Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2677 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (235 journals)
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    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (235 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 235 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Nano Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACS Engineering Au     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Environmental Au     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS ES&T Water     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Chemical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Applied Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 110)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerosol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
All Life     Open Access  
American Journal of Polymer Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biofuel Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
C&EN Global Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chem Catalysis     Hybrid Journal  
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemEngineering     Open Access  
Chemica : Jurnal Teknik Kimia     Open Access  
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Process Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Chemical and Process Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Chemical Engineer, The     Partially Free  
Chemical Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Chemical Engineering Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Engineering Journal Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Chemical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Chemical Society Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access  
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Chemical Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cleaner Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Coke and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coloration Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
CORROSION     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Crystal Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Food Science     Open Access  
Designed Monomers and Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Digital Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Discover Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Eksergi     Open Access  
Emerging Trends in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Equilibrium : Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal     Open Access  
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Food Chemistry : Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Gases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gels     Open Access  
Geochemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Graphene Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Green Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science     Open Access  
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Industrial Gases     Open Access  
Info Chimie Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ceramic Engineering & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemistry and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Polymer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Manufacturing and Processing     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117)
Journal of Applied Science & Process Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of CO2 Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coating Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering & Processing Management     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Chemistry & Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geochemical Exploration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Information Display     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids : X     Open Access  
Journal of Organic Semiconductors     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Powder Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 328)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section B : Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JSFA reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access  
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Kvasný Průmysl     Open Access  
Materials Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials Chemistry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Materials Science for Energy Technologies     Open Access  
Materials Sciences and Applied Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Modern Chemistry & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nanochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

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Number of Followers: 1  

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ISSN (Online) 2673-5628
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Gases, Vol. 2, Pages 22-32: Electrostatic Shock Structures in a Magnetized
           Plasma Having Non-Thermal Particles

    • Authors: Sharmin Jahan, Subrata Banik, Nure Alam Chowdhury, Abdul Mannan, A A Mamun
      First page: 22
      Abstract: A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made on the nonlinear propagation of dust-ion-acoustic shock waves in a multi-component magnetized pair-ion plasma (PIP) having inertial warm positive and negative ions, inertialess non-thermal electrons and positrons, and static negatively charged massive dust grains. The Burgers’ equation is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. The plasma model supports both positive and negative shock structures in the presence of static negatively charged massive dust grains. It is found that the steepness of both positive and negative shock profiles declines with the increase of ion kinematic viscosity without affecting the height, and the increment of negative (positive) ion mass in the PIP system declines (enhances) the amplitude of the shock profile. It is also observed that the increase in oblique angle raises the height of the positive shock profile, and the height of the positive shock wave increases with the number density of positron. The applications of the findings from the present investigation are briefly discussed.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/gases2020002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Gases, Vol. 2, Pages 33-60: Risk Management Assessment in Oil and Gas
           Construction Projects Using Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM)

    • Authors: Mukhtar A. Kassem
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Oil and gas construction projects are of great importance to support and facilitate the process of operation and production. However, these projects usually face chronic risks that lead to time overrun, cost overrun, and poor quality, affecting the projects’ success. Hence, this study focused on identifying, classifying, and modeling the risk factors that have negative effects on the success of construction projects in Yemen. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis, relative important index method, and probability impact matrix analysis were carried out to classify and rank the risk factors. The partial least squares path modeling or partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-PM, PLS-SEM) is a method for structural equation modeling that allows an estimation of complex cause–effect relationships in path models with latent variables. PLS-SEM was employed to analyze data collected from a questionnaire survey of 314 participants comprising the clients, contractors, and consultants working in oil and gas construction projects. The results showed that the goodness of fit index of the model is 0.638. The developed model was deemed to fit because the analysis result of the coefficient of determination test (R2) of the model was 0.720, which indicates the significant explanation of the developed model for the relationship between the causes of risks and their effects on the success of projects. The most impacted internal risk categories include project management, feasibility study design, and resource material availability. The main external risk elements include political, economic, and security considerations. The created risk factor model explained the influence of risk factors on the success of construction projects effectively, according to statistical and expert validation tests.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/gases2020003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Gases, Vol. 2, Pages 61-73: Efficiency of U.S. Oil and Gas Companies
           toward Energy Policies

    • Authors: Sami Jarboui, Achraf Ghorbel, Ahmed Jeribi
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The petroleum industry faces crucial environmental problems that exacerbate business instability, such as climate change and greenhouse gas emission regulations. Generally, governments focus on pricing, environmental protection, and supply security when developing energy policy. This article evaluates the technical efficiency of 53 oil and gas companies in the United States during the period 1998–2018 using the stochastic frontier analysis methods and investigates the degree to which energy policies influence the efficiency levels in these companies. Our empirical results show that the average technical efficiency of the 53 U.S. oil and gas companies is 0.75 and confirm that prices, production, consumption, and reserves of the U.S. petroleum and gas have a significant influence on technical efficiency levels. Specifically, our findings show that renewable energy and nuclear power contribute to explaining the distortion between the optimal and observed output of the U.S. oil and gas companies.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/gases2020004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Gases, Vol. 2, Pages 1-21: Adsorption Factors in Enhanced Coal Bed Methane
           Recovery: A Review

    • Authors: Theodora Noely Tambaria, Yuichi Sugai, Ronald Nguele
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Enhanced coal bed methane recovery using gas injection can provide increased methane extraction depending on the characteristics of the coal and the gas that is used. Accurate prediction of the extent of gas adsorption by coal are therefore important. Both experimental methods and modeling have been used to assess gas adsorption and its effects, including volumetric and gravimetric techniques, as well as the Ono–Kondo model and other numerical simulations. Thermodynamic parameters may be used to model adsorption on coal surfaces while adsorption isotherms can be used to predict adsorption on coal pores. In addition, density functional theory and grand canonical Monte Carlo methods may be employed. Complementary analytical techniques include Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, XR diffraction, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This review summarizes the cutting-edge research concerning the adsorption of CO2, N2, or mixture gas onto coal surfaces and into coal pores based on both experimental studies and simulations.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/gases2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 156-179: An Investigation into the Volumetric Flow
           Rate Requirement of Hydrogen Transportation in Existing Natural Gas
           Pipelines and Its Safety Implications

    • Authors: Abubakar Jibrin Abbas, Hossein Hassani, Martin Burby, Idoko Job John
      First page: 156
      Abstract: As an alternative to the construction of new infrastructure, repurposing existing natural gas pipelines for hydrogen transportation has been identified as a low-cost strategy for substituting natural gas with hydrogen in the wake of the energy transition. In line with that, a 342 km, 36″ natural gas pipeline was used in this study to simulate some technical implications of delivering the same amount of energy with different blends of natural gas and hydrogen, and with 100% hydrogen. Preliminary findings from the study confirmed that a three-fold increase in volumetric flow rate would be required of hydrogen to deliver an equivalent amount of energy as natural gas. The effects of flowing hydrogen at this rate in an existing natural gas pipeline on two flow parameters (the compressibility factor and the velocity gradient) which are crucial to the safety of the pipeline were investigated. The compressibility factor behaviour revealed the presence of a wide range of values as the proportions of hydrogen and natural gas in the blends changed, signifying disparate flow behaviours and consequent varying flow challenges. The velocity profiles showed that hydrogen can be transported in natural gas pipelines via blending with natural gas by up to 40% of hydrogen in the blend without exceeding the erosional velocity limits of the pipeline. However, when the proportion of hydrogen reached 60%, the erosional velocity limit was reached at 290 km, so that beyond this distance, the pipeline would be subject to internal erosion. The use of compressor stations was shown to be effective in remedying this challenge. This study provides more insights into the volumetric and safety considerations of adopting existing natural gas pipelines for the transportation of hydrogen and blends of hydrogen and natural gas.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1040013
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 4 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 180-198: Evaluation of Heat Decarbonization
           Strategies and Their Impact on the Irish Gas Network

    • Authors: Aruna Chandrasekar, Eoin Syron
      First page: 180
      Abstract: Decarbonization of the heating sector is essential to meet the ambitious goals of the Paris Climate Agreement for 2050. However, poorly insulated buildings and industrial processes with high and intermittent heating demand will still require traditional boilers that burn fuel to avoid excessive burden on electrical networks. Therefore, it is important to assess the impact of residential, commercial, and industrial heat decarbonization strategies on the distribution and transmission gas networks. Using building energy models in EnergyPlus, the progressive decarbonization of gas-fueled heating was investigated by increasing insulation in buildings and increasing the efficiency of gas boilers. Industrial heat decarbonization was evaluated through a progressive move to lower-carbon fuel sources using MATLAB. The results indicated a maximum decrease of 19.9% in natural gas utilization due to the buildings’ thermal retrofits. This, coupled with a move toward the electrification of heat, will reduce volumes of gas being transported through the distribution gas network. However, the decarbonization of the industrial heat demand with hydrogen could result in up to a 380% increase in volumetric flow rate through the transmission network. A comparison between the decarbonization of domestic heating through gas and electrical heating is also carried out. The results indicated that gas networks can continue to play an essential role in the decarbonized energy systems of the future.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1040014
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 4 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 133-147: CFD Modeling of a Lab-Scale Microwave Plasma
           Reactor for Waste-to-Energy Applications: A Review

    • Authors: Owen Sedej, Eric Mbonimpa
      First page: 133
      Abstract: Rapidly increasing solid waste generation and energy demand are two critical issues of the current century. Plasma gasification, a type of waste-to-energy (WtE) technology, has the potential to produce clean energy from waste and safely destroy hazardous waste. Among plasma gasification technologies, microwave (MW)-driven plasma offers numerous potential advantages to be scaled as a leading WtE technology if its processes are well understood and optimized. This paper reviews studies on modeling experimental microwave-induced plasma gasification systems. The system characterization requires developing mathematical models to describe the multiphysics phenomena within the reactor. The injection of plasma-forming gases and carrier gases, the rate of the waste stream, and the operational power heavily influence the initiation of various chemical reactions that produce syngas. The type and kinetics of the chemical reactions taking place are primarily influenced by either the turbulence or temperature. Navier–Stokes equations are used to describe the mass, momentum, and energy transfer, and the k-epsilon model is often used to describe the turbulence within the reactor. Computational fluid dynamics software offers the ability to solve these multiphysics mathematical models efficiently and accurately.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1030011
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 148-155: Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic
           Waves and Associated Envelope Solitons in a Multi-Component Plasma

    • Authors: Subrata Banik, Nadiya Mehzabeen Heera, Tasfia Yeashna, Md. Rakib Hassan, Rubaiya Khondoker Shikha, Nure Alam Chowdhury, Abdul Mannan, A A Mamun
      First page: 148
      Abstract: A generalized plasma model with inertial warm ions, inertialess iso-thermal electrons, super-thermal electrons and positrons is considered to theoretically investigate the modulational instability (MI) of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs). A standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived by applying the reductive perturbation method. It is observed that the stable domain of the IAWs decreases with ion temperature but increases with electron temperature. It is also found that the stable domain increases by increasing (decreasing) the electron (ion) number density. The present results will be useful in understanding the conditions for MI of IAWs which are relevant to both space and laboratory plasmas.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1030012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 68-79: Effects of the Henry Hub Price on U.S. LNG
           Exports and on Gas Flows in Western Europe

    • Authors: Maik Günther, Volker Nissen
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Natural gas plays an important role in energy supply, and its fields of application are diverse. However, the world’s largest growth potential among fossil fuels is attributed to liquefied natural gas (LNG). In the last few years, the U.S. rapidly increased LNG exports, and it is expected that they will further increase the liquefaction capacities. The cost of the LNG value chain is composed of the natural gas price in the country of origin, and the LNG process costs for liquefaction, transportation, storage, and regasification. Thus, the Henry Hub (HH) price in the U.S. is important for U.S. LNG exports to Western Europe. In this paper, gas flows in Western Europe at the beginning of the 2030s are analyzed if the price at HH is higher or lower than expected. Furthermore, the effect of the HH price on monthly U.S. LNG exports are studied. For the calculations, the global gas market model WEGA is used. The results reveal that the price at HH has a significant effect on annual gas flows in Western Europe and also on U.S. LNG exports during the summer. Furthermore, it is shown that pipeline gas in Western Europe will absorb fluctuations of U.S. LNG exports between the presented scenarios.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020006
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 80-91: Liquefied Synthetic Natural Gas Produced
           through Renewable Energy Surplus: Impact Analysis on Vehicular
           Transportation by 2040 in Italy

    • Authors: Linda Barelli, Gianni Bidini, Panfilo Andrea Ottaviano, Michele Perla
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Time mismatch between renewable energy production and consumption, grid congestion issues, and consequent production curtailment lead to the need for energy storage systems to allow for a greater renewable energy sources share in future energy scenarios. A power-to-liquefied synthetic natural gas system can be used to convert renewable energy surplus into fuel for heavy duty vehicles, coupling the electric and transportation sectors. The investigated system originates from power-to-gas technology, based on water electrolysis and CO2 methanation to produce a methane rich mixture containing H2, coupled with a low temperature gas upgrading section to meet the liquefied natural gas requirements. The process uses direct air CO2 capture to feed the methanation section; mol sieve dehydration and cryogenic distillation are implemented to produce a liquefied natural gas quality mixture. The utilization of this fuel in heavy duty vehicles can reduce greenhouse gases emissions if compared with diesel and natural gas, supporting the growth of renewable fuel consumption in an existing market. Here, the application of power-to-liquefied synthetic natural gas systems is investigated at a national level for Italy by 2040, assessing the number of plants to be installed in order to convert the curtailed energy, synthetic fuel production, and consequent avoided greenhouse gases emissions through well-to-wheel analysis. Finally, plant investment cost is preliminarily investigated.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020007
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 92-105: Comparative Analysis of Gasification and
           Adiabatic Digestion of Corn for Practical Implementation in Conventional
           Gas Turbines

    • Authors: Milana Guteša Božo, Agustin Valera-Medina
      First page: 92
      Abstract: Clean, more responsible energy production in gas turbine power plants is a challenge. Interestingly, various alternative sources could be found in agricultural locations with great potential of being transformed from agricultural waste to energy. Corn cob gasification gas could be successfully implemented in gas turbines through co-firing with natural gas. Concurrently, agricultural biogas could also be employed for such a purpose. The technology could be implemented in locations such as Vojvodina, Serbia, which is an agricultural region with great potential for producing biogas from agricultural waste. Therefore, this paper approaches the practical implementation of gas produced by adiabatic corn digestion with CO2 recirculation. Five different cases were assessed. The results are compared to previous analyses that used co-firing of the corn cob gasification gas in representative gas turbine systems. Impacts of the fuel composition on the characteristics of combustion were analyzed using CHEMKIN PRO with GRI–Mech 3.0. Impacts of fuel quality on the power plant performance were analyzed through calculations with a numerical model based on a Brayton cycle of 3.9 MW power output. The application shows acceptable values during co-firing with natural gas without modification of the overall system, with better outlet parameters compared to pure corn gasification gas.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020008
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 106-116: Dust-Ion-Acoustic Rogue Waves in a Dusty
           Plasma Having Super-Thermal Electrons

    • Authors: Akib Al Noman, Md Khairul Islam, Mehedi Hassan, Subrata Banik, Nure Alam Chowdhury, Abdul Mannan, A. A. Mamun
      First page: 106
      Abstract: The standard nonlinear Schrödinger Equation (NLSE) is one of the elegant equations to find detailed information about the modulational instability criteria of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) waves and associated DIA rogue waves (DIARWs) in a three-component dusty plasma medium with inertialess super-thermal kappa distributed electrons, and inertial warm positive ions and negative dust grains. It can be seen that the plasma system supports both fast and slow DIA modes under consideration of inertial warm ions along with inertial negatively charged dust grains. It is also found that the modulationally stable parametric regime decreases with κ. The numerical analysis has also shown that the amplitude of the first and second-order DIARWs decreases with ion temperature. These results are to be considered the cornerstone for explaining the real puzzles in space and laboratory dusty plasmas.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020009
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 117-132: Impact of Managed-Lane Pricing Strategies on
           Vehicle-Sourced NOx and HC Emissions

    • Authors: Jianbang Du, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Ying Lv
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Ground-level ozone is a secondary air pollutant that is formed by chemical reactions between precursors, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC). Highway traffic, which can be controlled by traffic operational strategies, is one of the main sources of atmospheric NOx and HC. Managed-lane pricing is one of the popularly used freeway traffic management approaches, while its impacts on ground-level ozone-related vehicle emissions is, however, still unclear. This motivated the purpose of this research. A case study in Houston, USA indicates that, vehicles on managed lanes had fewer hard accelerations/decelerations and higher average speed, which resulted in higher per-vehicle emissions in grams/hour, while the total emissions of a vehicle were roughly comparable to what they would be on a general-purpose lane. Total daily NOx and HC emissions per managed lane were 31.9%–42.6% of those per general-purpose lane. The weight ratios between HC and NOx show that, the ground-level ozone formation of this area is hydrocarbon-limited.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1020010
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 33-50: Effects of Pressurizing Cryogenic Treatments
           on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Shale Core Samples—An
           Experimental Study

    • Authors: Rayan Khalil, Hossein Emadi, Faisal Altawati
      First page: 33
      Abstract: The technique of cryogenic treatments requires injecting extremely cold fluids such as liquid nitrogen (LN2) into formations to create fractures in addition to connecting pre-existing fracture networks. This study investigated the effects of implementing and pressurizing cryogenic treatment on the physical (porosity and permeability) and mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and bulk compressibility) of the Marcellus shale samples. Ten Marcellus core samples were inserted in a core holder and heated to 66 °C using an oven. Then, LN2 (−177 °C) was injected into the samples at approximately 0.14 MPa. Nitrogen was used to pressurize nine samples at injection pressures of 1.38, 2.76, and 4.14 MPa while the tenth core sample was not pressurized. Using a cryogenic pressure transducer and a T-type thermocouple, the pressure and temperature of the core holder were monitored and recorded during the test. The core samples were scanned using a computed tomography (CT) scanner, and their porosities, permeability, and ultrasonic velocities were measured both before and after conducting the cryogenic treatments. The analyses of CT scan results illustrated that conducting cryogenic treatments created new cracks inside all the samples. These cracks increased the pore volume, and as a result, the porosity, permeability, and bulk compressibility of the core samples increased. The creations of the new cracks also resulted in reductions in the compressional and shear velocities of the samples, and as a result, decreasing the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. Moreover, the results revealed that pressurizing the injected LN2 increased the alterations of aforementioned properties.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010003
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 51-52: Gases—An Open Access Journal

    • Authors: Edward J. Anthony
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Gases (ISSN 2673-5628) is an international and interdisciplinary peer-reviewed open access journal on gas science and engineering published quarterly online by MDPI [...]
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010004
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 53-67: A Visual Investigation of CO2 Convective
           Mixing in Water and Oil at the Pore Scale Using a Micromodel Apparatus at
           Reservoir Conditions

    • Authors: Widuramina Amarasinghe, Seyed Farzaneh, Ingebret Fjelde, Mehran Sohrabi, Ying Guo
      First page: 53
      Abstract: CO2 convective mixing in water has been visualized in Hele-Shaw and PVT cell experiments but not at the pore scale. Furthermore, CO2 convective mixing in a three-phase system (i.e., CO2 in the presence of both water and oil) has not been visually investigated. A vertically placed micromodel setup was used to visualize CO2 convective mixing at 100 bar and 50 °C, representative of reservoir conditions. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we have visually investigated CO2 convective mixing in water at the pore scale and also CO2 convective mixing in a multiphase system (water and oil). CO2 mixing in water governed by both diffusion and convection mechanisms was observed. The vertical CO2 transport velocity was calculated to be 0.3 mm/min in both a 100% water saturation system and a residual oil-saturated system. First, CO2 always found the easiest path through the connected pores, and then CO2 was transported into less connected pores and dead-end pores. CO2 transport into dead-end pores was slower than through the preferential path. CO2 transport into water-filled ganglia with trapped oil was observed and was slower than in water.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010005
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2021)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 1-18: A Techno-Economic Perspective on Natural Gas
           and Its Value Chain

    • Authors: Ruud Egging-Bratseth
      First page: 1
      Abstract: We describe the elements and actors in the global natural gas value chains with an emphasis on characteristics relevant for large-scale energy system and market modeling. We give backgrounds on natural gas as a hydrocarbon to provide a rationale and understanding for what functional representations in mathematical programming models aim to represent. Simply taking the most advanced and detailed functional forms for all value chain characteristics and activities will typically result in numerical intractability. One should carefully determine what is needed to address a research question or analyze a business case. Recent advances in mathematical programming do allow solving large models with adequate detail for many types of analysis. We discuss which functional forms and modeling approaches can be appropriate for representing various characteristics in different types of analysis and provide a succinct and general mathematical programming formulation reflecting the optimization problems for different types of actors in the value chain. We provide an implementation for a stylized network using GAMS.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2020-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010001
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2020)
  • Gases, Vol. 1, Pages 19-32: Safe and Effective Use of Ozone as Air and
           Surface Disinfectant in the Conjuncture of Covid-19

    • Authors: Elena Grignani, Antonella Mansi, Renato Cabella, Paola Castellano, Angelo Tirabasso, Renata Sisto, Mariangela Spagnoli, Giovanni Fabrizi, Francesco Frigerio, Giovanna Tranfo
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The present paper extrapolates quantitative data for ozone virucidal activity on the basis of the available scientific literature data for a safe and effective use of ozone in the appropriate cases and to explore the safety measures developed under the stimulus of the current emergency situation. Ozone is a powerful oxidant reacting with organic molecules, and therefore has bactericidal, virucidal, and fungicidal actions. At the same time, it is a toxic substance, having adverse effects on health and safety. Its use is being proposed for the disinfection of workplaces’ and public places’ atmosphere, and for disposable masks and personal protective equipment disinfection for reuse, with particular reference to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Ozone can be generated in situ by means of small, compact ozone generators, using dried ambient air as a precursor. It should be injected into the room that is to be disinfected until the desired ozone concentration is reached; after the time needed for the disinfection, its concentrations must be reduced to the levels required for the workers’ safety. The optimal use of ozone is for air and surface disinfection without human presence, using a concentration that is effective for the destruction of viruses, but not high enough to deteriorate materials.
      Citation: Gases
      PubDate: 2020-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/gases1010002
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2020)
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Heriot-Watt University
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