treatment period. No systemic toxicological damage was observed in either male or female minipigs regardless of dose; however, dermal application of ATB1651 gel caused some skin alterations at the application sites. Specifically, erythema and eschar formation, edema, and scabs or raise spots were observed at the application site(s) in males in the 3.0% ATB1651 gel treatment group and in females at ATB1651 gel concentrations ≥ 1.0%, with dermal scores ranging from grade 1 to 2. Additionally, histopathological assay indicated infiltration of different types of inflammatory cells and the presence of pustule/crust at the application site(s) in both males and females at ATB1651 gel concentrations ≥ 0.5%. However, these changes were reversible after a 2-week recovery period and were considered a local irritation effect of ATB1651 gel. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of ATB1651 gel was 3.0% with regard to topical and systemic toxicity in both male and female minipigs. Collectively, our results imply that ATB1651 gel is a safe candidate for clinical development as an antifungal drug with a wide therapeutic window.
      PubDate: 2024-02-06
       
  • Baicalein inhibits IL-1β-induced extracellular matrix degradation with
           decreased MCP-1 expression in primary rat chondrocytes

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      Abstract: Abstract Baicalein is a flavonoid extracted from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and Scutellaria lateriflora. This compound exerts various biochemical activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The study aimed to investigate the effect of baicalein on articular cartilage cells and elucidate its underlying mechanism. In primary rat chondrocyte cultures, treatment with baicalein demonstrated a reduction in the loss of proteoglycan and extracellular matrix degradation induced by interleukin (IL)-1β. Baicalein suppressed IL-1β-induced catabolic responses, including the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, and MMP-1. In addition, baicalein effectively reduced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production, and it downregulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in primary rat chondrocytes. Furthermore, baicalein downregulated IL-1β-induced inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, such as GM-CSF and MCP-1. These findings suggest that baicalein could potentially mitigate the catabolic responses of IL-1β in chondrocytes, making it a promising candidate for both the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis.
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
       
  • Pathological changes in various organs in HLA-B*57:01 transgenic mice with
           abacavir-induced skin eruption

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      Abstract: Abstract Several patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions exhibit extracutaneous organ damages, and it becomes severe in a few patients resulting in death due to multiorgan failure. Understanding the sequential changes in various organs in patients with cutaneous eruption following drug administration will help understand disease onset and progression, aiding the development of prevention strategies and interventions. Therefore, we aimed to understand the effects of abacavir (ABC) on various organs in patients with ABC-induced eruptions by evaluating its effects in a mouse model. We found pathological changes in various organs of HLA-B*57:01 transgenic mice (B*57:01-Tg) following oral administration of ABC (20 mg/body/day). B*57:01-Tg exhibited a significant body weight decrease from day 1 of ABC administration, and reddening of the auricle was observed from day 5, and approximately 2/3 mice died by day 7. Histopathological examination revealed severe thymic atrophy after day 3, infiltration of inflammatory cells, predominantly lymphocytes with neutrophils, not only in the skin but also in the liver, kidney, and lung after day 5, and an increased number of lymphocytes with enlarged nuclei and granulocytic hematopoiesis were observed in the spleen after day 5. Blood chemistry revealed that albumin/globulin ratio was below 1.0 on day 5, reflecting a systemic inflammatory response, and the aspartate aminotransferase concentration rose to 193 ± 93.0 U/L on day 7, suggesting that cell damage may have occurred in various organs including liver accompanying inflammatory cell infiltration. These examinations of a mouse model of ABC-induced skin eruption show that disorders in various organs other than the skin should be considered and provide insights into the unexpected early systemic responses dependent on HLA-B*57:01.
      PubDate: 2024-01-06
       
  • Catalytic enhancements in cytochrome P450 2C19 by cytochrome b5

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      Abstract: Abstract Human cytochrome P450 2C19 catalyzes P450 enzyme reactions of various substrates, including steroids and clinical drugs. Recombinant P450 2C19 enzyme with histidine tag was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using affinity column chromatography. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS) spectrometry showed that the purified P450 2C19 enzyme catalyzed 5-hydroxylation reaction of omeprazole. The purified enzyme displayed typical type I binding spectra to progesterone with a Kd value of 4.5 ± 0.2 µM, indicating a tight substrate binding. P450 2C19 catalyzed the hydroxylation of progesterone to produce 21-hydroxy (OH) as a major and 17-OH product as a minor product. Steady-state kinetic analysis of progesterone 21-hydroxylation indicated that the addition of cytochrome b5 stimulated a five-times catalytic turnover number of P450 2C19 with a kcat value of 1.07 ± 0.08 min−1. The molecular docking model of progesterone in the active site of P450 2C19 displayed that the 21-carbon of progesterone was located close to the heme with a distance of 4.7 Å, suggesting 21-hydroxylation of progesterone is the optimal reaction of P450 2C19 enzyme for a productive orientation of the substrate. Our findings will help investigate the extent to which cytochrome b5 affects the metabolism of P450 2C19 to drugs and steroids.
      PubDate: 2024-01-02
       
  • Anthraquinone as emerging contaminant: technological, toxicological,
           regulatory and analytical aspects

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      Abstract: Anthraquinone (anthracene-9,10-dione) is a multifaceted chemical used in the paper industry, in the production of synthetic dyes, in crop protection against birds and is released from fossil fuels. Additionally, the anthraquinone scaffold, when substituted with sugars and hydroxyl groups is found in plants as metabolites. Because of these multiple applications, it is produced on a large scale worldwide. However, its toxicological aspects have gained interest, due to the low limits in the foods defined by legislation. Worrying levels of anthracene-9,10-dione have been detected in wastewater, atmospheric air, soil, food packaging and more recently, in actual foodstuffs. Recent investigations aiming to identify the anthracene-9,10-dione contamination sources in teas highlighted the packaging, leaves processing, anthracene metabolism, reactions between tea constituents and deposition from the environment. In this context, this review seeks to highlight the uses, sources, biological effects, analytical and regulatory aspects of anthracene-9,10-dione. Graphical
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Phloretin targets SIRT1 to alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis, and
           inflammation in deep venous thrombosis

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      Abstract: Abstract Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a type of venous thromboembolism posing a serious threat to health on a global scale. Phloretin is a potential natural product that has a variety of pharmacological activities. Besides, some Chinese medicines reported that deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT)1 treats DVT by anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet production. However, the specific binding targets and binding modes have not been elaborated. The present study was to investigate whether phloretin attenuates DVT in model rats and oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (ox‑LDL) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and to explore its potential target. The results revealed that the treatment of phloretin, especially pretreatment of it elevated tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and cell apoptosis proteins whereas it suppressed plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), fibrinogen (FIB) in DVT rats and cells. Concurrently, phloretin inhibited collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and inflammatory factors while it enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). In addition, 20 μM phloretin exerted powerful effective protection in HUVECs with DVT model. Later, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) confirmed that phloretin has a high affinity with SIRT1. Furthermore, siRNA-SIRT1 transfection abolished the protective effect of phloretin against ox‑LDL‑induced DVT in HUVECs, indicating that phloretin targets SIRT1 to alleviate oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, and inflammation in DVT rats and HUVECs.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Re-evaluation of a microbiological acceptable daily intake for tylosin
           based on its impact on human intestinal microflora

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      Abstract: Abstract As veterinary drugs available for fish is very restricted, there is growing trials for repurposing livestock drugs as aquatic animal drugs. Tylosin is one of the most effective antibiotics to treat bacterial infections approved for livestock, and would be used in fish. Hence, we investigated the toxicological and microbiological aspects of tylosin to establish health-based guidance value (HBGV) and maximum residue limit (MRL) in fishes, and reevaluated the microbiological acceptable daily intake (mADI) based on updated relevant data and international guildeline. Lastly, exposure assessment was performed to confirm the appropriateness of MRL. By investigating available microbiologcial studies on tylosin, the microbiological point of departure was determined as 0.308 μg/mL, which was mean 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50), obtained from the Food Safety Committee of Japan (FSCJ) evaluation report. Furthermore, as a factor for the derivation of mADI, the volume of colon content was recently changed to 500 mL in compliance with the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) guidelines. This was previously defined as the mass of colon content (220 g). We applied correction factor 0.224 to the mean MIC50 for tylosin in the equation of mADI, since the drug is transformed to metabolites with reduced activity prior to entering the colon and bound to fecal materials within the colon of human. The mADI was evaluated as 0.01 mg/kg bw/day. Finally, the hazard index, calculated by dividing the estimated chronic dietary exposure by mADI, did not exceed 100%, suggesting that chronic dietary exposure to tylosin residues from veterinary use was unlikely to be a public health concern. Overall, this study contributes significantly in updating HBGV by application of the concept of mADI for the first time in Korea based on the revised microbiological risk assessment guidelines and in providing scientific rationale for the risk management of veterinary drug residues in food.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Chemerin/CMKLR1 pathway exacerbates cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion
           neuron injury

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated whether chemerin/chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) pathway participate in cisplatin‐induced spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) damage. Middle cochlear turn was collected from C57BL/6 mice and the SGNs were cultured. Cisplatin, 2-(anaphthoyl) ethyltrimethylammonium iodide (α-NETA), or recombinant mouse chemerin was added into the medium for the treatment. Relative mRNA and protein expression was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot, respectively. In cultured mouse cochlear SGNs, the treatment of cisplatin enhanced the secretion of chemerin and CMKLR1. Recombinant chemerin promoted but α-NETA inhibited chemerin/CMKLR1 pathway in cisplatin stimulated SGNs. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inflammation response in SGNs were enhanced by recombinant chemerin while inhibited by α-NETA. Recombinant chemerin promoted but α-NETA inhibited NF-κB signal in cisplatin stimulated SGNs. In conclusion, chemerin/CMKLR1 pathway regulated apoptosis and inflammation response in cisplatin-induced SGN injury through NF-κB signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Potential role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in
           testicular dysfunction following co-administration of alcohol and
           combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in diabetic rats: an
           immunohistochemistry study

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      Abstract: Abstract Diabetes, alcohol abuse, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use have been reported to cause multi-organ complications via induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, these are the most common factors implicated in male reproductive dysfunctions. This study evaluated testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and germ cell proliferation in diabetic rats receiving alcohol or cART and their combination. Thirty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups, each consisting of six rats; control, diabetic only (DM), diabetic treated with alcohol (DM + A), diabetic treated with cART (DM + cART), and diabetic treated with both alcohol and cART (DM + A + cART). After 90 days of treatment, the rats were terminated, and the testes were extracted and processed for immunohistochemistry analysis for oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and cell proliferation marker. In comparison to the control, oxidative stress markers, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) increased significantly in all treated groups. Expression of testicular proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α was upregulated in all treated groups, but interleukin-6 was upregulated in DM, DM + cART, and DM + A + cART treated groups and was downregulated in the DM + A treated group. All treated animal groups showed an upregulation of apoptotic marker (caspase 3) and a downregulation of proliferation marker (Ki-67). However, Ki-67 staining intensity significantly increased in treated animals compared to the control. These findings suggest that diabetes, alcohol abuse, cART use, and their combination via iNOS activity upregulation can induce inflammation and oxidative stress in testicular tissue, stimulating germ cell apoptosis and proliferation inhibition leading to failure of spermatogenesis.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Assessment of reproductive toxicity of gold nanoparticles and its
           reversibility in male albino rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Nanotechnology has become a trending area in science all over the world. Although gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been utilized widely in biomedical fields, potential toxicities may arise from their interactions with biological systems. The current study aimed at evaluating the toxic effects of AuNPs on the reproductive system of adult male albino rats and assessing the recovery probability. In this study, AuNPs (13 ± 4 nm in diameter) were synthesized, and the experimental work was conducted on 60 adult male albino rats divided into the following groups: control group (received deionized water daily intraperitoneally (IP) for 28 days), test group, and withdrawal groups I and II (received 570 μg/kg of 13 ± 4 nm AuNPs daily IP for 28 days). Withdrawal groups I and II were left for another 30 and 60 days without sacrification, respectively. The test group showed significant decreases in final body and absolute testicular weights, testosterone hormone level, sperm count and motility, and spermatogenesis score, as well as significant increase in the percentage of sperms of abnormal morphology compared to the control group, associated with significant light and electron microscopic histopathological changes. Partial improvement of all studied reproductive parameters was detected after one month of withdrawal in withdrawal group I, and significant improvement and reversibility of all these parameters were reported after two months of withdrawal in withdrawal group II. So, AuNPs induce male reproductive toxicity, which partially improves after one month of withdrawal and significantly improves and reverses after two months of withdrawal.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Neurobehavioral effects of the exposure to mercury vapor and methylmercury
           during postnatal period on mice

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we investigated the neurobehavioral alterations and modifications of gene expression in the brains of female mice exposed to low-level mercury vapor and/or methylmercury during postnatal development. The mice were exposed to low-level mercury vapor at a mean concentration of 0.094 mg/m3 and supplied with tap water containing 5 ppm methylmercury from postnatal day 11 to 12 weeks of age. Behavioral analyses were performed at 17 weeks of age. Total locomotor activity in the open field test and the retention trial performance in the passive avoidance test were significantly reduced in the combined exposure group compared with those in the control group. The differences in locomotor activity and performance in the retention trial at 17 weeks were no longer detected at 45 weeks. These results suggest that the effect of aging on the behavioral abnormalities resulting from postnatal exposure to mercury complexes are not significant. In the microarray analysis of brains in the combined exposure group, the gene expression levels of Ano2 and Sgk1 were decreased. Real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed these changes caused by combined mercury exposure, showing significant downregulation of Ano2 and Sgk1 in the cerebrum. These genes play key roles in the brain as a calcium-activated chloride channel and as a kinase that responds to cellular stress, respectively. Our findings provide insight into the neurobehavioral changes caused by combined mercury exposure.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Efficiency of pharmaceutical toxicity prediction in computational
           toxicology

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      Abstract: Abstract The adverse effects and toxicity of chemical substances pose substantial challenges in drug discovery and environmental science. Their management, most especially in the early development stage, is crucial in preventing costly failures in clinical trials. Predictive methodologies, such as computational toxicology, offer an effective means of managing risks, particularly for new compounds with insufficient post-marketing surveillance and those lacking information on adverse effects. Computational approaches have become increasingly important in environmental science, in which the sheer number and diversity of chemicals present similar challenges to toxicity control. Traditional animal-based evaluation methods are resource intensive, time consuming, and ethically problematic, making them unsuitable for use in assessing the vast compound range. It is an urgent task for the academic community to minimize the risks associated with drug discovery and environmental exposure. This study focuses on systems used to predict toxicity from chemical structure information and outlines the prediction accuracy and systems developed in Japan.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Kaempferol induces apoptosis through the MAPK pathway and regulates
           JNK-mediated autophagy in MC-3 cells

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      Abstract: Abstract This study sought to determine the anticancer effect of kaempferol, a glycone-type flavonoid glycoside with various pharmacological benefits, on human oral cancer MC-3 cells. In vitro studies comprised a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, annexin V and propidium iodide staining, western blotting analysis, and acridine orange staining, while the in vivo studies entailed a xenograft model, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling. In vitro, kaempferol reduced the rate of survival of MC-3 cells, mediated intrinsic apoptosis, increased the number of acidic vesicular organelles, and altered the expression of autophagy-related proteins. Further, treatment with the autophagy inhibitors revealed that the induced autophagy had a cytoprotective effect on apoptosis in kaempferol-treated MC-3 cells. Kaempferol also decreased the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and increased that of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phosphorylated p38 kinase in MC-3 cells, suggesting the occurrence of mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated apoptosis and JNK-mediated autophagy. In vivo, kaempferol reduced tumor growth inducing apoptosis and autophagy. These results showed that kaempferol has the potential use as an adjunctive agent in treating oral cancer.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Naringenin suppresses aluminum-induced experimental hepato-nephrotoxicity
           in mice through modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation

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      Abstract: Abstract Aluminum is a widely used metal substance in daily life activities that has been shown to cause severe hepato-nephrotoxicity with long-term exposure. Natural dietary flavonoids are being utilized as a newer pharmaceutical approach against various acute and chronic diseases. Naringenin (NAR) has shown efficient therapeutic properties, including effects against metal toxicities. However, the protective efficacy of NAR on aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced hepato-renal toxicity needs investigation as aluminum has shown serious environmental toxicity and bioaccumulation behavior. In this study, mice were treated with AlCl3 (10 mg/kg b.w./day) to assess toxicities, and a group of mice were co-treated with NAR (10 mg/kg b.w./day) to assess the protective effects of NAR against hepato-nephrotoxicity. The levels of blood serum enzymes, oxidative stress biomarkers, inflammatory cytokines, and the apoptosis marker caspase-3 were measured using histological examinations. NAR treatment in AlCl3-treated mice resulted in maintained levels of liver and kidney function enzymes and lipid profiles. NAR treatment attenuated oxidative stress by regulating the levels of nitric oxide, advance oxidation of protein products, protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation. NAR also replenished reduced antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced the levels of glutathione and oxidized glutathione. NAR regulated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and elevated the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ). The histological study further confirmed the protective effects of NAR against AlCl3-induced hepato-renal alterations. NAR decreased the expression of caspase-3 as a mechanism of protective effects against apoptotic damage in the liver and kidney of AlCl3-treated mice. In summary, this study demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of NAR, leading to the suppression of AlCl3-triggered hepato-renal apoptosis and histological alterations. The results suggest that aluminum toxicity needs to be monitored in daily life usage, and supplementation of the natural dietary flavonoid naringenin may help maintain liver and kidney health.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Comparative metabolism of fargesin in human, dog, monkey, mouse, and rat
           hepatocytes

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      Abstract: Abstract Fargesin, a bioactive lignan derived from Flos Magnoliae, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-melanogenic, and anti-apoptotic effects. This study compared the metabolic profiles of fargesin in human, dog, monkey, mouse, and rat hepatocytes using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. In addition, we investigated the human cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes responsible for fargesin metabolism. The hepatic extraction ratio of fargesin among the five species ranged from 0.59 to 0.78, suggesting that it undergoes a moderate-to-extensive degree of hepatic metabolism. During metabolism, fargesin generates three phase 1 metabolites, including fargesin catechol (M1) and O-desmethylfargesin (M2 and M3), and 11 phase 2 metabolites, including O-methyl-M1 (M4 and M5) via catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), glucuronides of M1, M2, M4, and M5, and sulfates of M1–M5. The production of M1 from fargesin via O-demethylenation is catalyzed by CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2C8 enzymes, whereas the formation of M2 and M3 (O-desmethylfargesin) is catalyzed by CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2D6 enzymes. M4 is metabolized to M4 glucuronide by UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17 enzymes, whereas M4 sulfate is generated by multiple SULT enzymes. Fargesin is extensively metabolized in human hepatocytes by CYP, COMT, UGT, and SULT enzymes. These findings help to elucidate the pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of fargesin.
      PubDate: 2024-01-01
       
  • Distribution of molybdenum in soft tissues and blood of rats after
           intratracheal instillation of molybdenum(IV) sulfide nano- and
           microparticles

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      Abstract: Abstract There is still little literature data on the toxicity and safety of the commonly used molybdenum (Mo) disulfide which is present in the working as well as living environments. Thus, an experiment was carried out involving rats, with single and repeated intratracheal exposure (in the latter case, 7 administrations at 2-week intervals with the analysis performed after 90 days) to lower (1.5 mg Mo kg−1 b.w.) and higher (5 mg Mo kg−1 b.w.) doses of molybdenum(IV) sulfide nanoparticles (MoS2-NPs) and microparticles (MoS2-MPs). The analysis of Mo concentrations in the tail and heart blood as well as in soft tissues (lung, liver, spleen, brain), after mineralization and bioimaging, was meant to facilitate an assessment of its accumulation and potential effects on the body following short- and long-term exposure. The multi-compartment model with an exponential curve of Mo concentration over time with different half-lives for the distribution and elimination phases of MoS2-MPs and MoS2-NPs was observed. After 24 h of exposure, a slight increase in Mo concentration in blood was observed. Next, Mo concentration indicated a decrease in blood concentration from 24 h to day 14 (the Mo concentration before the second administration), below the pre-exposure concentration. The next phase was linear, less abrupt and practically flat, but with an increasing trend towards the end of the experiment. Significantly higher Mo concentrations in MoS2-NPs and MoS2-MPs was found in the lungs of repeatedly exposed rats compared to those exposed to a single dose. The analysis of Mo content in the liver and the spleen tissue showed a slightly higher concentration for MoS2-NPs compared to MoS2-MPs. The results for the brain were below the calculated detection limit. Results were consistent with results obtained by bioimaging technique.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-023-00213-0
       
  • Comparative study on estrogen receptor alpha dimerization and
           transcriptional activity of parabens

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      Abstract: Abstract Parabens are used as preservatives in various household products, including oral products, cosmetics, and hair/body washes. In recent years, the widespread use of parabens has raised concerns due to the potential health risks associated with their estrogenic effects. In the present study, we evaluated and compared the estrogenic activity of parabens using two cell-based in vitro tests: (1) bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) dimerization using HEK293 cells that were stably transfected with ERα‐fused NanoLuc luciferase (Nluc) and HaloTag (HT) expression vector, and (2) stably transfected transcriptional activation (STTA) assays using ERα-HeLa9903 cells. The following parabens were tested using the BRET‐based ERα dimerization assay and showed estrogenic activity (PC20 values): methyl paraben (MP, 5.98 × 10−5 M), ethyl paraben (EP, 3.29 × 10−5 M), propylparaben (PP, 3.09 × 10−5 M), butyl paraben (BP, 2.58 × 10−5 M), isopropyl paraben (IsoPP, 1.37 × 10−5 M), and isobutyl paraben (IsoBP, 1.43 × 10−5 M). Except MP, all other parabens tested using the STTA assay also showed estrogenic activity: EP, 7.57 × 10−6 M; PP, 1.18 × 10−6 M; BP, 3.02 × 10−7 M; IsoPP, 3.58 × 10−7 M; and IsoBP, 1.80 × 10−7 M. Overall, EP, PP, BP, IsoPP, and IsoBP tested positive for estrogenic activity using both assays. These findings demonstrate that most parabens, albeit not all, induce ERα dimerization and possess estrogenic activity.
      PubDate: 2023-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-023-00212-1
       
  • Molecular mechanism of empagliflozin cardioprotection in 5-fluorouracil
           (5-FU)-induced cardiotoxicity via modulation of SGLT2 and TNFα/TLR/NF-κB
           signaling pathway in rats

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      Abstract: Abstract One of the commoly used chemotherapeutic agents is 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Unfortunately, the clinical administration of 5-FU is complicated with serious cardiotoxic effects and the safe use becomes an urgent task in cardio-oncology. Till now, there are no studies discussed the role of empagliflozin (EMP) against 5-FU cardiotoxicity. Thus, we investigated this effect and the involved mechanisms in 5-FU induced heart injury. Forty male rats of Wistar albino species were used and divided randomly into four groups. Group I is the control group, group II is EMP given group, group III is 5-FU cardiotoxic group and group IV is 5-FU plus EMP group. 5-FU (150 mg/kg) was administered as a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose on 1st day to induce cardiotoxicity with or without EMP (30 mg/kg/d) orally for 5 days. The dose of 5-FU is relevant to the human toxic dose. Our data showed that 5-FU given group caused cardiotoxicity with significant increase of serum cardiac enzymes, toll like receptors, enhancement of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin1β (IL1β), IL6, myeloid-differentiation-factor 88 (MYD88), heart weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNFα), sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), P53 and caspase3 expression with clear histopathological features of cardiotoxicity. Moreover, there is a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Interestingly, co-administration of EMP could ameliorate 5-FU induced biochemical and histopathological changes. This effect may be due to modulation of SGLT2, decreasing inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis with downregulation of an essential inflammatory cascade that mediates 5-FU cardiotoxicity; TNFα/TLR/NF-κB.
      PubDate: 2023-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s43188-023-00204-1
       
 
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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
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TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)

Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Industrial Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Computational Toxicology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Protocols in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Analytical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Clinical Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ecophysiology and Occupational Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C : Toxicology and Carcinogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances     Open Access  
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Immunotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Translational Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revista de Toxicologia     Open Access  
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicologie Analytique et Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology Communications     Open Access  
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Toxicology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicology Research and Application     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Toxics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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