Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2677 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (235 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (237 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1308 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
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    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (235 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 235 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Nano Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ACS Engineering Au     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Environmental Au     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS ES&T Water     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Chemica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Chemical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Applied Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 110)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Aerosol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
All Life     Open Access  
American Journal of Polymer Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biofuel Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
C&EN Global Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chem Catalysis     Hybrid Journal  
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemEngineering     Open Access  
Chemica : Jurnal Teknik Kimia     Open Access  
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Process Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Chemical and Process Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Chemical Engineer, The     Partially Free  
Chemical Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Chemical Engineering Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Engineering Journal Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Chemical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access  
Chemical Society Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access  
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Chemical Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cleaner Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Coke and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coloration Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
CORROSION     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Crystal Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Research in Food Science     Open Access  
Designed Monomers and Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Digital Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Discover Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Eksergi     Open Access  
Emerging Trends in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Equilibrium : Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal     Open Access  
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Food Chemistry : Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Gases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gels     Open Access  
Geochemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Graphene Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Green Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science     Open Access  
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Industrial Gases     Open Access  
Info Chimie Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ceramic Engineering & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Chemistry and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Polymer Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Manufacturing and Processing     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117)
Journal of Applied Science & Process Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Biopharmaceutics Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of CO2 Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coating Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering & Processing Management     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Chemistry & Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geochemical Exploration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Information Display     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Leather Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids : X     Open Access  
Journal of Organic Semiconductors     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Powder Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 328)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section B : Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JSFA reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access  
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Kvasný Průmysl     Open Access  
Materials Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials Chemistry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Materials Science for Energy Technologies     Open Access  
Materials Sciences and Applied Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Modern Chemistry & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nanochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

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ISSN (Online) 2305-7084
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 45: Layered Double Hydroxide/Nanocarbon
           Composites as Heterogeneous Catalysts: A Review

    • Authors: Didier Tichit, Mayra G. Álvarez
      First page: 45
      Abstract: The synthesis and applications of composites based on layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and nanocarbons have recently seen great development. On the one hand, LDHs are versatile 2D compounds that present a plethora of applications, from medicine to energy conversion, environmental remediation, and heterogeneous catalysis. On the other, nanocarbons present unique physical and chemical properties owing to their low-dimensional structure and sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms, which endows them with excellent charge carrier mobility, outstanding mechanical strength, and high thermal conductivity. Many reviews described the applications of LDH/nanocarbon composites in the areas of energy and photo- and electro-catalysis, but there is still scarce literature on their latest applications as heterogeneous catalysts in chemical synthesis and conversion, which is the object of this review. First, the properties of the LDHs and of the different types of carbon materials involved as building blocks of the composites are summarized. Then, the synthesis methods of the composites are described, emphasizing the parameters allowing their properties to be controlled. This highlights their great adaptability and easier implementation. Afterwards, the application of LDH/carbon composites as catalysts for C–C bond formation, higher alcohol synthesis (HAS), oxidation, and hydrogenation reactions is reported and discussed in depth.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6040045
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 46: Computaions of a Bluff-Body Stabilised
           Premixed Flames Using ERN Method

    • Authors: Shokri Amzin
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Combustible carbon-based energy is still prevailing as the world’s leading energy due to its high energy density. However, the oxidation of these hydrocarbons disturbs the natural carbon cycle greatly by increasing greenhouse gases. As emission legislation becomes more rigorous, lean premixed combustion becomes promising because it can reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions without compromising efficiency. However, utilising lean premixed flames in industrial combustors is not easy because of its thermo-acoustic instabilities associated with pressure fluctuations and the non-linearity in the mean reaction rate. Therefore, reliable predictive combustion models are required to predict emissions with sensible computational costs to use the mode efficiently in designing environmentally friendly combustion systems. Along with the promising methodologies capable of modelling turbulent premixed flames with low computational costs is the ERN-RANS framework. Thus, this study aims to compute a bluff-body stabilised premixed flames close to blow-Off using the ERN-RANS framework. As a result, a satisfactory agreement is reached between the predicted and measured values.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6040046
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 47: Hydrogen and CNT Production by Methane
           Cracking Using Ni–Cu and Co–Cu Catalysts Supported on
           Argan-Derived Carbon

    • Authors: Fernando Cazaña, Zainab Afailal, Miguel González-Martín, José Luis Sánchez, Nieves Latorre, Eva Romeo, Jesús Arauzo, Antonio Monzón
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The 21st century arrived with global growth of energy demand caused by population and standard of living increases. In this context, a suitable alternative to produce COx-free H2 is the catalytic decomposition of methane (CDM), which also allows for obtaining high-value-added carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs), such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This work presents the results obtained in the co-production of COx-free hydrogen and CNTs by CDM using Ni–Cu and Co–Cu catalysts supported on carbon derived from Argan (Argania spinosa) shell (ArDC). The results show that the operation at 900 °C and a feed-ratio CH4:H2 = 2 with the Ni–Cu/ArDC catalyst is the most active, producing 3.7 gC/gmetal after 2 h of reaction (equivalent to average hydrogen productivity of 0.61 g H2/gmetal∙h). The lower productivity of the Co–Cu/ArDC catalyst (1.4 gC/gmetal) could be caused by the higher proportion of small metallic NPs (<5 nm) that remain confined inside the micropores of the carbonaceous support, hindering the formation and growth of the CNTs. The TEM and Raman results indicate that the Co–Cu catalyst is able to selectively produce CNTs of high quality at temperatures below 850 °C, attaining the best results at 800 °C. The results obtained in this work also show the elevated potential of Argan residues, as a representative of other lignocellulosic raw materials, in the development of carbonaceous materials and nanomaterials of high added-value.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6040047
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 48: Experimental Study and Numerical
           Simulation of Hydrodynamic Parameters of Tangential Swirlers

    • Authors: Nikolai A. Voinov, Alexander S. Frolov, Anastasiya V. Bogatkova, Denis A. Zemtsov
      First page: 48
      Abstract: This paper presents and patents new profiled- and annular-channel tangential swirlers with 1.8–3 times less hydraulic drag coefficient compared to swirlers with straight channel walls at the same flow rate, respectively. The results of numerical simulation of the gas velocity and pressure profiles for tangential swirler channels of different structures are presented. The modelling was carried out with the help of OpenFOAM software using the k-ε turbulence model. It is found that the shape of the velocity profile at the channel inlet has a decisive influence on the swirler drag coefficient. The greatest contribution to the total drag coefficient of the tangential swirler is made by the pressure drop at the channel inlet compared to the pressure drop at the channel wall and the channel outlet. The experimental dependencies of the tangential swirlers’ drag coefficient on the Reynolds number with a gas criterion of 2000–20,000 and the following structural channel parameters: width 1, 2–9 mm, height 1, 5–10 mm, number 5–45 units, inclination angle 0–45° are presented. The experimental data were compared with the modelling calculations and the convergence of data was achieved. The generalized dependence for the measurement of the hydraulic drag coefficient of three types of tangential swirlers considering the effect made by the geometric parameters (flow rate, width and height of the channel, wall inclination angle) on the pressure drop has been determined; it can be useful at the unit design stage as it allows for reducing the calculation time of the swirler parameters.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6040048
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 49: Graphene-Wine Waste Derived Carbon
           Composites for Advanced Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Violeta Ureña-Torres, Gelines Moreno-Fernández, Juan Luis Gómez-Urbano, Miguel Granados-Moreno, Daniel Carriazo
      First page: 49
      Abstract: In this work, we investigate the potential of a novel carbon composite as an electrode for high-voltage electrochemical double-layer capacitors. The carbon composite was prepared following a sustainable synthetic approach that first involved the pyrolysis and then the activation of a precursor formed by winery wastes and graphene oxide. The composite prepared in this way shows a very high specific surface area (2467 m2·g−1) and an optimum pore size distribution for their use in supercapacitor electrodes. Graphene-biowaste-derived carbon composites are tested as active electrode materials in two different non-aqueous electrolytes, the ammonium salt-based conventional organic electrolyte and one imidazolium-based ionic liquid (1 M Et4NBF4/ACN and EMINTFSI). It was found that the presence of graphene oxide led to significant morphological and textural changes, which result in high-energy and power densities of ~27 W·h·kg−1 at 13,026 W·kg−1. Moreover, the devices assembled retain above 70% of the initial capacitance after 6000 cycles in the case of the organic electrolyte.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6040049
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 50: Review of the Application of
           Hydrotalcite as CO2 Sinks for Climate Change Mitigation

    • Authors: David Suescum-Morales, José Ramón Jiménez, José María Fernández-Rodríguez
      First page: 50
      Abstract: In recent decades, the environmental impact caused by greenhouse gases, especially CO2, has driven many countries to reduce the concentration of these gases. The study and development of new designs that maximise the efficiency of CO2 capture continue to be topical. This paper presents a review of the application of hydrotalcites as CO2 sinks. There are several parameters that can make hydrotalcites suitable for use as CO2 sinks. The first question is the use of calcined or uncalcined hydrotalcite as well as the temperature at which it is calcined, since the calcination conditions (temperature, rate and duration) are important parameters determining structure recovery. Other aspects were also analysed: (i) the influence of the pH of the synthesis; (ii) the molar ratio of its main elements; (iii) ways to increase the specific area of hydrotalcites; (iv) pressure, temperature, humidity and time in CO2 absorption; and (v) combined use of hydrotalcites and cement-based materials. A summary of the results obtained so far in terms of CO2 capture with the parameters described above is presented. This work can be used as a guide to address CO2 capture with hydrotalcites by showing where the information gaps are and where researchers should apply their efforts.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6040050
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 32: Modelling of Fuel Cells and Related
           Energy Conversion Systems

    • Authors: Ilenia Rossetti
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Heat and power cogeneration plants based on fuel cells are interesting systems for energy- conversion at low environmental impact. Various fuel cells have been proposed, of which proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are the most frequently used. However, experimental testing rigs are expensive, and the development of commercial systems is time consuming if based on fully experimental activities. Furthermore, tight control of the operation of fuel cells is compulsory to avoid damage, and such control must be based on accurate models, able to predict cell behaviour and prevent stresses and shutdown. Additionally, when used for mobile applications, intrinsically dynamic operation is needed. Some selected examples of steady-state, dynamic and fluid-dynamic modelling of different types of fuel cells are here proposed, mainly dealing with PEMFC and SOFC types. The general ideas behind the thermodynamic, kinetic and transport description are discussed, with some examples of models derived for single cells, stacks and integrated power cogeneration units. This review can be considered an introductory picture of the modelling methods for these devices, to underline the different approaches and the key aspects to be taken into account. Examples of different scales and multi-scale modelling are also provided.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 33: Fabrication and Characterization of
           Inverse-Opal Titania Films for Enhancement of Photocatalytic Activity

    • Authors: Lei Wang, Tharishinny R. Mogan, Kunlei Wang, Mai Takashima, Bunsho Ohtani, Ewa Kowalska
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Novel materials with a periodic structure have recently been intensively studied for various photonic and photocatalytic applications due to an efficient light harvesting ability. Here, inverse opal titania (IOT) has been investigated for possible enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The IOT films were prepared on a glass support from silica and polystyrene (PS) opals by sandwich-vacuum-assisted infiltration and co-assembly methods, respectively. The reference sample was prepared by the same method (the latter) but with PS particles of different sizes, and thus without photonic feature. The modification of preparation conditions was performed to prepare the films with a high quality and different photonic properties, i.e., photonic bandgap (PBG) and slow photons’ wavelengths. The morphology and optical properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV/vis spectroscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated (also in dependence on the irradiation angle) for oxidative decomposition of acetaldehyde gas under irradiation with blue LED by measuring the rate of evolved carbon dioxide (CO2). It has been found that PBG wavelength depends on the size of particles forming opal, the void diameter of IOT, and irradiation angle, as expected from Bragg’s law. The highest activity (more than two-fold enhancement in the comparison to the reference) has been achieved for the IOT sample of 226-nm void diameter and PBG wavelengths at 403 nm, prepared from almost monodisperse PS particles of 252-nm diameter. Interestingly, significant decrease in activity (five times lower than reference) has been obtained for the IOT sample of also high quality but with 195-nm voids, and thus PBG at 375 nm (prohibited light). Accordingly, it has been proposed that the perfect tunning of photonic properties (here the blue-edge slow-photon effect) with bandgap energy of photocatalyst (e.g., absorption of anatase) results in the improved photocatalytic performance.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030033
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 34: Development of a Bioactive Sauce:
           Effect of the Packaging and Storage Conditions

    • Authors: Cecilia G. Giménez, María Victoria Traffano-Schiffo, Sonia C. Sgroppo, Carola A. Sosa
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Consumers’ interest in a high-quality healthy diet is creating a growing trend in the food industry, focusing on the design and development of new products rich in bioactive compounds. This work involves the formulation of a vegetable sauce obtained from a mixture of pumpkin and pepper, the study of the evolution of bioactive compounds, quality and sensory parameters during storage at 4 and 25 °C, the influence of the packaging materials (PVC, PE/PA, and PS), and the migration degree. Antioxidant activity, polyphenols, carotenoids, and brown pigments contents were studied at 25 °C. Overall migration of the containers and the evolution of the physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes of the sauce were analyzed. All plastic materials showed an overall migration lower than the limit of EU and Mercosur Regulations. PVC better preserved polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and carotenoids until 50, 10, and 30 days, respectively, and lower development of brown pigments was observed. Higher storage temperatures favored undesirable changes in sensory attributes before 50 days of storage. PVC can be used to achieve greater conservation of the sensory attributes of sauce, regardless of the storage temperature. It could be considered the best material to preserve the bioactive properties and sensory attributes of the sauce until 30 days.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 35: Process Optimization and Stability of
           Waste Orange Peel Polyphenols in Extracts Obtained with Organosolv Thermal
           Treatment Using Glycerol-Based Solvents

    • Authors: Rehab Abdoun, Spyros Grigorakis, Abdessamie Kellil, Sofia Loupassaki, Dimitris P. Makris
      First page: 35
      Abstract: This study was focused on the simultaneous organosolv treatment/extraction of waste orange peels (WOP) for the effective recovery of polyphenolic antioxidants. The treatments were performed with aqueous glycerol mixtures, which were acidified either with citric acid or Hydrochloric acid (HCl). Process optimization was carried out using response surface methodology and comparative appraisal of the different processes tested, based on both the extraction efficiency factor (FEE), severity factor (SF) or combined severity factor (CSF). Metabolite stability was also of major concern, and it was examined by deploying liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results drawn suggested 90% (w/w) glycerol to be the highest-performing system, providing a yield in total polyphenols of 44.09 ± 5.46 mg GAE g−1 DM at 140 °C for 50 min, with a FEE of 2.20 and an SF of 2.88. Acidification with 1% citric acid was proven less efficient and equally severe, whereas acidification with 1% HCl was less severe but also less efficient. The major disadvantage associated with the use of HCl was its detrimental impact on the polyphenolic composition of WOP since major metabolites, such as narirutin, hesperidin and didymin, did not survive the process. By contrast, the formation of lower molecular weight compounds was observed. With regard to antioxidant properties, the extract obtained with aqueous glycerol displayed significantly higher antiradical activity and reducing power, which was in line with its higher concentration in total polyphenols. It was concluded that organosolv treatment with aqueous glycerol under the conditions employed may boost polyphenol recovery from WOP, thus giving extracts with powerful antioxidant characteristics.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030035
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 36: Poisoning Effects of Cerium Oxide

    • Authors: Hossein Pourrahmani, Mardit Matian, Jan Van herle
      First page: 36
      Abstract: In this study, the poisoning effects of cerium oxide (CeO2) as the contaminant on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are evaluated. An experimental setup was developed to analyze the performance characteristic (I-V) curves in contaminated and non-contaminated conditions. Focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) cross-section images were obtained as an input for the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The results of the EDX analysis verified the presence of CeO2 in the contaminated membrane electrode assembly (MEA), in addition to fluorine and sulfur. EDX analysis also revealed that as a result of CeO2 contamination, sulfur and fluorine would be distributed all around the MEA, instead of being only in the membrane. The results illustrate that hydrofluoric acid (HF), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and fluorinated polymer fragments are released, which enhance the crossover of the reactant gases through the membrane, hence reducing the cell’s performance. The I-V characteristic curves proved that the non-contaminated PEMFC setup had double the performance of the contaminated PEMFC.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030036
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 37: Experimental Investigation and
           Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Hydrodynamics of
           Liquid–Solid Fluidized Beds

    • Authors: Amer A. Abdulrahman, Omar S. Mahdy, Laith S. Sabri, Abbas J. Sultan, Hayder Al-Naseri, Zahraa W. Hasan, Hasan Shakir Majdi, Jamal M. Ali
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The present study provides and examines an experimental and CFD simulation to predict and accurately quantify the individual phase holdup. The experimental findings demonstrated that the increase of solid beads has a significant influence on the (Umf), as comparatively small glass beads particles require a low (Umf) value, which tends to increase as the diameter of the beads increases. Besides that, the expansion ratio is proportional to the velocity of the liquid. Even though, the relationship becomes inversely proportional to the diameter of the beads. The liquid holdup was found to increase with increasing liquid velocity, however, the solid holdup decreased. The Eulerian–Eulerian granular multiphase flow technique was used to predict the overall performance of the liquid–solid fluidized beds (LSFBs). There was a good agreement between the experimental results and the dynamic properties of liquid–solid flows obtained from the CFD simulation, which will facilitate future simulation studies of liquid–solid fluidized beds. This work has further improved the understanding and knowledge of CFD simulation of such a system at different parameters. Furthermore, understanding the hydrodynamics features within the two-phase fluidization bed, as well as knowing the specific features, is essential for good system design, enabling the systems to perform more effectively.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030037
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 38: Synthesis and Characterization of
           Fluorinated Phosphonium Ionic Liquids to Use as New Engineering Solvents

    • Authors: María C. Naranjo, Andres E. Redondo, Jacqueline C. Acuña, Nicole S. M. Vieira, João M. M. Araújo, Ana B. Pereiro
      First page: 38
      Abstract: In this work, a set of novel fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs), based on different tetra-alkyl-phosphonium cations with perfluorobutanesulfonate and perfluoropentanoate anions, were synthesized and characterized in order to check their suitability to apply as engineering solvents. Thermophysical and thermal properties were both determined between 293.15 and 353.15 K, and the molecular volumes and free volumes and the coefficients of isobaric thermal expansion were determined from experimental values of refractive index and density. Lastly, the Walden plot was used to evaluate the ionicity of the novel FILs. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was also determined using the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and the human colon carcinoma cells (Caco-2). Finally, the results were all discussed with the aim of understanding the behaviour of these compounds, considering the influence of the anion and the hydrogenated alkyl chain length. In summary, the new FILs synthesized in this work present adequate properties for their application in different industrial processes. Most of these compounds are liquid at room temperature with high decomposition temperatures. All phosphonium-based FILs have lower densities than conventional ionic liquids and common organic solvents, and the viscosity depends directly on the selected anion. Furthermore, the ionicity of FILs based on the sulfonate anion is higher than those based on the carboxylate anion. Finally, the phosphonium-based FILs have no significant effect on cellular viability at lower concentrations.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030038
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 39: Catalytic Steam Reforming of
           Biomass-Derived Oxygenates for H2 Production: A Review on Ni-Based

    • Authors: Joel Silva, Cláudio Rocha, M. A. Soria, Luís M. Madeira
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The steam reforming of ethanol, methanol, and other oxygenates (e.g., bio-oil and olive mill wastewater) using Ni-based catalysts have been studied by the scientific community in the last few years. This process is already well studied over the last years, being the critical point, at this moment, the choice of a suitable catalyst. The utilization of these oxygenates for the production of “green” H2 is an interesting alternative to fuel fossils. For this application, Ni-based catalysts have been extensively studied since they are highly active and cheaper than noble metal-based materials. In this review, a comparison of several Ni-based catalysts reported in the literature for the different above-mentioned reactions is carried out. This study aims to understand if such catalysts demonstrate enough catalytic activity/stability for application in steam reforming of the oxygenated compounds and which preparation methods are most adequate to obtain these materials. In summary, it aims to provide insights into the performances reached and point out the best way to get better and improved catalysts for such applications (which depends on the feedstock used).
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030039
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 40: Optimum Biodiesel Production Using
           Ductile Cast Iron as a Heterogeneous Catalyst

    • Authors: Nada Amr El-Khashab, Marwa Mohamed Naeem, Mai Hassan Roushdy
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Biofuels production become a target for many researchers nowadays. Biodiesel is one the most important biofuels that are produced from biomass using economics and modern techniques. The ductile cast iron solid waste dust is one of the wastes produced by the cast iron industry which has a bad effect on the environment. This paper investigates the possibility of reusing ductile cast iron solid waste as a biodiesel heterogeneous catalyst used in its production from sunflower waste cooking oil. Four reaction parameters were chosen to determine their effect on the reaction responses. The reaction parameters are M:O ratio, reaction time and temperature, and catalyst loading. The reaction responses are the biodiesel and glycerol conversions. The upper and lower limits are selected for each reaction parameter such as (50–70 °C) reaction temperature, (5–20) methanol to oil molar ratio, (1–5%) catalyst loading, and (1–4 h) reaction time. Optimization was done with economic and environmental targets which include lowering the biodiesel production cost, increasing the volume of biodiesel produced, and decreasing the amount of resulting glycerol. The optimum reactions are 20:1 M:O molar ratio, 65 °C reaction temperature, 5 wt% catalyst loading, 2 h reaction time, and a stirring rate of 750 rpm. The biodiesel conversion resulting at this optimum reaction conditions is 91.7 percent with agreed with all biodiesel standards. The catalyst usability test was done it was found the catalyst can be used up to 4 times after that a fresh catalyst is required to be used.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030040
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 41: The Effect of Corrosion on Crude Oil
           Distillation Plants

    • Authors: Timur Chis, Ancaelena Eliza Sterpu, Olga Valerica Săpunaru
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The analysis of the corrosion phenomenon of the installations of the largest refinery in Romania confirmed the existence of its conditions, in the atmospheric distillation plants of crude oil, in the heat exchangers, and in the petrol and diesel hydrofining plants. However, the slightest effect of this phenomenon was found in the dome, the plates, and the exhaust pipes at the top of the distillation column, as well as in the reflux vessel of the atmospheric distillation plant. The main cause of the corrosion phenomenon and the increase in the corrosion areas of the material of the crude oil refining installations is the presence of hydrochloric acid, obtained after incorrect desalination (hydrolysis of calcium and magnesium chloride). To prevent this phenomenon, in laboratory conditions, we tested an antacid inhibitor (alkyl phenol) and a residual product (undistilled polyamine), with the role of supplementing the commercial inhibitor with a cheap product. The effectiveness of these additives was evaluated by introducing specimens made from the material taken from the refining column and from the reflux vessel into a solution of hydrochloric acid of various concentrations (5–15%). This solution was treated with the two corrosion inhibitors, the analysis of their effectiveness being performed at concentrations ranging between 0.05 and 0.2%. In addition, in this article, we deduced the equations of variation of the corrosion rate, depending on the working temperature of the refinery.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030041
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 42: Evaluation of VLEs for Binaries of Five
           Compounds Involved in the Production Processes of Cyclohexanone

    • Authors: Adriel Sosa, Juan Ortega, Luis Fernández, Arturo Romero, Aurora Santos, David Lorenzo
      First page: 42
      Abstract: In an attempt to evaluate the separation of certain impurities that arise in some stages of the production of cyclohexanone, this work analyzed the possibility of removing five of these substances via rectification. Due to the scarcity of experimental vapor–liquid equilibrium data for most of the solutions in the effluent of the global process, prior knowledge of their behavior is required. In this work, two predictive models, UNIFAC and COSMO-RS, were used to determine a priori the possibility of obtaining, by distillation, the individual components of seven of the binaries formed by the combination of these five compounds. Since both procedures described quasi-ideal behavior for all the chosen solutions, the results are considered as an approximation, owing to the special nature of the studied systems. The results and characteristics of each system are discussed separately.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030042
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 43: Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from
           Formic Acid Solution with Titanium Dioxide with the Aid of Simultaneous Rh

    • Authors: Mahmudul Hassan Suhag, Ikki Tateishi, Mai Furukawa, Hideyuki Katsumata, Aklima Khatun, Satoshi Kaneco
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Photocatalytic hydrogen production was studied with a formic acid solution with titanium dioxide (TiO2) with the aid of simultaneous Rh deposition. The optimum conditions were as follows: Rh loading, 0.1 wt%; formic acid concentration, 1.0%; solution, pH 2.2; temperature, 50 °C. Under the optimum conditions, the photocatalytic hydrogen production with TiO2 by the simultaneous deposition of Rh was 5.0 mmol g−1, 12.2 mmol g−1 and 16.0 mmol g−1 after 1 h, 3 h and 5 h of irradiation time for black light, respectively. Rh/TiO2 photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, photoluminescence spectra, diffuse reflectance spectra and the BET surface area. The reaction mechanism of photocatalytic hydrogen production from formic acid by Rh/TiO2 was also proposed.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030043
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 44: The Global Carbon Footprint and How New
           Carbon Mineralization Technologies Can Be Used to Reduce CO2 Emissions

    • Authors: Abdulaziz Alturki
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of our industrial society. It is released into the atmosphere, which has an adverse effect on the environment. Carbon dioxide management is necessary to limit the global average temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius and mitigate the effects of climate change, as outlined in the Paris Agreement. To accomplish this objective realistically, the emissions gap must be closed by 2030. Additionally, 10–20 Gt of CO2 per year must be removed from the atmosphere within the next century, necessitating large-scale carbon management strategies. The present procedures and technologies for CO2 carbonation, including direct and indirect carbonation and certain industrial instances, have been explored in length. This paper highlights novel technologies to capture CO2, convert it to other valuable products, and permanently remove it from the atmosphere. Additionally, the constraints and difficulties associated with carbon mineralization have been discussed. These techniques may permanently remove the CO2 emitted due to industrial society, which has an unfavorable influence on the environment, from the atmosphere. These technologies create solutions for both climate change and economic development.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6030044
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 20: Ozone Kinetic Studies Assessment for
           the PPCPs Abatement: Mixtures Relevance

    • Authors: João Gomes, Carla Bernardo, Fátima Jesus, Joana Luísa Pereira, Rui C. Martins
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The increasing consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) by humankind has been causing an accumulation of contaminants (commonly referred to as contaminants of emerging concern), in effluents and water resources. Ozonation can be used to improve the removal of these contaminants during water treatment to alleviate this burden. In this work, the degradation of methyl (MP), propylparaben (PP), paracetamol (PCT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and carbamazepine (CBZ) by ozonation was assessed both for individual compounds and for mixtures with increasing complexity (two to five compounds). Ozonation was performed at pH3 to gain an insight on the exclusive action of molecular ozone as oxidizing agent. The degradation of contaminants was described as a function of time and transferred ozone dose, and the corresponding pseudo-first order kinetic rate constants (k’) were determined. PPCPs were degraded individually within 1.5 to 10 min. CBZ was the most quickly degraded (k’ = 1.25 min−1) and MP the most resistant to ozone (k’ = 0.25 min−1). When in the mixture, the degradation rate of the contaminants was slower. For parabens, the increase of the number of compounds in the mixture led to an exponential decrease of the k’ values. Moreover, the presence of more PPCPs within the mixture increased energy consumption associated with the treatment, thereby reflecting higher economic costs.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 21: A First Approach towards
           Adsorption-Oriented Physics-Informed Neural Networks: Monoclonal Antibody
           Adsorption Performance on an Ion-Exchange Column as a Case Study

    • Authors: Vinicius V. Santana, Marlon S. Gama, Jose M. Loureiro, Alírio E. Rodrigues, Ana M. Ribeiro, Frederico W. Tavares, Amaro G. Barreto, Idelfonso B. R. Nogueira
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Adsorption systems are characterized by challenging behavior to simulate any numerical method. A novel field of study emerged within the numerical method in the last two years: the physics-informed neural network (PINNs), the application of artificial intelligence to solve partial differential equations. This is a complete new standpoint for solving engineering first-principle models, which up to that date was not explored in the field of adsorption systems. Therefore, this work proposed the evaluation of PINN to address the numerical solutions of a fixed-bed column where a monoclonal antibody is purified. The PINNs solution is compared with a traditional numerical method. The results show the accuracy of the proposed PINNs when compared with the numerical method. This points towards the potential of this technique to address complex numerical problems found in chemical engineering.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 22: Thermogravimetric Kinetic Analysis of
           Non-Recyclable Waste CO2 Gasification with Catalysts Using
           Coats–Redfern Method

    • Authors: Ahmad Mohamed S. H. Al-Moftah, Richard Marsh, Julian Steer
      First page: 22
      Abstract: In the present study, the effect of dolomite and olivine as catalysts on the carbon dioxide (CO2) gasification of a candidate renewable solid recovered fuel, known as Subcoal™ was determined. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to produce the TGA curves and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) for the gasification reaction at different loadings of the catalyst (5, 10, 15 wt.%). The XRD results showed that the crystallinity proportion in Subcoal™ powder and ash was 42% and 38%, respectively. The Arrhenius constants of the gasification reaction were estimated using the model-fitting Coats–Redfern (CR) method. The results showed that the mass loss reaction time and thermal degradation decreased with the increase in catalyst content. The degradation reaction for complete conversion mainly consists of three sequences: dehydration, devolatilisation, and char/ash formation. The complete amount of thermal degradation of the Subcoal™ sample obtained with dolomite was lower than with olivine. In terms of kinetic analysis, 19 mechanism models of heterogeneous solid-state reaction were compared by the CR method to identify the most applicable model to the case in consideration. Among all models, G14 provided excellent linearity for dolomite and G15 for olivine at 15 wt.% of catalyst. Both catalysts reduced the activation energy (Ea) as the concentration increased. However, dolomite displayed higher CO2 gasification efficiency of catalysis and reduction in Ea. At 15 wt.% loading, the Ea was 41.1 and 77.5 kJ/mol for dolomite and olivine, respectively. Calcination of the mineral catalyst is substantial in improving the activity through enlarging the active surface area and number of pores. In light of the study findings, dolomite is a suitable mineral catalyst for the industrial-scale of non-recyclable waste such as Subcoal™ gasification.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 23: Three-Dimensional CFD Model Development
           and Validation for Once-Through Steam Generator (OTSG): Coupling
           Combustion, Heat Transfer and Steam Generation

    • Authors: Ehsan Askari Mahvelati, Mario Forcinito, Laurent Fitschy, Arthur Maesen
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The current research studies the coupled combustion inside the furnace and the steam generation inside the radiant and convection tubes through a typical Once-Through Steam Generator (OTSG). A 3-D CFD model coupling the combustion and the two-phase flow was developed to model the entire system of OTSG. Once the combustion simulation was converged, the results were compared to field data showing a convincing agreement. The CFD analysis provides the detailed flow behavior inside the combustion chamber and the stack, as well as the two-phase flow steam generation process in the radiant and convective sections. The flame shape and orientation, the velocity, the species, and the temperature distribution at the various parts of the furnace, as well as the steam generation and the steam distribution inside the pipes were investigated using the developed CFD model
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 24: Advanced HRT-Controller Aimed at
           Optimising Nitrogen Recovery by Microalgae: Application in an Outdoor
           Flat-Panel Membrane Photobioreactor

    • Authors: Juan Francisco Mora-Sánchez, Josué González-Camejo, Aurora Seco, María Victoria Ruano
      First page: 24
      Abstract: A fuzzy knowledge-based controller of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was designed and tested in an outdoor membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) to improve nitrogen recovery from a microalgae cultivation system, maintaining the algae as photosynthetically active as possible and limiting their competition with other microorganisms. The hourly flow of the MPBR system was optimised by adjusting the influent flow rate to the outdoor environmental conditions which microalgae were exposed to at any moment and to the nitrogen uptake capacity of the culture. A semi-empirical photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) prediction model was calibrated using total cloud cover (TCC) forecast. Dissolved oxygen, standardised to 25 °C (DO25), was used as an on-line indicator of microalgae photosynthetic activity. Different indexes, based on suspended solids (SS), DO25, and predicted and real PAR, were used as input variables, while the initial HRT of each operating day (HRT0) and the variation of HRT (ΔHRT) served as output variables. The nitrogen recovery efficiency, measured as nitrogen recovery rate (NRR) per nitrogen loading rate (NLR) in pseudo-steady state conditions, was improved by 45% when the HRT-controller was set in comparison to fixed 1.25-d HRT. Consequently, the average effluent total soluble nitrogen (TSN) concentration in the MPBR was reduced by 47%, accomplishing the discharge requirements of the EU Directive 91/271/EEC.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 25: Heterogeneous Photodegradation for the
           Abatement of Recalcitrant COD in Synthetic Tanning Wastewater

    • Authors: Maria Toscanesi, Vincenzo Russo, Antonio Medici, Antonella Giarra, Maryam Hmoudah, Martino Di Serio, Marco Trifuoggi
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Tannery wastewater is considered one of the most contaminated and problematic wastes since it consists of considerable amounts of organic and inorganic compounds. These contaminants result in high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS). In this work, the heterogeneous photodegradation of recalcitrant COD in wastewater from the tanning industry was investigated, in particular the recalcitrant COD due to the presence of vegetable tannins extracted from mimosa and chestnut and from synthetic tannins based on 4,4′ dihydroxy phenyl sulfone. TiO2 Aeroxide P-25 was employed to study the photodegradation of model molecules in batch conditions under different parameters, namely initial concentration of COD, temperature, and catalyst dose. The maximum COD abatement reached was 60%. Additionally, preliminary kinetic investigation was conducted to derive the main kinetic parameters that can be useful for process scale-up. It was found to be independent of the temperature value but linearly dependent on both catalyst loading and the initial COD value.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 26: Esterification of Levulinic Acid to
           Methyl Levulinate over Zr-MOFs Catalysts

    • Authors: Daiana A. Bravo Fuchineco, Angélica C. Heredia, Sandra M. Mendoza, Enrique Rodríguez-Castellón, Mónica E. Crivello
      First page: 26
      Abstract: At present, the trend towards partial replacement of petroleum-derived fuels by those from the revaluation of biomass has become of great importance. An effective strategy for processing complex biomass feedstocks involves prior conversion to simpler compounds (platform molecules) that are more easily transformed in subsequent reactions. This study analyzes the metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) that contain Zr metal clusters formed by ligands of terephthalic acid (UiO-66) and aminoterephthalic acid (UiO-66-NH2), as active and stable catalysts for the esterification of levulinic acid with methanol. An alternative synthesis is presented by means of ultrasonic stirring at room temperature and 60 °C, in order to improve the structural properties of the catalysts. They were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, acidity measurement, and N2 adsorption. The catalytic reaction was carried out in a batch system and under pressure in an autoclave. Its progress was followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Parameters such as temperature, catalyst mass, and molar ratio of reactants were optimized to improve the catalytic performance. The MOF that presented the highest activity and selectivity to the desired product was obtained by synthesis with ultrasound and 60 °C with aminoterephthalic acid. The methyl levulinate yield was 67.77% in batch at 5 h and 85.89% in an autoclave at 1 h. An analysis of the kinetic parameters of the reaction is presented. The spent material can be activated by ethanol washing allowing the catalytic activity to be maintained in the recycles.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 27: Sensitivity Control of Hydroquinone and
           Catechol at Poly(Brilliant Cresyl Blue)-Modified GCE by Varying Activation
           Conditions of the GCE: An Experimental and Computational Study

    • Authors: Sharifa Faraezi, Md Sharif Khan, Ferzana Zaman Monira, Abdullah Al Mamun, Tania Akter, Mohammad Al Mamun, Mohammad Mahbub Rabbani, Jamal Uddin, A. J. Saleh Ahammad
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The poly(brilliant cresyl blue) (PBCB)-modified activated glassy carbon electrode (AGCE) shows the catalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CT). The modified electrode can also separate the oxidation peaks of HQ and CT in their mixture, which is not possible with bare GCE. These properties of the modified electrode can be utilized to fabricate an electrochemical sensor for sensitive and simultaneous detection of HQ and CT. In this study, an attempt is made to control the sensitivity of the modified electrodes. This can be accomplished by simply changing the activation condition of the GCE during electropolymerization. GCE can be activated via one-step (applying only oxidation potential) and two-step (applying both oxidation and reduction potential) processes. When we change the activation condition from onestep to twosteps, a clear enhancement inpeak currents of HQ and CT is observed. This helps us to fabricate a highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous detection of HQ and CT. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is carried out to explain the experimental data. The MD simulations provide the insight adsorption phenomena to clarify the reasons for higher signals of CT over HQ due to having meta-position –OH group in its structure.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 28: Sensitivity Analysis and Cost
           Estimation of a CO2 Capture Plant in Aspen HYSYS

    • Authors: Shirvan Shirdel, Stian Valand, Fatemeh Fazli, Bernhard Winther-Sørensen, Solomon Aforkoghene Aromada, Sumudu Karunarathne, Lars Erik Øi
      First page: 28
      Abstract: A standard CO2 capture process is implemented in Aspen HYSYS, simulated, and evaluated based on available data from Fortum’s waste burning facility at Klemetsrud in Norway. Since amine-based CO2 removal has high costs, the main aim is cost-optimizing. A simplified carbon-capture unit with a 20-m absorber packing height, 90% CO2 removal efficiency, and a minimum approach temperature for the lean/rich amine heat exchanger (ΔTmin) of 10 °C was considered the base case simulation model. A sensitivity analysis was performed to optimize these parameters. For the base case study, CO2 captured cost was calculated as 37.5 EUR/t. When the sensitivity analysis changes the size, the Power Law method adjusts the equipment cost. A comparison of the Enhanced Detailed Factor (EDF) and the Power Law approach was performed for all simulations to evaluate the uncertainties in the findings from the Power Law method. The optimums calculated for ΔTmin and CO2 capture rate were 15 °C and 87% for both methods, with CO2 removal costs of 37 EUR/t CO2 and 36.7 EUR/t CO2, respectively. With 19 m of packing height to absorber, the minimum CO2 capture cost was calculated as 37.3 EUR/t and 37.1 EUR/t for the EDF and Power Law methods, respectively. Since there was a difference between the Power Law method and the EDF method, a size factor exponent derivation was performed. The derivation resulted in the following exponents: for the lean heat exchanger 0.74, for the lean/rich heat exchanger 1.03, for the condenser 0.68, for the reboiler 0.92, for the pump 0.88, and for the fan 0.23.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 29: Intensification of Heat and Mass
           Transfer in a Diabatic Column with Vortex Trays

    • Authors: Nikolai A. Voinov, Anastasiya V. Bogatkova, Denis A. Zemtsov
      First page: 29
      Abstract: We used vortex contact devices that we developed and investigated to make a new design of an alcohol diabatic distillation column with heat exchange pipes (as the reflux condenser) passing through concentrating section trays. In the column, ascending vapors partially condensed on the surface of vertically installed heat exchange tubes, forming a reflux. The reflux was then mixed with the draining liquid flow in the vortex contact devices placed on the trays. Heat was removed from the column through the boiling of the draining water film along the inner surface of the heat exchange pipes. We compared both diabatic and adiabatic columns fitted with the developed vortex contact devices on the trays. The proposed innovative contact system allows increasing productivity, reducing column dimensions and steam- and heat-transfer medium consumption, and increasing separation efficiency. Dependences for calculating the gas content, hydraulic resistance, and interphase surface required for designing the vortex contact devices of the proposed unit trays are presented.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 30: Recent Advances in the Preparation of
           Barium Sulfate Nanoparticles: A Mini-Review

    • Authors: Tlek Ketegenov, Kaster Kamunur, Aisulu Batkal, Diana Gani, Rashid Nadirov
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The potential for barium sulphate nanoparticles to be used in a variety of important fields has sparked a lot of attention. Methods for obtaining this material by milling (top-down approach) are not very popular due to the difficulty of controlling the size and shape of particles, as well as changes in their physicochemical properties during milling. More promising is the bottom-up approach, which is the interaction of Ba2+ and SO42− ions in a liquid environment. Direct precipitation is the simplest method; however, it does not allow control of the particle size. Microemulsions, microreactors membrane dispersion, as well as spinning disc reactors are used to overcome drawbacks of direct precipitation and allow control of particle size and shape. This is ensured mainly by intensive controlled micromixing of the precursors with concentrations close to saturated ones. The present review focuses on recent advances in the production of barium sulfate nanoparticles using various approaches, as well as their advantages and limitations. The issues of scaling up the techniques are also considered, and promising methods for obtaining BaSO4 nanoparticles are also discussed.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 31: Electrochemical Synthesis-Dependent
           Photoelectrochemical Properties of Tungsten Oxide Powders

    • Authors: Anastasia Tsarenko, Mikhail Gorshenkov, Aleksey Yatsenko, Denis Zhigunov, Vera Butova, Vasily Kaichev, Anna Ulyankina
      First page: 31
      Abstract: A rapid, facile, and environmentally benign strategy to electrochemical oxidation of metallic tungsten under pulse alternating current in an aqueous electrolyte solution was reported. Particle size, morphology, and electronic structure of the obtained WO3 nanopowders showed strong dependence on electrolyte composition (nitric, sulfuric, and oxalic acid). The use of oxalic acid as an electrolyte provides a gram-scale synthesis of WO3 nanopowders with tungsten electrochemical oxidation rate of up to 0.31 g·cm−2·h−1 that is much higher compared to the strong acids. The materials were examined as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical reforming of organic substances under solar light. WO3 synthesized in oxalic acid is shown to exhibit excellent activity towards the photoelectrochemical reforming of glucose and ethylene glycol, with photocurrents that are nearly equal to those achieved in the presence of simple alcohol such as ethanol. This work demonstrates the promise of pulse alternating current electrosynthesis in oxalic acid as an efficient and sustainable method to produce WO3 nanopowders for photoelectrochemical applications.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6020031
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 1: Study on Behavior of the Heat Exchanger
           with Conically-Corrugated Tubes and HDD Baffles

    • Authors: Zhiwei Wu, Caifu Qian
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Baffles with holes in different diameters (or HDD baffles) and conically-corrugated tubes are respectively longitudinal flow baffle and high-efficiency heat exchange tubes proposed by the author. In this paper, vibrations of tube bundles with HDD baffles and fluid flow as well as heat transfer inside conically-corrugated tubes were numerically simulated, and the heat exchanger with conically-corrugated tubes and HDD baffles was tested for the heat transfer efficiency. It is found that compared with the traditional segmental baffles, tube bundle vibrations in heat exchangers, if using the HDD baffles, can be significantly reduced. Regarding heat transfer efficiency, conically-corrugated tubes are much better than smooth tubes and even better than other high-efficiency heat transfer tubes. Compared with the traditional heat exchangers, heat exchangers constructed with conically-corrugated tubes and the HDD baffles can provide better heat transfer efficiency and less tube bundle vibration.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010001
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 2: Evaluation of the Heat Produced by the
           Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wet Food Processing Residues and Model

    • Authors: Morgane Briand, Geert Haarlemmer, Anne Roubaud, Pascal Fongarland
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Hydrothermal liquefaction has proven itself as a promising pathway to the valorisation of low-value wet food residues. The chemistry is complex and many questions remain about the underlying mechanism of the transformation. Little is known about the heat of reaction, or even the thermal effects, of the hydrothermal liquefaction of real biomass and its constituents. This paper explores different methods to evaluate the heat released during the liquefaction of blackcurrant pomace and brewers’ spent grains. Some model compounds have also been evaluated, such as lignin, cellulose and glutamic acid. Exothermic behaviour was observed for blackcurrant pomace and brewers’ spent grains. Results obtained in a continuous reactor are similar to those obtained in a batch reactor. The heat release has been estimated between 1 MJ/kg and 3 MJ/kg for blackcurrant pomace and brewers’ spent grains, respectively. Liquefaction of cellulose and glucose also exhibit exothermic behaviour, while the transformation of lignin and glutamic acid present a slightly endothermic behaviour.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 3: Development of Integrated
           Electrocoagulation-Sedimentation (IECS) in Continuous Mode for Turbidity
           and Color Removal

    • Authors: Saret Bun, Penghour Hong, Nattawin Chawaloesphosiya, Sreynich Pang, Sreyla Vet, Phaly Ham, Rathborey Chan, Pisut Painmanakul
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The present work focused on the development and evaluation of a compact electrocoagulation (EC) reactor, combined between EC and clarifier processes in continuous modes for decolorization and turbidity removal, named the integrated electrocoagulation-sedimentation reactor (IECS). The experiments were firstly conducted in the four-liter batch column in order to optimize the EC configuration and operation condition. The removal kinetics were also investigated and predicted for kinetic correlations. After various optimization steps, the IECS reactor was conducted, consisting of EC and clarifier compartments. Liquid flow pattern in EC compartment was examined through resident time distribution technique for defining the number of EC units and divided baffles. In summary, four units of EC were placed in the EC compartment of the IECS reactor with 90% in the width of three baffles. Each EC unit had two pairs of aluminum electrode plats in monopolar arrangement with a 1.5 cm gap and required a current density of 13.5 mA/cm2. For the clarifier compartment, it was mainly designed based on the batch settling test for separating the precipitated particles. The treatment performance of the IECS reactor was tested at different liquid flows in order to reduce the pollutant to a certain level. For the individual condition, liquid flow rates of 3 and 1 L/min were defined for turbidity and color, respectively. If both pollutants are presented simultaneously, a liquid flow rate of 1–2 L/min can be used for decreasing turbidity from 250 to <20 NTU and color from 6000 to <300 ADMI.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 4: Experimental Study on Absorption
           Behavior and Efficiency of Brine in Hazardous Gas Absorption Treatment

    • Authors: Ga-young Jung, Seul-gi Lee, Jun-seo Lee, Byung-chol Ma
      First page: 4
      Abstract: There have been studies recently on bubble-column scrubbers with low cost and high efficiency for the absorption and treatment of hazardous gases in the event of a chemical spill. Bubble columns are vulnerable to freezing at temperatures below zero because the absorbents generally do not circulate. To address this issue, this study focused on the applicability, absorbed amount, and performance of brine as an absorbent. Under three different temperatures, i.e., −5 °C, −8 °C and −10 °C we examined brine (NaCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2) by varying the concentration required at each temperature. Following the experiments, CaCl2 brine was determined as the optimal brine for its absorption performance and affordability. Based on the experimental results, the absorption performance for ammonia, ethylene oxide, and methylamine, which are hazardous and water-soluble gases among accident preparedness substances (APS), was tested by using ASEPN PLUS. Our results suggested although the efficiency dropped by about 5% to 25% when brine was used as an absorbent, it can be used at the low temperatures because the gas solubility increased with decreasing temperature. Therefore, if brine, as an alternative, is used at temperatures about 15 °C, it can operate efficiently and stably without deterioration in the absorption performance. Given our experimental results and design data on the absorbed amount and absorbent replacement period for major hazardous gases are utilized to prevent bubble columns from freezing, it can be commercially used for small and medium-sized enterprises because it can help reduce installation and operation costs.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 5: Recent Developments in Supercapacitor
           Electrodes: A Mini Review

    • Authors: Sumedha Harike Nagarajarao, Apurva Nandagudi, Ramarao Viswanatha, Basavanakote Mahadevappa Basavaraja, Mysore Sridhar Santosh, Beekanahalli Mokshanatha Praveen, Anup Pandith
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The use of nonrenewable fossil fuels for energy has increased in recent decades, posing a serious threat to human life. As a result, it is critical to build environmentally friendly and low-cost reliable and renewable energy storage solutions. The supercapacitor is a future energy device because of its higher power density and outstanding cyclic stability with a quick charge and discharge process. Supercapacitors, on the other hand, have a lower energy density than regular batteries. It is well known that the electrochemical characteristic of supercapacitors is strongly dependent on electrode materials. The current review highlights advance in the TMOs for supercapacitor electrodes. In addition, the newly discovered hybrid/pseudo-supercapacitors have been discussed. Metal oxides that are employed as electrode materials are the focus of this study. The discovery of nanostructured electrode materials continues to be a major focus of supercapacitor research. To create high-performance electrode materials from a morphological standpoint, various efforts have been attempted. Lastly, we analyze the supercapacitor’s evolving trend and our perspective for the future generations of supercapacitors.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 6: Ionic Liquids as Components of Systems
           for Metal Extraction

    • Authors: Pavel A. Yudaev, Evgeniy M. Chistyakov
      First page: 6
      Abstract: This review addresses research and development on the use of ionic liquids as extractants and diluents in the solvent extraction of metals. Primary attention is given to the efficiency and selectivity of metal extraction from industrial wastewater with ionic liquids composed of various cations and anions. The review covers literature sources published in the period of 2010–2021. The bibliography includes 98 references dedicated to research on the extraction and separation of lanthanides (17 sources), actinides (5 sources), heavy metals (35 sources), noble metals, including the platinum group (16 sources), and some other metals.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 7: Prediction of B20 Storage Tank
           Precipitate Removal Based on Biodiesel Monoglyceride Content

    • Authors: Misri Gozan, Imam Paryanto, Muhammad Arif Darmawan, Muhammad Sahlan, Heri Hermansyah, Eriawan Rismana, Alfan Danny Arbianto, Tirto Prakoso, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Patrick Cognet
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Precipitate in B20 fuel stored in storage tanks can accumulate at the bottom level of the tank and affect the fuel filter, clogging in the fuel distribution and engine system. This study examines the precipitate formation prediction in B20 fuel based on the monoglyceride content in biodiesel. This research used a modified CSFT method of ASTM D7501 for the precipitation test. Monopalmitin was added to biodiesel with a variation of monoglyceride content. Each biodiesel sample was then blended with petroleum diesel fuel to produce two groups of samples. Each sample was separately soaked in the cooling chamber at constant and room temperature for 21 days. The bottom layer of each B20 fuel sample stored in the measuring cylinder was then pipetted and filtered, washed with petro-ether, vacuum-dried, and weighed for a constant amount of precipitate retained on the filter. The simulation results show that the ratios between the amount of collected precipitate at the bottom layer of the 2-liter measuring cylinder and the total amount of collected precipitate for the 2-liter measuring cylinder increased with the monoglyceride content biodiesel. This ratio was used to predict the amount of accumulated sludge for a given volume of B20 fuel loaded into the storage tank. This study shows the effect of monoglyceride content on the precipitation behaviour in the storage tank concerning general tank storage dimension parameters and B20 loading frequency. This approach can be applied to estimate the sludge removal frequency for biodiesel storage.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Key Points of Advanced Oxidation
           Processes (AOPs) for Wastewater, Organic Pollutants and Pharmaceutical
           Waste Treatment: A Mini Review

    • Authors: Pavlos K. Pandis, Charalampia Kalogirou, Eirini Kanellou, Christos Vaitsis, Maria G. Savvidou, Georgia Sourkouni, Antonis A. Zorpas, Christos Argirusis
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Advanced oxidation procedures (AOPs) refer to a variety of technical procedures that produce OH radicals to sufficiently oxidize wastewater, organic pollutant streams, and toxic effluents from industrial, hospital, pharmaceutical and municipal wastes. Through the implementation of such procedures, the (post) treatment of such waste effluents leads to products that are more susceptible to bioremediation, are less toxic and possess less pollutant load. The basic mechanism produces free OH radicals and other reactive species such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, etc. A basic classification of AOPs is presented in this short review, analyzing the processes of UV/H2O2, Fenton and photo-Fenton, ozone-based (O3) processes, photocatalysis and sonolysis from chemical and equipment points of view to clarify the nature of the reactive species in each AOP and their advantages. Finally, combined AOP implementations are favored through the literature as an efficient solution in addressing the issue of global environmental waste management.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 9: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of
           ChemEngineering in 2021

    • Authors: ChemEngineering Editorial Office ChemEngineering Editorial Office
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 10: Poly(Lactic-co-glycolic) Acid and
           Phospholipids Hybrid Nanoparticles for Regeneration of Biological Tissue

    • Authors: Antonio Minó, Giuseppe Cinelli, Gianluca Paventi, Gianluca Testa, Fabiana Passaro, Francesco Lopez, Luigi Ambrosone
      First page: 10
      Abstract: In tissue regeneration, biomaterials facilitate biological processes. However, a treatment with biomaterials will be successful only if supported by simple and inexpensive technologies which stimulate the regenerative processes. The present study focused on the possibility of creating formulations from which then to obtain suitable materials for the regeneration of heart tissue. The experimental procedure for precipitation of polymer- nanoparticles was modified ad hoc to obtain hybrid poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-phospholipid nanoparticles. The properties of the formulations produced by direct PLGA-phospholipid co-precipitation depend on the mass ratio R= polymer mass/phospholipid mass. The value of this parameter allows us to modulate the properties of the formulations. Formulations with R = 1.5, 2.3, 4, and 9 were prepared, and for each of them the particle-size distribution obtained by dynamic light scattering was studied. All samples showed that the hydrodynamic diameter decreases with increasing R value. This behavior is interpreted as polymer coil shrinkage due to contacts with the non-solvent. The spreadability and ease of obtaining thin sheets were evaluated for each formulation. The formulation with R=4 resulted in a homogeneous and easily workable material in thin sheets.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 11: Numerical Simulation of Heat and Mass
           Transfer in an Open-Cell Foam Catalyst on Example of the Acetylene
           Hydrogenation Reaction

    • Authors: Sergei A. Solovev, Olga V. Soloveva, Irina G. Akhmetova, Yuri V. Vankov, Daniel L. Paluku
      First page: 11
      Abstract: In the present work, based on numerical simulation, a comparative analysis of the flow of a chemically reacting gas flow through a catalyst is performed using the example of selective hydrogenation of acetylene in a wide range of flow temperatures variation. Catalyst models are based on open-cell foam material. A comparison is also made with calculations and experimental data for a granular catalyst. The porosity and cell diameter were chosen as variable parameters for the porous catalyst. The results of numerical studies were obtained in the form of component concentration fields of the gas mixture, vector fields of gas movement, values of conversion, and selectivity of the reaction under study. The parameters of the porous material of the catalyst are determined for the maximum efficiency of the process under study.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Development of Continuous Gas
           Generation Method for Hydrogen Chloride Using Azeotropic Hydrochloric Acid

    • Authors: Reiji Aoyagi, Yoshika Sekine, Yuichiro Kaifuku, Kunitoshi Matsunobu
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Standard gases are often prepared using high-pressure gas cylinders. However, it is difficult to accurately prepare a known concentration of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas using this method because HCl is highly corrosive and adsorptive. In this study, a simple method for the continuous generation of HCl gas was developed using a diffusion tube containing hydrochloric acid and a nitrogen carrier gas. The concentration of HCl produced from this system was almost unstable, but constant gas generation was realized for several hours when azeotropic hydrochloric acid (20.6% HCl in water) and a temperature near the azeotropic point (108.5 °C) were used, resulting in the generation of 103.6 ppm (mean, n = 5) of HCl gas with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.34%. In this case, the percentage of HCl present in the entire gas mixture of HCl and water vapor was 22.5%, which is almost equivalent to the HCl content in the azeotropic hydrochloric acid (20.6%). The HCl concentration could also be controlled by changing the flow rate of the carrier gas. This work demonstrates a simple technique based on the diffusion theory that allows for the constant, controllable generation of a known concentration of HCl gas using an azeotropic hydrochloric acid system.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Process Intensification Strategies for
           Power-to-X Technologies

    • Authors: Thomas Cholewa, Malte Semmel, Franz Mantei, Robert Güttel, Ouda Salem
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Sector coupling remains a crucial measure to achieve climate change mitigation targets. Hydrogen and Power-to-X (PtX) products are recognized as major levers to allow the boosting of renewable energy capacities and the consequent use of green electrons in different sectors. In this work, the challenges presented by the PtX processes are addressed and different process intensification (PI) strategies and their potential to overcome these challenges are reviewed for ammonia (NH3), dimethyl ether (DME) and oxymethylene dimethyl ethers (OME) as three exemplary, major PtX products. PI approaches in this context offer on the one hand the maximum utilization of valuable renewable feedstock and on the other hand simpler production processes. For the three discussed processes a compelling strategy for efficient and ultimately maintenance-free chemical synthesis is presented by integrating unit operations to overcome thermodynamic limitations, and in best cases eliminate the recycle loops. The proposed intensification processes offer a significant reduction of energy consumption and provide an interesting perspective for the future development of PtX technologies.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 14: The Oxygen Paradigm—Quantitative
           Impact of High Concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen on Kinetics and
           Large-Scale Production of Arthrospira platensis

    • Authors: Sabine Franke, Juliane Steingröwer, Thomas Walther, Felix Krujatz
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The cultivation of Arthrospira platensis in tubular photobioreactors (tPBRs) presents a promising approach for the commercial production of nutraceuticals and food products as it can achieve high productivity and effective process control. In closed photobioreactors, however, high amounts of photosynthetically produced oxygen can accumulate. So far, there has been a wide range of discussion on how dissolved oxygen concentrations (DOCs) affect bioprocess kinetics, and the subject has mainly been assessed empirically. In this study, we used photorespirometry to quantify the impact of DOCs on the growth kinetics and phycocyanin content of the widely cultivated cyanobacterium A. platensis. The photorespirometric routine revealed that the illumination intensity and cell dry weight concentration are important interconnected process parameters behind the impact that DOCs have on the bioprocess kinetics. Unfavorable process conditions such as low biomass concentrations or high illumination intensities yielded significant growth inhibition and reduced the phycocyanin content of A. platensis by up to 35%. In order to predict the biomass productivity of the large-scale cultivation of A. platensis in tPBRs, a simple process model was extended to include photoautotrophic oxygen production and accumulation in the tPBR to evaluate the performance of two configurations of a 5000 L tPBR.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Reliability of Biodegradation
           Measurements for Inhibitive Industrial Wastewaters

    • Authors: Hanna Prokkola, Anne Heponiemi, Janne Pesonen, Toivo Kuokkanen, Ulla Lassi
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Industrial wastewaters may contain toxic or highly inhibitive compounds, which makes the measurement of biological oxygen demand (BOD) challenging. Due to the high concentration of organic compounds within them, industrial wastewater samples must be diluted to perform BOD measurements. This study focused on determining the reliability of wastewater BOD measurement using two different types of industrial wastewater, namely pharmaceutical wastewater containing a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 34,000 mg(C)/L and industrial paper manufacturing wastewater containing a corresponding TOC value of 30 mg(C)/L. Both manometric respirometry and the closed-bottle method were used in the study, and the results were compared. It was found that the dilution wastewaters containing inhibitive compounds affected BOD values, which increased due to the decreased inhibiting effect of wastewater pollutants. Therefore, the correct BOD for effluents should be measured from undiluted samples, while the diluted value is appropriate for determining the maximum value for biodegradable organic material in the effluent. The accuracy of the results from the blank samples was also examined, and it was found that the readings of these were different to those from the samples. Therefore, the blank value that must be subtracted may differ depending on the sample.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 16: Chemical Model for Thermal Treatment of
           Sewage Sludge

    • Authors: Corinna Netzer, Terese Løvås
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Sewage sludge is here studied as a valuable source for processing or energy conversation thanks to its high nutrition and energy content. However, various origins of the wastewater, different water cleaning technologies, and seasonal and regional dependencies lead to the high variability of the sewage sludge properties. In thermal treatment units, that is, incineration, gasification and pyrolysis, sewage sludge serves as feedstock or fuel, hence a proper characterization and a mathematical description of the sewage sludge are required to estimate product streams and to formulate numerical simulations and optimization methods. The presented work introduces a surrogate concept that allows replication of sewage sludge’s ultimate composition, moisture, and ash content. The surrogate approach aims to model the decomposition of any sewage sludge sample, opposite to the established determination of kinetic rates for individual samples. Based on chemical solid surrogate species and corresponding reaction mechanisms, the thermal decomposition path is described. Sewage sludge is represented by a combination of lignocellulosic species, proteins, sugars, lipids, and representative inorganic species. The devolatilization and heterogeneous reactions are formulated such that they can be used together with a detailed gas-phase model, including tar oxidation and emission models for nitrogen and sulfur oxides, recently proposed by the authors. The developed chemical model is applied using a zero-dimensional gasification reactor in order to model weight loss within the thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion conditions. Weight loss, the composition of product gases, and emission release (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) are captured well by the model. The flexible surrogate approach allows us to represent various sewage sludge samples.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 17: Effect of Surfactant HLB Value on
           Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Chitosan

    • Authors: Nur Rokhati, Tutuk Djoko Kusworo, Aji Prasetyaningrum, Nur ‘Aini Hamada, Dani Puji Utomo, Teguh Riyanto
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Nonionic surfactants are reported as being able to enhance enzyme stability and increase the conversion of enzymatic reactions. Surfactant-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis conversion is affected by surfactant HLB values. This work investigated the influence of nonionic surfactants with different HLB values on chitosan enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulase enzyme by measuring the reducing sugars formation, viscosity, and molecular weight of hydrolyzed chitosan. A characterization analysis of hydrolyzed products was also carried out. A higher HLB value exhibits a better enzymatic chitosan hydrolysis performance, shown by the decrease in a solution’s viscosity and the increase in reducing sugar formation. Increasing the surfactant concentration will also increase the hydrolysis rate. Nonionic surfactants can protect cellulase enzyme from the denaturation of temperature and stirring influence. The higher the HLB value, the lower the molecular weight of the hydrolyzed chitosan. The result of UV–Vis demonstrated aldehyde groups formation during hydrolysis. The SEM analysis showed that the chitosan, hydrolyzed using different HLB values of surfactants, had different surface morphologies. However, it did not change the chemical structure of the hydrolysis product seen by the FTIR analysis. The XRD patterns showed that the relative crystallinity of raw chitosan decreased when hydrolyzed with surfactants.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 18: A Detailed Hydrodynamic Study of the
           Split-Plate Airlift Reactor by Using Non-Invasive Gamma-Ray Techniques

    • Authors: Laith S. Sabri, Abbas J. Sultan, Hasan Shakir Majdi, Shadha K. Jebur, Muthanna H. Al-Dahhan
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This study focused on detailed investigations of selected local hydrodynamics in split airlift reactor by using an unconventional measurements facility: computed tomography (CT) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT). The local distribution in a cross-sectional manner with its radial’s profiles for gas holdup, liquid velocity flow field, shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy were studied under various gas velocity 1, 2 and 3 cm/s with various six axial level z = 12, 20, 40, 60, 90 and 112 cm. The distribution in gas–liquid phases in the whole split reactor column, the riser and downcomer sides, including their behavior at the top and bottom sections of the split plate was also described. The outcomes of this study displayed an exemplary gas–liquid phases dispersion approximately in all reactor’s zones and had large magnitude over the ring of the sparger as well as upper the split plate. Furthermore, the outcomes pointed out that the distribution of this flow may significantly impacts the performance of the split reactor, which may have essential influence on its performance particularly for microorganisms culturing applications. These outcomes are dependable as benchmark information to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and other models.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • ChemEngineering, Vol. 6, Pages 19: Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen
           Reduction Reaction: From Bimetallic Platinum Alloys to Complex Solid

    • Authors: Ricardo Martínez-Hincapié, Viktor Čolić
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The oxygen reduction reaction has been the object of intensive research in an attempt to improve the sluggish kinetics that limit the performance of renewable energy storage and utilization systems. Platinum or platinum bimetallic alloys are common choices as the electrode material, but prohibitive costs hamper their use. Complex alloy materials, such as high-entropy alloys (HEAs), or more generally, multiple principal component alloys (MPCAs), have emerged as a material capable of overcoming the limitations of platinum and platinum-based materials. Theoretically, due to the large variety of active sites, this new kind of material offers the opportunity to identify experimentally the optimal binding site on the catalyst surface. This review discusses recent advances in the application of such alloys for the oxygen reduction reaction and existing experimental challenges in the benchmarking of the electrocatalytic properties of these materials.
      Citation: ChemEngineering
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering6010019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
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