Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2688 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (229 journals)
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    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1325 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (452 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (229 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 234 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Nano Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ACS Engineering Au     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ACS Environmental Au     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS ES&T Water     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Chemical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Applied Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 109)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerosol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
All Life     Open Access  
American Journal of Polymer Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biofuel Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
C&EN Global Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chem Catalysis     Hybrid Journal  
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemEngineering     Open Access  
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Process Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Chemical and Process Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Chemical Engineer, The     Partially Free  
Chemical Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Chemical Engineering Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Engineering Journal Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Chemical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Chemical Society Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access  
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Chemical Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cleaner Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coke and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coloration Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
CORROSION     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Crystal Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Food Science     Open Access  
Designed Monomers and Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Digital Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Discover Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Eksergi     Open Access  
Emerging Trends in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Equilibrium : Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal     Open Access  
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Food Chemistry : Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Gases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gels     Open Access  
Geochemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Graphene Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Green Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science     Open Access  
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Industrial Gases     Open Access  
Info Chimie Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ceramic Engineering & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemistry and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Polymer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Manufacturing and Processing     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
Journal of Applied Science & Process Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of CO2 Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coating Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering & Processing Management     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Chemistry & Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geochemical Exploration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Information Display     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids : X     Open Access  
Journal of Organic Semiconductors     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Powder Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section B : Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JSFA reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access  
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Kvasný Průmysl     Open Access  
Materials Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials Chemistry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Materials Science for Energy Technologies     Open Access  
Materials Sciences and Applied Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Modern Chemistry & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nanochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aerosol Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2510-375X - ISSN (Online) 2510-3768
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Wet Vibrational Precipitator: Increasing Particulate Capture Efficiency
           Through Vibrational Analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, an array of wet vibrating cables is placed under tension across a particle laden air flow to capture particulates in the air stream. The goal is to remove particles suspended in a gas flow for pollution control; a function that is currently achieved typically through use of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Unlike the standard electrostatic precipitators, the particles are not required to be charged for capture; instead, particles are captured through impaction, interception, and diffusion. This technology is incorporated in a novel cross flow vibrational precipitator (VP) in which the particle collection surface consists of an array cable-type collection surfaces wetted by water flow. The VP system is unique in having particle collection enhanced by flow-induced vibrations of the cables. The flow-induced vibrations can be synchronized with the natural frequency of the cables to produce resonance which enhances vibration and improves particle capture by disrupting the fluid boundary layer on the cable surfaces. Since the vibrations are self-induced in the system, no separate electrical power sources such as high voltage transformer-rectifier (TR) units are needed. The work presented here focuses on a detailed vibration analysis of the VP system with the aim of increasing particulate capture efficiency by operating near resonance conditions where the vibration amplitudes become effective in increasing particle capture. The analytical approach adopted in the present study was implemented in the experiments and showed a 57% increase in particulate collection efficiency in the resonance regime when compared to the non-resonance mode.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
       
  • A Review of Data Assimilation on Aerosol Optical, Radiative, and Climatic
           Effects Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Aerosol plays an important role in many significant environmental and climate-related issues. Accurate simulation and prediction are critical to understanding aerosol behaviors, aerosol processes, and aerosol effects. However, large uncertainties in the simplified parameterizations of aerosol processes, the optical calculations, and radiation calculations hinder the accurate simulations of aerosol distributions and their influences. The observation limitations in spatio-temporal scales also make it difficult to reproduce the three-dimensional aerosol features. The aerosol data assimilation method can combine both the modeling information with multi-platform aerosol observations to improve the accurate predictions and behaviors of aerosols, hence optimizing the evaluations of aerosol radiative and climatic effects. In this paper, we briefly introduce the developments of the principal methods for aerosol data assimilation and their implementations in investigating the aerosol optical properties, radiative effects, and climatic effects in China. The challenges and development trends in improvements of aerosol data assimilation are also highlighted.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Assessment of Potential Source and the Source Region of Particulate Matter
           in an Urban Area of Delhi, India

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      Abstract: Abstract This study addresses how the potential emission sources, regions (e.g., local, regional, and trans-boundary) and the trajectory stimulate the level of particulate matter (PM10) at observation site. Therefore, to comprehend such significant issues the chemical species, morphology and elements (EC, OC, WSOC, Al, S, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Pb, Cr, F, Cl, Na, K, Mg, Ca, and P) of PM10 were investigated over Delhi. Trajectory analysis and potential source contribution function identify dominating regions like Haryana, Punjab, Indo-Gangetic Plains, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bay of Bengal, and Arabian Sea contributing to the mass concentration of PM10 at the sampling site. Furthermore, conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) was programmed to the five components of principal component analysis [crustal/road dust, industrial emissions, biomass burning + fossil-fuel combustion (BB + FCC), mixed emissions, and vehicular emissions]. Where, industrial emissions shows the maximum probability in the (N–W and S–W) directions; vehicular emissions probability was higher in the (S–E and S–W) direction, (N–E and N–W) shows the maximum probability of (BB + FCC). These CBPF programmed directions were quite obvious for the sources in such directions. Subsequently, the field-emission scanning electron microscope study showed different particulate morphology as spherical, irregular, and flocculent, thus defining the possible potential sources.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
       
  • Seasonal Tropospheric Aerosol Classification Using AERONET Spectral
           Absorption Properties in African Locations

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      Abstract: Abstract Due to diverse aerosol sources and location, complex aerosol composition in Africa makes the regional assessment of its impact on climate limited. The single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) and extinction Ångström exponent in selected bands from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) level 2.0 dataset are used over ten stations in Africa to classify aerosol type based on seasons from 2000 to 2015. The multi-year AERONET data were investigated to group the sites based on the threshold limit of the aerosol properties and infer dominant aerosol type using Voronoi clustering. The aerosol incursion into the sites is investigated using the NOAA HYSPLIT model at the peak of the seasons. The results show that aerosol type depends on the source region and transportation routes, such as the case of Island stations in the Atlantic close to Sahara, with dominant aerosol type of coarse and fine non-absorbing in the two established seasons. Furthermore, a high percentage of coarse and fine absorbing particles is observed in the northeast, such as Cairo, while a low percentage of coarse with a high percentage of fine absorbing particles is found in the east. In the southern stations, fine and strong absorbing aerosols are observed. The absorption Angstrom Exponent result reveals high values (> 1.5) for the majority of the sites in the north, signifying dust dominance and low values (≤ 1.45) for the southern sites signifying fine-mode aerosol with some mixed aerosols at the middle stations. The overlap in each absorption value is resolved through a clustering technique using AAE versus EAE variables. The seasonal classification method adopted provides ways to reduce ambiguity in identifying aerosol type and resolve variable aerosol populations not well represented in the region.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Effects of PM2.5 and Meteorological Parameters on the Incidence Rates of
           Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in the Upper Northern Region
           of Thailand

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      Abstract: Abstract The research aimed to study the effect of ambient PM2.5 and meteorological parameters on the incidence rates of COPD. The study, using the panel model, lasted for 7 years and covered eight provinces in the upper northern region of Thailand (January 2014–December 2020). The feasible general least squares (FGLS) for the heteroscedasticity were used to estimate all the parameters in the model. The study result showed that all PM2.5 and meteorological parameters contributed to an increase in COPD cases. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, refers to a group of diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related problems, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis (Mannino et al. 2002). We found that the average increase of PM2.5 by 1%, would add an increased risk of COPD cases by 0.25% at a significance level of 0.10. Our study results also revealed that the average increase of temperature, humidity and hot spots by 1% would lead to the increased risk of new COPD cases by 0.42% at a significance level of 0.05. Moreover, a rise in the average of the lowest temperature in the provinces under the study by 1%, would increase the number of new cases of COPD by 0.92% at a significance level at 0.01. There were some challenges involved in investigating health impacts of PM2.5. This study demonstrated that evidence from the econometric panel data model provided valuable information for future efforts to prevent incidence of PM2.5 disease. It is recommended that a more comprehensive program is needed to reduce the exacerbation rate of COPD.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Synthesis and Characterization of ZnS/PbS Quantum Dots Nanorods Array
           Heterostructure

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      Abstract: Abstract Glass was used as substrates for the synthesis of ZnS/PbS heterostructure using simply one-step thermal evaporation method. The surface morphology and structural studies were carefully researched using various characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and micro-photoluminescence (PL). Our results indicate that the obtained nanostructures are composed mainly of nanorods with length of few microns and thickness of up 100 nm. The ZnS/PbS nanocrystalline consists of cubic phase and polycrystalline in nature. The photoluminescence performance of the system was investigated. At least one luminescence center gives a red emission under 488 nm excitation is identified. Another luminescence center at 1350 nm could be assigned to the PbS quantum dots, which can be utilized to produce infrared solar cells. Produce efficient infrared solar cells.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
       
  • Model Studies of Cloud Effects for Surface UV Radiation

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      Abstract: Abstract Based on the analysis of the results of research by various authors in the field, it has been determined that the presence of clouds can lead to both an increase and a decrease in UV radiation on the surface of the Earth. The condition of UV radiation balance, as well as the condition of total increase on the surface of Earth, has been determined. On the basis of the proposed non-permanent model of cough clouds, a condition of balance of UV radiation on the Earth's surface and a condition of total increase of UV radiation have been found.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Impact Assessment of Aerosol Optical Depth on Rainfall in Indian Rural
           Areas

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      Abstract: Abstract Aerosol significantly influences the life cycle of clouds and their formation. Many studies reported worldwide on anthropogenic aerosols and their impact on clouds and their optical properties. Atmospheric remote sensing provides the best way to estimate indirectly air quality surveillance and management in megacities of developing countries like India where many cities have elevated concentration profiles of air pollutants with inadequate coverage of spatial and temporal monitoring. The results of the study highlighted the impact on rainfall patterns due to aerosol optical depth (AOD) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for a total of 7 years (2015–2021) over five different Indian rural sites by using MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The AOD (550 nm) and PM2.5 were retrieved from the MODIS sensor Terra satellites and the MEERA 2 model, respectively. Also, we have analyzed in this study the relationship of AOD (550 nm) with PM2.5 and meteorological variables (temperature relative humidity and precipitation) over Indian rural sites during 2015–2021. The maximum concentration of AOD (550 nm) has been measured for Gandhi college (2.94 ± 0.44) and minimum for ARM college (0.01 ± 0.28), while the maximum concentration of PM2.5 has been measured for ARM College 296.37 (µg m−3) and minimum for Karunya University 0.02 (µg m−3). Also, the relation between AOD (550 nm) with total precipitation is measured positively for all locations except Gandhi college whereby PM2.5 associated with total precipitation is measured negatively for all locations except ARM college. Finally, the relationship between PM2.5 and AOD (550 nm) is measured positively in all selected locations except Singhad Institute. The maximum rainfall has been observed for monsoon months (June–August) and post-monsoon months (October) for all locations during the study period. The maximum total precipitation has been measured for Singhad 11,674.7 (mm) and the minimum for Karunya University 4563.41 (mm). However, the results of the study indicated that there was no direct trend observed in AOD in five different selected rural Indian sites.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
       
  • Annual and Inter-annual Variability Coupled with Comparison of
           MODIS-AERONET Retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth over a Rural Site in the
           Central Indo-Gangetic Basin

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      Abstract: Abstract The long-term (2000–2015) MODIS EOS-Terra/Aqua multi-algorithm (DT, DB and combined DTB) retrieved AOD550 nm and AERONET measured AOD550 nm data at Gandhi College (24.87° N, 84.19° E; 60 m amsl), a rural site in the central IGB, have been employed to assess the performance of MODIS AOD products against AERONET AOD and to examine their annual and inter-annual variability. For both MODIS Terra/Aqua sensors, the linear regression data statistics reveals that the values of slopes for MODIS Terra-EOS sensor lie in the range 1.04 ± 0.03 [DB (QA = 2,3)] to 1.11 ± 0.02 [DT (QA = (2,3)] which are slightly higher than 1. Also, similar observation is noticed for MODIS Aqua-EOS sensor for which slopes of linear regression fit span over 0.99 ± 0.03 [DB (QA = 2,3)] – 1.16 ± 0.03 [DT (QA = 3)]. The intercept, however, approach zero values for both MODIS Terra/AQUA–EOS sensor at DT (QA = 3), DT (QA = 2,3), DB (QA = 2,3) and DTB combined retrieval algorithms. The evaluation/performance analysis, therefore, exhibits the observed near-perfect match of MODIS Terra/Aqua-EOS sensors derived AOD550nm from all algorithms with AERONET measured AOD550 nm as a result of magnitudes of the slope and intercept of the linear regression fit to the scatter diagrams of MODIS AOD550 nm against AERONET AOD550 nm. Results, thus indicate that at Gandhi College, the DT, and DTB combined retrieval algorithms satisfactorily estimate AOD products which can then be used to build aerosol climatology over Gandhi College. The MODIS and AERONET derived AOD550 nm values over the Gandhi College indicate a distinct annual pattern with maximum AOD550 nm during the winter season and minimum AOD550 nm during monsoon season and winter-summer transition period. Analysis revealed that the aerosol loading starts building up over the study region from March to June of the pre-monsoon season mainly due to the high convective activity and long-range mineral dust transport from western arid regions. An increase in AOD values during the post-monsoon and winter season is primarily due to the influx of aerosols from biomass burning processes and stable atmospheric conditions, the MODIS Terra retrieved AOD550 nm using DT and combined DTB algorithm showed higher values in the month of July of monsoon season as compared to MODIS Aqua retrieved AOD550 nm. The inter-annual AOD trend analysis reveals that for MODIS Terra satellite there exits an increasing AOD trend during post-monsoon and winter seasons for DT (0.0233 year–1), DB (0.0239 year–1) and DTB (0.0246 year–1), retrieval algorithms. For MODIS Aqua satellite also, there exists an increasing AOD550 nm trend with differing but higher AOD year–1 trend value. On the contrary, for monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons, for MODIS Terra and Aqua satellite, the AOD trends are found to be statistically insignificant.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
       
  • Atmospheric Aerosols: Some Highlights and Highlighters, Past to Recent
           Years

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      Abstract: Abstract The severe harmful impact of atmospheric aerosols over the environment leads to create the diverse human interests and concerns. Various progressive steps were taken by researchers and scientists to understand the fundamentals, such as nucleation and growth mechanisms, formalization of particle dynamics, characterization of the mechanisms for the particle-size dispensation, detection of chemical processes for atmospheric particle sources. The increase in population growth and different manmade activities have led to change in the environmental conditions causes to pollute the distinct vicinities. Different changes in the environment such as land use pattern, increased concentration of various greenhouse gases, and Industrial pollutants change the energy balance in our climatic conditions and affect the radiation budget of earth’ atmosphere. Such changes in climate and polluted environment leads to many health-related ailments to mankind. The present study outlines the recent research perspectives of atmospheric aerosols, their estimation through different modes, effects, and an overview of the current situations that need to be addressed before they become completely incorporated.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
       
  • UV Erythemal Radiation and Its Sensitivity to Changes in Total Column
           Ozone and Aerosols

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      Abstract: Abstract Ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER) measurements made at the Nowrosjee Wadia College (NWC) campus, Pune (India) were analysed to investigate temporal variability of UVER, to quantify effects of total column ozone (TCO) and aerosols on surface reaching UVER and to inter-compare ground-based and satellite retrieved UVER data. Diurnal variability in UVER exhibits a significant change with respect to local noon time followed by a month-to-month cyclical trend. The rate of ascent/descent of UVER during morning/evening time in winter is seen to be 0.43 minimum erythemal dose per hour (MED/hr) while during pre-monsoon season it is 0.63 MED/hr. Overall, the average value of the UVER for study period comes out to be 2.93 ± 0.8 MED/hr which is ~ 1.5 times higher than the threshold limit at which the Indian skin gets affected. There exists a quasi-anti-phase relationship between UVER and aerosol/TCO data pairs highlighting their influence on surface reaching UVER. Analysis reveals an inverse relationship between UV index (UV-I) (hence UVER) and aerosol index (AI) yielding Pearson correlation coefficient (r) in the range − 0.21 to − 0.88 for the period 2012–2013 and 2014–2015. The study further elucidates that the observed overall rate of decrement in UVER as a function of TCO is found to be 2.8 ± 1.5%. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) retrieved UVER overestimates the UV-Biometer measured UVER by about 30%. The reason for overestimations being the non-inclusion of absorbing aerosols in the UVER retrieval algorithm employed in OMI estimations as well as prevalent atmospheric conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
       
  • Development and Application of Photoionization Technology for Organic
           Analysis of Particulate Matter

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      Abstract: Abstract Photoionization (PI) is a soft ionization method that does not cause the production of molecular fragments from target materials. Applications of soft photoionization–mass spectrometric methods to molecular analysis are reviewed here. A non-selective photoionization technique (single-photon ionization, SPI) can be used to measure volatile compounds with molecular mass < 120 m/z, while a soft and selective technique (resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization, REMPI) is better suited for aromatic compounds whose molecular mass is > 100 m/z. The development of hyphenated thermal–optical analyzer photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometers (PI-TOFMS) combined with REMPI and SPI methods has enabled the analyses of evolved gaseous species, and these advanced methods have led to new insights into the elemental and organic carbon in particulate matter. Nonetheless, technical developments in the REMPI/SPI–TOFMS framework are far from complete, and there are opportunities for the development of new process analysis applications.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
       
  • Understanding the Sources of Heavy Metal Pollution in Ambient Air of
           Neighboring a Solid Waste Landfill Site

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      Abstract: With growing urbanization and industrialization, problems such as poor disposal practices of solid waste and ensuing uncontrolled air pollution adjacent to landfill pose threats to human and environmental wellbeing. Ahmedabad is highly polluted urban city in India and unregulated burning of solid waste further aggravates already appalling situation caused by a large number of industries and vehicle fleets. The present work was carried out to understand sources of metals in ambient air surrounding a municipal landfill known as Pirana. For the study, surrounding area of the landfill was divided into 100 rectangular cells covering almost 5 km distance from its outer boundary. A location representing major land-use feature of each cell was classified. Sampling was carried out at these locations. A total of 100 PM5.0 samples were collected. Sampling was conducted for 3 h at each sampling location with samples collected on quartz filter paper. Measurements were performed over approximately 6 months from August to February, 2018. The filters were analyzed for metals using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. These measurements were used to identify pollution sources using positive matrix factorization technique and locate the hotspots of emission sources of heavy metals pollution. Five major sources namely, ferrous industry, nonferrous industry, vehicular emissions, re-suspended dust and solid waste burning/industrial coal combustion were identified and quantified. The average contributions of these sources to heavy metals were 20.7 ± 16.2, 18.4 ± 14.3, 19.9 ± 13.6, 21.4 ± 17.6, and 19.6 ± 10.6%, respectively. The average contribution from solid waste and industrial coal combustion is only 19.6% against the total from the combined remaining sources (~ 80.4), which means contribution from former will be lesser. Thus, solid waste burning is minor contributor for degradation of air quality; presence of many other sources around the site is actually the dominant cause of pollution. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
       
  • Deposition Modeling of Airborne Particulate Matter on Human Respiratory
           Tract During Winter Seasons in Arid-Urban Environment

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to predict winter season street-level ambient particulate matter (PM) depositions within human airways using Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model. The PM exposure concentrations in the downtown street of As-Seeb, Oman were measured continuously over 20 days (31 October–9 December 2018) using a mobile ambient air quality monitoring instrument equipped with sensors. The MPPD model together with the associated default respiratory parameters was implemented to quantify the total, head, tracheobronchial (TB), and pulmonary (PL) regional PM depositions in airways among children (3, 8, and 14 years old) and adults (18 and 21 years old) groups. The street-level PM exposure concentration (µg/m3) levels for PM10 (avg 69.64; IQR 15.1), PM2.5 (avg 13.76; IQR 1.36) and PM1 (avg 3.67; IQR 0.52) was obtained during the winter season. The average 24-H PM2.5 (14 µg/m3) concentration was about 60, 50 and 44% lower when compared to US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standard (CAAQS), and WHO daily ceilings of 35, 28 and 25 µg/m3, respectively. Across all the age groups, the total airways deposition was found to be very high in PM10 (92–99%), followed by PM2.5 (61–76%) and PM1 (33–49%) being the least. Similarly, the average deposition of PM10 in the head region (76%) was observed to be more than 4–15 times higher than TB (16%) and PL (4%) for all ages. Children recorded higher PM2.5 depositions in the TB (53–59%) region compared to adults (TB 47–51%). The PM10 lobar deposition of 8-year-old children is more than 7 times higher compared to 21-year-old adults due to their lower breathing heights and higher breathing rates. In general, PM clearance was very high in TB and poor in the alveolar region.
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-021-00125-2
       
  • Aerosol–Cloud Interaction over South-Central India and Adjoining
           Coastal Areas

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      Abstract: Abstract The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved (2009–2015) aerosol and cloud products over South-Central India, including adjoining coastal areas, were quantitatively analyzed to explore aerosol–cloud interaction and to estimate aerosol indirect effect (AIE). The spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed high AOD550 nm (~ 0.7) over the northern India and is attributed to the long- and short-range transport of desert dust aerosols, dense population, and industrialization. The mean seasonal AOD550 nm over region decreases from (0.55 ± 0.11) to (0.45 ± 0.05) and to (0.39 ± 0.04) for monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons, respectively. The western Indian regions, particularly Pune and Jaipur, showed higher mean AOD500 nm as compared to other cities. The positive correlation of aerosol indirect effect (AIE) with AOD for Pune and Pondicherry through pre- as well post- monsoon seasons for all cities except Pondicherry is ascribed to hygroscopic aerosol particulate growth. The aerosol size spectra undergo significant transformation from dominant high accumulation-mode during September–February months [with Angström exponent (AE) > 1.0] to dominant augmented coarse-mode (AE < 1.0) through March to June–July period. The AOD500 nm-to-cloud fraction (CF) correlation coefficients range between 0.05 and 0.46 for coastal region, while for Jaipur, Pune, and overall study region, the CFs are 0.53, 0.65, and 0.75, respectively. The pre-monsoon months recorded lower (0.4–0.6 µm) cloud effective radii values than monsoon season (0.8–1.3 µm). The AOD-to-cloud liquid water path correlations for Goa and Pune (0.30–0.48) are higher than other cities (0.01–0.19). The AIE average values for metropolitan, semi-arid, coastal, high-altitude sites, and overall study region were found to be − 0.168, − 0.025, − 0.104, − 0.101, and − 0.128, respectively. There occurs a noticeable negative AIE for three categories (viz., Metropolitan, coastal, and high-altitude station), while for semi-arid category, there exists a prominent Twomey (positive AIE) effect.
      PubDate: 2022-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-021-00123-4
       
  • Retrieval of Broadband Optical Properties from Ambient Aerosols
           Measurements Using Inverse Mie Calculations

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      Abstract: Abstract The role of atmospheric aerosols in earth’s radiative balance is crucial. A thorough knowledge about the spectral optical properties of various types of aerosols is necessary to quantify the net radiative forcing produced by aerosol–light interactions. In this study, we exploited an open-source inverse algorithm based on the Python—PyMieScatt survey iteration method, to retrieve the wavelength dependent Mie-equivalent complex refractive indices of ambient aerosols. This method was verified by obtaining the broadband complex refractive indices of monodisperse polystyrene latex spheres and polydisperse common salt aerosols, using laboratory data collected with a supercontinuum broadband cavity enhanced extinction spectrometer operating in the 420–540 nm wavelength range. Field measurements of ambient aerosol were conducted using a similar cavity enhanced extinction spectrometer (IBBCEES) operating in the wavelength range of 400–550 nm, a multi-wavelength aethalometer, and a scanning mobility particle sizer, in Changzhou city, People’s Republic of China. The absorption coefficients for the entire wavelength range were retrieved using the absorption Ångström exponents calculated from a pair of measured absorption coefficients at known wavelengths. The survey iteration method takes scattering and absorption coefficients, wavelength, and size distributions as inputs; and it calculates the Mie-equivalent wavelength dependent complex refractive index (RI = n ± ik) and estimated errors. The retrieved field RI values ranged from 1.66 ≤ n ≤ 1.80 to 1.65 ≤ n ≤ 1.86 and from 0.036 ≤ k ≤ 0.038 to 0.062 ≤ k ≤ 0.067 in the wavelength range (400–550 nm), for low and high aerosol loading conditions, respectively. Additionally, we derived the spectral dependencies of scattering and absorption coefficients along with the n and k Ångström exponents (AE). The nAE and kAE estimated values suggest a stronger wavelength dependence for aerosol light scattering compared to absorption, and a decreasing trend for the spectrally dependent single scattering albedo during both loading conditions. The extremum of errors in the retrieved n and k values were quantified by considering (a) uncertainties in input parameters in the broad spectral region (400–550 nm), (b) using CAPS extinction values at 530 nm and (c) an estimated size distribution incorporating the coarse particles (at 530 nm).
      PubDate: 2022-01-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-021-00128-z
       
  • Indoor Air Quality Monitoring of Urban and Rural Households of a North
           Indian City During Cooking Hours

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study aims to study the indoor and outdoor air quality in an urban center and its immediate rural areas. The measurements of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and the Air Quality Index (AQI) during cooking hours in the morning, daytime, and evening, using a real-time portable air sampler were performed as a part of the study. Five residential colonies in urban and rural localities of a North Indian city Lucknow, covering a total of sixty households (HHs), were selected for detailed sampling over a period of two months (February and March 2018). A major difference in the cooking pattern was observed in urban and rural localities in terms of the use of cooking fuels. The average indoor PM2.5 concentrations in urban and rural HHs were 115.4 µg/m3 and 337.2 µg/m3, respectively. These values were 1.3 and 7.8 times higher than the outdoor PM2.5 concentration levels. Similarly, the average indoor PM10 concentrations in urban and rural HHs were 178.3 µg/m3 and 362.4 µg/m3, respectively. These values were 1.2 and 4.8 times higher than the outdoor levels. The average AQI be the highest (368.8) for rural indoors, primarily due to biomass burning, and the lowest (84.9) for rural outdoors during the sampling period. A majority (> 70%) of the rural HHs, with women being the most susceptible groups for the exposure, reported ailments like prolonged coughing and eye irritation during cooking hours, while urban HHs were relatively better off. The difference in the indoor and outdoor urban and rural air quality was observed to be the least during the daytime and evening, indicating the variations in emission patterns during the cooking hours. It is expected that the outcome of this study will help in taking progressive measures to reduce the emission of particulate matter while cooking, especially in vulnerable rural households.
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-021-00126-1
       
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics Optimization of an Extraoral Vacuum Aerosol
           Cup for Airborne Disease Control in Dental Offices

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      Abstract: Droplet and aerosol transmission of COVID-19 are the most important concerns in dental clinics, due to the generation of large amounts of infected aerosol and droplets mixed with patient’s saliva during the procedures. The current approach to prevent airborne disease transmission is an extraoral aerosol suction unit: a stand-alone vacuum module with a segmented arm and cup. Despite the need for disease control in dental offices, these units are rarely seen due to the loud noise produced by vacuum, bulky size, and high cost. This paper describes the aerodynamic design optimization of an affordable, 3D printable, Extraoral Vacuum Aerosol Cup (EVAC) that can be directly connected to existing standard 7/16″ central vacuum high-volume evacuator (HVE) valves used for intraoral saliva absorption in a dental office. These HVEs are typically unsuitable for extraoral suction due to their low vacuum force. However, they can be used for extraoral suction, if the cup attachment is aerodynamically optimized for maximum suction efficiency. Fifteen different designs of EVAC are proposed and their suction processes were simulated with computational fluid dynamics. Droplets of various sizes are released to mimic the droplets produced during dental operation. The suction performances of EVACs with different sizes and shapes were compared to find out the designs with optimal performance. Prototypes of the optimized EVAC are 3D printed and tested at a dental office. Development and manufacturing of such a device will largely reduce the COVID-19 infection risk, thus improving the safety protection for both patients and doctors at dental offices. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-021-00121-6
       
  • A Theoretical Model of RGB Attenuation of Solar Radiation Components Under
           Strong Aerosol Pollution of the Atmosphere

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      Abstract: Abstract The urgency and significance of the formulation of the problem of creating a generalized model of attenuation of solar radiation in the visible range in the polluted atmosphere of large industrial cities has been substantiated. To build our own new model of attenuation of RGB components of solar radiation, we used the well-known theoretical position that with an increase in the average attenuation coefficient in the range from purely Rayleigh scattering to light scattering in strong fog, the ratio of partial attenuation coefficients of red/green and blue/green colors tends to unity. A mathematical model of attenuation of RGB components of solar radiation in a polluted atmosphere is proposed. It is shown that the proposed mathematical model allows changing all light components in attenuated solar radiation by selecting just one indicator of this model.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-021-00120-7
       
  • Air Quality at Public Transportation Stations/Stops: Contribution of Light
           Rail Transit to Reduce Air Pollution

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      Abstract: Abstract Air pollution from cars, vans and other different motor cars had observed in higher concentrations at public transportation stations. Now a day’s air pollutants from public transportation, industry, cooking from firewood and dust production alongside main roads in Addis Ababa is increasing and affecting human health. Individuals who live and work close to streets seem to have an expanded occurrence and openness to medical issues related to transportation air contamination. Appropriately, the Addis Ababa Light Rail Transit was the main current mass transit framework in Ethiopia just as in Sub Saharan Africa launched in 2015. Thus, this study aimed to know the air quality at LRT, bus, taxi and mixed stations through an air tracking device, and health effect at sampled public transportation stations. Air quality data include particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), air quality index (AQI), carbon dioxide (CO2), humidity and temperature with a half-hour observation through Air-Visual pro for every 24 purposively sampled stations from North to South LRT line. The average measured air quality indicated that higher than 35 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 100 AQI, which is unhealthy. Regards to this, 30 persons were questioned at all stations. Seven hundred twenty (720) persons in total to know the health effect of those living/working in and around the stations. The findings indicated that out of 720 respondents, 324 (45%) have experienced to air quality-related diseases residing and working proximity to the stations. These suggested that the aged vehicles, land-use, dust and design of bus-stop shelter for waiting passengers have increased exposure to vehicles air pollution. Consequently, peoples are exposing to air quality-related respiratory diseases particularly unhealthy for sensitive groups.
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s41810-021-00119-0
       
 
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